直流电源智能综合监控仪表Intelligent integrated monitoring instrument for DC power supply
本发明属于直流电力监控技术领域，具体涉及一种针对直流电源的智能综合监控仪表。The invention belongs to the technical field of DC power monitoring, and specifically relates to an intelligent comprehensive monitoring instrument for DC power.
随着直流电源在电力、工业、运输、电信等行业的广泛运用，对直流电源在使用运行过程中的监控要求也越来越高；直流电源的正常与否直接影响了电力系统及用电设备的安全可靠运行、蓄电池的使用寿命等，为了保证直流电源的可靠、稳定运行必须对直流电源运行过程进行实时监控。With the widespread use of DC power supplies in power, industry, transportation, telecommunications and other industries, the monitoring requirements for DC power supplies during use and operation are becoming higher and higher; the normality of DC power supplies directly affects the power system and electrical equipment In order to ensure the reliable and stable operation of the DC power supply, the operation process of the DC power supply must be monitored in real time.
当前的常用直流电源监控类仪表功能较为简单，要实现电流、电压、电量的全监测、测量数据的异常告警、多监控仪表的集成监控等功能，往往只能通过多个模块分别实现，需分别使用直流电流表、直流电压表、直流电量表、继电器等模块组合应用，如附图1所示(说明：1、图1为传统的直流电源监控方案的示意图，图中各检测仪表可为指针指示或数字显示类型；2、仪表对电流、电压的检测时，若信号大于仪表测量量程时，需外置分流或分压装置后再进入测量仪表)。这样的传统方案存在着功能少、性能差、智能程度低、成本高等问题，越来越不能满足对市场对直流电源实现综合监控的需求。The functions of the current commonly used DC power monitoring instruments are relatively simple. To achieve full monitoring of current, voltage, power, abnormal alarm of measurement data, integrated monitoring of multiple monitoring instruments, etc., they can only be implemented separately by multiple modules. Use DC ammeter, DC voltmeter, DC electricity meter, relay and other module combination applications, as shown in Figure 1 (Note: 1. Figure 1 is a schematic diagram of a traditional DC power monitoring solution, and each detection instrument in the figure can be pointer indication Or digital display type; 2. When the meter detects current and voltage, if the signal is greater than the measuring range of the meter, an external shunt or voltage divider is required before entering the measuring meter). Such traditional solutions have problems such as few functions, poor performance, low intelligence, and high cost, and are increasingly unable to meet the market's demand for comprehensive monitoring of DC power supplies.
发明内容Summary of the invention
本发明的目的是提供一种多功能且智能化程度高、成本较低的直流电源智能综合监控仪表。The purpose of the present invention is to provide a multi-function, high degree of intelligence, and low cost DC power intelligent integrated monitoring instrument.
为达到上述目的，本发明采用的技术方案是：In order to achieve the above objective, the technical solution adopted by the present invention is:
一种直流电源智能综合监控仪表，用于对直流电源进行监控，所述直流电源智能综合监控仪表包括：An intelligent integrated monitoring instrument for DC power supply is used to monitor DC power supply. The intelligent integrated monitoring instrument for DC power supply includes:
信号采集电路，所述信号采集电路与所述直流电源相连接，所述信号采集电路用于实时采集所述直流电源的电压数据和电流数据；A signal acquisition circuit, the signal acquisition circuit is connected to the direct current power supply, and the signal acquisition circuit is used for real-time acquisition of voltage data and current data of the direct current power supply;
中央处理单元，所述中央处理单元与所述信号采集电路相连接，所述中央处理单元用于基于所述电压数据和所述电流数据计算电量数据以及判断数据是否异常并在数据异常时输出报警信号；A central processing unit, the central processing unit is connected to the signal acquisition circuit, the central processing unit is used to calculate power data based on the voltage data and the current data, determine whether the data is abnormal, and output an alarm when the data is abnormal signal;
人机界面，所述人机界面与所述中央处理单元相连接并用于循环显示所述电压数据、所述电流数据和所述电量数据；A man-machine interface, the man-machine interface is connected to the central processing unit and used to cyclically display the voltage data, the current data, and the power data;
存储单元，所述存储单元与所述中央处理器相连接，所述存储单元用于存储所述电压数据、所述电流数据和所述电量数据。A storage unit, the storage unit is connected to the central processing unit, and the storage unit is used to store the voltage data, the current data, and the power data.
所述直流电源智能综合监控仪表还包括为所述中央处理单元提供时间基准信号的时钟电路。The DC power supply intelligent integrated monitoring instrument also includes a clock circuit that provides a time reference signal for the central processing unit.
所述直流电源智能综合监控仪表还包括用于报警的报警装置、与所述中央处理单元相连接的报警输出电路，所述报警输出电路用于基于所述报警信号输出用于驱动所述报警装置的驱动信号。The DC power supply intelligent integrated monitoring instrument also includes an alarm device for alarming, and an alarm output circuit connected to the central processing unit, and the alarm output circuit is used for driving the alarm device based on the alarm signal output The drive signal.
所述报警装置包括报警继电器和/或报警指示灯。The alarm device includes an alarm relay and/or an alarm indicator.
所述直流电源智能综合监控仪表还包括用于与所述直流电源、上位机通讯的通讯电路。The DC power supply intelligent integrated monitoring instrument also includes a communication circuit for communicating with the DC power supply and the upper computer.
所述通讯电路通过光电隔离的RS485接口与所述上位机通讯。The communication circuit communicates with the host computer through a photoelectrically isolated RS485 interface.
所述信号采集电路包括依次连接的采样模块、滤波模块、分压放大模块、隔离模块和A/D转换模块。The signal acquisition circuit includes a sampling module, a filtering module, a voltage dividing and amplifying module, an isolation module and an A/D conversion module connected in sequence.
所述人机界面包括操作按键和显示屏。The man-machine interface includes operation keys and a display screen.
由于上述技术方案运用，本发明与现有技术相比具有下列优点：本发明功能全面、智能性强、集成度高，从而丰富了仪表的功能，增强了整个电源管理系统的可扩展性，降低了直流电源综合监控管理的成本。Due to the application of the above technical solutions, the present invention has the following advantages compared with the prior art: the present invention has comprehensive functions, strong intelligence, and high integration, thus enriching the functions of the instrument, enhancing the scalability of the entire power management system, and reducing The cost of integrated monitoring and management of DC power supply.
附图说明Description of the drawings
附图1为传统的直流电源监控框图。Figure 1 is a block diagram of a traditional DC power supply monitoring.
附图2为本发明的直流电源智能综合监控仪表的原理框图。Figure 2 is a schematic block diagram of the intelligent integrated monitoring instrument for DC power supply of the present invention.
附图3为本发明的直流电源智能综合监控仪表的典型应用系统框图。Figure 3 is a block diagram of a typical application system of the DC power intelligent integrated monitoring instrument of the present invention.
附图4为本发明的直流电源智能综合监控仪表中报警工作流程图。Fig. 4 is a flow chart of alarm work in the intelligent integrated monitoring instrument for DC power supply of the present invention.
下面结合附图所示的实施例对本发明作进一步描述。The present invention will be further described below in conjunction with the embodiments shown in the drawings.
实施例一：如附图2和附图3所示，一种直流电源智能综合监控仪表，包括信号采集电路、中央处理单元、人机界面、存储单元、时钟电路、报警输出电路、报警装置、通讯电路。Embodiment 1: As shown in Figure 2 and Figure 3, an intelligent integrated monitoring instrument for DC power supply includes a signal acquisition circuit, a central processing unit, a human-machine interface, a storage unit, a clock circuit, an alarm output circuit, an alarm device, Communication circuit.
信号采集电路与直流电源相连接，用于实时采集直流电源的电压数据和电流数据。信号采集电路包括依次连接的采样模块、滤波模块、分压放大模块、隔离模块和A/D转换模块。The signal acquisition circuit is connected with the DC power supply and is used to collect the voltage data and current data of the DC power supply in real time. The signal acquisition circuit includes a sampling module, a filter module, a voltage divider amplifying module, an isolation module and an A/D conversion module connected in sequence.
中央处理单元与信号采集电路相连接，用于基于电压数据和电流数据计算电量数据以及判断数据是否异常并在数据异常时输出报警信号。The central processing unit is connected with the signal acquisition circuit, and is used for calculating electric quantity data based on voltage data and current data, judging whether the data is abnormal and outputting an alarm signal when the data is abnormal.
人机界面与中央处理单元相连接，用于循环显示电压数据、电流数据和电量数据。The man-machine interface is connected with the central processing unit and is used to display voltage data, current data and power data cyclically.
时钟电路与中央处理单元相连接，用于为中央处理单元提供时间基准信号。The clock circuit is connected with the central processing unit and is used to provide a time reference signal for the central processing unit.
报警输出电路与中央处理单元相连接，用于基于报警信号输出驱动信号。The alarm output circuit is connected with the central processing unit and is used for outputting a driving signal based on the alarm signal.
报警装置与报警输出电路相连接，用于在驱动信号的驱动下报警。报警装置包括报警继电器和/或报警指示灯，报警继电器可以与声光报警器或电源监控系统后台相连接，报警指示灯可以集成在人机界面上。人机界面包括操作按键和LED显示屏。The alarm device is connected with the alarm output circuit and is used for alarming under the drive of the driving signal. The alarm device includes an alarm relay and/or an alarm indicator. The alarm relay can be connected to the sound and light alarm or the backstage of the power monitoring system. The alarm indicator can be integrated on the man-machine interface. The man-machine interface includes operating buttons and LED display.
通讯电路与中央处理单元相连接，用于与直流电源、上位机通讯，通讯电路通过光电隔离的RS485接口与上位机通讯。The communication circuit is connected with the central processing unit for communication with the DC power supply and the upper computer. The communication circuit communicates with the upper computer through the optically isolated RS485 interface.
信号采集电路采样接入仪表输入端子的直流电源、直流电流信号，经过滤波、分压/放大、隔离，A/D转换后进入CPU进行计算。The signal acquisition circuit samples the DC power and DC current signals connected to the input terminals of the instrument, after filtering, voltage division/amplification, isolation, and A/D conversion, it enters the CPU for calculation.
中央处理单元(CPU)是整个仪表的核心，接收来自信号采集电路的采集信号后，计算处理后将数据发送至存储单元存储，同时将数据输出至人机界面的进行LED显示，中央处理单元同时需要处理报警逻辑控制程序，当满足报警条件时，控制报警输出电路动作、驱动人机界面的报警指示灯显示；CPU还需接收通讯数据指令并解析后，按照协议内容返回相应数据指令，实现仪表与上位机的通讯交互。在中央处理单元中，通过同时采样直流电源的实时运行电压、电流数据，并计算出实时功率值，通过功率或电流与时间的积分，计算出直流电量值，电量可实现正反向分别计量，因此可对蓄电池的充放电过程在同一台仪表上实现检测。The central processing unit (CPU) is the core of the entire instrument. After receiving the collected signals from the signal acquisition circuit, the data is sent to the storage unit for storage after calculation and processing, and the data is output to the man-machine interface for LED display. The central processing unit also The alarm logic control program needs to be processed. When the alarm conditions are met, it controls the action of the alarm output circuit and drives the alarm indicator of the man-machine interface; the CPU also needs to receive the communication data instruction and parse it, and return the corresponding data instruction according to the protocol content to realize the instrument Communication interaction with the host computer. In the central processing unit, the real-time operating voltage and current data of the DC power supply are simultaneously sampled, and the real-time power value is calculated. The DC power value is calculated through the integration of power or current and time, and the power can be measured for forward and reverse separately. Therefore, the charge and discharge process of the battery can be detected on the same instrument.
存储单元存储各实时测量数据、仪表系统程序、仪表设置参数等，电能值和仪表参数值要求数据断电可保持。The storage unit stores various real-time measurement data, instrument system programs, instrument setting parameters, etc. The electrical energy values and instrument parameter values require data to be retained after power failure.
时钟电路为程序执行、逻辑控制及电能值计量提供精确、稳定的时间基准。The clock circuit provides an accurate and stable time reference for program execution, logic control and energy value measurement.
通讯电路通过光电隔离的RS485接口实现仪表与直流电源管理系统上位机的连接；仪表通讯协议遵守Modbus-RTU标准协议，上位机可从仪表上采集各实时测量值或仪表设置参数值。The communication circuit realizes the connection between the instrument and the host computer of the DC power management system through the optically isolated RS485 interface; the instrument communication protocol complies with the Modbus-RTU standard protocol, and the host computer can collect real-time measurement values or instrument setting parameter values from the instrument.
人机界面包括了测量数据显示窗口，即LED数码管循环显示各测量值，报警指示灯，操作按键。测量数据显示窗口：可切换或循环显示正向电能、反向电能、电压、电流、功率测量值。指示灯：分别为报警指示灯1、报警指示灯2、通讯状态、电能单位指示灯。数据/参数名称显示窗口：PH表示正向电能，-PH表示反向电能、U表示电压、I表示电流、P表示功率。按键：用于设置参数(如：报警参数、通讯参数)、清零正/反向电能值、手动切换测量值显示等操作。The man-machine interface includes the measurement data display window, that is, the LED digital tube cyclically displays the measurement values, alarm indicators, and operation buttons. Measurement data display window: It can switch or cycle to display the measured values of forward energy, reverse energy, voltage, current, and power. Indicator lights: respectively, alarm indicator 1, alarm indicator 2, communication status, and power unit indicator. Data/parameter name display window: PH means forward energy, -PH means reverse energy, U means voltage, I means current, and P means power. Buttons: used to set parameters (such as alarm parameters, communication parameters), clear positive/reverse energy values, manually switch the measured value display and other operations.
报警输出电路接收CPU驱动指令，当检测数据出现异常时，驱动报警继电器动作。如附图4所示，以电流报警功能为例,仪表测量到直流电流值后，若测量到的电流值未达到报警设定值ALE1，则计时器1、2均清零，报警继电器复位，报警指示灯灭。当测量到的电 流值达到报警值ALE1后开始延时，计时器1计时，延时时间达到第一报警延时时间AL_t时，报警继电器动作，报警指示灯亮，当电流值达到报警值ALE1的1.25倍后开始延时，计时器2计时，延时时间达到第二报警延时时间AH_t后，报警继电器动作，报警指示灯亮。以上两个报警延时中的任意一个达到对应的报警延时时间后，继电器就立即动作，且另一延时停止计时。继电器动作后的恢复条件为：电流值下降到报警设定值ALE1以下，报警继电器立即恢复，无需延时。The alarm output circuit receives CPU drive instructions, and when the detected data is abnormal, it drives the alarm relay to act. As shown in Figure 4, taking the current alarm function as an example, after the meter measures the DC current value, if the measured current value does not reach the alarm set value ALE1, the timers 1 and 2 are cleared, and the alarm relay is reset. The alarm indicator goes off. When the measured current value reaches the alarm value ALE1, the delay starts, and the timer 1 counts. When the delay time reaches the first alarm delay time AL_t, the alarm relay is activated and the alarm indicator light is on. When the current value reaches 1.25 of the alarm value ALE1 After doubling, the delay starts and timer 2 counts. After the delay time reaches the second alarm delay time AH_t, the alarm relay will act and the alarm indicator will light up. After any one of the above two alarm delays reaches the corresponding alarm delay time, the relay will act immediately, and the other delay will stop timing. The recovery condition after the relay action is: the current value drops below the alarm set value ALE1, and the alarm relay recovers immediately without delay.
电源电路可将外部接入工作电压经过隔离和转换后，为仪表其他各功能单元提供其所需的电压等级。The power circuit can isolate and convert the externally connected working voltage to provide the required voltage levels for other functional units of the instrument.
以上方案中，采样电流、电压时，若信号大于信号采集电路的量程范围时，可外置电流分流或传感器、电压传感器后再进入测量仪表；仪表可设置外置设备变比参数，使仪表按照一次实际值显示，更加直观。In the above scheme, when sampling current and voltage, if the signal is greater than the range of the signal acquisition circuit, the external current shunt or sensor, voltage sensor can be externally connected to the measuring instrument; the instrument can set the external device transformation ratio parameters to make the instrument follow The one-time actual value display is more intuitive.
以上方案实现了多电量同时测量计算、异常告警判断输出、人机界面显示、通讯接口输出功能集成与同一台仪表上，大大提升了仪表的集成度，丰富了仪表的功能，增强了整个电源管理系统的可扩展性，降低了直流电源综合监控管理的成本。The above scheme realizes the simultaneous measurement and calculation of multiple electric quantities, abnormal alarm judgment output, human-machine interface display, and communication interface output function integration with the same instrument, which greatly improves the integration of the instrument, enriches the functions of the instrument, and enhances the entire power management The scalability of the system reduces the cost of integrated monitoring and management of the DC power supply.
上述实施例只为说明本发明的技术构思及特点，其目的在于让熟悉此项技术的人士能够了解本发明的内容并据以实施，并不能以此限制本发明的保护范围。凡根据本发明精神实质所作的等效变化或修饰，都应涵盖在本发明的保护范围之内。The above-mentioned embodiments are only to illustrate the technical concept and characteristics of the present invention, and their purpose is to enable those familiar with the technology to understand the content of the present invention and implement them accordingly, and cannot limit the protection scope of the present invention. All equivalent changes or modifications made according to the spirit of the present invention should be covered by the protection scope of the present invention.