WO2020140355A1 - Grain mold prevention method, grain mold prevention machine, and granary provided with grain mold prevention machine - Google Patents

Grain mold prevention method, grain mold prevention machine, and granary provided with grain mold prevention machine Download PDF

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WO2020140355A1
WO2020140355A1 PCT/CN2019/084964 CN2019084964W WO2020140355A1 WO 2020140355 A1 WO2020140355 A1 WO 2020140355A1 CN 2019084964 W CN2019084964 W CN 2019084964W WO 2020140355 A1 WO2020140355 A1 WO 2020140355A1
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grain
pipe
cold water
temperature
heat exchanger
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PCT/CN2019/084964
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French (fr)
Chinese (zh)
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凌建军
杨铸
周明霞
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凌建军
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01FPROCESSING OF HARVESTED PRODUCE; HAY OR STRAW PRESSES; DEVICES FOR STORING AGRICULTURAL OR HORTICULTURAL PRODUCE
    • A01F25/00Storing agricultural or horticultural produce; Hanging-up harvested fruit
    • A01F25/14Containers specially adapted for storing
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01FPROCESSING OF HARVESTED PRODUCE; HAY OR STRAW PRESSES; DEVICES FOR STORING AGRICULTURAL OR HORTICULTURAL PRODUCE
    • A01F25/00Storing agricultural or horticultural produce; Hanging-up harvested fruit
    • A01F25/16Arrangements in forage silos
    • A01F25/22Ventilating arrangements
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F26DRYING
    • F26BDRYING SOLID MATERIALS OR OBJECTS BY REMOVING LIQUID THEREFROM
    • F26B21/00Arrangements or duct systems, e.g. in combination with pallet boxes, for supplying and controlling air or gases for drying solid materials or objects

Abstract

A grain mold prevention machine comprises a program controller (1001) and a frequency converter (1002, 1003). A left-side air vent pipe (41), a fan joint pipe (2101), and a bidirectional circulation fan (2102) are connected in sequence. A T-branch pipe (2121) is connected to a bypass regulation valve (2131), a cooling regulation valve (2141), and the bidirectional circulation fan (2102). The bypass regulation valve (2131) is further connected to a bypass pipe (2132). Another end of the cooling regulation valve (2141), a heat-exchanger air inlet pipe (2142), and a heat-exchanger air inlet hole (2207) of a cooling assembly are connected in sequence. A heat-exchanger air outlet hole (2208) of the cooling assembly, a heat-exchanger air outlet pipe (2143), and a right-side air vent pipe (42) are connected in sequence. A connection pipe (45) at a granary top portion is connected to the left-side air vent pipe (41).

Description

一种粮食防霉方法和粮食防霉机及带粮食防霉机的粮仓Grain anti-mildew method, grain anti-mildew machine and grain silo with grain anti-mildew machine 技术领域Technical field
本发明涉及防霉方法及防霉装置,特别涉及一种粮食防霉方法和粮食防霉机及带粮食防霉机的粮仓。The invention relates to a mildew proof method and a mildew proof device, in particular to a grain mildew proof method, a grain mildew proof machine and a grain silo with grain mildew proof machine.
背景技术Background technique
粮食可以分为新粮、陈粮、陈化粮;当年生产的粮食属于新粮,储存期超过一年的粮食属于陈粮,黄曲霉毒素含量严重超标且不能作为口粮的粮食是陈化粮[1,钱星博];按照国家粮食局统计中国每年粮食损失达到5000万吨,其中粮食霉变直接损失2000万吨,中国的中央储备粮中的因为霉变不能作为口粮的陈化粮比例高达15%[2,杨文利]是基本吻合的;中国政府不但禁止粮食加工企业和酒厂采购陈化粮,而且禁止用陈化粮加工出来的大米作为饲料[3];如何防止粮食成为陈化粮是摆在我们面前的一个重要任务。Grain can be divided into new grain, aged grain, and aged grain; the grain produced in that year is a new grain, and the grain with a storage period of more than one year is aged grain. The aflatoxin content is seriously exceeded and the grain that cannot be used as ration is aged grain [1, Qian Xingbo]; According to the statistics of the National Grain Administration, China’s annual grain loss reaches 50 million tons, of which 20% is directly lost to mildew. The proportion of aged grain in China’s central reserve grain that cannot be used as ration because of mildew is as high as 15%. [2, Yang Wenli] is basically consistent; the Chinese government not only prohibits grain processing enterprises and wineries from purchasing aged grain, but also prohibits the use of aged grain processed rice as feed [3]; how to prevent grain from becoming aged grain An important task before us.
很多人以为只要粮食企业将陈化粮扔掉了就行,以为粮食生霉与我们消费者自身没有什么关系,这种想法是极端错误的;Asghar[4]统计发现5202份大米中有3470份含有黄曲霉毒素B1,黄曲霉毒素B1污染比例高达67%;付鹏程[5]抽检31分稻谷中有28份稻谷被黄曲霉毒素B1污染,黄曲霉毒素B1污染比例高达90.3%;高秀芬[6]抽检全国7个省份抽检的279份玉米样品中发现有208份被黄曲霉毒素B1污染,黄曲霉毒素B1污染比例高达74.55%。表1给出了稻谷储藏10个月后粮堆内黄曲霉毒素B1分布情况[7,余敦年],可以看出储存期小于一年的稻谷都滋生了黄曲霉毒素B1,表2给出了采用前述稻谷加工出来的糙米、精米、米糠的黄曲霉毒素B1含量[7,余敦年],可以看出,糙米、精米、米糠的黄曲霉毒素B1平均含量分别为32.2、3.3、270.9μg/kg,这意味着糙米的黄曲霉毒素B1含量已经超过了法定限量,经过抛光的精米的黄曲霉毒素B1含量才小于法定限量,原本可以作为饲料或用来作为米胚油原料的米糠变成了废物。Many people think that as long as the grain companies throw away the aged grains, they think that the growth of grains has nothing to do with our consumers. This idea is extremely wrong; Asghar [4] statistics found that 3470 of 5202 rice contained Aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B1 pollution ratio is as high as 67%; Fu Pengcheng [5] sampling 31 points of rice, 28 of the rice were contaminated with aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B1 pollution ratio was as high as 90.3%; Gao Xiufen [ 6] Random inspection 279 corn samples from 7 provinces across the country were found to be 208 contaminated with aflatoxin B1, and the percentage of aflatoxin B1 contamination was as high as 74.55%. Table 1 shows the distribution of aflatoxin B1 in the grain pile after 10 months of storage in rice [7, Yu Dunnian]. It can be seen that aflatoxin B1 is grown in rice with a storage period of less than one year, and Table 2 shows Based on the aflatoxin B1 content of brown rice, polished rice and rice bran processed from the aforementioned rice [7, Yu Dunnian], it can be seen that the average content of aflatoxin B1 in brown rice, polished rice and rice bran are 32.2, 3.3 and 270.9 μg, respectively /kg, which means that the content of aflatoxin B1 in brown rice has exceeded the legal limit, and the content of aflatoxin B1 in polished polished rice is less than the legal limit. The rice bran that could be used as feed or raw material for rice germ oil becomes Waste.
由于储藏时间小于一年的新粮和储藏超过一年的陈粮都有可能滋生黄曲霉毒素B1,所以美国食品药品管理局(US Food and Drug Administration)甚至 都认为黄曲霉毒素B1是无法避免的毒素[8,Njeru],为此世界各国都制定了粮食的黄曲霉毒素B的法定限量,例如中国规定大米的黄曲霉毒素B1的法定限量为10μg/kg.。Since new grains stored for less than one year and aged grains stored for more than one year are likely to breed aflatoxin B1, the US Food and Drug Administration (US Food and Drug Administration) even believes that aflatoxin B1 is an inevitable toxin [8, Njeru] For this reason, all countries in the world have established a legal limit for aflatoxin B in food. For example, China stipulates that the legal limit for aflatoxin B1 in rice is 10 μg/kg.
大部分人认为黄曲霉毒素B1的含量小于法定限量的粮食是安全的,这种想法也是错误的,从下面的详细阐述分析可以看出国家规定的黄曲霉毒素B1法定限量实在太高了,吃1公斤黄曲霉毒素B1临界达标(黄曲霉毒素B1含量等于法定限量)的大米的致癌风险相当于吃4000公斤烤肉的致癌风险,吃吃1公斤黄曲霉毒素B1临界达标的大米的致癌风险相当于吃250公斤泡菜的致癌风险,有必要将黄曲霉毒素B1法定限量下降100倍(从10μg/kg.下降到0.1μg/kg),这样才能将人一生患癌概率下降100倍(从22%下降到0.22%),还可大大降低罹患高血压、糖尿病、心脏病、冠心病等的概率,还将大大改善男人生育能力和改善孕妇、胎儿、哺乳妇女和婴儿的健康状态。从加工角度和从健康角度来看,如何彻底防止粮食生霉摆在我们面前的一个最非常重要任务。Most people think that the food with aflatoxin B1 content less than the legal limit is safe. This idea is also wrong. From the detailed analysis below, it can be seen that the national legal limit of aflatoxin B1 is too high. Eat 1 kg of aflatoxin B1 critically met (aflatoxin B1 content equal to the legal limit) rice has a carcinogenic risk equivalent to that of eating 4000 kg of roasted meat, and eating 1 kg of aflatoxin B1 critically met rice has a cancer risk equivalent to The carcinogenic risk of eating 250 kg of kimchi, it is necessary to reduce the legal limit of aflatoxin B1 by 100 times (from 10 μg/kg. to 0.1 μg/kg), in order to reduce the probability of a person’s lifetime cancer by 100 times (from 22%) To 0.22%), can also greatly reduce the probability of suffering from hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, coronary heart disease, etc., will also greatly improve the fertility of men and improve the health of pregnant women, fetuses, nursing women and infants. From a processing point of view and from a health point of view, how to completely prevent food mold from being placed before us is one of the most important tasks.
表1 储藏10个月后粮堆内黄曲霉毒素B1含量分布情况(μg/kg)[7]Table 1 Distribution of aflatoxin B1 content in the grain heap after storage for 10 months (μg/kg) [7]
Figure PCTCN2019084964-appb-000001
Figure PCTCN2019084964-appb-000001
表2 糙米、精米、糠粉的黄曲霉毒素B1的检测结果[7]Table 2 Detection results of aflatoxin B1 in brown rice, polished rice and bran powder [7]
取样点Sampling point 糙米,μg/kgBrown rice, μg/kg 精米,μg/kgPolished rice, μg/kg 米糠,μg/kgRice bran, μg/kg
1行D列1 row D column 88.188.1 7.87.8 518518
1行E列1 row E column 36.636.6 1.91.9 264264
2行D列2 rows and D columns 24.624.6 1.81.8 63.163.1
3行A列3 rows A 13.413.4 2.32.3 271271
3行C列3 rows and C columns 18.218.2 1.61.6 76.476.4
3行D列3 rows and D columns 35.535.5 2.12.1 192192
3行E列3 rows and E columns 20.620.6 1.41.4 294294
4行B列4 rows and B columns 20.220.2 5.45.4 635635
4行C列4 rows and C columns 8.08.0 0.60.6 14.614.6
4行D列4 rows and D columns 56.356.3 8.18.1 381381
平均average 32.232.2 3.33.3 270.9270.9
2012中国肿瘤登记年报[9,赫捷]指出按74岁计算中国人一生罹患癌症的概率为22%,2017年2月国家癌症中心按85岁计算中国人一生患癌概率为36%;Green[10]对1297124个英国中年妇女(平均年龄56.1岁)进行了9.4年(8.4年~102.年)随访调查,发现有97376人新患癌症,新患癌症比例为7.5%;如果继续随访调查19.5年(按85岁计算),预计将新增202003个癌症患者,总患癌人数将达到299379,这样英国妇女罹患癌症的概率为23.1%。The 2012 China Cancer Registry Annual Report [9, He Jie] pointed out that the probability of Chinese people suffering from cancer at the age of 74 is 22%. In February 2017, the National Cancer Center calculated the probability of cancer at a age of 85 at the age of 85. Green[ 10] A follow-up survey of 1,297,124 British middle-aged women (average age 56.1 years) was conducted for 9.4 years (8.4 years to 102. years) and 97,376 people were newly diagnosed with cancer, and the proportion of new cancers was 7.5%; if the follow-up investigation is continued In 19.5 years (according to the age of 85), it is expected that 202003 new cancer patients will be added, and the total number of cancer patients will reach 299379, so the probability of British women suffering from cancer is 23.1%.
人类患癌概率如此之高的原因是什么。华盛顿大学Eaton教授[11]指出患癌概率取决于黄曲霉毒素B1每天摄入量,他指出美国人的黄曲霉毒素B1摄入量为110ng/day,对应的癌症年发病率为98/100000,如果能将黄曲霉毒素B1摄入量降低98倍,则可将癌症年发病率降到1/100000;Eaton[12]还给出了亚洲人一生患癌概率(R,%)与黄曲霉毒素B1每天摄入量(I,ng/day)的计算公式:What is the reason why the probability of human cancer is so high? Professor Eaton of the University of Washington [11] pointed out that the probability of cancer depends on the daily intake of aflatoxin B1. He pointed out that the intake of aflatoxin B1 in the United States is 110ng/day, and the corresponding annual cancer incidence rate is 98/100000. If the intake of aflatoxin B1 can be reduced by a factor of 98, the annual incidence of cancer can be reduced to 1/100000; Eaton [12] also gives the lifetime cancer probability (R,%) and aflatoxin of Asians Calculation formula for daily intake of B1 (I, ng/day):
R=4.76×10 -5×I------------------------------------------------(1) R=4.76×10 -5 ×I----------------------------------------- -------(1)
因为中国人一生患癌概率为22%,根据该公式可以推算出中国人黄曲霉毒素B1平均每天摄入量为4622ng/day;黄曲霉毒素B1每天摄入量可以通过尿液中的黄曲霉毒素M1含量来估计,Lei[13]从2010年1月到2012年1月共检测浙江省512份为孕妇尿液和88份为男性尿液中的黄曲霉毒素M1平均浓度为50.5ng/L,按照人均每天排尿量为1.5L/day计算,则每天排泄黄曲霉毒素M1为75.75ng/day,Zhu[14]指出只有1.49%黄曲霉毒素B1将转化为黄曲霉毒素M1,所以这600人 黄曲霉毒素B1平均每天摄入量为5080ng/day,非常接近Eaton公式计算结果4622ng/day。Because the probability of cancer in Chinese life is 22%, according to this formula, the average daily intake of Chinese aflatoxin B1 is 4622ng/day; the daily intake of aflatoxin B1 can pass through aflatoxin in urine To estimate the content of M1, Lei [13] tested a total of 512 pregnant women’s urine and 88 men’s urine aflatoxin M1 in Zhejiang Province with an average concentration of 50.5ng/L from January 2010 to January 2012. According to the per capita daily urine output of 1.5L/day, the daily excretion of aflatoxin M1 is 75.75ng/day. Zhu [14] pointed out that only 1.49% of aflatoxin B1 will be converted to aflatoxin M1, so these 600 people The average daily intake of Aspergillus B1 is 5080ng/day, which is very close to the calculation result of Eaton formula of 4622ng/day.
下面来分析Eaton的观点是否正确。Let's analyze whether Eaton's view is correct.
p53基因是一种抑癌基因,但一旦p53基因突变则成为致癌基因;Levine[15]统计到2009年共有50000多篇论文研究p53基因,而我们从PubMed.com网站查询发现到到2016年年底就有83721篇论文研究p53基因,p53基因是迄今发现与人类癌症相关性最高的基因;从文献[16-53]可以看出p53基因突变将使人罹患48种癌症(非小细胞肺癌、小细胞肺癌、肺癌、乳腺癌、结肠癌、食道癌、肝癌、膀胱癌、卵巢癌、肉瘤、脑癌、毒性肉瘤、淋巴癌、血癌、鼻咽癌、口腔癌、肾癌、喉癌、贲门癌、直肠癌、胰腺癌、胃癌、前列腺癌、宫颈癌、胆管癌、阴道癌、阴茎癌、鼻窦癌、甲状腺癌、舌癌、胆道癌、子宫内膜癌、胆囊癌、皮肤癌、鳞状细胞癌、基底细胞癌、脑膜瘤、恶性纤维组织细胞瘤、横纹肌肉瘤、滑膜肉瘤、多发性骨髓瘤、多形性腮腺瘤、移行上皮癌、纤维肉瘤、血管肉瘤、平滑肌肉瘤、恶性胶质细胞瘤、髓母细胞瘤、精原细胞瘤),这意味着几乎所有的常见癌症都与p53基因突变有关。The p53 gene is a tumor suppressor gene, but it becomes an oncogene once the p53 gene is mutated; Levine [15] counted more than 50,000 papers to study the p53 gene by 2009, and we found from the PubMed.com website until the end of 2016 There are 83,721 papers studying the p53 gene, which has been found to be the most relevant to human cancer so far; from the literature [16-53], it can be seen that mutations in the p53 gene will cause people to suffer from 48 types of cancer (non-small cell lung cancer, small Cell lung cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer, esophageal cancer, liver cancer, bladder cancer, ovarian cancer, sarcoma, brain cancer, toxic sarcoma, lymphoma, blood cancer, nasopharyngeal cancer, oral cancer, kidney cancer, laryngeal cancer, cardia cancer , Rectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, gastric cancer, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, bile duct cancer, vaginal cancer, penile cancer, sinus cancer, thyroid cancer, tongue cancer, biliary tract cancer, endometrial cancer, gallbladder cancer, skin cancer, squamous cell Carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, meningioma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, multiple myeloma, parotid adenoma, transitional epithelial carcinoma, fibrosarcoma, angiosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, malignant glioma Tumor, medulloblastoma, seminoma), which means that almost all common cancers are related to p53 gene mutations.
Hollstein[17]指出导致p53基因突变的物质主要是真菌毒素、亚硝胺类化合物和多环芳香烃。因为食物中含量高致癌能力最强的真菌毒素是黄曲霉毒素B1,致癌能力最强的亚硝胺类化合物是二甲基亚硝胺,致癌能力最强的多环芳香烃是苯并芘,对此世界各国规定了食物中黄曲霉毒素B1、二甲基亚硝胺、苯并芘的法定限量。Hollstein [17] pointed out that the substances that cause p53 gene mutation are mainly mycotoxins, nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Because the highest carcinogenic mycotoxin in food is aflatoxin B1, the most carcinogenic nitrosamine compound is dimethylnitrosamine, and the most carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon is benzopyrene. In this regard, countries around the world have stipulated legal limits for aflatoxin B1, dimethylnitrosamine, and benzopyrene in food.
黄曲霉毒素B1的致癌能力是苯并芘的4000倍[54、沈霞],黄曲霉毒素B1法定限量理应比苯并芘法定限量低4000倍,可实际上中国的黄曲霉毒素B1和苯并芘法定限量都等于10μg/kg,这意味着黄曲霉毒素B1法定限量下致癌概率是苯并芘法定限量下致癌概率的4000倍,换句话说,食用1kg临界达标主食(黄曲霉毒素B1含量等于法定限量)的致癌风险等于食用4000kg临界达标烤肉(苯并芘含量等于法定限量)的致癌风险。The carcinogenic capacity of aflatoxin B1 is 4000 times higher than that of benzopyrene [54, Shen Xia]. The legal limit of aflatoxin B1 should be 4000 times lower than the legal limit of benzopyrene. In fact, China’s aflatoxin B1 and benzo The legal limit of pyrene is equal to 10μg/kg, which means that the carcinogenic probability under the legal limit of aflatoxin B1 is 4000 times higher than the carcinogenic probability under the legal limit of benzopyrene. In other words, the consumption of 1kg of staple food (the content of aflatoxin B1 is equal to The legal risk of carcinogenicity is equal to the carcinogenic risk of consuming 4000 kg of critically cooked barbecue (benzopyrene content equal to the legal limit).
黄曲霉毒素B1的致癌能力是二甲基亚硝胺75倍[55、陈宪明],黄曲霉毒素B1法定限量理应比二甲基亚硝胺低75倍,令人奇怪的是中国规定的黄曲霉毒素B1法定限量(10μg/kg)反而比二甲基亚硝胺法定限量(3μg/kg)大。这 意味着黄曲霉毒素B1法定限量下致癌概率是二甲基亚硝胺法定限量下致癌概率的250倍。换句话说,食用1kg临界达标主食(黄曲霉毒素B1含量等于法定限量)的致癌风险等于食用250kg临界达标泡菜(二甲基亚硝胺含量等于法定限量)的致癌风险。The carcinogenic capacity of aflatoxin B1 is 75 times that of dimethylnitrosamine [55, Chen Xianming]. The legal limit of aflatoxin B1 should be 75 times lower than that of dimethylnitrosamine. It is strange that the Chinese regulation of Aflatoxin The legal limit of toxin B1 (10μg/kg) is larger than the legal limit of dimethylnitrosamine (3μg/kg). This means that the probability of carcinogenicity under the legal limit of aflatoxin B1 is 250 times higher than the probability of carcinogenicity under the legal limit of dimethylnitrosamine. In other words, the carcinogenic risk of consuming 1 kg of the critically compliant staple food (aflatoxin B1 content equal to the legal limit) is equal to the carcinogenic risk of consuming 250 kg of the critically compliant pickle (dimethyl nitrosamine content equal to the legal limit).
国际癌症研究机构(IARC,1976)指出苯并芘致癌贡献率占所有多环芳香烃致癌率的20%,而黄曲霉毒素B1致癌概率是苯并芘致癌概率的4000倍,所以黄曲霉毒素B1的致癌概率是所有多环芳香烃致癌概率800倍。The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC, 1976) pointed out that the carcinogenic contribution rate of benzopyrene accounts for 20% of the carcinogenic rate of all polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and the carcinogenic probability of aflatoxin B1 is 4000 times that of benzopyrene, so aflatoxin B1 The carcinogenic probability is 800 times that of all polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
采用倒数加权方法和亚硝胺类化合物的半致死量[56,马俪珍]可以计算出二甲基亚硝胺致癌量占所有亚硝胺类化合物致癌量的30.5%,而黄曲霉毒素B1致癌概率是二甲基亚硝胺致癌概率的250倍,所以黄曲霉毒素B1的致癌概率是所有亚硝胺类物质致癌概率76.25倍。Using the reciprocal weighting method and the half-lethal amount of nitrosamines [56, Ma Lizhen], it can be calculated that the carcinogenic amount of dimethylnitrosamine accounts for 30.5% of the carcinogenic amount of all nitrosamines, while the probability of aflatoxin B1 carcinogenic It is 250 times the carcinogenic probability of dimethylnitrosamine, so the carcinogenic probability of aflatoxin B1 is 76.25 times that of all nitrosamines.
假如主食、腌菜类食品、烤肉类食品的年人均消耗量分别为180kg、18kg、18kg,采用倒数法,我们可以计算得到黄曲霉毒素B1、所有亚硝胺类化合物、多环芳香烃对p53基因突变贡献率分别为99.8565%、0.131%、0.0125%。即使主食、腌菜类食品、烤肉类食品的年人均消耗量都等于180kg,黄曲霉毒素B1对p53基因突变贡献率仍高达98.584%。所以黄曲霉毒素B1既是p53基因突变最大元凶,又是人类患癌最大元凶。If the per capita annual consumption of staple foods, pickled foods, and barbecued foods is 180kg, 18kg, and 18kg, respectively, using the reciprocal method, we can calculate aflatoxin B1, all nitrosamine compounds, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for p53 The gene mutation contribution rates were 99.8565%, 0.131%, and 0.0125%, respectively. Even if the annual per capita consumption of staple foods, pickled foods and barbecued foods is equal to 180kg, the contribution rate of aflatoxin B1 to p53 gene mutation is still as high as 98.584%. Therefore, aflatoxin B1 is not only the biggest culprit of p53 gene mutation, but also the biggest culprit of human cancer.
图1展示了患癌率与黄曲霉毒素B1含量的关系,这是Williams[57]根据20000条虹鳟鱼致癌实验数据获得的,在双对数坐标系中虹鳟鱼患癌率与黄曲霉毒素B1含量呈现线性关系。Figure 1 shows the relationship between cancer incidence and aflatoxin B1 content, which was obtained by Williams [57] based on 20,000 rainbow trout carcinogenic experimental data. In a double logarithmic coordinate system, rainbow trout cancer incidence and aflatoxin B1 The content shows a linear relationship.
Newberne所作的老鼠喂养试验表明将黄曲霉毒素B1法定限量降低10倍(从10μg/kg降到1μg/kg)远远不够[58],采用黄曲霉毒素B1含量为1μg/kg的食物喂养104周后有9只老鼠出现了肝肿瘤或肝增生,而采用黄曲霉毒素B1含量为0μg/kg的食物喂养109周后只有1只老鼠出现了肝增生。美国食品药品管理局的老鼠喂养试验表明黄曲霉毒素B1法定限量降低31.4倍(从10μg/kg降到0.318μg/kg)仍会使老鼠致癌[59]。Williams[57]指出虹鳟鱼的黄曲霉毒素B1的实际安全剂量VSD为0.1μg/kg,这意味着有必要将黄曲霉毒素B1法定限量降低100倍。Newberne’s rat feeding test showed that reducing the aflatoxin B1 legal limit by a factor of 10 (from 10 μg/kg to 1 μg/kg) was not enough [58], and fed with aflatoxin B1 content of 1 μg/kg for 104 weeks Nine mice later developed liver tumors or liver hyperplasia, and only one mouse developed liver hyperplasia after 109 weeks of feeding with aflatoxin B1 content of 0 μg/kg. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s rat feeding test showed that the reduction of the aflatoxin B1 legal limit by 31.4 times (from 10 μg/kg to 0.318 μg/kg) can still cause cancer in mice [59]. Williams [57] pointed out that the actual safe dose VSD of rainbow trout aflatoxin B1 is 0.1 μg/kg, which means that it is necessary to reduce the legal limit of aflatoxin B1 by 100 times.
现在人们很关注粮食的农药残留是否超标,然而食物中的黄曲霉毒素B1 的毒性远远大于农药残留的毒性。因为黄曲霉毒素B1、毒死蜱、丁草胺、多菌灵的半致死量LD50分别为0.24、590、2000、5000mg/kg,黄曲霉毒素B1的毒性分别是毒死蜱、丁草胺、多菌灵的毒性2458倍、8333倍、20833倍;而中国规定的黄曲霉毒素B1、毒死蜱、丁草胺、多菌灵的法定限量分别为10、100、500、500μg/kg,如果含量都等于法定限量的情况下,则黄曲霉毒素B1的毒性分别是毒死蜱、丁草胺、多菌灵的245倍、166倍、416倍;相对于黄曲霉毒素B1毒性来说,毒死蜱、丁草胺和多菌灵的毒性几乎可以忽略不计,因此从健康的角度更应该关心黄曲霉毒素B1含量。Njeru[8]也指出全球有45亿人正遭受黄曲霉毒素B1的慢性伤害。At present, people are very concerned about whether the pesticide residues in food exceed the standard. However, the toxicity of aflatoxin B1 in food is far greater than the toxicity of pesticide residues. Because the LD50 of aflatoxin B1, chlorpyrifos, butachlor, and carbendazim are 0.24, 590, 2000, and 5000 mg/kg, respectively, the toxicity of aflatoxin B1 is chlorpyrifos, butachlor, and carbendazim. The toxicity is 2458 times, 8333 times, 20833 times; and the legal limits of aflatoxin B1, chlorpyrifos, butachlor, and carbendazim prescribed by China are 10, 100, 500, and 500 μg/kg, respectively, if the content is equal to the legal limit In this case, the toxicity of aflatoxin B1 is 245 times, 166 times, and 416 times that of chlorpyrifos, butachlor, and carbendazim; compared to the toxicity of aflatoxin B1, chlorpyrifos, butachlor, and carbendazim The toxicity is almost negligible, so from a health point of view should be more concerned about the content of aflatoxin B1. Njeru [8] also pointed out that 4.5 billion people worldwide are suffering from chronic aflatoxin B1.
综上所述,我们认为Eaton的观点是正确的,也就是说人类患癌概率与黄曲霉毒素B1摄入量成正比的公式是正确的。从致癌概率相等的原则来看,最好将黄曲霉毒素B1法定限量下调250倍到4000倍;从毒性相等的原则来看,最好将黄曲霉毒素B1法定限量下调166倍到416倍。中国规定的黄曲霉毒素B1法定限量(10μg/kg)实在是太高了,这是导致中国人一生患癌概率高达22%的重要原因。如果中国能将黄曲霉毒素B1法定限量降低100倍即降到实际安全剂量0.1μg/kg,则中国人一生患癌概率将降低100倍(即降到0.22%)。In summary, we believe that Eaton’s point of view is correct, which means that the formula for the probability of human cancer being proportional to the intake of aflatoxin B1 is correct. From the principle of equal probability of carcinogenesis, it is best to reduce the legal limit of aflatoxin B1 by 250 times to 4000 times; from the principle of equal toxicity, it is best to reduce the legal limit of aflatoxin B1 by 166 times to 416 times. The legal limit of aflatoxin B1 (10μg/kg) stipulated by China is too high, which is an important reason for the Chinese people's lifetime cancer probability of up to 22%. If China can reduce the legal limit of aflatoxin B1 by 100 times to the actual safe dose of 0.1 μg/kg, the probability of Chinese people suffering from cancer in their lifetime will be reduced by 100 times (ie, to 0.22%).
除了使人罹患癌症外,黄曲霉毒素B1还将影响生育、胚胎和新生儿健康,还会使人罹患高血压、糖尿病、心脏病、冠心病、关节炎等疾病。Ibeh[60]指出男人精液中含有黄曲霉毒素,黄曲霉毒素含量愈高,则精子数量下降和精子畸形率上升,并导致男性不育。Lamplugh[61]指出不但部分孕妇血清中含有黄曲霉毒素B1、M1,而且新生儿脐带血(neonatal cord blood)含有黄曲霉毒素M1。Abulu[62]检测发现新生儿脐带血中的黄曲霉毒素B1不但会降低新生儿体重,而且更容易出现黄疸。Sadeghi[63]指出伊朗德黑兰的160份母乳中有157份含有黄曲霉毒素M1,黄曲霉毒素M1检出率为98%。Turner[64]、Pier[65]、Mehrzad[66]指出黄曲霉毒素B1将导致人体免疫力下降:黄曲霉毒素B1不但将降低巨噬细胞(macrophage)的吞噬作用,而且将导致白细胞介素-1(interleukin-1)、白细胞介素-6(interleukin-6)、肿瘤坏死因子-α(tumor necrosis factor-α)的分泌减少,另外将降低树突状细胞(dendritic cell)抗原提呈能力(Antigen presenting capacity)。Patel[67]指出黄曲霉毒素B1将使人罹患高血压。Rao[68] 指出黄曲霉毒素B1是胰腺中毒剂(pancreaticotoxic agent),而胰腺炎容易导致糖尿病[69,Pan]。因为p53基因可以抑制血管内皮生长因子VEGF的表达[70,Pal],但p53基因突变后将导致血管内皮生长因子过度表达[71,Narendran],而血管内皮生长因子过度表达将导致动脉粥样硬化[72,Ferrara]、复发性流产[73,Pang]、紫绀型先天性心脏病和非紫绀型先天性心脏病[74,El-Melegy]、牛皮癣[75,Detmar]、风湿性关节炎、骨关节炎、心血管缺血、血管周围疾病、子宫内膜异位症、子痫前期、卵巢过度刺激综合征[76,Hoeben];因为黄曲霉毒素B1对p53基因突变贡献率高达99.8565%,所以黄曲霉毒素B1是导致上述疾病的重要原因。In addition to causing cancer to humans, aflatoxin B1 will also affect fertility, embryonic and neonatal health, as well as hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, coronary heart disease, arthritis and other diseases. Ibeh [60] pointed out that men's semen contains aflatoxin. The higher the aflatoxin content, the lower the number of sperm and the increased rate of sperm deformity, which leads to male infertility. Lamplugh [61] pointed out that not only some pregnant women's serum contains aflatoxin B1, M1, but neonatal cord blood (neonatal cord blood) contains aflatoxin M1. Abulu [62] test found that aflatoxin B1 in neonatal umbilical cord blood will not only reduce the weight of neonates, but also more prone to jaundice. Sadeghi [63] pointed out that 157 of 160 breast milk in Tehran, Iran contained aflatoxin M1, and the detection rate of aflatoxin M1 was 98%. Turner [64], Pier [65], Mehrzad [66] pointed out that aflatoxin B1 will lead to a decrease in human immunity: aflatoxin B1 will not only reduce the phagocytosis of macrophages (macrophage), but will also cause interleukin- 1 (interleukin-1), interleukin-6 (interleukin-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (tumor necrosis factor-α) secretion is reduced, in addition will reduce the dendritic cells (dendritic cells) antigen presentation capacity ( Antigen presenting capacity). Patel [67] pointed out that aflatoxin B1 will cause people to suffer from hypertension. Rao [68] pointed out that aflatoxin B1 is a pancreaticotoxic agent, and pancreatitis can easily lead to diabetes [69, Pan]. Because p53 gene can inhibit the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF [70, Pal], but p53 gene mutation will lead to overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor [71, Narendran], and overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor will lead to atherosclerosis [72, Ferrara], recurrent miscarriage [73, Pang], cyanotic congenital heart disease and non-cyanotic congenital heart disease [74, El-Melegy], psoriasis [75, Detmar], rheumatoid arthritis, bone Arthritis, cardiovascular ischemia, perivascular disease, endometriosis, preeclampsia, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome [76, Hoeben]; because the contribution rate of aflatoxin B1 to p53 gene mutation is as high as 99.8565%, so Aflatoxin B1 is an important cause of the above diseases.
在什么条件下粮食才能滋生黄曲霉菌和黄曲霉毒素B1呢。Under what conditions can food breed aflatoxin and aflatoxin B1?
Viitanen[77]给出了如下临界生霉相对湿度RHc计算公式:Viitanen [77] gave the following formula for calculating the relative humidity of critical mold RHc:
RHc=100-3.13T+0.16T 2-0.0026T 3 For 4℃≤T≤20℃-----(2-1) RHc=100-3.13T+0.16T 2 -0.0026T 3 For 4℃≤T≤20℃-----(2-1)
RHc=80% For T>20℃-----------(2-2)RHc=80% For T>20℃-----------(2-2)
Hukka[78]给出了如下生霉指数计算公式:Hukka [78] gave the following formula for calculating the mold index:
Figure PCTCN2019084964-appb-000002
Figure PCTCN2019084964-appb-000002
这意味着温度和相对湿度直接决定粮食是否滋生黄曲霉菌和黄曲霉毒素B1,而温度和相对湿度是相互影响的,当空气水分含量一定时,温度愈小则相对湿度愈大。我们可以回归得出空气饱和水分含量(W,g/m3)与温度(T,℃)的经验公式This means that temperature and relative humidity directly determine whether the food breeds aflatoxin and aflatoxin B1, and temperature and relative humidity affect each other. When the air moisture content is constant, the smaller the temperature, the greater the relative humidity. We can regress to get the empirical formulas of air saturated moisture content (W, g/m3) and temperature (T, ℃)
W=5.039le 0.0609T 0℃≤T≤30℃,R2=0.9989--------------------(4) W=5.039le 0.0609T 0℃≤T≤30℃, R2=0.9989--------------------(4)
我们可以根据公式(4)推导出空气水分含量恒定时温度-相对湿度经验公式:We can derive the empirical formula of temperature-relative humidity when the air moisture content is constant according to formula (4):
RH2=RHle 0.0609(T1-T2)--------------------------------------(5) RH2=RHle 0.0609(T1-T2) --------------------------------------(5)
这样在密闭环境下,只要知道T1、RH1和T2,便可计算相对湿度RH2。当某空气温度25℃,相对湿度65%时,可计算出21.68℃下的相对湿度为80%,此时粮食将滋生黄曲霉菌和黄曲霉毒素B1。当某空气温度25℃,相对湿度65%时,可计算出18.14℃下的相对湿度为100%,这意味着18.14℃下空气将结露,此时结露温差为6.86℃。这就是王东华[79]给出的不同粮食水分对应不同结露温差(表3)的依据。In this way, in a closed environment, as long as T1, RH1 and T2 are known, the relative humidity RH2 can be calculated. When the temperature of an air is 25°C and the relative humidity is 65%, the relative humidity at 21.68°C can be calculated as 80%. At this time, the food will breed aflatoxin and aflatoxin B1. When the temperature of an air is 25°C and the relative humidity is 65%, the relative humidity at 18.14°C can be calculated as 100%, which means that the air will condense at 18.14°C, and the temperature difference of condensation at this time is 6.86°C. This is the basis for the different temperature differences of condensation in different grain moistures given by Wang Donghua [79] (Table 3).
表3粮食水分与结露温差的关系[79]Table 3 Relationship between grain moisture and condensation temperature difference [79]
粮食水分/%Grain moisture/% 1010 1111 1212 1313 1414 1515 1616 1717 1818
结露温差/℃Condensation temperature difference/℃ 12-1412-14 10-1210-12 8-108-10 7-87-8 6-76-7 4-54-5 3-43-4 22 11
在常规机械通风储粮方式下不同季节粮食为何生霉。Why does the grain grow mold in different seasons under the conventional mechanical ventilation grain storage method?
图2展示了在秋季常规机械通风前粮堆温度分布示意图,其中Ts1、Tu1、Tm1、Tl1、Tb1、Tp1分别为秋季机械通风前表层粮食、上层粮食,中层粮食、下层粮食、底层粮食、周围粮食的温度。Figure 2 shows the temperature distribution diagram of the grain pile before the conventional mechanical ventilation in autumn, where Ts1, Tu1, Tm1, Tl1, Tb1 and Tp1 are the surface grain, the upper grain, the middle grain, the lower grain, the bottom grain and the surrounding before the mechanical ventilation in autumn. The temperature of the grain.
尽管秋冬季可以采用机械通风来降低粮食温度和降低粮食水分。但机械通风条件不但要求通风前粮食温度高比仓外空气温度高8℃[77、程传秀],而且要求通风过程结束时粮食温度比仓外空气温度高4℃,所以秋冬季很多时候无法满足通风条件。由于不能满足通风条件,通风前的粮堆温度呈现出“外冷心热”的状态,此时粮堆的表层、底层、周围为低温状态(Ts1、Tb1、Tp1),粮堆中间为高温状态(Tu1、Tm1、Tl1)。因为温度较高密度较小的空气将向上升,温度低密度大的空气将向下沉,所以在粮堆内将形成微气流循环,此时粮堆周围冷气流向下、而粮堆中间热气流向上(有人实测微气流速度高达0.11mm/s)。粮堆内微气流循环将促使粮食水分从高温部位向低温部位转移,高温部位粮食水分将逐渐降低,低温部位粮食水分将逐渐升高,此时,粮堆中间的粮食水分将缓慢降低,而表层粮食、周围粮食的水分将先后缓慢增加,一旦表层粮食的粒间相对湿度升高到临界生霉相对湿度RHc以上,则表层粮食开始生霉,之后,周围粮食也慢慢开始生霉。随着时间的推移,底层粮食温度将缓慢下降,如果入仓粮食水分较低,则底层粮食不易生霉;如果入仓粮食水分较高,则底层粮食有可能生霉;即使在机械通风前,底层粮食还没有生霉,但较低底层粮食温度将给接下来的秋季机械通风埋下外结露的隐患。在秋季,当冷空气来袭时,粮仓顶部的空气将凝露,露水在重力作用下将滴到表层粮食,这将导致表层粮食生霉速度更快。Although autumn and winter can use mechanical ventilation to reduce grain temperature and reduce grain moisture. However, the mechanical ventilation conditions not only require the grain temperature before the ventilation to be 8°C higher than the outside air temperature [77, Cheng Chuanxiu], but also require that the grain temperature at the end of the ventilation process be 4°C higher than the outside air temperature, so it is often impossible to meet the ventilation in autumn and winter. condition. Due to the inability to meet the ventilation conditions, the temperature of the grain pile before ventilation showed a state of "external cold core heat". At this time, the surface, bottom, and surrounding of the grain pile were in a low temperature state (Ts1, Tb1, Tp1), and the middle of the grain pile was in a high temperature state. (Tu1, Tm1, Tl1). Because the air with higher temperature and lower density will rise, and the air with lower temperature and higher density will sink, a micro-air circulation will form in the grain pile. At this time, the cold air flow around the grain pile is downward, while the hot air flow in the middle of the grain pile Up (someone actually measured the micro-air velocity up to 0.11mm/s). The micro-air circulation in the grain pile will promote the transfer of grain moisture from the high temperature part to the low temperature part. The grain moisture in the high temperature part will gradually decrease, and the grain moisture in the low temperature part will gradually increase. At this time, the grain moisture in the middle of the grain pile will slowly decrease, while the surface layer The moisture of the grain and surrounding grains will increase slowly. Once the relative humidity between the grains of the surface grains rises above the critical relative humidity of RHc, the grains of the surface grains will begin to grow. After that, the grains of the surrounding grains will also gradually grow. Over time, the temperature of the bottom grain will slowly decrease. If the moisture of the grain in the warehouse is low, the bottom grain is not easy to mold; if the moisture of the grain in the warehouse is high, the bottom grain may be mold; even before the mechanical ventilation, The bottom grain is not yet moldy, but the lower bottom grain temperature will bury the hidden danger of external condensation in the following autumn. In the autumn, when cold air strikes, the air on the top of the granary will condense, and the dew will drip onto the surface grain under the action of gravity, which will cause the surface grain to mold faster.
图3展示了在秋季常规机械通风时粮堆温度分布示意图,其中Ts2、Tu2、Tm2、Tl2、Tb2、Tp2分别为秋季机械通风时表层粮食、上层粮食,中层粮食、下层粮食、底层粮食、周围粮食的温度,Tbi2为进仓空气温度、Rhbi2为进仓空气相对湿度。Figure 3 shows the temperature distribution diagram of grain piles during conventional mechanical ventilation in autumn, where Ts2, Tu2, Tm2, Tl2, Tb2, and Tp2 are the surface grain, upper layer grain, middle layer grain, lower layer grain, bottom layer grain, and surrounding area during autumn mechanical ventilation. For the temperature of the grain, Tbi2 is the temperature of the air entering the warehouse, and Rhbi2 is the relative humidity of the air entering the warehouse.
常规秋季机械通风不但可以降低上层粮食、中层粮食和下层粮食的温度, 而且可以降低上层粮食、中层粮食和下层粮食的水分。在粮堆热风的作用下,表层粮食温度将回升到Ts2,表层粮食水分将下降;一旦表层粮食粒间相对湿度降到临界生霉相对湿度RHc以下,则表层粮食上的霉菌将停止生长。所以,秋季机械通风对表层粮食、上层粮食、中层粮食、下层粮食是有好处的。但是,秋季机械通风有可能使底层粮食出现外结露现象[80、程传秀]。因为底层粮食温度接近地表温度,一旦底层粮食温度小于进仓空气露点温度,则底层粮食将出现外结露现象,此时底层粮食必定生霉。表4给出了14号粮仓在2005年不同月份不同部位的实测温度[81,汤杰]。由于表4没有细分底层粮食和下层粮食,所以表4中下层粮食包含文献[80]所描述的底层粮食。从表4中8月、9月份数据可以看出,秋季通风可以使表层粮食、上层粮食、中层粮食的温度分别下降10℃、8℃、6℃,但使下层粮食(包括底层粮食)温度上升5℃(从14℃上升到19℃)。由于进仓空气温度大于底层粮食温度,底层粮食粒间相对湿度将上升甚至外结露,一旦粮食粒间相对湿度大于临界生霉相对湿度RHc,则底层粮食必定生霉。Conventional autumn mechanical ventilation can not only reduce the temperature of the upper grain, middle grain and lower grain, but also reduce the moisture of the upper grain, middle grain and lower grain. Under the action of the hot wind of the grain pile, the temperature of the surface grain will rise back to Ts2, and the moisture of the surface grain will decrease; once the relative humidity between the grains of the surface grain falls below the relative humidity of critical mold fungus RHc, the mold on the surface grain will stop growing. Therefore, mechanical ventilation in autumn is good for surface grain, upper grain, middle grain, and lower grain. However, autumn mechanical ventilation may cause external dew condensation on the bottom grain [80, Cheng Chuanxiu]. Because the temperature of the bottom grain is close to the surface temperature, once the temperature of the bottom grain is lower than the dew point temperature of the air entering the warehouse, the bottom grain will appear dew condensation phenomenon, at this time the bottom grain must be mold. Table 4 shows the measured temperatures of different parts of No. 14 granary in different months of 2005 [81, Tang Jie]. Since Table 4 does not subdivide the bottom grain and the bottom grain, the bottom grain in Table 4 contains the bottom grain described in [80]. From the data in August and September in Table 4, it can be seen that autumn ventilation can reduce the temperature of surface grain, upper grain, and middle grain respectively by 10℃, 8℃, and 6℃, but increase the temperature of lower grain (including bottom grain). 5°C (from 14°C to 19°C). Since the temperature of the air entering the silo is higher than the temperature of the bottom grain, the relative humidity between the grains of the bottom grain will rise or even condense. Once the relative humidity between the grains of the grain is greater than the relative humidity RHc of the critical mold, the bottom grain must be moldy.
表4在2005年不同月份14号粮仓不同部位的实测温度℃[81]Table 4 Measured temperatures in different parts of the 14th granary in different months of 2005 ℃[81]
 A 1月January 2月February 3月March 4月April 5月May 6月June 7月July 8月August 9月September 10月October 11月November 12月December
表层surface layer 9.99.9 1010 1111 2727 2727 3131 3333 3434 24twenty four 23twenty three 21twenty one 1313
上层upper layer 7.97.9 9.99.9 9.69.6 2525 2525 2929 3030 3131 23twenty three 21twenty one 1818 1010
中层Middle 6.56.5 6.66.6 7.57.5 1414 1717 2020 2626 2626 2020 1919 1414 88
下层Lower level 44 4.34.3 5.35.3 1010 1111 1313 1414 1414 1919 1717 1212 66
从下面的分析可以看出进仓空气温湿度变化也可能导致底层粮食生霉:It can be seen from the following analysis that changes in the temperature and humidity of the air entering the warehouse may also cause mildew in the bottom grain:
假如早晨空气的绝对水分含量等于中午空气的绝对水分含量,早晨空气温度15℃,早晨空气相对湿度为79%,中午空气温度23℃,可按公式(5)计算出中午空气相对湿度为48.53%。If the absolute moisture content of the morning air is equal to the absolute moisture content of the noon air, the morning air temperature is 15°C, the morning air relative humidity is 79%, and the noon air temperature is 23°C, the noon air relative humidity is 48.53% according to formula (5) .
Chung-Pfost给出了稻谷平衡水分M与温度T、相对湿度RH的公式,文友先[82]根据稻谷实测数据计算出了Chung-Pfost公式中的系数A、B、C。Chung-Pfost gave the formulas for the equilibrium moisture M of rice, temperature T, and relative humidity RH. Wen Youxian [82] calculated the coefficients A, B, and C in the Chung-Pfost formula based on the measured data of rice.
Figure PCTCN2019084964-appb-000003
Figure PCTCN2019084964-appb-000004
Figure PCTCN2019084964-appb-000003
Figure PCTCN2019084964-appb-000004
根据公式(6)可计算出,早晨温湿度条件下(温度15℃,相对湿度为79%)对应的稻谷平衡水分为17.77%;中午温湿度条件下(温度23℃,相对湿度为48.53%)对应的稻谷平衡水分为10.9%。在这种条件下,早晨通风将使底层粮食水分增加,而中午通风将使底层粮食水分下降,这将导致中午的粒间空气中绝对 水分含量增加。水分含量更多的空气流经低温粮食(早晨15℃空气通风形成的低温粮食)时相对湿度必定大于79%,所以底层粮食的低温部位有可能生霉。由此可以看出,进仓空气温度增幅过大有可能导致底层粮食生霉,进仓空气相对湿度降幅过大有可能导致底层粮食生霉。According to formula (6), it can be calculated that under the condition of morning temperature and humidity (temperature 15°C, relative humidity 79%), the equilibrium moisture of rice is 17.77%; under noon temperature and humidity condition (temperature 23°C, relative humidity 48.53%) The corresponding moisture balance of the rice is 10.9%. Under such conditions, morning ventilation will increase the moisture content of the bottom grain, while noon ventilation will reduce the moisture content of the bottom grain, which will cause the absolute moisture content in the intergranular air at noon to increase. When the air with more moisture content flows through the low-temperature grains (the low-temperature grains formed by air ventilation at 15°C in the morning), the relative humidity must be greater than 79%, so the low-temperature parts of the bottom grains may be moldy. It can be seen from this that an excessive increase in the temperature of the air entering the silo may cause mildew in the bottom grain, and an excessive decrease in the relative humidity of the air entering the silo may cause mildew in the bottom grain.
图4展示了在冬季常规机械通风时粮堆温度分布示意图,其中Ts3、Tu3、Tm3、Tl3、Tb3、Tp3分别为冬季机械通风时表层粮食、上层粮食,中层粮食、下层粮食、底层粮食、周围粮食的温度。Tbi3为进仓空气温度,Rhbi3为进仓空气相对湿度。Figure 4 shows a schematic diagram of the temperature distribution of the grain heap during conventional mechanical ventilation in winter, where Ts3, Tu3, Tm3, Tl3, Tb3, and Tp3 are respectively the surface grain, upper grain, middle grain, lower grain, bottom grain, and surrounding during mechanical ventilation in winter The temperature of the grain. Tbi3 is the temperature of the air entering the warehouse, Rhbi3 is the relative humidity of the air entering the warehouse.
与秋季机械通风类似,冬季机械通风对表层粮食、上层粮食,中层粮食、下层粮食有好处。由于冬季入仓空气小于底层粮食温度,所以冬季机械通风时底层粮食不会出现外结露现象。随着冬季机械通风的不断进行,粮食温度将逐渐降低,一旦最大粮食温度小于4℃,则所有粮食停止生霉。但冬季长时间通风将导致底层粮食和下层粮食的水分增加,这将给来年春夏季粮食生霉埋下了隐患:例如,当仓外空气温度为0℃,仓外空气相对湿度为75%时,按照公式(6)可计算稻谷平衡水分为18.2%。当稻谷水分为18.2%不变时,按照公式(6)可计算15℃时稻谷的平衡相对湿度为80.4%,这意味着来年春夏季底层粮食很容易生霉。Similar to mechanical ventilation in autumn, mechanical ventilation in winter is good for surface grain, upper grain, middle grain, and lower grain. Since the air entering the warehouse in winter is lower than the temperature of the bottom grain, the bottom grain will not show any condensation when it is mechanically ventilated in winter. As the mechanical ventilation continues in winter, the grain temperature will gradually decrease. Once the maximum grain temperature is less than 4°C, all grains will stop growing mold. However, long-term ventilation in winter will increase the moisture of the bottom grain and the bottom grain, which will bury the hidden dangers of grain mold in spring and summer in the coming year: for example, when the outside air temperature is 0°C and the outside air relative humidity is 75% According to formula (6), the equilibrium moisture of rice can be calculated as 18.2%. When the moisture of the rice is 18.2%, the equilibrium relative humidity of the rice at 15℃ is 80.4% according to formula (6), which means that the bottom grain in the spring and summer of the next year is prone to mold.
图5展示了来年早春季节无法满足常规机械通风条件时的粮堆温度分布示意图,其中Ts4、Tu4、Tm4、Tl4、Tb4、Tp4分别为初春季节表层粮食、上层粮食,中层粮食、下层粮食、底层粮食、周围粮食的温度。Figure 5 shows a schematic diagram of the temperature distribution of the grain heap when the conventional mechanical ventilation conditions cannot be met in the early spring of next year, where Ts4, Tu4, Tm4, Tl4, Tb4, and Tp4 are respectively the surface grain, upper layer grain, middle layer grain, lower layer grain, and bottom layer in the early spring The temperature of the grain and surrounding grain.
由于无法满足通风条件,所以春季和夏季都无法进行机械通风。进入初春季节,粮仓顶部空气温度昼夜温差较大,在热胀冷缩的作用下,部分仓外空气将进入粮仓顶部,此时表层粮食将出现结露现象,一旦表层粮食粒间相对湿度大于临界生霉相对湿度RHc,则表层粮食开始生霉。进入初春季节,由于表层粮食和周围粮食的温度较高,而上层粮食、中层粮食、下层粮食的温度较低,此时粮堆内微气流方向与秋冬季粮堆内微气流方向相反,温度较高的表层粮食解吸出来的水分将缓慢地流向上层粮食,一旦上层粮食粒间相对湿度大于临界生霉相对湿度RHc,则上层粮食将开始生霉。Due to the inability to meet the ventilation conditions, mechanical ventilation is not possible in spring and summer. In the early spring season, the air temperature at the top of the grain silo has a large temperature difference between day and night. Under the effect of thermal expansion and contraction, part of the outside air will enter the top of the grain silo. At this time, the surface grain will appear dew condensation phenomenon. Mold relative humidity RHc, then the surface grain begins to mold. In the early spring season, the temperature of the surface grain and surrounding grain is higher, while the temperature of the upper grain, middle grain, and lower grain is lower. At this time, the direction of the micro air flow in the grain pile is opposite to the direction of the micro air flow in the grain pile in autumn and winter. The moisture desorbed by the high surface grain will slowly flow to the upper grain. Once the relative humidity between the grains of the upper grain is greater than the critical relative humidity RHc, the upper grain will begin to grow mould.
图6展示了来年晚春季节无法满足常规机械通风条件时的粮堆温度分布示意图,其中Ts5、Tu5、Tm5、Tl5、Tb5、Tp5分别为晚春季节表层粮食、上 层粮食,中层粮食、下层粮食、底层粮食、周围粮食的温度。Figure 6 shows the schematic diagram of the temperature distribution of the grain pile when the conventional mechanical ventilation conditions cannot be met in the late spring of next year, where Ts5, Tu5, Tm5, Tl5, Tb5, and Tp5 are the surface grain, upper layer grain, middle layer grain, lower layer grain, and bottom layer respectively in the late spring season The temperature of the grain and surrounding grain.
从表4可以看出,4月份表层粮食、上层粮食、中层粮食、下层粮食的温度分别为27℃、25℃、14℃、10℃。此时粮堆温差高达17℃,粮堆内微气流循环将导致表层粮食和上层粮食的粮食水分下降,将导致中层粮食和下层粮食的粮食水分增加。此时表层粮食和上层粮食将停止生霉(实际上霉菌停止生长,黄曲霉菌也不会滋生黄曲霉毒素B1)。一旦中层粮食和下层粮食的粒间相对湿度大于临界生霉相对湿度RHc,则中层粮食和下层粮食开始生霉。As can be seen from Table 4, the temperatures of surface grain, upper grain, middle grain, and lower grain in April were 27°C, 25°C, 14°C, and 10°C, respectively. At this time, the temperature difference of the grain pile is as high as 17°C. The circulation of the micro air flow in the grain pile will cause the grain moisture of the surface grain and the upper grain to decrease, and will cause the grain moisture of the middle grain and the lower grain to increase. At this time, the surface grain and the upper grain will stop producing mold (in fact, the mold stops growing, and the aflatoxin will not breed aflatoxin B1). Once the relative humidity between grains of the middle grain and the lower grain is greater than the relative humidity RHc of the critical mold, the middle grain and the lower grain start to grow mould.
图7展示了来年晚夏季节无法满足常规机械通风条件时的粮堆温度分布示意图,其中Ts6、Tu6、Tm6、Tl6、Tb6、Tp6分别为来年晚夏表层粮食、上层粮食,中层粮食、下层粮食、底层粮食、周围粮食的温度。Figure 7 shows the schematic diagram of the temperature distribution of the grain heap when the conventional mechanical ventilation conditions cannot be met in the late summer of the coming year, where Ts6, Tu6, Tm6, Tl6, Tb6, and Tp6 are the surface grain, the upper grain, the middle grain, and the lower grain of the next summer, respectively 1. The temperature of the bottom grain and the surrounding grain.
从表4可以看出,8月份表层粮食、上层粮食、中层粮食、下层粮食的温度分别为34℃、31℃、26℃、14℃,粮堆温差高达20℃,粮堆内微气流循环将导致表层粮食、上层粮食和中层粮食的粮食水分下降,将导致下层粮食的粮食水分增加;此时表层粮食、上层粮食和中层粮食将停止生霉,而下层粮食将继续生霉。It can be seen from Table 4 that the temperatures of surface grain, upper grain, middle grain, and lower grain in August are 34℃, 31℃, 26℃, and 14℃ respectively. The temperature difference of the grain heap is as high as 20°C. As a result, the grain moisture of the top grain, the upper grain and the middle grain will decrease, which will cause the grain moisture of the lower grain to increase. At this time, the surface grain, the upper grain and the middle grain will stop growing mold, while the lower grain will continue to grow mold.
目前世界上大部分粮仓都采用常规机械通风来储藏粮食,也有部分粮仓是采用谷物冷却机对局部高温粮食进行降温处理[83,周长金],由于谷物冷却机必须在蒸发器后面增设一组加热盘管来加热低温空气以降低进仓空气相对湿度[84,黄劲松],所以谷物冷却机的能效比一般来说都不高;还有一部分粮仓采用谷物冷却机来低温储藏粮食[85,王子彪],但长期使粮食处于低温状态将消耗大量的能量[86,苏立新]。当利用谷物冷却机对粮食进行通风处理时,粮食水分将增加[87,叶益强],这将给粮食生霉带来隐患。At present, most of the grain silos in the world use conventional mechanical ventilation to store grain, and some grain silos use grain coolers to cool down local high-temperature grains [83, perimeter gold], because grain coolers must add a group of heating plates behind the evaporator The tube is used to heat the low-temperature air to reduce the relative humidity of the air entering the silo [84, Huang Jinsong], so the energy efficiency ratio of the grain cooler is generally not high; some grain silos use the grain cooler to store grain at a low temperature [85, Wang Biao] However, long-term keeping food at low temperature will consume a lot of energy [86, Su Lixin]. When the grain cooler is used to ventilate the grain, the grain moisture will increase [87, Ye Yiqiang], which will bring hidden dangers to grain mold.
能不能解决秋冬季大部分时间不能满足常规机械通风条件的问题,能不能解决春夏季总是不能满足常规机械通风条件的问题,能不能防止粮堆内微气流循环的形成,能不能解决秋冬季仓顶内侧结露的问题,在秋季能不能防止底层粮食外结露现象发生,能不能解决表层粮食春季结露问题,能不能防止冬季通风过程中粮食水分过度增加,能不能解决秋冬季节表层粮食、周围粮食、底层粮食生霉的问题,能不能解决春夏季节表层粮食、上层粮食、中层粮食、下层粮食生霉的问题,能不能防止新粮生霉,能不能防止陈粮生霉,能不能彻底防止粮食变成 陈化粮,能不能将粮食的黄曲霉毒素B1法定限量降低100倍或更多倍,这是摆在我们面前的重要课题。Can it solve the problem that the conventional mechanical ventilation conditions cannot be met for most of the autumn and winter, can it solve the problem that the conventional mechanical ventilation conditions cannot always be met in spring and summer, can prevent the formation of micro-air circulation in the grain pile, can it solve the autumn and winter The problem of condensation on the inside of the roof of the warehouse can prevent the phenomenon of dew condensation outside the bottom grain in autumn, can solve the problem of condensation of surface grain in spring, can prevent the excessive increase of grain moisture during the winter ventilation process, can it solve the surface grain in autumn and winter 1. The problem of mildew in the surrounding grain and bottom grain can solve the problem of mildew in the surface grain, upper grain, middle grain, and lower grain in spring and summer. Can it prevent new grain from growing mold, can it prevent old grain from growing mold, can it? It is an important issue before us to completely prevent grain from becoming aging grain and whether it can reduce the legal limit of grain aflatoxin B1 by 100 times or more.
发明内容Summary of the invention
本发明的目的是解决秋冬季长时间无法进行机械通风和春夏季无法进行机械通风的问题;本发明的目的是避免粮堆内微气流循环的形成,防止秋冬季粮仓顶部内侧结露,防止底层粮食在秋季结露,防止表层粮食在春季结露,防止冬季通风过程中粮食水分的增加;本发明的目的是防止表层粮食、周围粮食、底层粮食在秋冬季生霉,防止表层粮食、上层粮食、中层粮食、下层粮食和底层粮食在春夏季生霉。The purpose of the present invention is to solve the problem that mechanical ventilation cannot be performed for a long time in autumn and winter and mechanical ventilation in spring and summer; the purpose of the present invention is to avoid the formation of micro-air circulation in the grain pile, prevent condensation on the inside of the top of the grain silo in autumn and winter, and prevent the bottom layer Grain dews in autumn, prevents surface grains from dewing in spring, and prevents the increase in grain moisture during winter ventilation; the purpose of the present invention is to prevent surface grains, surrounding grains, and bottom grains from growing mold in autumn and winter, and prevent surface grains and upper grains , Middle grain, lower grain and bottom grain mold in spring and summer.
为了实现上述目的,本发明公开了一种粮食防霉机,包括程序控制器(1001)、至少一个变频器(1002、1003)、顶管温湿度传感器(43)、底管温湿度传感器(44)、粮堆顶面温湿度传感器(83)、垂直分布温湿度传感器(84)、底层粮食温湿度传感器(85)、仓外空气温度传感器、降温总成、风机接头管(2101)、双向循环风机(2102)、三通管(2121)、旁通调节阀(2131)、旁通管(2132)、降温调节阀(2141)、换热器进气管(2142)、换热器出气管(2143)、左边通风管(41)、右边通风管(42)、粮仓顶部连接管(45)、粮仓底部连接管(46);所述的风机接头管(2101)一端与左边通风管(41)相连通,另一端与双向循环风机(2102)相连通;所述的三通管(2121)分别与旁通调节阀(2131)、降温调节阀(2141)、双向循环风机(2102)相连通;所述的旁通调节阀(2131)一端与三通管(2121)相连通,另一端与旁通管(2132)相连通;所述的降温调节阀(2141)一端与三通管(2121)相连通,另一端与换热器进气管(2142)相连通;所述的换热器进气管(2142)与降温总成的换热器进气孔(2207、2302)相连通,另一端与降温调节阀(2141)相连通;所述的换热器出气管(2143)一端与降温总成的换热器出气孔(2208、2303)相连通,另一端与右边通风管(42)相连通;所述的粮仓顶部连接管(45)与左边通风管(41)相连通;所述的粮仓底部连接管(46)与右边通风管(42)相连通;所述的顶管温湿度传感器(43)安装在左边通风管(41)或粮仓顶部连接管(45)上;所述的底管温湿度传感器(44)安装在右边通风管(42)或粮仓底部连接管(46)上;所述的粮食防霉机还包括仓外空气引入管(81)、仓外空气引入阀(82);所述的仓外空气引入管(81)安装在右边通风管(42)或粮仓底部连接管(46)上;所述的仓外空气引入阀(82)安装在仓外空气引入管81 上。In order to achieve the above object, the present invention discloses a grain mildew prevention machine, including a program controller (1001), at least one frequency converter (1002, 1003), a top tube temperature and humidity sensor (43), a bottom tube temperature and humidity sensor (44 ), the temperature and humidity sensor on the top surface of the grain pile (83), the vertical distribution temperature and humidity sensor (84), the bottom temperature and humidity sensor (85), the air temperature sensor outside the warehouse, the cooling assembly, the fan joint pipe (2101), bidirectional circulation Fan (2102), three-way pipe (2121), bypass regulating valve (2131), bypass pipe (2132), cooling regulating valve (2141), heat exchanger inlet pipe (2142), heat exchanger outlet pipe (2143) ), the left ventilation pipe (41), the right ventilation pipe (42), the top connection pipe (45) of the grain silo, the bottom connection pipe (46) of the grain silo; one end of the fan joint pipe (2101) is connected to the left ventilation pipe (41) The other end is connected to the two-way circulation fan (2102); the three-way pipe (2121) is connected to the bypass control valve (2131), the temperature-lowering adjustment valve (2141), and the two-way circulation fan (2102); One end of the bypass regulating valve (2131) communicates with the three-way pipe (2121), and the other end communicates with the bypass pipe (2132); one end of the temperature-lowering regulating valve (2141) is connected to the three-way pipe (2121) The other end is connected to the heat exchanger inlet pipe (2142); the heat exchanger inlet pipe (2142) is connected to the heat exchanger inlet hole (2207, 2302) of the cooling assembly, and the other end is connected to the cooling The regulating valve (2141) is connected; one end of the heat exchanger air outlet pipe (2143) is connected to the heat exchanger air outlet holes (2208, 2303) of the cooling assembly, and the other end is connected to the right vent pipe (42); The top connection pipe (45) of the granary communicates with the left ventilation pipe (41); the bottom connection pipe (46) of the granary communicates with the right ventilation pipe (42); the temperature and humidity sensor (43) of the top pipe ) Installed on the left ventilation pipe (41) or the top connection pipe (45) of the grain silo; the bottom pipe temperature and humidity sensor (44) is installed on the right ventilation pipe (42) or the bottom connection pipe (46) of the grain silo; The grain anti-mildew machine also includes an outside air inlet pipe (81) and an outside air inlet valve (82); the outside air inlet pipe (81) is installed on the right side ventilation pipe (42) or a connection pipe at the bottom of the grain warehouse ( 46) above; the outside air inlet valve (82) is installed on the outside air inlet pipe 81.
所述的降温总成是冷水降温总成或冷媒降温总成;所述的冷水降温总成包括冷水供回总成、冷水型换热器箱(2201)、翅片管(2202)、进水腔(2203)、出水腔(2204)、换热器进水接头(2205)、换热器出水接头(2206)、第一换热器进气孔(2207)、第一换热器出气孔(2208)、第一冷凝水外排管(2209);所述的翅片管(2202)一端与进水腔(2203)相连通,另一端与出水腔(2204)相连通;所述的换热器进水接头(2205)一端与进水腔(2203)相连通,另一端与冷水供回总成的冷水供水管(1103、1153)相连通;所述的换热器出水接头(2206)一端与出水腔(2204)相连通,另一端与冷水供回总成的冷水回水管(1106、1156)相连通;所述的第一换热器进气孔(2207)、第一换热器出气孔(2208)开在冷水型换热器箱(2201)上;所述的第一换热器进气孔(2207)与换热器进气管(2142)相连;所述的第一换热器出气孔(2208)与换热器出气管(2143)相连;所述的第一冷凝水外排管(2209)安装在冷水型换热器箱(2201)上。The cooling assembly is a cold water cooling assembly or a refrigerant cooling assembly; the cold water cooling assembly includes a cold water return assembly, a cold water heat exchanger box (2201), a finned tube (2202), and water inlet Cavity (2203), water outlet cavity (2204), heat exchanger inlet connector (2205), heat exchanger outlet connector (2206), first heat exchanger inlet (2207), first heat exchanger outlet ( 2208), the first condensate drain pipe (2209); one end of the finned tube (2202) communicates with the inlet chamber (2203), and the other end communicates with the outlet chamber (2204); the heat exchange One end of the water inlet connector (2205) is connected to the water inlet cavity (2203), and the other end is connected to the cold water supply pipe (1103, 1153) of the cold water supply assembly; one end of the water outlet connector (2206) of the heat exchanger It is connected to the water outlet cavity (2204), and the other end is connected to the cold water return pipe (1106, 1156) of the cold water supply and return assembly; the inlet hole (2207) of the first heat exchanger, the first heat exchanger outlet The air hole (2208) is opened on the cold water heat exchanger box (2201); the inlet hole (2207) of the first heat exchanger is connected to the inlet pipe (2142) of the heat exchanger; the first heat exchanger The air outlet (2208) is connected to the air outlet pipe (2143) of the heat exchanger; the first condensate drain pipe (2209) is installed on the cold water heat exchanger box (2201).
所述的冷水供回总成是人工冷水供回总成或天然冷水供回总成。所述的人工冷水供回总成包括人工冷水(1151)、人工冷水箱体(1152)、第二冷水供水管(1153)、人工冷水泵(1154)、人工冷水供水阀(1155)、第二冷水回水管(1156)、间冷机压缩机(1157)、间冷机冷凝管(1158)、间冷机节流阀(1159)、间冷机蒸发管(1160)、间冷机冷凝器箱体(1161)、间冷机进风口(1162)、间冷机出风口(1163)、间冷机风机(1164)、人工冷水温度传感器(1165);所述的人工冷水(1151)装在人工冷水箱体(1152)中;所述的第二冷水供水管(1153)一端与人工冷水箱体(1152)相连通,另一端与换热器进水接头(2205)相连通;所述的第二冷水回水管(1156)一端与人工冷水箱体(1152)相连通,另一端与换热器出水接头(2206)相连通;所述的人工冷水泵(1154)安装在第二冷水供水管(1153)上;所述的间冷机蒸发管(1160)安装在人工冷水箱体(1152)内;所述的间冷机冷凝管(1158)安装在间冷机冷凝器箱体(1161)内;所述的间冷机压缩机(1157)一端与间冷机蒸发管(1160)相连通,另一端与间冷机冷凝管(1158)相连通;所述的间冷机节流阀(1159)一端与间冷机冷凝管(1158)相连通;另一端与间冷机蒸发管(1160)相连通;所述的人工冷水温度传感器(1165)安装在人工冷水箱体(1152)上。The cold water supply and return assembly is an artificial cold water supply and return assembly or a natural cold water supply and return assembly. The artificial cold water supply and return assembly includes artificial cold water (1151), artificial cold water tank (1152), second cold water supply pipe (1153), artificial cold water pump (1154), artificial cold water supply valve (1155), second Cold water return pipe (1156), intercooler compressor (1157), intercooler condenser (1158), intercooler throttle valve (1159), intercooler evaporator (1160), intercooler condenser box Body (1161), intercooler air inlet (1162), intercooler air outlet (1163), intercooler fan (1164), artificial cold water temperature sensor (1165); the artificial cold water (1151) is installed in the artificial In the cold water tank (1152); one end of the second cold water supply pipe (1153) communicates with the artificial cold water tank (1152), and the other end communicates with the heat exchanger inlet (2205); the first One end of the second cold water return pipe (1156) communicates with the artificial cold water tank (1152), and the other end communicates with the heat exchanger water outlet (2206); the artificial cold water pump (1154) is installed on the second cold water supply pipe (1154) 1153); the intercooler evaporator tube (1160) is installed in the artificial cold water tank (1152); the intercooler condenser tube (1158) is installed in the intercooler condenser box (1161) The intercooler compressor (1157) has one end connected to the intercooler evaporation tube (1160), and the other end is connected to the intercooler condenser tube (1158); the intercooler throttle valve (1159) ) One end communicates with the intercooler condenser tube (1158); the other end communicates with the intercooler evaporation tube (1160); the artificial cold water temperature sensor (1165) is installed on the artificial cold water tank (1152).
所述的天然冷水供回总成包括天然冷水、底阀(1102)、第一冷水供水管 (1103)、天然冷水泵(1104)、天然冷水供水阀(1105)、第一冷水回水管(1106)、天然冷水回水阀(1107);所述的天然冷水泵(1104)安装在第一冷水供水管(1103)上;所述的底阀(1102)安装在第一冷水供水管(1103)的下端;所述的天然冷水供水阀(1105)安装在第一冷水供水管(1103)上;所述的第一冷水供水管(1103)一端伸入天然冷水中,另一端与换热器进水接头(2205)相连通;所述的第一冷水回水管(1106)一端与换热器出水接头(2206)相连通,另一端回到天然冷水中;所述的天然冷水取自天然水体(1101)和/或供水渠(1121)和/或供水管网(1131)和/或地下水(1141)。The natural cold water supply and return assembly includes natural cold water, bottom valve (1102), first cold water supply pipe (1103), natural cold water pump (1104), natural cold water supply valve (1105), first cold water return pipe (1106) ), natural cold water return valve (1107); the natural cold water pump (1104) is installed on the first cold water supply pipe (1103); the bottom valve (1102) is installed on the first cold water supply pipe (1103) The lower end of the; the natural cold water supply valve (1105) is installed on the first cold water supply pipe (1103); one end of the first cold water supply pipe (1103) extends into the natural cold water, and the other end is connected to the heat exchanger The water connector (2205) is connected; one end of the first cold water return pipe (1106) is connected to the heat exchanger outlet (2206), and the other end is returned to natural cold water; the natural cold water is taken from a natural water body ( 1101) and/or water supply channel (1121) and/or water supply pipe network (1131) and/or groundwater (1141).
所述的冷媒降温总成包括冷媒型换热器箱(2301)、第二换热器进气孔(2302)、第二换热器出气孔(2303)、第二冷凝水外排管(2304)、直冷机压缩机(2305)、直冷机冷凝管(2306)、直冷机节流阀(2307)、直冷机蒸发管(2308)、直冷机冷凝器箱体(2309)、直冷机进风口(2310)、直冷机出风口(2311)、直冷机风机(2312);所述的第二冷凝水外排管(2304)安装在冷媒型换热器箱(2301)上;所述的直冷机蒸发管(2308)安装在冷媒型换热器箱(2301)内;所述的直冷机冷凝管(2306)安装在直冷机冷凝器箱体(2309)内;所述的直冷机出风口(2311)开在直冷机冷凝器箱体(2309)上;所述的直冷机风机(2312)安装在直冷机出风口(2311)上;所述的第二换热器进气孔(2302)、第二换热器出气孔(2303)开在冷媒型换热器箱(2301)上;所述的第二换热器进气孔(2302)与换热器进气管(2142)相连通;所述的第二换热器出气孔(2303)与换热器出气管(2143)相连通;所述的冷媒降温总成还包括直冷机供水管(2313)、直冷机回水管(2314);所述的直冷机供水管(2313)、直冷机回水管(2314)安装在直冷机冷凝器箱体(2309)上。The refrigerant cooling assembly includes a refrigerant-type heat exchanger box (2301), a second heat exchanger inlet (2302), a second heat exchanger outlet (2303), and a second condensate drain (2304) ), direct cooler compressor (2305), direct cooler condenser (2306), direct cooler throttle (2307), direct cooler evaporator (2308), direct cooler condenser box (2309), Direct cooler air inlet (2310), direct cooler air outlet (2311), direct cooler fan (2312); the second condensate drain pipe (2304) is installed in the refrigerant heat exchanger box (2301) The direct cooling machine evaporator tube (2308) is installed in the refrigerant heat exchanger box (2301); the direct cooling machine condenser tube (2306) is installed in the direct cooling machine condenser box (2309) The direct cooler air outlet (2311) is opened on the direct cooler condenser box (2309); the direct cooler fan (2312) is installed on the direct cooler air outlet (2311); The second heat exchanger inlet (2302) and the second heat exchanger outlet (2303) are opened in the refrigerant heat exchanger box (2301); the second heat exchanger inlet (2302) Communicate with the heat exchanger inlet pipe (2142); the second heat exchanger outlet hole (2303) communicates with the heat exchanger outlet pipe (2143); the refrigerant cooling assembly also includes a direct cooler water supply The pipe (2313) and the direct cooling machine return water pipe (2314); the direct cooling machine water supply pipe (2313) and the direct cooling machine return water pipe (2314) are installed on the direct cooling machine condenser box (2309).
为了实现上述目的,本发明还公开了一种粮食防霉方法,其包括:在新烘干的粮食入库的当年夏季采用混合式正压循环通风;在新烘干的粮食入库的当年秋季采用混合式正压循环通风或旁通式正压循环通风;在新烘干的粮食入库的当年冬季采用旁通式正压循环通风;在新烘干的粮食入库的来年春季采用负压循环通风;在新烘干的粮食入库的来年早夏采用负压循环通风;在新烘干的粮食入库的来年晚夏采用混合式正压循环通风;在新烘干的粮食入库的来年秋季采用混合式正压循环通风;在新烘干的粮食入库的来年冬季采用旁通式正压循环通风。In order to achieve the above object, the present invention also discloses a method for preventing mildew of grain, which includes: adopting mixed positive pressure circulation ventilation in the summer of the freshly dried grain storage in the summer of the year; Adopt mixed positive pressure circulation ventilation or bypass type positive pressure circulation ventilation; adopt bypass type positive pressure circulation ventilation in the winter of the year when freshly dried grain is stored; use negative pressure in the spring of the next year Circulation ventilation; use negative pressure circulation ventilation in the early summer of the next year of freshly dried grain storage; use mixed positive pressure circulation ventilation in the summer of the next year of the newly dried grain storage; In the autumn of next year, a mixed positive pressure circulation ventilation will be adopted; in the winter of the next year when freshly dried grain is stored in the warehouse, a bypass positive pressure circulation ventilation will be adopted.
所述的混合式正压循环通风是指在循环风机的驱动下,从粮仓顶部出来 的空气经过粮仓顶部连接管(45)进入粮食防霉机后分成两部分,一部分空气流经降温调节阀(2141)和冷水型换热器箱(2201)或冷媒型换热器箱(2301),另外一部分空气流经旁通调节阀(2131)和旁通管(2132),两部分空气混合后经过粮仓底部连接管(46)进入粮仓底部,在所述的混合式正压循环通风过程中,进入粮仓底部的空气温度和相对湿度通过调节降温调节阀(2141)和旁通调节阀(2131)的开启度来控制。The hybrid positive pressure circulation ventilation refers to that the air from the top of the granary enters the grain anti-mildew machine through the connecting pipe (45) of the granary under the drive of the circulation fan, and is divided into two parts, and a part of the air flows through the cooling regulating valve ( 2141) and cold water type heat exchanger box (2201) or refrigerant type heat exchanger box (2301), another part of the air flows through the bypass regulating valve (2131) and the bypass pipe (2132), the two parts of the air are mixed and passed through the granary The bottom connecting pipe (46) enters the bottom of the granary. During the mixed positive pressure circulation ventilation process, the air temperature and relative humidity entering the bottom of the granary are opened by adjusting the temperature-lowering regulating valve (2141) and the bypass regulating valve (2131) Degrees to control.
所述的旁通式正压循环通风是指在循环风机的驱动下,从粮仓顶部出来的空气经过粮仓顶部连接管(45)进入粮食防霉机后直接流经旁通调节阀(2131)和旁通管(2132),然后经过粮仓底部连接管(46)进入粮仓底部,在所述的旁通式正压循环通风过程中,进入粮仓底部的空气温度和相对湿度通过第一变频器(1002)调整循环风机转速来控制。The bypass positive pressure circulation ventilation mentioned above refers to that the air from the top of the granary enters the grain anti-mildew machine through the connecting pipe (45) of the granary under the drive of the circulating fan, and then directly flows through the bypass regulating valve (2131) and Bypass pipe (2132), then enter the bottom of the grain silo through the connection pipe (46) at the bottom of the grain silo. During the bypass positive pressure circulation ventilation process, the air temperature and relative humidity entering the bottom of the grain silo pass through the first frequency converter (1002 ) Adjust the speed of the circulating fan to control.
所述的负压循环通风是指在循环风机的驱动下,从粮堆底部出来的空气经过粮仓底部连接管46进入粮食防霉机后直接流经旁通调节阀(2131)和旁通管(2132),然后经过经过粮仓顶部连接管(45)进入粮仓顶部,在所述的负压循环通风过程中,进入粮堆顶部的空气温度通过第一变频器(1002)调整循环风机转速来控制。The negative pressure circulation ventilation means that the air from the bottom of the grain pile enters the grain anti-mildew machine through the bottom connection pipe 46 of the grain silo under the drive of the circulation fan, and then directly flows through the bypass regulating valve (2131) and the bypass pipe ( 2132), and then enter the top of the granary through the connection pipe (45) at the top of the granary. During the negative pressure circulation ventilation process, the temperature of the air entering the top of the grain pile is controlled by the first frequency converter (1002) to adjust the speed of the circulating fan.
为了实现上述目的,本发明还公开了一种粮仓,其特征在于包括权利要求1-15所述的粮食防霉机。In order to achieve the above object, the present invention also discloses a grain silo, which is characterized by comprising the grain anti-mildew machine according to claims 1-15.
本发明的特点:Features of the invention:
1)不管在什么季节,本发明都可以采取持续不断地循环通风,不但解决了秋冬季有时无法满足常规机械通风条件的问题,而且解决了春夏季两季根本无法通风的问题1) No matter what season it is, the present invention can adopt continuous circulation ventilation, which not only solves the problem that the conventional mechanical ventilation conditions are sometimes not met in autumn and winter, but also solves the problem of no ventilation at all in spring and summer
2)本发明可以根据季节的变化情况和/或粮食温度与仓外空气温度相对变化情况,既可采用混合式正压循环通风,也可采用旁通式正压循环通风,还可采用负压循环通风。2) According to the seasonal change and/or the relative change of the grain temperature and the temperature of the air outside the warehouse, the present invention can use either mixed positive pressure circulation ventilation, bypass positive pressure circulation ventilation, or negative pressure. Circulation ventilation.
3)本发明可以防止粮堆内微气流循环的形成。3) The invention can prevent the formation of micro-air circulation in the grain pile.
4)本发明可以防止仓顶内侧在秋季、冬季出现结露现象。4) The present invention can prevent condensation on the inside of the warehouse roof in autumn and winter.
5)本发明可以防止底层粮食在秋季出现外结露现象。5) The invention can prevent the appearance of dew condensation on the bottom grain in autumn.
6)本发明可以防止表层粮食在春季出现结露现象。6) The invention can prevent dew condensation on the surface grain in spring.
7)本可以防止底层粮食和下层粮食在冬季常规机械通风过程中出现粮食水分过度增加7) It would have prevented the bottom grain and the bottom grain from excessively increasing the grain moisture during the routine mechanical ventilation in winter
8)本发明可以防止底层粮食和下层粮食在谷物冷却机通风过程中出现粮食水分过度增加。8) The invention can prevent the grain moisture in the bottom grain and the bottom grain from increasing excessively during the ventilation process of the grain cooler.
9)在春季可以巧妙地利用底层粮食和下层粮食的冷量来降低表层粮食和上层粮食的温度,并促使表层粮食和上层粮食吸附水分。9) In the spring, it is possible to skillfully use the cooling capacity of the bottom grain and the bottom grain to lower the temperature of the top grain and the top grain, and promote the surface grain and the top grain to absorb moisture.
10)本发明可以自动调节进仓空气温度和相对湿度,从而避免了进仓空气温度波动和相对湿度波动,从而可避免了粮食生霉。10) The present invention can automatically adjust the temperature and relative humidity of the air entering the warehouse, thereby avoiding fluctuations in the temperature and relative humidity of the air entering the warehouse, thereby avoiding the growth of food mold.
11)本发明不用象谷物冷却机一样使用加热盘管来加热低温空气。11) The present invention does not use a heating coil to heat low-temperature air like a grain cooler.
12)在旁通式正压循环通风或负压循环通风过程中,只有双向循环风机在正向运转或反向运转,所以能耗不大;在混合式正压循环通风过程中,从防霉的角度不用追求快速降温,我们可以以通过第一变频器来降低双向循环风机的转速,在低速循环通风情况下,则控制间冷机压缩机(1157)或直冷机压缩机(2305)的第二变频器(1003)运转频率也会随之下降,所以混合式正压循环通风的耗能也不大。12) In the bypass type positive pressure circulation ventilation or negative pressure circulation ventilation process, only the bidirectional circulation fan is running in the forward direction or the reverse direction, so the energy consumption is not large; in the mixed positive pressure circulation ventilation process, the mold The angle does not need to pursue rapid cooling, we can use the first frequency converter to reduce the speed of the two-way circulation fan, in the case of low-speed circulation ventilation, then control the intercooler compressor (1157) or direct cooler compressor (2305) The operating frequency of the second inverter (1003) will also decrease accordingly, so the energy consumption of the hybrid positive pressure circulation ventilation is not large.
13)可以防止表层粮食、底层粮食、周围粮食在秋冬季生霉,可以防止表层粮食、上层粮食、中层粮食、下层粮食、底层粮食在春夏季生霉,这样可以确保粮仓内的粮食一年四季不生霉,可以确保粮仓内的粮食多年不生霉。13) It can prevent the surface grain, bottom grain, and surrounding grain from moulding in autumn and winter, and can prevent the surface grain, upper grain, middle grain, lower grain, and bottom grain from moulding in spring and summer, so that the grain in the grain silo can be guaranteed all year round There is no mold, which can ensure that the grain in the granary will not mold for many years.
14)本发明不但可以防止新粮和陈粮生霉,而且可以彻底防止粮食成为无法食用的陈化粮,这意味每年可以为中国节约数千万吨粮食,每年可以为世界节约过亿吨粮食,按每浪费1吨粮食相当于向空中排放2.91吨二氧化碳来计算,则每年可以减排数亿吨二氧化碳。14) The present invention can not only prevent new grains and old grains from growing mold, but also completely prevent grains from becoming inedible aged grains, which means that tens of millions of tons of grains can be saved for China every year and over 100 million tons of grains can be saved for the world every year. If every ton of food wasted is equivalent to the emission of 2.91 tons of carbon dioxide into the air, hundreds of millions of tons of carbon dioxide can be reduced every year.
15)由于稻谷不再霉变,可以大大缩短抛光时间,可以提高整米率,可以大幅度降低大米的脂肪酸值,可以提高大米的食味值,可以提高大米售价,可以利用米糠生产米胚油。15) Because the rice is no longer moldy, it can greatly shorten the polishing time, can increase the whole rice rate, can greatly reduce the fatty acid value of rice, can increase the taste value of rice, can increase the selling price of rice, can use rice bran to produce rice germ oil .
16)可以彻底防止粮食生霉,则粮食中不会有黄曲霉毒素B1,可使粮食的黄曲霉毒素B1的限量下降100倍或以上,按照华盛顿大学Eaton教授的观点和公式,将使人类患癌概率下降100倍,此外还将使人罹患高血压、糖尿病、心脏病、冠心病等的概率大大下降,还将提高男人生育能力和改善孕妇、胎儿、哺 乳妇女和婴儿的健康状态。16) It can completely prevent the production of mold in the grain, and there will be no aflatoxin B1 in the grain, which can reduce the limit of aflatoxin B1 in the grain by 100 times or more. According to the views and formulas of Professor Eaton of the University of Washington, it will cause human suffering. The probability of cancer decreases by a factor of 100. In addition, the probability of people suffering from hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, coronary heart disease, etc. will be greatly reduced. It will also improve the fertility of men and improve the health of pregnant women, fetuses, nursing women and infants.
17)不但可以防止稻谷、大米、玉米、小麦、小米、高粱、荞麦、青稞等粮食生霉,而且可以防止大豆、花生、油茶籽、菜籽、葵花籽等油料作物生霉,还可以防止开心果、腰果、核桃、南瓜子、西瓜子等干果生霉。17) Not only can prevent rice, rice, corn, wheat, millet, sorghum, buckwheat, highland barley and other food mold, but also can prevent soybean, peanut, camellia seed, rapeseed, sunflower seeds and other oil crops from mold, can also prevent happy Fruits, cashews, walnuts, pumpkin seeds, watermelon seeds and other dried fruits are moldy.
附图说明BRIEF DESCRIPTION
图1展示了患癌率与黄曲霉毒素B1含量的关系(20000条虹鳟鱼实验)图2展示了在秋季常规机械通风前粮堆温度分布示意图;Figure 1 shows the relationship between cancer incidence and aflatoxin B1 content (20,000 rainbow trout experiments). Figure 2 shows the temperature distribution diagram of the grain pile before conventional mechanical ventilation in autumn;
图3展示了在秋季常规机械通风时粮堆温度分布示意图;Figure 3 shows a schematic diagram of the temperature distribution of the grain pile during conventional mechanical ventilation in autumn;
图4展示了在冬季常规机械通风时粮堆温度分布示意图;Figure 4 shows a schematic diagram of the temperature distribution of the grain heap during conventional mechanical ventilation in winter;
图5展示了来年早春季节无法满足常规机械通风条件时的粮堆温度分布示意图;Figure 5 shows a schematic diagram of the temperature distribution of the grain pile when the conventional mechanical ventilation conditions cannot be met in the early spring of the following year;
图6展示了来年晚春季节无法满足常规机械通风条件时的粮堆温度分布示意图;Figure 6 shows a schematic diagram of the temperature distribution of the grain pile when the conventional mechanical ventilation conditions cannot be met in the late spring of next year;
图7展示了来年晚夏季节无法满足常规机械通风条件时的粮堆温度分布示意图;Figure 7 shows a schematic diagram of the temperature distribution of the grain pile when the conventional mechanical ventilation conditions cannot be met in the late summer of next year;
图8展示了本发明的一种粮食防霉机的剖视示意图;8 shows a schematic cross-sectional view of a grain mold prevention machine of the present invention;
图9展示了冷水降温总成示意图;Figure 9 shows the schematic diagram of the cold water cooling assembly;
图10展示了双向循环风机、降温调节阀、旁通调节阀、冷水降温总成连接图;Figure 10 shows the connection diagram of the two-way circulation fan, cooling regulating valve, bypass regulating valve, and cold water cooling assembly;
图11展示了本发明的一种带粮食防霉机的粮仓示意图;FIG. 11 shows a schematic view of a grain silo with grain mildew prevention machine of the present invention;
图12展示了采用本发明时夏季正压循环通风过程中粮堆温度分布示意图;12 shows a schematic diagram of the temperature distribution of the grain heap during the summer positive pressure circulation ventilation when the invention is adopted;
图13展示了采用本发明时秋季正压循环通风过程中粮堆温度分布示意图;13 shows a schematic diagram of the temperature distribution of the grain heap in the process of autumn positive pressure circulation ventilation when the present invention is adopted;
图14展示了采用本发明时冬季正压循环通风过程中粮堆温度分布示意图;14 shows a schematic diagram of the temperature distribution of the grain heap during the positive pressure circulation ventilation in winter when the invention is adopted;
图15展示了采用本发明时来年春季负压循环通风过程中粮堆温度分布示意图;15 shows a schematic diagram of the temperature distribution of the grain pile during the negative pressure circulation ventilation in the spring of the next year when the present invention is adopted;
图16展示了采用本发明时来年早夏负压循环通风过程中粮堆温度分布示意图;16 shows a schematic diagram of the temperature distribution of the grain pile in the process of negative pressure circulation ventilation in early summer when the present invention is adopted;
图17展示了采用本发明时来年晚夏正压循环通风过程中粮堆温度分布示意图;FIG. 17 shows a schematic diagram of the temperature distribution of the grain pile in the process of positive pressure circulation ventilation in late summer when the present invention is adopted;
图18展示了本发明的粮食防霉机第二实施方式的冷水降温总成示意图;18 shows a schematic diagram of the cold water cooling assembly of the second embodiment of the grain mold prevention machine of the present invention;
图19展示了本发明的粮食防霉机第三实施方式的冷水降温总成示意图;FIG. 19 shows a schematic diagram of a cold water cooling assembly of the third embodiment of the grain mildew prevention machine of the present invention;
图20展示了本发明的粮食防霉机第四实施方式的冷水降温总成示意图;20 shows a schematic diagram of the cold water cooling assembly of the fourth embodiment of the grain mildew prevention machine of the present invention;
图21展示了本发明的粮食防霉机第五实施方式的冷水降温总成示意图;21 shows a schematic diagram of the cold water cooling assembly of the fifth embodiment of the grain mildew prevention machine of the present invention;
图22展示了本发明的粮食防霉机第六实施方式的冷水降温总成示意图;22 shows a schematic diagram of the cold water cooling assembly of the sixth embodiment of the grain mildew prevention machine of the present invention;
图23展示了本发明的粮食防霉机第七实施方式的冷水降温总成示意图;FIG. 23 shows a schematic diagram of a cold water cooling assembly of the seventh embodiment of the grain anti-mildew machine of the present invention;
图24展示了本发明的粮食防霉机第八实施方式示意图;FIG. 24 shows a schematic diagram of an eighth embodiment of the grain mildew prevention machine of the present invention;
图25展示了本发明的粮食防霉机第八实施方式的冷媒降温总成示意图;FIG. 25 shows a schematic diagram of the refrigerant cooling assembly of the eighth embodiment of the grain mildew prevention machine of the present invention;
图26展示了本发明的粮食防霉机第九实施方式的冷媒降温总成示意图;FIG. 26 shows a schematic diagram of the refrigerant cooling assembly of the ninth embodiment of the grain mildew prevention machine of the present invention;
图27展示了本发明的粮食防霉机的第十实施方式示意图;FIG. 27 shows a schematic diagram of the tenth embodiment of the grain mildew prevention machine of the present invention;
图28展示了本发明的粮食防霉机的第十一实施方式示意图;FIG. 28 shows a schematic diagram of an eleventh embodiment of the grain mildew prevention machine of the present invention;
图29展示了本发明的粮食防霉机的第十二实施方式示意图;FIG. 29 shows a schematic diagram of the twelfth embodiment of the grain mildew prevention machine of the present invention;
图30展示了本发明的粮食防霉机的第十三实施方式示意图;FIG. 30 shows a schematic diagram of the thirteenth embodiment of the grain mildew prevention machine of the present invention;
图31展示了本发明的粮食防霉机的第十四实施方式示意图;FIG. 31 shows a schematic diagram of a fourteenth embodiment of the grain mildew prevention machine of the present invention;
图32展示了本发明的粮食防霉机的第十四实施方式负压循环通风驱动总成示意图;FIG. 32 shows a schematic diagram of the negative pressure circulation ventilation drive assembly of the fourteenth embodiment of the grain anti-mildew machine of the present invention;
图33展示了本发明的粮食防霉机的第十五实施方式示意图;FIG. 33 shows a schematic diagram of the fifteenth embodiment of the grain mildew prevention machine of the present invention;
图34展示了左边通风管、右边通风管与4个阀门、2个三通管连接示意图;Figure 34 shows the schematic diagram of the connection between the left vent pipe and the right vent pipe with four valves and two three-way pipes;
图35展示了本发明的粮食防霉机的第十六实施方式示意图。FIG. 35 shows a schematic diagram of the sixteenth embodiment of the grain mildew prevention machine of the present invention.
其中附图标记表示如下:The reference signs are as follows:
左边通风管41、右边通风管42、顶管温湿度传感器43、底管温湿度传感器44、粮仓顶部连接管45、粮仓底部连接管46、仓外空气引入管81、仓外空气引入阀82、粮堆顶面温湿度传感器83、垂直分布温湿度传感器84、底层粮食温湿度传感器85、上部三通管91、上部喂气阀92、上部回气阀93、下部三通管94、下部喂气阀95、下部回气阀96、上部三通阀97、下部三通阀98、程序控制器1001、第一变频器1002、第二变频器1003、天然水体1101、底阀1102、第一冷水供水管1103、天然冷水泵1104、天然冷水供水阀1105、第一冷水回水管1106、天然冷水回水阀1107、供水渠1121、供水管网1131、地下水1141、取水井1142、回灌井1143、人工冷水1151、人工冷水箱体1152、第二冷水供水管1153、人工冷水泵1154、人工冷水供水阀1155、第二冷水回水管1156、间冷机压缩机1157、间冷机冷凝管1158、间冷机节流阀1159、间冷机蒸发管1160、间冷机冷凝器箱体1161、间冷机进风口1162、间冷机出风口1163、间冷机风机1164、人工冷水温度传感器1165、间冷机供水管1166、间冷机回水管1167、风机接头管2101、双向循环风机2102、三通管2121、旁通调节阀2131、旁通管2132、降温调节阀2141、换热器进气管2142、换热器出气管2143、冷水型换热器箱2201、翅片管2202、进水腔2203、出水腔2204、换热器进水接头2205、换热器出水接头2206、 第一换热器进气孔2207、第一换热器出气孔2208、第一冷凝水外排管2209、冷媒型换热器箱2301、第二换热器进气孔2302、第二换热器出气孔2303、第二冷凝水外排管2304、直冷机压缩机2305、直冷机冷凝管2306、直冷机节流阀2307、直冷机蒸发管2308、直冷机冷凝器箱体2309、直冷机进风口2310、直冷机出风口2311和直冷机风机2312、直冷机供水管2313、直冷机回水管2314、左边负压循环管3101、负压循环风机3102、中间负压循环管3103、负压循环控制阀3104、右边负压循环管3105、粮仓7101、仓顶换气管7102、粮情检查门7103、粮仓窗7104、粮仓门7105、遮雨板7106、仓底换气管7107、粮堆顶面7108、仓外空气温度传感器(未标注)。Left vent pipe 41, right vent pipe 42, top pipe temperature and humidity sensor 43, bottom pipe temperature and humidity sensor 44, grain silo top connection pipe 45, grain silo bottom connection pipe 46, outside silo air introduction pipe 81, outside silo air introduction valve 82, Grain pile top temperature and humidity sensor 83, vertical distribution temperature and humidity sensor 84, bottom grain temperature and humidity sensor 85, upper three-way pipe 91, upper feed valve 92, upper return valve 93, lower three-way pipe 94, lower feed Valve 95, lower return valve 96, upper three-way valve 97, lower three-way valve 98, program controller 1001, first inverter 1002, second inverter 1003, natural water body 1101, bottom valve 1102, first cold water supply Pipe 1103, natural cold water pump 1104, natural cold water supply valve 1105, first cold water return pipe 1106, natural cold water return valve 1107, water supply channel 1121, water supply pipe network 1131, ground water 1141, water intake well 1142, recharge well 1143, manual Cold water 1151, artificial cold water tank 1152, second cold water supply pipe 1153, artificial cold water pump 1154, artificial cold water supply valve 1155, second cold water return pipe 1156, intercooler compressor 1157, intercooler condenser 1158, intercooler Machine throttle valve 1159, intercooler evaporator 1160, intercooler condenser box 1161, intercooler air inlet 1162, intercooler air outlet 1163, intercooler fan 1164, artificial cold water temperature sensor 1165, intercooler Machine water supply pipe 1166, intercooler return pipe 1167, fan joint pipe 2101, bidirectional circulation fan 2102, three-way pipe 2121, bypass adjustment valve 2131, bypass pipe 2132, cooling adjustment valve 2141, heat exchanger inlet pipe 2142, Heat exchanger outlet pipe 2143, cold water heat exchanger box 2201, finned tube 2202, water inlet cavity 2203, water outlet cavity 2204, heat exchanger water inlet connector 2205, heat exchanger water outlet connector 2206, first heat exchanger inlet Air hole 2207, first heat exchanger air outlet 2208, first condensate drain pipe 2209, refrigerant heat exchanger box 2301, second heat exchanger air inlet 2302, second heat exchanger air outlet 2303, first Second condensate drain pipe 2304, direct cooler compressor 2305, direct cooler condenser 2306, direct cooler throttle valve 2307, direct cooler evaporator 2308, direct cooler condenser box 2309, direct cooler inlet Air outlet 2310, direct cooler outlet 2311 and direct cooler fan 2312, direct cooler water supply pipe 2313, direct cooler return water pipe 2314, left negative pressure circulation pipe 3101, negative pressure circulation fan 3102, intermediate negative pressure circulation pipe 3103, Negative pressure circulation control valve 3104, right negative pressure circulation pipe 3105, grain silo 7101, silo top vent pipe 7102, grain condition inspection door 7103, grain silo window 7104, grain silo door 7105, rain shield 7106, silo bottom vent pipe 7107, grain pile 7108 on the top surface, outside air temperature sensor (not marked ).
具体实施方式detailed description
本发明所述的“至少一个”应理解为大于等于一个,小于等于n个,n的取值范围由产品大小和本领域技术常识来确定。The “at least one” in the present invention should be understood to be greater than or equal to one and less than or equal to n, and the value range of n is determined by the size of the product and common technical knowledge in the art.
第一实施方式First embodiment
下面结合附图对本发明的具体实施方式进行详细描述。The specific embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail below with reference to the drawings.
图8展示了本发明的一种粮食防霉机的剖视示意图;图9展示了冷水降温总成示意图;图10展示了双向循环风机、降温调节阀、旁通调节阀、冷水降温总成连接图;图11展示了本发明的一种带粮食防霉机的粮仓示意图;从图8到图11可以看出,本发明公开了一种粮食防霉机,其包括程序控制器1001、至少一个变频器(1002、1003)、顶管温湿度传感器43、底管温湿度传感器44、粮堆顶面温湿度传感器83、垂直分布温湿度传感器84、底层粮食温湿度传感器85、仓外空气温度传感器、降温总成、仓外空气引入管81、仓外空气引入阀82、风机接头管2101、双向循环风机2102、三通管2121、旁通调节阀2131、旁通管2132、降温调节阀2141、换热器进气管2142、换热器出气管2143、左边通风管41、右边通风管42、粮仓顶部连接管45、粮仓底部连接管46;所述的风机接头管2101一端与左边通风管41相连通,另一端与双向循环风机2102相连通;所述的三通管2121分别与旁通调节阀2131、降温调节阀2141、双向循环风机2102相连通;所述的旁通调节阀2131一端与三通管2121相连通,另一端旁通管2132相连通;所述的降温调节阀2141一端与三通管2121相连通,另一端与换热器进气管2142 相连通;所述的换热器进气管2142与降温总成的换热器进气孔2207相连通,另一端与降温调节阀2141相连通;所述的换热器出气管2143一端与降温总成的换热器出气孔2208相连通,另一端与右边通风管42相连通;所述的粮仓顶部连接管45与左边通风管41相连通;所述的粮仓底部连接管46与右边通风管42相连通;所述的底管温湿度传感器44安装在右边通风管42上;所述的顶管温湿度传感器43安装在左边通风管41上;所述的仓外空气引入管81安装在右边通风管42上;所述的仓外空气引入阀82安装在仓外空气引入管81上。Fig. 8 shows a schematic cross-sectional view of a grain anti-mildew machine of the present invention; Fig. 9 shows a schematic diagram of a cold water cooling assembly; Fig. 10 shows a connection of a bidirectional circulation fan, a cooling regulating valve, a bypass regulating valve, and a cooling water cooling assembly Figure; Figure 11 shows a schematic view of a grain silo with grain anti-mildew machine of the present invention; as can be seen from Figures 8 to 11, the present invention discloses a grain anti-mildew machine, which includes a program controller 1001, at least one Inverter (1002, 1003), top tube temperature and humidity sensor 43, bottom tube temperature and humidity sensor 44, grain pile top temperature and humidity sensor 83, vertical distribution temperature and humidity sensor 84, bottom grain temperature and humidity sensor 85, outside warehouse temperature sensor , Cooling assembly, outside air inlet pipe 81, outside air inlet valve 82, fan joint pipe 2101, bidirectional circulation fan 2102, three-way pipe 2121, bypass regulating valve 2131, bypass pipe 2132, cooling regulating valve 2141 Heat exchanger inlet pipe 2142, heat exchanger outlet pipe 2143, left vent pipe 41, right vent pipe 42, grain silo top connecting pipe 45, grain silo bottom connecting pipe 46; one end of the fan joint pipe 2101 is connected to the left vent pipe 41 The other end communicates with the two-way circulation fan 2102; the three-way pipe 2121 communicates with the bypass adjustment valve 2131, the cooling adjustment valve 2141, and the two-way circulation fan 2102; one end of the bypass adjustment valve 2131 is connected to the three The through pipe 2121 communicates, and the other end bypass pipe 2132 communicates; one end of the temperature-lowering regulating valve 2141 communicates with the three-way pipe 2121, and the other end communicates with the heat exchanger intake pipe 2142; the heat exchanger inlet The air pipe 2142 communicates with the air inlet 2207 of the heat exchanger of the cooling assembly, and the other end communicates with the temperature regulating valve 2141; one end of the air outlet pipe 2143 of the heat exchanger communicates with the air outlet 2208 of the heat exchanger of the cooling assembly , The other end communicates with the right ventilation pipe 42; the top connection pipe 45 of the granary communicates with the left ventilation pipe 41; the bottom connection pipe 46 of the granary communicates with the right ventilation pipe 42; the temperature and humidity of the bottom pipe The sensor 44 is installed on the right ventilation tube 42; the top tube temperature and humidity sensor 43 is installed on the left ventilation tube 41; the outside air introduction tube 81 is installed on the right ventilation tube 42; the outside air The inlet valve 82 is installed on the air inlet pipe 81 outside the warehouse.
所述的降温总成为冷水降温总成;所述的冷水降温总成包括冷水供回总成、冷水型换热器箱2201、翅片管2202、进水腔2203、出水腔2204、换热器进水接头2205、换热器出水接头2206、第一换热器进气孔2207、第一换热器出气孔2208、第一冷凝水外排管2209;所述的翅片管2202一端与进水腔2203相连通,另一端与出水腔2204相连通;所述的换热器进水接头2205一端与进水腔2203相连通,另一端与冷水供回总成的冷水供水管(1103、1153)相连通;所述的换热器出水接头2206一端与出水腔2204相连通,另一端与冷水供回总成的冷水回水管(1106、1156)相连通;所述的第一换热器进气孔2207、第一换热器出气孔2208开在冷水型换热器箱2201上;所述的第一换热器进气孔2207与换热器进气管2142相连;所述的第一换热器出气孔2208与换热器出气管2143相连;所述的第一冷凝水外排管2209安装在冷水型换热器箱2201上。The cooling assembly becomes a cold water cooling assembly; the cold water cooling assembly includes a cold water supply and return assembly, a cold water heat exchanger box 2201, a finned tube 2202, an inlet chamber 2203, an outlet chamber 2204, and a heat exchanger Water inlet connector 2205, heat exchanger water outlet connector 2206, first heat exchanger inlet 2207, first heat exchanger outlet 2208, first condensate drain 2209; one end of the finned tube 2202 is connected to the inlet The water chamber 2203 is connected, and the other end is connected to the water outlet chamber 2204; the water inlet 2205 of the heat exchanger is connected to the water inlet chamber 2203 at one end, and the other end is connected to the cold water supply pipe (1103, 1153) of the cold water supply assembly. ) Are connected; one end of the heat exchanger water outlet 2206 is connected to the water outlet cavity 2204, and the other end is connected to the cold water return pipe (1106, 1156) of the cold water supply and return assembly; the first heat exchanger enters The air hole 2207 and the first heat exchanger outlet 2208 are opened on the cold water heat exchanger box 2201; the first heat exchanger inlet 2207 is connected to the heat exchanger inlet 2142; the first The air outlet 2208 of the heat exchanger is connected to the air outlet pipe 2143 of the heat exchanger; the first outer condensate drain pipe 2209 is installed on the cold water heat exchanger box 2201.
所述的冷水供回总成为人工冷水供回总成;所述的人工冷水供回总成包括人工冷水1151、人工冷水箱体1152、第二冷水供水管1153、人工冷水泵1154、人工冷水供水阀1155、第二冷水回水管1156、间冷机压缩机1157、间冷机冷凝管1158、间冷机节流阀1159、间冷机蒸发管1160、间冷机冷凝器箱体1161、间冷机进风口1162、间冷机出风口1163、间冷机风机1164、人工冷水温度传感器1165;所述的人工冷水1151装在人工冷水箱体1152中;所述的第二冷水供水管1153一端与人工冷水箱体1152相连通,另一端与换热器进水接头2205相连通;所述的第二冷水回水管1156一端与人工冷水箱体1152相连通,另一端与换热器出水接头2206相连通;所述的人工冷水泵1154安装在第二冷水供水管1153上;所述的间冷机蒸发管1160安装在人工冷水箱体1152内;所述的间冷机冷凝管1158安装在间冷机冷凝器箱体1161内;所述的间冷机压缩机1157一端与间冷 机蒸发管1160相连通,另一端与间冷机冷凝管1158相连通;所述的间冷机节流阀1159一端与间冷机冷凝管1158相连通;另一端与间冷机蒸发管1160相连通;所述的人工冷水温度传感器1165安装在人工冷水箱体1152上。The cold water supply and return assembly becomes an artificial cold water supply and return assembly; the artificial cold water supply and return assembly includes an artificial cold water 1151, an artificial cold water tank 1152, a second cold water supply pipe 1153, an artificial cold water pump 1154, an artificial cold water supply Valve 1155, second cold water return pipe 1156, intercooler compressor 1157, intercooler condenser 1158, intercooler throttle valve 1159, intercooler evaporator 1160, intercooler condenser box 1161, intercooler Machine inlet 1162, intercooler outlet 1163, intercooler fan 1164, artificial cold water temperature sensor 1165; the artificial cold water 1151 is installed in an artificial cold water tank 1152; one end of the second cold water supply pipe 1153 is connected to The artificial cold water tank 1152 is in communication, and the other end is connected to the heat exchanger inlet connector 2205; one end of the second cold water return pipe 1156 is connected to the artificial cold water tank 1152, and the other end is connected to the heat exchanger water outlet 2206 The artificial cold water pump 1154 is installed on the second cold water supply pipe 1153; the intercooler evaporation tube 1160 is installed in the artificial cold water tank 1152; the intercooler condenser pipe 1158 is installed in the intercooler Inside the condenser box 1161; one end of the intercooler compressor 1157 communicates with the intercooler evaporator 1160, and the other end communicates with the intercooler condenser 1158; the intercooler throttle valve 1159 One end communicates with the intercooler condenser tube 1158; the other end communicates with the intercooler evaporation tube 1160; the artificial cold water temperature sensor 1165 is installed on the artificial cold water tank 1152.
下面介绍一下粮食防霉机是如何运行:Here is how to run the grain anti-mildew machine:
1)当年夏季如何运行粮食防霉机1) How to operate the grain anti-mildew machine in the summer
图12展示了采用本发明时夏季正压循环通风过程中粮堆温度分布示意图,从图11-12可以看出,在新烘干的粮食入库当年夏季,采用混合式正压循环通风。首先关闭仓外空气引入阀82,然后启动间冷机压缩机1157和人工冷水泵1154,此时人工冷水1151将先后流经第二冷水供水管1153、人工冷水泵1154、人工冷水供水阀1155、换热器进水接头2205、进水腔2203、翅片管2202、出水腔2204、换热器出水接头2206,最后经过第二冷水回水管1156回到人工冷水箱体1152;最后正向运转双向循环风机2102,此时粮仓空气将先后流经粮仓顶部、仓顶换气管7102、粮仓顶部连接管45、左边通风管41、风机接头管2101、双向循环风机2102、三通管2121;空气进入三通管2121后分两路,一路经过降温调节阀2141、换热器进气管2142、冷水型换热器箱2201、换热器出气管2143、进入右边通风管42;另外一路经过旁通调节阀2131、旁通管2132、进入右边通风管42;空气混合后再流经粮仓底部连接管46、仓底换气管7107、底层粮食、下层粮食、中层粮食、上层粮食、表层粮食、粮仓顶部;值得注意的是,当循环空气经过冷水型换热器箱2201时,空气的温度将下降,空气的相对湿度将上升,空气中的部分水分可能冷凝成液态水,冷凝水从第一冷凝水外排管2209排出,此时换热器出气管2143内的空气相对湿度可能高达95%以上;第一变频器1002可以改变流经双向循环风机2102的流量;第二变频器1003可以改变间冷机压缩机1157的运行频率;进仓空气的温度和相对湿度可以通过调节旁通调节阀2131、降温调节阀2141的开启度来控制。FIG. 12 shows a schematic diagram of the temperature distribution of the grain heap during the summer positive pressure circulation ventilation when the present invention is adopted. As can be seen from FIGS. 11-12, the mixed positive pressure circulation ventilation is used in the summer of the year when freshly dried grain is stored in the warehouse. First close the air inlet valve 82 outside the warehouse, and then start the intercooler compressor 1157 and the artificial cold water pump 1154. At this time, the artificial cold water 1151 will flow through the second cold water supply pipe 1153, the artificial cold water pump 1154, the artificial cold water supply valve 1155, The heat exchanger water inlet connector 2205, water inlet cavity 2203, finned tube 2202, water outlet cavity 2204, heat exchanger water outlet connector 2206, and finally return to the artificial cold water tank 1152 through the second cold water return pipe 1156; Circulation fan 2102, at this time, the granary air will flow through the top of the granary, the top ventilating pipe 7102, the connecting pipe 45 at the top of the granary, the left ventilation pipe 41, the fan joint pipe 2101, the bidirectional circulation fan 2102, the three-way pipe 2121; the air enters the three The through pipe 2121 is divided into two channels, one through the cooling regulating valve 2141, the heat exchanger inlet pipe 2142, the cold water heat exchanger box 2201, the heat exchanger outlet pipe 2143, and the right vent pipe 42; the other one passes the bypass regulating valve 2131, bypass pipe 2132, enter the right vent pipe 42; after mixing, the air flows through the connection pipe 46 at the bottom of the grain silo, the ventilating pipe 7107 at the bottom of the grain silo, the bottom grain, the lower grain, the middle grain, the upper grain, the top grain, the top of the grain silo; worth Note that when the circulating air passes through the cold water heat exchanger box 2201, the temperature of the air will drop, the relative humidity of the air will rise, part of the moisture in the air may condense into liquid water, and the condensate is discharged from the first condensate The tube 2209 is discharged. At this time, the relative humidity of the air in the air outlet tube 2143 of the heat exchanger may be as high as 95% or more; the first frequency converter 1002 can change the flow through the bidirectional circulation fan 2102; the second frequency converter 1003 can change the intercooler compression The operating frequency of the machine 1157; the temperature and relative humidity of the air entering the warehouse can be controlled by adjusting the opening degree of the bypass regulating valve 2131 and the cooling regulating valve 2141.
假如顶管温湿度传感器43测得的出仓空气温度为35℃,出仓空气相对湿度为65%,根据公式(4)可根据公式(4)计算得35℃下空气饱和水分含量为42.4670g/m3;假如天然冷水温度15℃,经过冷水型换热器箱2201后空气温度降到20℃,空气相对湿度升到95%,可根据公式(4)计算得20℃下空气饱和水分含量为17.0343g/m3,相对湿度95%时的空气水分含量为16.1826g/m3;假如流 经双向循环风机2102的流量为10000m3/h时,如果流经旁通调节阀2131的空气流量为5436m3/h,流经降温调节阀2141的空气流量为4564m3/h,则可以计算得进仓空气温度为28.154℃,进仓空气相对湿度等于80%,此时粮食还将生霉;如果流经旁通调节阀2131的空气流量增加到6964m3/h,流经降温调节阀2141的空气流量降到3036m3/h,则可以计算得进仓空气温度为30.446℃,进仓空气相对湿度为75%;如果流经旁通调节阀2131的空气流量增加到8476m3/h,流经降温调节阀2141的空气流量降到1524m3/h,则可以计算得进仓空气温度为32.714℃,进仓空气相对湿度为70%。If the temperature of the outlet air measured by the temperature and humidity sensor 43 of the top tube is 35°C, and the relative humidity of the outlet air is 65%, the saturated moisture content of the air at 35°C is 42.4670g according to the equation (4) and the equation (4) /m3; If the natural cold water temperature is 15℃, the air temperature drops to 20℃ after passing through the cold water heat exchanger box 2201, and the relative humidity of the air rises to 95%. The air saturation moisture content at 20℃ can be calculated according to formula (4) 17.0343g/m3, the air moisture content at a relative humidity of 95% is 16.1826g/m3; if the flow through the bidirectional circulation fan 2102 is 10000m3/h, if the air flow through the bypass regulator 2131 is 5436m3/h , The air flow through the temperature-reducing regulating valve 2141 is 4564m3/h, then it can be calculated that the temperature of the air in the warehouse is 28.154℃, and the relative humidity of the air in the warehouse is equal to 80%. At this time, the food will be moldy; if it flows through the bypass regulator The air flow rate of the valve 2131 increases to 6964m3/h, and the air flow rate through the temperature-lowering regulating valve 2141 drops to 3036m3/h, then it can be calculated that the temperature of the air in the warehouse is 30.446℃, and the relative humidity of the air in the warehouse is 75%; The air flow rate of the bypass regulating valve 2131 is increased to 8476m3/h, and the air flow rate through the temperature-lowering regulating valve 2141 is reduced to 1524m3/h. The temperature of the inlet air is 32.714℃, and the relative humidity of the inlet air is 70%.
基于以上三组数据,我们可以将进仓空气相对湿度设定为75%,还可以将进仓空气相对湿度设定为70%。我们还可以先将进仓空气相对湿度先设定为70%,之后可将进仓空气相对湿度调整为75%。但我们不能先将进仓空气相对湿度先设定为75%,之后再可将进仓空气相对湿度调整为70%。如果刚开始通风时将进仓空气温度相对湿度设置为30.446℃和75%,通风一段时间后将进仓空气相对湿度调整为32.714℃和70%,因为此时入仓空气温度(32.714℃)高于底层粮食温度(30.446℃),则按公式(5)计算出底层粮食的粒间相对湿度将上升到80.37%,此时底层粮食将生霉。Based on the above three sets of data, we can set the relative humidity of the incoming air to 75% and the relative humidity of the incoming air to 70%. We can also first set the relative humidity of the incoming air to 70%, and then adjust the relative humidity of the incoming air to 75%. However, we cannot first set the relative humidity of the incoming air to 75%, and then adjust the relative humidity of the incoming air to 70%. If the relative humidity of the air entering the warehouse is set to 30.446℃ and 75% just after starting ventilation, adjust the relative humidity of the air entering the warehouse to 32.714℃ and 70% after a period of ventilation, because the temperature of the air entering the warehouse (32.714℃) is high at this time At the temperature of the bottom grain (30.446℃), the relative humidity between the grains of the bottom grain will rise to 80.37% according to formula (5), at this time the bottom grain will grow mold.
除了可以按设定进仓空气相对湿度的原则来控制粮食粮食防霉机运行外,还可按设定底层粮食水分的原则来控制粮食防霉机运转,这样有利于降低底层粮食粒间相对湿度,根据公式(6)可以计算出,当进仓空气温度相对湿度分别为32.714℃和70%时,底层粮食的平衡水分为14.09%;如果维持底层粮食水分14.09%不变,则10℃下对应的底层粮食粒间相对湿度为60.75%。In addition to controlling the operation of the grain anti-mildew machine according to the principle of setting the relative humidity of the incoming air, the operation of the grain anti-mold machine can also be controlled according to the principle of setting the moisture of the bottom grain, which is beneficial to reduce the relative humidity between the grains of the bottom layer , According to formula (6), it can be calculated that when the relative humidity of the incoming air temperature is 32.714℃ and 70% respectively, the equilibrium moisture of the bottom grain is 14.09%; if the moisture of the bottom grain is kept 14.09% unchanged, the corresponding at 10℃ The relative humidity between the bottom grains is 60.75%.
从图12可以看出,在夏季,持续的混合式正压循环通风将使底层粮食温度Tb7先下降,然后下层粮食温度Tl7、中层粮食温度Tm7、上层粮食温度Tu7、表层粮食温度Ts7逐渐下降。此时温度分布将呈现“底层粮食温度Tb7<下层粮食温度Tl7<中层粮食Tm7<上层粮食温度Tu7<表层粮食温度Ts7”的状态。与之相反,粒间相对湿度分布将呈现“底层粮食相对湿度RHb7>下层粮食相对湿度RHl7>中层粮食相对湿度RHm7>上层粮食相对湿度Rhu7>表层粮食相对湿度RHs7”的状态。此时只要进仓空气相对湿度Rhb7小于临界生霉相对湿度RHc,则整个粮堆不会生霉。由于粮食防霉机采用了设定进仓空气相对湿度的原则或采 用了设定底层粮食水分的原则来运行粮食防霉机,所以可以确保粮食在夏季不会生霉。As can be seen from Fig. 12, in the summer, continuous mixed positive pressure circulation ventilation will cause the bottom grain temperature Tb7 to drop first, and then the lower grain temperature Tl7, the middle grain temperature Tm7, the upper grain temperature Tu7, and the surface grain temperature Ts7 will gradually decrease. At this time, the temperature distribution will be in the state of “bottom grain temperature Tb7<lower grain temperature Tl7<middle grain Tm7<upper grain temperature Tu7<surface grain temperature Ts7”. On the contrary, the distribution of relative humidity among grains will be in the state of “relative humidity of bottom grain RHb7>relative humidity of lower grain RH17>relative humidity of middle grain RHm7>relative humidity of upper grain Rhu7>relative humidity of top grain RHs7”. At this time, as long as the relative humidity of the air entering the warehouse Rhb7 is less than the critical relative humidity RHc, the entire grain pile will not grow mold. Since the grain anti-mildew machine adopts the principle of setting the relative humidity of the air entering the warehouse or the principle of setting the moisture of the bottom grain to operate the grain anti-mildew machine, it can ensure that the grain will not grow mold in summer.
2)当年秋季如何运行粮食防霉机2) How to run grain anti-mildew machine in autumn
在新烘干的粮食入库当年秋季,可以采用前述的混合式正压循环通风,当条件允许时(要求最小粮食温度比最大仓外空气温度还要大些)可以采用旁通式正压循环通风。In the autumn of the newly dried grain storage, the aforementioned mixed positive pressure circulation ventilation can be used. When conditions permit (the minimum grain temperature is required to be greater than the maximum outside air temperature), the bypass positive pressure circulation can be used. ventilation.
在旁通式正压循环通风过程中,首先关闭降温调节阀2141、仓外空气引入阀82、间冷机压缩机1157和人工冷水泵1154,然后打开旁通调节阀2131,接着正向运转双向循环风机2102,粮仓空气将先后流经粮仓顶部、仓顶换气管7102、粮仓顶部连接管45、左边通风管41、风机接头管2101、双向循环风机2102、三通管2121、旁通调节阀2131、旁通管2132、右边通风管42、粮仓底部连接管46、仓底换气管7107、底层粮食、下层粮食、中层粮食、上层粮食、表层粮食、粮仓顶部。在旁通式正压循环通风过程中,进仓空气温度和相对湿度是通过第一变频器1002来调节双向循环风机2102的转速来实现的。In the bypass-type positive pressure circulation ventilation process, firstly, the temperature-lowering regulating valve 2141, the air intake valve 82 outside the warehouse, the intercooler compressor 1157 and the artificial cold water pump 1154 are closed, then the bypass regulating valve 2131 is opened, and then the forward operation is bidirectional Circulation fan 2102, the granary air will flow through the top of the granary, the ventilating pipe 7102 at the top of the silo, the connecting pipe 45 at the top of the granary, the left vent pipe 41, the fan joint pipe 2101, the bidirectional circulating fan 2102, the three-way pipe 2121, the bypass regulating valve 2131 , Bypass pipe 2132, right vent pipe 42, bottom silo connection pipe 46, silo bottom vent pipe 7107, bottom grain, lower grain, middle grain, upper grain, surface grain, grain silo top. During the bypass positive pressure circulation ventilation process, the temperature and relative humidity of the air entering the warehouse are achieved by the first frequency converter 1002 adjusting the rotation speed of the bidirectional circulation fan 2102.
图13展示了采用本发明时秋季正压循环通风过程中粮堆温度分布示意图,从图13可以看出,在秋季,持续的混合式正压循环通风或旁通式正压循环通风将使底层粮食温度Tb8先下降,然后下层粮食温度Tl8、中层粮食温度Tm8、上层粮食温度Tu8、表层粮食温度Ts8逐渐下降。此时温度分布将呈现“底层粮食温度Tb8<下层粮食温度Tl8<中层粮食Tm8<上层粮食温度Tu8<表层粮食温度Ts8”的状态。与之相反,粒间相对湿度分布将呈现“底层粮食相对湿度RHb8>下层粮食相对湿度RHl8>中层粮食相对湿度RHm8>上层粮食相对湿度Rhu8>表层粮食相对湿度RHs8”的状态。此时只要进仓空气相对湿度Rhbi8小于临界生霉相对湿度RHc,则整个粮堆不会生霉。由于粮食防霉机采用了设定进仓空气相对湿度的原则或采用了设定底层粮食水分的原则来运行粮食防霉机,所以可以确保粮食在秋季不会生霉。FIG. 13 shows a schematic diagram of temperature distribution of the grain pile during the autumn positive pressure circulation ventilation when the present invention is used. As can be seen from FIG. 13, in the autumn, continuous mixed positive pressure circulation ventilation or bypass positive pressure circulation ventilation will make the bottom grain The temperature Tb8 drops first, and then the lower grain temperature Tl8, the middle grain temperature Tm8, the upper grain temperature Tu8, and the surface grain temperature Ts8 gradually decrease. At this time, the temperature distribution will be in the state of "bottom grain temperature Tb8<lower grain temperature Tl8<middle grain Tm8<upper grain temperature T8<surface grain temperature Ts8". On the contrary, the distribution of relative humidity among grains will show the state of “Relative humidity of bottom grain RHb8>Relative humidity of lower grain RH18>Relative humidity of middle grain RHm8>Relative humidity of upper grain Rhu8>Relative humidity of top grain Rhu8>Relative humidity of surface grain RHs8”. At this time, as long as the relative humidity of the air entering the warehouse Rhbi8 is less than the critical relative humidity RHc, the entire grain pile will not grow mold. Since the grain anti-mildew machine adopts the principle of setting the relative humidity of the air entering the warehouse or the principle of setting the moisture of the bottom grain to operate the grain anti-mildew machine, it can ensure that the grain will not grow mold in autumn.
在秋季,持续的混合式正压循环通风或旁通式正压循环通风彻底避免了微气流的形成,而且可以避免仓顶空气结露,所以表层粮食、周围粮食不再生霉;在秋季,持续不断的混合式正压循环通风将使底层粮食温度缓慢下降,这意味着进仓空气温度永远小于底层粮食温度,所以底层粮食不会出现外结露现象,所以 底层粮食不再生霉。In autumn, continuous mixed positive pressure circulation ventilation or bypass positive pressure circulation ventilation completely avoids the formation of micro airflow, and can avoid dew condensation on the top of the silo, so the surface grain and surrounding grain do not regenerate mold; in autumn, continue Continuous mixed positive pressure circulation ventilation will slowly lower the temperature of the bottom grain, which means that the temperature of the air in the warehouse is always lower than the temperature of the bottom grain, so the bottom grain will not have external condensation, so the bottom grain does not regenerate mold.
3)当年冬季如何运行粮食防霉机3) How to run the grain mold proofing machine in winter
在新烘干的粮食入库的当年冬季,由于最大仓外空气温度低于最小粮食温度,所以可以采用旁通式正压循环通风,此时首先关闭降温调节阀2141、仓外空气引入阀82、间冷机压缩机1157和人工冷水泵1154,然后打开旁通调节阀2131,接着正向运转双向循环风机2102,粮仓空气将先后流经粮仓顶部、仓顶换气管7102、粮仓顶部连接管45、左边通风管41、风机接头管2101、双向循环风机2102、三通管2121、旁通调节阀2131、旁通管2132、右边通风管42、粮仓底部连接管46、仓底换气管7107、底层粮食、下层粮食、中层粮食、上层粮食、表层粮食、粮仓顶部。In the winter of the year when the freshly dried grain is stored in the warehouse, since the maximum outside air temperature is lower than the minimum grain temperature, the bypass positive pressure circulation ventilation can be used. At this time, the cooling adjustment valve 2141 is closed first, and the outside air intake valve 82 , Intercooler compressor 1157 and artificial cold water pump 1154, then open the bypass regulating valve 2131, and then run the two-way circulating fan 2102 in the forward direction, the air of the granary will flow through the top of the granary, the ventilating pipe 7102 at the top, and the connecting pipe 45 at the top of the granary , Left vent pipe 41, fan joint pipe 2101, two-way circulation fan 2102, three-way pipe 2121, bypass regulating valve 2131, bypass pipe 2132, right vent pipe 42, grain silo bottom connecting pipe 46, silo bottom vent pipe 7107, bottom layer Grain, lower-layer grain, middle-layer grain, upper-layer grain, surface layer grain, the top of the granary.
图14展示了采用本发明时冬季正压循环通风过程中粮堆温度分布示意图,从图14可以看出,在冬季,持续的旁通式正压循环通风将使底层粮食温度Tb9先下降,然后下层粮食温度Tl9、中层粮食温度Tm9、上层粮食温度Tu9、表层粮食温度Ts9逐渐下降;此时温度分布将呈现“底层粮食温度Tb9<下层粮食温度Tl9<中层粮食Tm9<上层粮食温度Tu9<表层粮食温度Ts9”的状态;与之相反,粒间相对湿度分布将呈现“底层粮食相对湿度RHb9>下层粮食相对湿度RHl9>中层粮食相对湿度RHm9>上层粮食相对湿度RHu9>表层粮食相对湿度RHs9”的状态;此时只要进仓空气相对湿度Rhbi9小于临界生霉相对湿度RHc时,则可避免整个粮堆生霉。由于粮食防霉机采用了设定进仓空气相对湿度的原则或采用了设定底层粮食水分的原则来运行粮食防霉机,所以可以确保粮食在冬季不会生霉。Fig. 14 shows a schematic diagram of the temperature distribution of the grain heap during the positive pressure circulation ventilation in winter when the present invention is adopted. As can be seen from Fig. 14, in the winter, continuous bypass positive pressure circulation ventilation will cause the bottom grain temperature Tb9 to drop first and then the lower layer. Grain temperature Tl9, middle grain temperature Tm9, upper grain temperature Tu9, and surface grain temperature Ts9 gradually decrease; at this time, the temperature distribution will show "bottom grain temperature Tb9<lower grain temperature Tl9<middle grain Tm9<upper grain temperature Tu9<surface grain temperature "Ts9" status; on the contrary, the intergranular relative humidity distribution will show the status of "bottom grain relative humidity RHb9> lower grain relative humidity RH19> middle grain relative humidity RHm9> upper grain relative humidity RHu9> surface grain relative humidity RHs9"; At this time, as long as the relative humidity of the air entering the warehouse Rhbi9 is less than the critical relative humidity RHc, the entire grain heap can be avoided. Since the grain anti-mildew machine adopts the principle of setting the relative humidity of the air entering the warehouse or the principle of setting the moisture of the bottom grain to operate the grain anti-mildew machine, it can ensure that the grain will not grow mold in winter.
冬季持续的旁通式正压循环通风可以防止微气流的形成、可以防止仓顶内侧结露;由于冬季仓外空气并不进入粮仓,进仓空气相对湿度是可以调节的,所以可以防止底层粮食和下层粮食水分过度增加。The continuous bypass positive pressure circulation ventilation in winter can prevent the formation of micro airflow and prevent condensation on the inside of the top of the silo; because the air outside the silo does not enter the grain silo in winter, the relative humidity of the air in the silo can be adjusted, so it can prevent the bottom grain And the excessive moisture of the lower grains increased.
4)来年春季如何运行粮食防霉机4) How to run the grain mold proofing machine in the spring of next year
在新烘干的粮食入库的来年春季,采用负压循环通风,此时首先关闭降温调节阀2141、仓外空气引入阀82、间冷机压缩机1157和人工冷水泵1154;然后反向运转双向循环风机2102,粮仓空气将先后流经表层粮食、上层粮食、中层粮食、下层粮食、底层粮食、仓底换气管7107、粮仓底部连接管46、右边通风管42、 旁通管2132、、旁通调节阀2131、三通管2121、左边通风管41、粮仓顶部连接管45、仓顶换气管7102、粮仓顶部、表层粮食。In the spring of the next year when freshly dried grain is stored in the warehouse, negative pressure circulation ventilation is adopted. At this time, the temperature regulating valve 2141, the air intake valve 82 outside the warehouse, the intercooler compressor 1157 and the artificial cold water pump 1154 are closed; Two-way circulation fan 2102, the grain silo air will flow through surface grain, upper grain, middle grain, lower grain, bottom grain, silo bottom ventilation pipe 7107, grain silo bottom connecting pipe 46, right vent pipe 42, bypass pipe 2132, Through regulating valve 2131, three-way pipe 2121, left vent pipe 41, grain silo top connecting pipe 45, silo top ventilating pipe 7102, grain silo top, surface grain.
从前面的分析和图14可以看出,在切换为负压循环通风前,表层粮食温度Ts9最高,底层粮食温度Tb9最低;图15展示了采用本发明时来年春季负压循环通风过程中粮堆温度分布示意图,从图15可以看出,在春季负压循环通风过程中,我们可以使粮堆顶面空气温度Tgraintop10小于等于负压通风前上层粮食温度Tu9或小于等于负压通风前中层粮食温度Tm9并维持不变,此时表层粮食Ts10和上层粮食温度Tu10将逐渐下降,而下层粮食Tl10和底层粮食温度Tb10逐渐上升,此时粮堆温差将逐渐变小。由于春季负压循环通风巧妙地利用底层粮食和下层粮食的冷能来降低表层粮食和上层粮食的温度,促使表层粮食和上层粮食吸附水分,使粮堆内下行空气中的水分含量变小,从而可巧妙地防止底层粮食和下层粮食生霉,此时当然也可确保表层粮食、上层粮食、中层粮食不生霉。From the previous analysis and Figure 14, it can be seen that before switching to negative pressure circulation ventilation, the surface grain temperature Ts9 is the highest and the bottom grain temperature Tb9 is the lowest; Figure 15 shows the grain heap temperature during the negative pressure circulation ventilation in the spring of the next year when the present invention is adopted Schematic diagram of distribution, as can be seen from Figure 15, in the process of negative pressure circulation ventilation in spring, we can make the top air temperature of the grain pile Tgraintop10 less than or equal to the upper grain temperature before the negative pressure ventilation Tu9 or less than or equal to the middle grain temperature before the negative pressure ventilation Tm9 The temperature of the top grain Ts10 and the temperature of the upper grain Tu10 will gradually decrease, while the temperature of the lower grain Tl10 and the temperature of the bottom grain Tb10 will gradually increase. At this time, the temperature difference of the grain pile will gradually become smaller. Because the negative pressure circulation ventilation in spring skillfully uses the cold energy of the bottom grain and the lower grain to reduce the temperature of the top grain and the upper grain, it promotes the surface grain and the upper grain to absorb moisture, so that the moisture content in the downward air in the grain pile becomes smaller, thus It can cleverly prevent mildew in the bottom grain and the lower grain. Of course, it can also ensure that the surface grain, the upper grain and the middle grain do not grow mold.
在春季,可以通过调节第一变频器1002的频率(来改变双向循环风机2102的转速)来维持粮堆顶面空气温度Tgraintop10不变。当仓外空气温度升高时,需要提高第一变频器1002的频率,当仓外空气温度降低时,需要降低第一变频器1002的频率。In spring, the frequency Tgraintop10 of the top surface of the grain pile can be maintained unchanged by adjusting the frequency of the first inverter 1002 (to change the rotation speed of the bidirectional circulation fan 2102). When the temperature of the air outside the warehouse increases, the frequency of the first frequency converter 1002 needs to be increased, and when the temperature of the air outside the warehouse decreases, the frequency of the first frequency converter 1002 needs to be reduced.
由于春季负压循环通风是持续不断地进行的,粮仓顶部的空气温度温度将基本维持稳定,可以防止仓顶空气热胀冷缩,可以减少或避免仓外空气进入仓内,所以可以避免或减少表层粮食春季结露问题。Since the negative pressure circulation ventilation in spring is carried out continuously, the temperature of the air at the top of the granary will remain basically stable, which can prevent the expansion and contraction of the air at the top of the silo, which can reduce or prevent the air outside the silo from entering the silo, so it can be avoided or reduced Condensation of surface grain in spring.
5)来年早夏如何运行粮食防霉机5) How to run the grain mold proofing machine in early summer next year
在新烘干的粮食入库的来年早夏继续采用负压循环通风,图16展示了采用本发明时来年早夏负压循环通风过程中粮堆温度分布示意图,从图16可以看出,由于仓外空气温度和底层粮食温度不断上升,此时第一变频器1002的频率将逐渐增加。当第一变频器1002的频率达到最大时,如果不能维持粮堆顶面空气温度Tgraintop10不变,则小幅提高粮堆顶面空气温度至Tgraintop11并在一段时间保持不变;随后,当第一变频器1002的频率再次达到最大时,如果仍不能维持粮堆顶面空气温度Tgraintop11不变,则将再次小度提高粮堆顶面空气温度并在一段时间保持不变。In the early summer of the next year when freshly dried grain is stored in the warehouse, the negative pressure circulation ventilation will continue to be used. Figure 16 shows the schematic diagram of the temperature distribution of the grain pile during the early summer negative pressure circulation ventilation of the present invention. The temperature of the outside air and the temperature of the bottom grain continue to rise. At this time, the frequency of the first inverter 1002 will gradually increase. When the frequency of the first frequency converter 1002 reaches the maximum, if the temperature Tgraintop10 of the top surface of the grain pile cannot be maintained unchanged, the temperature of the top air of the grain pile is slightly increased to Tgraintop11 and remains unchanged for a period of time; When the frequency of the device 1002 reaches the maximum again, if the temperature Tgraintop11 of the top surface of the grain pile still cannot be maintained, the temperature of the top surface air of the grain pile will be increased slightly again and remain unchanged for a period of time.
经过春季的负压循环通风,底层粮食的温度已经回升,底层粮食粒间相 对湿度已经下降,底层粮食水分已经下降;这些为来年夏季继续负压循环通风创造了条件,即使夏季粮堆顶面空气温度Tgraintop11缓慢增加,也可防止底层粮食生霉;当然也可以防止下层粮食、中层粮食、上层粮食和表层粮食生霉。After the negative pressure circulation ventilation in spring, the temperature of the bottom grain has risen, the relative humidity between the grains of the bottom grain has dropped, and the moisture of the bottom grain has dropped; these have created conditions for continued negative pressure circulation ventilation in the summer of the following year, even if the top air of the grain pile in summer The temperature Tgraintop11 increases slowly, it can also prevent the mold of the bottom grain; of course, it can also prevent the mold of the lower grain, the middle grain, the upper grain and the surface grain.
实际运行时,可以根据垂直分布温湿度传感器84来检测粮堆内部各层的相对湿度,一旦发现某层粮食粒间相对湿度接近临界生霉相对湿度RHc,则可以提前切换为混合式正压循环通风,以确保底层粮食不生霉。In actual operation, the relative humidity of each layer in the grain pile can be detected according to the vertical distribution temperature and humidity sensor 84. Once the relative humidity between grains of a certain layer is close to the critical relative humidity RHc, it can be switched to a mixed positive pressure cycle in advance Ventilation to ensure that the bottom grain is not moldy.
6)来年盛夏、晚夏如何运行粮食防霉机6) How to operate the grain mildew proof machine in the coming summer and late summer
随着负压循环通风的不断进行,粮食温度将缓慢上升;到了新烘干的粮食入库的来年盛夏或晚夏,只要能满足混合式正压循环通风的条件(要求最小粮食温度比设置的冷水温度还要大一点),则可以从负压循环通风切换为混合式正压循环通风。图17展示了采用本发明时来年晚夏正压循环通风过程中粮堆温度分布示意图,从图17可以看出,持续的混合式正压循环通风将使底层粮食温度Tb12先下降,然后下层粮食温度Tl12、中层粮食温度Tm12、上层粮食温度Tu12、表层粮食温度Ts12逐渐下降。此时温度分布将呈现“底层粮食温度Tb12<下层粮食温度Tl12<中层粮食Tm12<上层粮食温度Tu12<表层粮食温度Ts12”的状态。与之相反,粒间相对湿度分布将呈现“底层粮食相对湿度RHb12>下层粮食相对湿度RHl12>中层粮食相对湿度RHm12>上层粮食相对湿度Rhu12>表层粮食相对湿度RHs12”的状态。此时只要进仓空气相对湿度Rhbi12小于RHc,则整个粮堆不会生霉。由于采用了设定进仓空气相对湿度的原则或采用了设定底层粮食水分的原则来运行粮食防霉机,所以可以确保粮食在来年盛夏和来年晚夏不会生霉。With the continuous development of negative pressure circulation ventilation, the grain temperature will rise slowly; in the next summer or late summer of the newly dried grain storage, as long as it can meet the conditions of mixed positive pressure circulation ventilation (the minimum grain temperature ratio is required to be set The temperature of cold water is a little higher), you can switch from negative pressure circulation ventilation to mixed positive pressure circulation ventilation. Fig. 17 shows the schematic diagram of the temperature distribution of the grain heap during the positive pressure circulation ventilation in the late summer of the next year when the present invention is adopted. As can be seen from Fig. 17, continuous mixed positive pressure circulation ventilation will cause the bottom grain temperature Tb12 to drop first, and then the lower grain temperature Tl12, middle grain temperature Tm12, upper grain temperature Tu12, and surface grain temperature Ts12 gradually decreased. At this time, the temperature distribution will be in the state of "bottom grain temperature Tb12<lower grain temperature Tl12<middle grain Tm12<upper grain temperature Tu12<surface grain temperature Ts12". On the contrary, the distribution of relative humidity among grains will be in the state of "the relative humidity of the bottom grain RHb12>the relative humidity of the lower grain RH12>the relative humidity of the middle grain RHm12>the relative humidity of the upper grain Rhu12>the relative humidity of the top grain RHs12". At this time, as long as the relative humidity of the incoming air Rhbi12 is less than RHc, the whole grain pile will not grow mold. Since the principle of setting the relative humidity of the air entering the warehouse or the principle of setting the moisture of the bottom grain is used to operate the grain anti-mildew machine, it can ensure that the grain will not grow mold in the next summer and the next summer.
7)后续季节如何运行粮食防霉机7) How to operate the grain anti-mildew machine in subsequent seasons
在来年秋季采用混合式正压循环通风,在来年冬季采用旁通式正压循环通风。In the coming autumn, hybrid positive pressure circulation ventilation is adopted, and in the next winter, bypass positive pressure circulation ventilation is adopted.
8)如何根据粮食温度与仓外空气温度相对变化来运转粮食防霉机8) How to operate the grain anti-mildew machine according to the relative change of the grain temperature and the outside air temperature
实际运行时,不但要根据季节的变化,而且要根据粮食温度与仓外空气温度相对变化来运转粮食防霉机:例如,在冬季进行旁通式正压循环通风时,如果仓外空气温度突然大于粮食温度,则可以暂停旁通式正压循环通风直到仓外空气温度小于粮食温度;在秋季进行旁通式正压循环通风时,如果仓外空气温度突然上升,则可以切换为混合式正压循环通风。In actual operation, the grain anti-mildew machine should be operated not only according to the seasonal changes, but also according to the relative change of the grain temperature and the outside air temperature: for example, when the bypass positive pressure circulation ventilation is performed in winter, if the outside air temperature suddenly If the temperature is higher than the grain temperature, the bypass positive pressure circulation ventilation can be suspended until the temperature of the air outside the warehouse is less than the grain temperature; when the bypass positive pressure circulation ventilation is performed in autumn, if the temperature of the outside air suddenly rises, you can switch to a mixed positive Pressure circulation ventilation.
9)如何向粮仓顶部补充氧气9) How to add oxygen to the top of the granary
当有人要进入粮仓时,特别是当粮仓顶部氧气浓度较低时,首先打开仓外空气引入阀82和旁通调节阀2131,然后关闭其他所有阀门,最后启动反向运转双向循环风机2102,仓外空气可立即进入粮仓顶部。When someone wants to enter the granary, especially when the oxygen concentration at the top of the granary is low, first open the air inlet valve 82 and the bypass regulating valve 2131 outside the silo, then close all other valves, and finally start the reverse running bidirectional circulation fan 2102, the silo Outside air can immediately enter the top of the granary.
第二实施方式Second embodiment
图18展示了本发明的粮食防霉机第二实施方式的冷水降温总成示意图,第二实施方式与第一实施方式基本相同,唯一的不同是去掉了间冷机进风口1162、间冷机散热箱体出风口1163、间冷机风机1164,增加了间冷机供水管1166、间冷机回水管1167;所述的间冷机供水管1166、间冷机回水管1167安装在间冷机冷凝器箱体1161上。18 shows a schematic diagram of the cold water cooling assembly of the second embodiment of the grain mildew prevention machine of the present invention. The second embodiment is basically the same as the first embodiment, the only difference is that the air inlet 1162 of the intercooler and the intercooler are removed. The air outlet 1163 of the radiator box, the intercooler fan 1164, the intercooler water supply pipe 1166 and the intercooler return water pipe 1167 are added; the intercooler water supply pipe 1166 and the intercooler return water pipe 1167 are installed in the intercooler On the condenser box 1161.
第三实施方式Third embodiment
图19展示了本发明的粮食防霉机第三实施方式的冷水降温总成示意图,第三实施方式与第一实施方式基本相同,唯一的不同是将人工冷水供回总成换成天然冷水供回总成;所述的天然冷水供回总成包括天然水体1101、底阀1102、第一冷水供水管1103、天然冷水泵1104、天然冷水供水阀1105、第一冷水回水管1106、天然冷水回水阀1107;所述的天然冷水泵1104安装在第一冷水供水管1103上;所述的底阀1102安装在第一冷水供水管1103的下端;所述的天然冷水供水阀1105安装在第一冷水供水管1103上;所述的第一冷水供水管1103一端伸入天然冷水中,另一端与换热器进水接头2205相连通;所述的第一冷水回水管1106一端与换热器出水接头2206相连通,另一端回到天然冷水中;所述的天然冷水取自天然水体1101。FIG. 19 shows a schematic diagram of the cold water cooling assembly of the third embodiment of the grain mildew prevention machine of the present invention. The third embodiment is basically the same as the first embodiment. The only difference is that the artificial cold water supply assembly is replaced with natural cold water supply. Return assembly; the natural cold water supply and return assembly includes natural water body 1101, bottom valve 1102, first cold water supply pipe 1103, natural cold water pump 1104, natural cold water supply valve 1105, first cold water return pipe 1106, natural cold water return Water valve 1107; The natural cold water pump 1104 is installed on the first cold water supply pipe 1103; The bottom valve 1102 is installed on the lower end of the first cold water supply pipe 1103; The natural cold water supply valve 1105 is installed on the first On the cold water supply pipe 1103; one end of the first cold water supply pipe 1103 extends into the natural cold water, and the other end communicates with the heat exchanger inlet 2205; the one end of the first cold water return pipe 1106 communicates with the heat exchanger outlet The connector 2206 is connected, and the other end is returned to the natural cold water; the natural cold water is taken from the natural water body 1101.
第四实施方式Fourth embodiment
图20展示了本发明的粮食防霉机第四实施方式的冷水降温总成示意图,第四实施方式与第三实施方式基本相同,唯一的不同是天然冷水取自供水渠1121。FIG. 20 shows a schematic diagram of the cold water cooling assembly of the fourth embodiment of the grain antifungal machine of the present invention. The fourth embodiment is basically the same as the third embodiment, the only difference is that natural cold water is taken from the water supply channel 1121.
第五实施方式Fifth embodiment
图21展示了本发明的粮食防霉机第五实施方式的冷水降温总成示意图,第五实施方式与第三实施方式基本相同,唯一的不同是天然冷水取自供水管网1131。21 shows a schematic diagram of the cold water cooling assembly of the fifth embodiment of the grain mildew prevention machine of the present invention. The fifth embodiment is basically the same as the third embodiment, the only difference is that natural cold water is taken from the water supply pipe network 1131.
第六实施方式Sixth embodiment
图22展示了本发明的粮食防霉机第六实施方式的冷水降温总成示意图,第六实 施方式与第三实施方式基本相同,唯一的不同是天然冷水取自地下水1141。Fig. 22 shows a schematic diagram of the cold water cooling assembly of the sixth embodiment of the grain antifungal machine of the present invention. The sixth embodiment is basically the same as the third embodiment, the only difference is that natural cold water is taken from groundwater 1141.
第七实施方式Seventh embodiment
图23展示了本发明的粮食防霉机第七实施方式的冷水降温总成示意图,第七实施方式与第三实施方式基本相同,唯一的不同是增加了人工冷水供回总成,即同时拥有天然冷水供回总成和人工冷水供回总成。FIG. 23 shows a schematic diagram of the cold water cooling assembly of the seventh embodiment of the grain antifungal machine of the present invention. The seventh embodiment is basically the same as the third embodiment, the only difference is that an artificial cold water supply and return assembly is added, that is, both Natural cold water supply and return assembly and artificial cold water supply and return assembly.
第八实施方式Eighth embodiment
图24展示了本发明的粮食防霉机第八实施方式示意图;图25展示了本发明的粮食防霉机第八实施方式的冷媒降温总成示意图,第八实施方式与第一实施方式基本相同,唯一不同的是降温总成不同,将冷水降温总成换成了冷媒降温总成;所述的冷媒降温总成包括冷媒型换热器箱2301、第二换热器进气孔2302、第二换热器出气孔2303、第二冷凝水外排管2304、直冷机压缩机2305、直冷机冷凝管2306、直冷机节流阀2307、直冷机蒸发管2308、直冷机冷凝器箱体2309、直冷机进风口2310、直冷机出风口2311和直冷机风机2312;所述的第二冷凝水外排管2304安装在冷媒型换热器箱2301上;所述的直冷机蒸发管2308安装在冷媒型换热器箱2301内;所述的直冷机冷凝管2306安装在直冷机冷凝器箱体2309内;所述的直冷机出风口2311开在直冷机冷凝器箱体2309上;所述的直冷机风机2312安装在直冷机出风口2311上;所述的第二换热器进气孔2302、第二换热器出气孔2303开在冷媒型换热器箱2301上;所述的第二换热器进气孔2302与换热器进气管2142相连通;所述的第二换热器出气孔2303与换热器出气管2143相连通。FIG. 24 shows a schematic diagram of an eighth embodiment of the grain anti-mildew machine of the present invention; FIG. 25 shows a schematic diagram of the refrigerant cooling assembly of the eighth embodiment of the grain anti-mildew machine of the present invention. The eighth embodiment is basically the same as the first embodiment The only difference is that the cooling assembly is different, and the cold water cooling assembly is replaced with a refrigerant cooling assembly; the refrigerant cooling assembly includes a refrigerant-type heat exchanger box 2301, the second heat exchanger inlet 2302, the first Second heat exchanger air outlet 2303, second condensate drain pipe 2304, direct cooler compressor 2305, direct cooler condenser 2306, direct cooler throttle valve 2307, direct cooler evaporator 2308, direct cooler condensate Cabinet 2309, direct cooler air inlet 2310, direct cooler air outlet 2311, and direct cooler fan 2312; the second condensate drain pipe 2304 is installed on the refrigerant heat exchanger box 2301; The direct cooling machine evaporating tube 2308 is installed in the refrigerant heat exchanger box 2301; the direct cooling machine condenser tube 2306 is installed in the direct cooling machine condenser box 2309; the direct cooling machine outlet 2311 is opened in the straight Cooler condenser box 2309; the direct cooler fan 2312 is installed on the direct cooler air outlet 2311; the second heat exchanger inlet 2302 and the second heat exchanger outlet 2303 are opened at The refrigerant-type heat exchanger box 2301; the second heat exchanger inlet 2302 communicates with the heat exchanger inlet 2142; the second heat exchanger outlet 2303 connects to the heat exchanger outlet 2143 through.
第九实施方式Ninth embodiment
图26展示了本发明的粮食防霉机第九实施方式的冷媒降温总成示意图,第九实施方式与第八实施方式基本相同,唯一不同的是去掉了直冷机进风口2310、直冷机出风口2311和直冷机风机2312,增加了直冷机供水管2313和直冷机回水管2314;所述的直冷机供水管2313、直冷机回水管2314安装在直冷机冷凝器箱体2309上。FIG. 26 shows a schematic diagram of the refrigerant cooling assembly of the ninth embodiment of the grain anti-mildew machine of the present invention. The ninth embodiment is basically the same as the eighth embodiment, the only difference is that the air inlet 2310 of the direct cooling machine and the direct cooling machine are removed. The air outlet 2311 and the direct cooler fan 2312 are added with the direct cooler water supply pipe 2313 and the direct cooler return water pipe 2314; the direct cooler water supply pipe 2313 and the direct cooler return water pipe 2314 are installed in the direct cooler condenser box Body 2309.
第十实施方式Tenth embodiment
图27展示了本发明的粮食防霉机的第十实施方式示意图,第十实施方式与第一实施方式基本相同,图27展示的是两台粮食防霉机并联运行时的人工冷水供水 管1153、人工冷水回水管1156的连接情况。FIG. 27 shows a schematic diagram of a tenth embodiment of the grain anti-mildew machine of the present invention. The tenth embodiment is basically the same as the first embodiment. FIG. 27 shows an artificial cold water supply pipe 1153 when two grain anti-mildew machines are operated in parallel. 1. Connection of artificial cold water return pipe 1156.
第十一实施方式Eleventh embodiment
图28展示了本发明的粮食防霉机的第十一实施方式示意图,第十一实施方式与第三实施方式基本相同,图28展示的是两台粮食防霉机并联运行时的第一冷水供水管1103、天然冷水回水管1106的连接情况。FIG. 28 shows a schematic diagram of an eleventh embodiment of the grain mildew prevention machine of the present invention. The eleventh embodiment is basically the same as the third embodiment. FIG. 28 shows the first cold water when two grain mildew prevention machines are operated in parallel. Connection of water supply pipe 1103 and natural cold water return pipe 1106.
第十二实施方式Twelfth embodiment
图29展示了本发明的粮食防霉机的第十二实施方式示意图,第十二实施方式与第一实施方式基本相同,唯一的不同的是去掉了降温调节阀2141,此时三通管2121与换热器进气管2142直接相连,在混合式正压循环通风过程中,只能通过调节旁通调节阀2131来控制进仓空气的温度和相对湿度,此时进仓空气的温度和相对湿度调整调整范围受到了严重限制。FIG. 29 shows a schematic diagram of a twelfth embodiment of the grain mildew prevention machine of the present invention. The twelfth embodiment is basically the same as the first embodiment, the only difference is that the temperature-lowering regulating valve 2141 is removed, and the three-way pipe 2121 It is directly connected to the heat exchanger inlet pipe 2142. In the process of mixed positive pressure circulation ventilation, the temperature and relative humidity of the inlet air can only be controlled by adjusting the bypass regulating valve 2131. At this time, the temperature and relative humidity of the inlet air Adjustment The adjustment range is severely restricted.
第十三实施方式Thirteenth embodiment
图30展示了本发明的粮食防霉机的第十三实施方式示意图,第十三实施方式与第一实施方式基本相同,第十三实施方式是根据第一实施方式的精神实质进行的修改,此时风机接头管2101、旁通管2132、换热器出气管2143的连接位置发生了变化而已。FIG. 30 shows a schematic diagram of a thirteenth embodiment of the grain mildew prevention machine of the present invention. The thirteenth embodiment is basically the same as the first embodiment. The thirteenth embodiment is a modification based on the spirit of the first embodiment. At this time, the connection positions of the fan joint pipe 2101, the bypass pipe 2132, and the heat exchanger air outlet pipe 2143 have changed.
第十四实施方式Fourteenth embodiment
图31展示了本发明的粮食防霉机的第十四实施方式示意图,图32展示了本发明的粮食防霉机的第十四实施方式的负压循环通风驱动总成示意图,第十四实施方式是根据本发明的精神实质进行的修改,只是在第一实施方式的基础上增加了负压循环通风驱动总成;所述的负压循环通风驱动总成包括左边负压循环管3101、负压循环风机3102、中间负压循环管3103、负压循环控制阀3104、右边负压循环管3105;所述负压循环风机3102、中间负压循环管3103和负压循环控制阀3104安装在左边负压循环管3101和右边负压循环管3105之间;所述的左边负压循环管3101与左边通风管41相连通;所述的右边负压循环管3105与旁通管2132或右边通风管42相连通。如果要进行负压循环通风,则先打开负压循环控制阀3104并关闭其他阀门,然后启动负压循环风机3102。FIG. 31 shows a schematic diagram of the fourteenth embodiment of the grain anti-mold machine of the present invention, and FIG. 32 shows a schematic diagram of the negative pressure circulation ventilation drive assembly of the fourteenth embodiment of the grain anti-mold machine of the present invention, the fourteenth implementation The method is a modification based on the spirit of the present invention, but a negative pressure circulation ventilation drive assembly is added on the basis of the first embodiment; the negative pressure circulation ventilation drive assembly includes a left negative pressure circulation pipe 3101, a negative The pressure circulation fan 3102, the intermediate negative pressure circulation pipe 3103, the negative pressure circulation control valve 3104, and the right negative pressure circulation pipe 3105; the negative pressure circulation fan 3102, the intermediate negative pressure circulation pipe 3103, and the negative pressure circulation control valve 3104 are installed on the left Between the negative pressure circulation pipe 3101 and the right negative pressure circulation pipe 3105; the left negative pressure circulation pipe 3101 communicates with the left ventilation pipe 41; the right negative pressure circulation pipe 3105 and the bypass pipe 2132 or the right ventilation pipe 42 connected. If negative-pressure circulation ventilation is to be performed, first open the negative-pressure circulation control valve 3104 and close other valves, and then start the negative-pressure circulation fan 3102.
第十五实施方式Fifteenth embodiment
图33展示了本发明的粮食防霉机的第十五实施方式示意图;图34为左边通风管、 右边通风管与4个阀门、2个三通管连接示意图,第十五实施方式是根据本发明的精神实质进行的修改,只是在第一实施方式的基础上增加了上部三通切换总成和下部三通切换总成;所述的上部三通切换总成包括上部三通管91、上部回气阀93、上部喂气阀92;所述的上部回气阀93、上部喂气阀92与上部三通管91相连通;所述的下部三通切换总成包括下部三通管94、下部回气阀96、下部喂气阀95;所述的下部回气阀96、下部喂气阀95与下部三通管94相连通;所述的上部三通切换总成与左边通风管41的上端、右边通风管42的上端、粮仓顶部连接管45相连通;所述的下部三通切换总成与左边通风管41的下端、右边通风管42的下端、粮仓底部连接管46相连通;此时循环空气换向是通过是通过切换4个阀门来实现的,如果要进行混合式正压循环通风或旁通式正压循环通风,则打开上部喂气阀92和下部回气阀96,并关闭上部回气阀93、下部喂气阀95;如果要进行负压循环通风,则打开上部回气阀93、下部喂气阀95,并关闭上部喂气阀92和下部回气阀96。Figure 33 shows a schematic diagram of the fifteenth embodiment of the grain mildew prevention machine of the present invention; Figure 34 is a schematic diagram of the connection of the left ventilating pipe, the right ventilating pipe and four valves and two three-way pipes. The fifteenth embodiment is based on the present invention. The modification of the spirit of the invention only adds the upper three-way switching assembly and the lower three-way switching assembly on the basis of the first embodiment; the upper three-way switching assembly includes the upper three-way pipe 91, the upper part The return valve 93 and the upper feed valve 92; the upper return valve 93 and the upper feed valve 92 communicate with the upper three-way pipe 91; the lower three-way switching assembly includes a lower three-way pipe 94, The lower return valve 96 and the lower feed valve 95; the lower return valve 96 and the lower feed valve 95 communicate with the lower three-way pipe 94; the upper three-way switching assembly is connected to the left vent pipe 41 The upper end, the upper end of the right vent pipe 42 and the top connection pipe 45 of the granary are in communication; the lower three-way switching assembly is connected to the lower end of the left vent pipe 41, the lower end of the right vent pipe 42 and the bottom connection pipe 46 of the granary; The recirculation of hourly circulating air is achieved by switching 4 valves. If mixed positive pressure circulation ventilation or bypass positive pressure circulation ventilation is to be performed, open the upper feed valve 92 and the lower return valve 96, and Close the upper return valve 93 and the lower feed valve 95; if negative pressure circulation ventilation is to be performed, open the upper return valve 93 and the lower feed valve 95, and close the upper feed valve 92 and the lower return valve 96.
第十六实施方式Sixteenth embodiment
图35展示了本发明的粮食防霉机的第十六实施方式示意图,第十六实施方式是根据本发明的精神实质进行的修改,与第十五实施方式基本相同,只是用上部三通阀97代替了上部三通切换总成,用下部三通阀98代替下部三通切换总成;所述的上部三通阀97与与左边通风管41的上端、右边通风管42的上端、粮仓顶部连接管45相连通;所述的下部三通阀98与左边通风管41的下端、右边通风管42的下端、粮仓底部连接管46相连通;此时循环空气换向是通过切换2个三通阀(上部三通阀97、下部三通阀98)来实现的,如果要进行混合式正压循环通风或旁通式正压循环通风,则旋转上部三通阀97使粮仓顶部连接管45与左边通风管41相连通,旋转下部三通阀98使粮仓底部连接管46与右边通风管42相连通;如果要进行负压循环通风,则旋转上部三通阀97使粮仓顶部连接管45与右边通风管42相连通,旋转下部三通阀98使粮仓底部连接管46与左边通风管41相连通。FIG. 35 shows a schematic diagram of the sixteenth embodiment of the grain mildew prevention machine of the present invention. The sixteenth embodiment is a modification based on the spirit of the present invention, which is basically the same as the fifteenth embodiment except that the upper three-way valve is used 97 replaces the upper three-way switching assembly and replaces the lower three-way switching assembly with a lower three-way valve 98; the upper three-way valve 97 is connected to the upper end of the left vent pipe 41, the upper end of the right vent pipe 42 and the top of the granary The connecting pipe 45 is in communication; the lower three-way valve 98 is in communication with the lower end of the left ventilation pipe 41, the lower end of the right ventilation pipe 42, and the connection pipe 46 at the bottom of the granary; Valve (upper three-way valve 97, lower three-way valve 98) to achieve, if you want to perform mixed positive pressure circulation ventilation or bypass positive pressure circulation ventilation, then rotate the upper three-way valve 97 to connect the top 45 of the granary with the pipe 45 and The left ventilation pipe 41 communicates, and the lower three-way valve 98 rotates the bottom silo connection pipe 46 to the right ventilation pipe 42; if negative pressure circulation ventilation is required, the upper three-way valve 97 rotates to rotate the upper grain silo connection pipe 45 to the right The ventilation pipe 42 is communicated, and the lower three-way valve 98 is rotated to connect the connection pipe 46 at the bottom of the granary to the left ventilation pipe 41.
其它实施方式Other embodiments
本发明所述的“至少一个”,应理解为大于等于一个,小于等于n个,n的取值范围由产品大小和本领域技术常识来确定,可以是1个,可以是100个,也可以 是1~100中的任意数字,从而可构成许多的不同实施方式。应该理解本发明并不局限于上述实施方式,上述优选实施方式仅为示例性的,本领域的技术人员可以根据本发明的精神实质,做出各种等同的修改和替换及不同组合,而得到不同的实施方式。The "at least one" in the present invention should be understood to be greater than or equal to one, and less than or equal to n, and the value range of n is determined by the product size and technical knowledge in the art, and may be one, 100, or It is any number from 1 to 100, which can constitute many different embodiments. It should be understood that the present invention is not limited to the above-mentioned embodiments, the above-mentioned preferred embodiments are merely exemplary, and those skilled in the art can make various equivalent modifications and substitutions and different combinations according to the spirit of the present invention to obtain Different implementations.
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Claims (20)

  1. 一种粮食防霉机,其特征在于包括程序控制器(1001)、至少一个变频器(1002、1003)、顶管温湿度传感器(43),底管温湿度传感器(44)、降温总成、风机接头管(2101)、双向循环风机(2102)、三通管(2121)、旁通调节阀(213)、旁通管(2132)、降温调节阀(2141)、换热器进气管(2142)、换热器出气管(2143)、左边通风管(41)、右边通风管(42)、粮仓顶部连接管(45)和粮仓底部连接管(46);所述的风机接头管(2101)一端与左边通风管(41)相连通,另一端与双向循环风机(2102)相连通;所述的三通管(2121)分别与旁通调节阀(2131)、降温调节阀(2141)、双向循环风机(2102)相连通;所述的旁通调节阀(2131)一端与三通管(2121)相连通,另一端与旁通管(2132)相连通;所述的降温调节阀(2141)一端与三通管(2121)相连通,另一端与换热器进气管(2142)相连通;所述的换热器进气管(2142)一端与降温总成的换热器进气孔(2207、2302)相连通,另一端与降温调节阀(2141)相连通;所述的换热器出气管(2143)一端与降温总成的换热器出气孔(2208、2303)相连通,另一端与右边通风管(42)相连通;所述的粮仓顶部连接管(45)与左边通风管(41)相连通;所述的粮仓底部连接管(46)与右边通风管(42)相连通;所述的底管温湿度传感器(44)安装在右边通风管(42)或粮仓底部连接管(46)上;所述的顶管温湿度传感器(43)安装在左边通风管(41)或粮仓顶部连接管(45)上。A grain anti-mildew machine, characterized by including a program controller (1001), at least one frequency converter (1002, 1003), a top tube temperature and humidity sensor (43), a bottom tube temperature and humidity sensor (44), a cooling assembly, Fan joint pipe (2101), bidirectional circulation fan (2102), three-way pipe (2121), bypass regulating valve (213), bypass pipe (2132), cooling regulating valve (2141), heat exchanger inlet pipe (2142) ), the heat exchanger air outlet pipe (2143), the left vent pipe (41), the right vent pipe (42), the top connection pipe (45) of the granary and the bottom connection pipe (46); the fan joint pipe (2101) One end communicates with the left ventilating pipe (41), and the other end communicates with the two-way circulation fan (2102); the three-way pipe (2121) is respectively connected with the bypass regulating valve (2131), the cooling regulating valve (2141), and the two-way Circulation fan (2102) is connected; one end of the bypass regulating valve (2131) communicates with the three-way pipe (2121), and the other end communicates with the bypass pipe (2132); the temperature-lowering regulating valve (2141) One end communicates with the three-way pipe (2121), and the other end communicates with the heat exchanger inlet pipe (2142); one end of the heat exchanger inlet pipe (2142) is connected to the heat exchanger inlet hole (2207) of the cooling assembly , 2302) is connected, the other end is connected to the cooling regulating valve (2141); one end of the heat exchanger outlet pipe (2143) is connected to the heat exchanger outlet hole (2208, 2303) of the cooling assembly, and the other end It is connected with the right ventilation pipe (42); the top connection pipe (45) of the granary communicates with the left ventilation pipe (41); the bottom connection pipe (46) of the granary communicates with the right ventilation pipe (42); The bottom pipe temperature and humidity sensor (44) is installed on the right ventilation pipe (42) or the bottom connection pipe (46) of the grain silo; the top pipe temperature and humidity sensor (43) is installed on the left ventilation pipe (41) or the grain silo The top connecting pipe (45).
  2. 根据权利要求1所述的一种粮食防霉机,其特征在于,所述的降温总成是冷水降温总成和/或冷媒降温总成。The anti-mildew machine for grain according to claim 1, wherein the cooling assembly is a cold water cooling assembly and/or a refrigerant cooling assembly.
  3. 根据权利要求1或2所述的一种粮食防霉机,其特征在于,所述的冷水降温总成包括冷水供回总成、冷水型换热器箱(2201)、翅片管(2202)、进水腔(2203)、出水腔(2204)、换热器进水接头(2205)、换热器出水接头(2206)、第一换热器进气孔(2207)、第一换热器出气孔(2208)、第一冷凝水外排管(2209);所述的翅片管(2202)一端与进水腔(2203)相连通,另一端与出水腔(2204)相连通;所述的换热器进水接头(2205)一端与进水腔(2203) 相连通,另一端与冷水供回总成的冷水供水管(1103、1153)相连通;所述的换热器出水接头(2206)一端与出水腔(2204)相连通,另一端与冷水供回总成的冷水回水管(1106、1156)相连通;所述的第一换热器进气孔(2207)、第一换热器出气孔(2208)开在冷水型换热器箱(2201)上;所述的第一换热器进气孔(2207)与换热器进气管(2142)相连;所述的第一换热器出气孔(2208)与换热器出气管(2143)相连;所述的第一冷凝水外排管(2209)安装在冷水型换热器箱(2201)上。A grain mildew proof machine according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the cold water cooling assembly includes a cold water supply and return assembly, a cold water heat exchanger box (2201), and a finned tube (2202) , Water inlet cavity (2203), water outlet cavity (2204), heat exchanger water inlet connector (2205), heat exchanger water outlet connector (2206), first heat exchanger air inlet (2207), first heat exchanger The air outlet (2208) and the first condensate drain pipe (2209); one end of the finned tube (2202) communicates with the water inlet cavity (2203), and the other end communicates with the water outlet cavity (2204); One end of the heat exchanger water inlet connector (2205) is connected to the water inlet cavity (2203), and the other end is connected to the cold water supply pipe (1103, 1153) of the cold water supply assembly; 2206) One end communicates with the outlet chamber (2204), and the other end communicates with the cold water return pipe (1106, 1156) of the cold water supply assembly; the first heat exchanger inlet (2207), the first exchange The air outlet (2208) of the heat exchanger is opened on the cold water heat exchanger box (2201); the air inlet (2207) of the first heat exchanger is connected to the air inlet pipe (2142) of the heat exchanger; the first The heat exchanger air outlet hole (2208) is connected to the heat exchanger air outlet pipe (2143); the first condensate water outlet pipe (2209) is installed on the cold water heat exchanger box (2201).
  4. 根据权利要求3所述的一种粮食防霉机,其特征在于,所述的冷水供回总成是人工冷水供回总成和/或天然冷水供回总成。The anti-mildew grain machine of claim 3, wherein the cold water supply and return assembly is an artificial cold water supply and return assembly and/or a natural cold water supply and return assembly.
  5. 根据权利要求3或4所述的一种粮食防霉机,其特征在于,所述的人工冷水供回总成包括人工冷水(1151)、人工冷水箱体(1152)、第二冷水供水管(1153)、人工冷水泵(1154)、人工冷水供水阀(1155)、第二冷水回水管(1156)、间冷机压缩机(1157)、间冷机冷凝管(1158)、间冷机节流阀(1159)、间冷机蒸发管(1160)、间冷机冷凝器箱体(1161)、间冷机进风口(1162)、间冷机出风口(1163)、间冷机风机(1164)、人工冷水温度传感器(1165);所述的人工冷水(1151)装在人工冷水箱体(1152)中;所述的第二冷水供水管(1153)一端与人工冷水箱体(1152)相连通,另一端与换热器进水接头(2205)相连通;所述的第二冷水回水管(1156)一端与人工冷水箱体(1152)相连通,另一端与换热器出水接头(2206)相连通;所述的人工冷水泵(1154)安装在第二冷水供水管(1153)上;所述的间冷机蒸发管(1160)安装在人工冷水箱体(1152)内;所述的间冷机冷凝管(1158)安装在间冷机冷凝器箱体(1161)内;所述的间冷机压缩机(1157)一端与间冷机蒸发管(1160)相连通,另一端与间冷机冷凝管(1158)相连通;所述的间冷机节流阀(1159)一端与间冷机冷凝管(1158)相连通;另一端与间冷机蒸发管(1160)相连通;所述的人工冷水温度传感器(1165)安装在人工冷水箱体(1152)上。The anti-mildew machine for grain according to claim 3 or 4, wherein the artificial cold water supply and return assembly includes an artificial cold water (1151), an artificial cold water tank (1152), and a second cold water supply pipe ( 1153), artificial cold water pump (1154), artificial cold water supply valve (1155), second cold water return pipe (1156), intercooler compressor (1157), intercooler condenser tube (1158), intercooler throttling Valve (1159), intercooler evaporator (1160), intercooler condenser box (1161), intercooler air inlet (1162), intercooler air outlet (1163), intercooler fan (1164) 1. An artificial cold water temperature sensor (1165); the artificial cold water (1151) is installed in an artificial cold water tank (1152); one end of the second cold water supply pipe (1153) communicates with the artificial cold water tank (1152) , The other end is connected to the heat exchanger inlet connector (2205); one end of the second cold water return pipe (1156) is connected to the artificial cold water tank (1152), and the other end is connected to the heat exchanger outlet connector (2206) Connected; the artificial cold water pump (1154) is installed on the second cold water supply pipe (1153); the intercooler evaporation tube (1160) is installed in the artificial cold water tank (1152); the space The chiller condenser tube (1158) is installed in the intercooler condenser box (1161); one end of the intercooler compressor (1157) communicates with the intercooler evaporator tube (1160), and the other end is connected with the intercooler The condenser tube (1158) is in communication; one end of the throttle valve (1159) of the intercooler is connected to the condenser tube (1158) of the intercooler; the other end is connected to the evaporation tube (1160) of the intercooler; The artificial cold water temperature sensor (1165) is installed on the artificial cold water tank (1152).
  6. 根据权利要求5所述的一种粮食防霉机,其特征在于,所述的人工冷水供回总成还包括间冷机供水管(1166)、间冷机回水管(1167);所述的间冷机供水管(1166)、间冷机回水管(1167)安装在间冷机冷凝器箱体(1161)上。A grain mildew proof machine according to claim 5, characterized in that the artificial cold water supply and return assembly further comprises an intercooler water supply pipe (1166) and an intercooler water return pipe (1167); The intercooler water supply pipe (1166) and the intercooler return water pipe (1167) are installed on the intercooler condenser box (1161).
  7. 根据权利要求3或4所述的一种粮食防霉机,其特征在于,所述的天然冷水供回总成包括天然冷水、底阀(1102)、第一冷水供水管(1103)、天然冷水 泵(1104)、天然冷水供水阀(1105)、第一冷水回水管(1106)、天然冷水回水阀(1107);所述的天然冷水泵(1104)安装在第一冷水供水管(1103)上;所述的底阀(1102)安装在第一冷水供水管(1103)的下端;所述的天然冷水供水阀(1105)安装在第一冷水供水管(1103)上;所述的第一冷水供水管(1103)一端伸入天然冷水中,另一端与换热器进水接头(2205)相连通;所述的第一冷水回水管(1106)一端与换热器出水接头(2206)相连通,另一端回到天然冷水中。A grain mildew proof machine according to claim 3 or 4, wherein the natural cold water supply and return assembly includes natural cold water, a bottom valve (1102), a first cold water supply pipe (1103), natural cold Water pump (1104), natural cold water supply valve (1105), first cold water return pipe (1106), natural cold water return valve (1107); the natural cold water pump (1104) is installed in the first cold water supply pipe (1103) The bottom valve (1102) is installed at the lower end of the first cold water supply pipe (1103); the natural cold water supply valve (1105) is installed at the first cold water supply pipe (1103); the first One end of the cold water supply pipe (1103) extends into natural cold water, and the other end communicates with the heat exchanger inlet connector (2205); one end of the first cold water return pipe (1106) is connected to the heat exchanger outlet connector (2206) Pass, the other end returns to the natural cold water.
  8. 根据权利要求7所述的一种粮食防霉机,其特征在于,所述的天然冷水取自天然水体(1101)和/或供水渠(1121)和/或供水管网(1131)和/或地下水(1141)。A grain mildew proof machine according to claim 7, characterized in that the natural cold water is taken from a natural water body (1101) and/or a water supply channel (1121) and/or a water supply pipe network (1131) and/or Groundwater (1141).
  9. 根据权利要求1或2所述的一种粮食防霉机,其特征在于,所述的冷媒降温总成包括冷媒型换热器箱(2301)、第二换热器进气孔(2302)、第二换热器出气孔(2303)、第二冷凝水外排管(2304)、直冷机压缩机(2305)、直冷机冷凝管(2306)、直冷机节流阀(2307)、直冷机蒸发管(2308)、直冷机冷凝器箱体(2309)、直冷机进风口(2310)、直冷机出风口(2311)和直冷机风机(2312);所述的第二冷凝水外排管(2304)安装在冷媒型换热器箱(2301)上;所述的直冷机蒸发管(2308)安装在冷媒型换热器箱(2301)内;所述的直冷机冷凝管(2306)安装在直冷机冷凝器箱体(2309)内;所述的直冷机出风口(2311)开在直冷机冷凝器箱体(2309)上;所述的直冷机风机(2312)安装在直冷机出风口(2311)上;所述的第二换热器进气孔(2302)、第二换热器出气孔(2303)开在冷媒型换热器箱(2301)上;所述的第二换热器进气孔(2302)与换热器进气管(2142)相连通;所述的第二换热器出气孔(2303)与换热器出气管(2143)相连通。A grain mildew proof machine according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the refrigerant cooling assembly includes a refrigerant-type heat exchanger box (2301), a second heat exchanger inlet (2302), The second heat exchanger air outlet (2303), the second condensate drain pipe (2304), the direct cooler compressor (2305), the direct cooler condenser (2306), the direct cooler throttle valve (2307), Direct cooling machine evaporator tube (2308), direct cooling machine condenser box (2309), direct cooling machine air inlet (2310), direct cooling machine air outlet (2311) and direct cooling machine fan (2312); The second condensate drain pipe (2304) is installed on the refrigerant heat exchanger box (2301); the direct cooling machine evaporation tube (2308) is installed in the refrigerant heat exchanger box (2301); the straight The cooler condenser tube (2306) is installed in the direct cooler condenser box (2309); the direct cooler air outlet (2311) is opened on the direct cooler condenser box (2309); the straight The cooler fan (2312) is installed on the direct cooler air outlet (2311); the second heat exchanger air inlet (2302) and the second heat exchanger air outlet (2303) are opened in the refrigerant heat exchanger Tank (2301); the second heat exchanger inlet (2302) communicates with the heat exchanger inlet (2142); the second heat exchanger outlet (2303) communicates with the heat exchanger The trachea (2143) is in communication.
  10. 根据权利要求9所述的一种粮食防霉机,其特征在于,所述的冷媒降温总成还包括直冷机供水管(2313)、直冷机回水管(2314);所述的直冷机供水管(2313)、直冷机回水管(2314)安装在直冷机冷凝器箱体(2309)上。A grain mildew proof machine according to claim 9, characterized in that the refrigerant cooling assembly further comprises a direct cooling machine water supply pipe (2313) and a direct cooling machine return water pipe (2314); the direct cooling The machine water supply pipe (2313) and the direct cooler return water pipe (2314) are installed on the direct cooler condenser box (2309).
  11. 根据权利要求1所述的一种粮食防霉机,其特征在于,所述的粮食防霉机还包括仓外空气引入管(81)、仓外空气引入阀(82);所述的仓外空气引入管(81)安装在右边通风管(42)或粮仓底部连接管(46)上;所述的仓外空气引入阀(82)安装在仓外空气引入管(81)上。The grain anti-mildew machine according to claim 1, characterized in that the grain anti-mildew machine further comprises an outside air inlet pipe (81), an outside air inlet valve (82); the outside of the warehouse The air introduction pipe (81) is installed on the right ventilation pipe (42) or the connection pipe (46) at the bottom of the granary; the outside air introduction valve (82) is installed on the outside air introduction pipe (81).
  12. 根据权利要求1所述的一种粮食防霉机,其特征在于,所述的一种粮食防 霉机还包括粮堆顶面温湿度传感器(83)、垂直分布温湿度传感器(84)、底层粮食温湿度传感器(85)、仓外空气温度传感器;所述的粮堆顶面温湿度传感器(83)放置在粮堆顶面上;所述的垂直分布温湿度传感器(84)垂直安装在粮堆内;所述的底层粮食温湿度传感器(85)安装在粮堆底部;所述的仓外空气温度传感器安装在粮仓外部;所述的粮堆顶面温湿度传感器(83)、垂直分布温湿度传感器(84)、底层粮食温湿度传感器(85)、仓外空气温度传感器与程序控制器(1001)相连。The grain anti-mildew machine according to claim 1, wherein the grain anti-mildew machine further comprises a temperature and humidity sensor (83) on the top surface of the grain pile, a vertically distributed temperature and humidity sensor (84), and a bottom layer The grain temperature and humidity sensor (85) and the air temperature sensor outside the silo; the temperature and humidity sensor (83) on the top surface of the grain pile is placed on the top surface of the grain pile; the vertical distribution temperature and humidity sensor (84) is installed vertically on the grain Inside the pile; the bottom grain temperature and humidity sensor (85) is installed at the bottom of the grain pile; the outside air temperature sensor is installed outside the grain silo; the top temperature and humidity sensor (83) of the grain pile, the vertical distribution temperature The humidity sensor (84), the bottom grain temperature and humidity sensor (85), and the air temperature sensor outside the warehouse are connected to the program controller (1001).
  13. 根据权利要求1所述的一种粮食防霉机,其特征在于,所述的一种粮食防霉机还包括负压循环通风驱动总成;所述的负压循环通风驱动总成包括左边负压循环管(3101)、负压循环风机(3102)、中间负压循环管(3103)、负压循环控制阀(3104)、右边负压循环管(3105);所述负压循环风机(3102)、中间负压循环管(3103)、负压循环控制阀(3104)安装在左边负压循环管(3101)和右边负压循环管(3105)之间;所述的左边负压循环管(3101)与左边通风管(41)相连通;所述的右边负压循环管(3105)与旁通管(2132)或右边通风管(42)相连通。The grain anti-mildew machine according to claim 1, wherein the grain anti-mildew machine further comprises a negative pressure circulation ventilation drive assembly; the negative pressure circulation ventilation drive assembly includes a left negative Pressure circulation pipe (3101), negative pressure circulation fan (3102), intermediate negative pressure circulation pipe (3103), negative pressure circulation control valve (3104), right negative pressure circulation pipe (3105); the negative pressure circulation fan (3102) ), the intermediate negative pressure circulation pipe (3103), the negative pressure circulation control valve (3104) are installed between the left negative pressure circulation pipe (3101) and the right negative pressure circulation pipe (3105); the left negative pressure circulation pipe ( 3101) communicates with the left ventilation tube (41); the right negative pressure circulation tube (3105) communicates with the bypass tube (2132) or the right ventilation tube (42).
  14. 根据权利要求1所述的一种粮食防霉机,其特征在于,所述的一种粮食防霉机还包括上部三通切换总成和下部三通切换总成;所述的上部三通切换总成包括上部三通管(91)、上部回气阀(93)和上部喂气阀(92);所述的上部回气阀(93)、上部喂气阀(92)与上部三通管(91)相连通;所述的下部三通切换总成包括下部三通管(94)、下部回气阀(96)和下部喂气阀(95);所述的下部回气阀(96)、下部喂气阀(95)与下部三通管(94)相连通;所述的上部三通切换总成与左边通风管(41)的上端、右边通风管(42)的上端、粮仓顶部连接管(45)相连通;所述的下部三通切换总成与左边通风管(41)的下端、右边通风管(42)的下端、粮仓底部连接管(46)相连通;The grain anti-mildew machine according to claim 1, wherein the grain anti-mildew machine further comprises an upper three-way switching assembly and a lower three-way switching assembly; the upper three-way switching The assembly includes an upper three-way pipe (91), an upper return valve (93) and an upper feed valve (92); the upper return valve (93), the upper feed valve (92) and the upper three-way pipe (91) Communicating; the lower three-way switching assembly includes a lower three-way pipe (94), a lower return valve (96) and a lower feed valve (95); the lower return valve (96) 1. The lower feeding valve (95) communicates with the lower three-way pipe (94); the upper three-way switching assembly is connected to the upper end of the left ventilation pipe (41), the upper end of the right ventilation pipe (42), and the top of the grain silo The tubes (45) are in communication; the lower three-way switching assembly is in communication with the lower end of the left ventilation tube (41), the lower end of the right ventilation tube (42), and the connection tube (46) at the bottom of the granary;
  15. 根据权利要求1所述的一种粮食防霉机,其特征在于,所述的一种粮食防霉机还包括上部三通阀(97)和下部三通阀(98);所述的上部三通阀(97)与与左边通风管(41)的上端、右边通风管(42)的上端、粮仓顶部连接管(45)相连通;所述的下部三通阀(98)与左边通风管(41)的下端、右边通风管(42)的下端、粮仓底部连接管(46)相连通。The grain anti-mildew machine according to claim 1, wherein the grain anti-mildew machine further comprises an upper three-way valve (97) and a lower three-way valve (98); the upper three The through valve (97) communicates with the upper end of the left vent pipe (41), the upper end of the right vent pipe (42), and the top connection pipe (45) of the granary; the lower three-way valve (98) and the left vent pipe (98) The lower end of 41), the lower end of the right vent pipe (42), and the connecting pipe (46) at the bottom of the granary are in communication.
  16. 一种粮仓,其特征在于包括权利要求1-15所述的粮食防霉机。A grain silo, characterized by comprising the grain anti-mildew machine according to claims 1-15.
  17. 一种粮食防霉方法,其包括:在新烘干的粮食入库的当年夏季采用混合式 正压循环通风;在新烘干的粮食入库的当年秋季采用混合式正压循环通风或旁通式正压循环通风;在新烘干的粮食入库的当年冬季采用旁通式正压循环通风;在新烘干的粮食入库的来年春季采用负压循环通风;在新烘干的粮食入库的来年早夏采用负压循环通风;在新烘干的粮食入库的来年晚夏采用混合式正压循环通风;在新烘干的粮食入库的来年秋季采用混合式正压循环通风;在新烘干的粮食入库的来年冬季采用旁通式正压循环通风;在冬季进行旁通式正压循环通风时,如果仓外空气温度突然大于粮食温度,则可以暂停旁通式正压循环通风直到仓外空气温度小于粮食温度;在春季进行负压循环通风时,如果仓外空气温度突然小于粮食温度,则可以暂停负压循环通风直到仓外空气温度大于粮食温度。A method for preventing mildew of grains, which comprises: using mixed positive pressure circulation ventilation in the summer of the freshly dried grain storage in the summer; using mixed positive pressure circulation ventilation or bypass in the autumn of the freshly dried grain storage in the autumn Positive pressure circulation ventilation; adopt the bypass-type positive pressure circulation ventilation in the winter of the freshly dried grain storage in the current year; adopt negative pressure circulation ventilation in the spring of the newly dried grain storage in the coming year; The warehouse will adopt negative pressure circulation ventilation in the early summer of the next year; the mixed positive pressure circulation ventilation will be adopted in the late summer of the freshly dried grain storage in the coming summer; the mixed positive pressure circulation ventilation will be adopted in the autumn of the freshly dried grain storage in the coming year; In the winter of the next year when freshly dried grain is stored in the warehouse, bypass-type positive pressure circulation ventilation is used in winter; when the bypass-type positive pressure circulation ventilation is performed in winter, if the air temperature outside the warehouse is suddenly greater than the grain temperature, the bypass-type positive pressure can be suspended Circulate ventilation until the temperature of the air outside the silo is less than the temperature of the grain; when negative pressure circulation ventilation is performed in the spring, if the temperature of the air outside the silo is suddenly less than the temperature of the grain, the negative pressure circulation ventilation can be suspended until the temperature of the air outside the silo is greater than the temperature of the grain.
  18. 根据权利要求17所述的一种粮食防霉方法,其特征在于,所述的混合式正压循环通风是在循环风机的驱动下,从粮仓顶部出来的空气经过粮仓顶部连接管(45)进入粮食防霉机后分成两部分,一部分空气流经降温调节阀(2141)和冷水型换热器箱(2201)或冷媒型换热器箱(2301),另外一部分空气流经旁通调节阀(2131)和旁通管(2132),两部分空气混合后经过粮仓底部连接管(46)进入粮仓底部;在所述的混合式正压循环通风过程中,进入粮仓底部的空气温度和相对湿度通过调节降温调节阀(2141)和旁通调节阀(2131)的开启度来控制。The anti-mildew method for grain according to claim 17, characterized in that the mixed positive pressure circulation ventilation is driven by a circulation fan, and the air from the top of the granary enters through the connecting pipe (45) at the top of the granary The grain anti-mildew machine is divided into two parts, a part of the air flows through the cooling regulating valve (2141) and the cold water type heat exchanger box (2201) or the refrigerant type heat exchanger box (2301), and the other part of the air flows through the bypass regulating valve ( 2131) and a bypass pipe (2132), after the two parts of the air are mixed, they enter the bottom of the granary through the connecting pipe (46) at the bottom of the granary; in the process of mixed positive pressure circulation ventilation, the temperature and relative humidity of the air entering the bottom of the granary pass It is controlled by adjusting the opening degrees of the temperature reducing regulating valve (2141) and the bypass regulating valve (2131).
  19. 根据权利要求17所述的一种粮食防霉方法,其特征在于,所述的旁通式正压循环通风是在循环风机的驱动下,从粮仓顶部出来的空气经过粮仓顶部连接管(45)进入粮食防霉机后直接流经旁通调节阀(2131)和旁通管(2132),然后经过粮仓底部连接管(46)进入粮仓底部;在所述的旁通式正压循环通风过程中,进入粮仓底部的空气温度和相对湿度通过第一变频器(1002)调整循环风机转速来控制。The anti-mildew method for grain according to claim 17, characterized in that the bypass positive pressure circulation ventilation is driven by a circulating fan, and the air from the top of the granary passes through the connecting pipe (45) at the top of the granary After entering the grain anti-mildew machine, it directly flows through the bypass regulating valve (2131) and the bypass pipe (2132), and then enters the bottom of the grain silo through the connection pipe (46) at the bottom of the grain silo; The temperature and relative humidity of the air entering the bottom of the granary are controlled by the first inverter (1002) adjusting the speed of the circulating fan.
  20. 根据权利要求17所述的一种粮食防霉方法,其特征在于,所述的负压循环通风是在循环风机的驱动下,从粮堆底部出来的空气经过粮仓底部连接管46进入粮食防霉机后直接流经旁通调节阀(2131)和旁通管(2132),然后经过经过粮仓顶部连接管(45)进入粮仓顶部;在所述的负压循环通风过程中,进入粮堆顶部的空气温度通过第一变频器(1002)调整循环风机转速来控制。The anti-mildew method for grain according to claim 17, characterized in that the negative pressure circulation ventilation is driven by a circulating fan, and the air from the bottom of the grain pile enters the anti-mildew grain through the connecting pipe 46 at the bottom of the grain silo After the machine, it directly flows through the bypass regulating valve (2131) and the bypass pipe (2132), and then passes through the connection pipe (45) at the top of the grain silo to enter the top of the grain silo; The air temperature is controlled by the first frequency converter (1002) adjusting the speed of the circulating fan.
PCT/CN2019/084964 2019-01-03 2019-04-29 Grain mold prevention method, grain mold prevention machine, and granary provided with grain mold prevention machine WO2020140355A1 (en)

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Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102788399A (en) * 2012-08-17 2012-11-21 湖南粮食集团有限责任公司 Grain humidification system for warehouse
CN108353648A (en) * 2018-02-11 2018-08-03 成都朗博旺科技发展有限公司 A kind of multi-mode grain heap cooling system and silo for silo
CN208012179U (en) * 2018-01-24 2018-10-26 北京卡林新能源技术有限公司 A kind of double low-temperature receiver movable type grain heap cooling drying units
CN108954577A (en) * 2018-08-01 2018-12-07 南昌大学 Based on the solar building integrated grain depot ventilation dehumidifying equipment with solution dehumidification
CN109511387A (en) * 2019-01-03 2019-03-26 凌建军 A kind of grain mold proof method and grain mold proof machine and the silo with grain mold proof machine

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102788399A (en) * 2012-08-17 2012-11-21 湖南粮食集团有限责任公司 Grain humidification system for warehouse
CN208012179U (en) * 2018-01-24 2018-10-26 北京卡林新能源技术有限公司 A kind of double low-temperature receiver movable type grain heap cooling drying units
CN108353648A (en) * 2018-02-11 2018-08-03 成都朗博旺科技发展有限公司 A kind of multi-mode grain heap cooling system and silo for silo
CN108954577A (en) * 2018-08-01 2018-12-07 南昌大学 Based on the solar building integrated grain depot ventilation dehumidifying equipment with solution dehumidification
CN109511387A (en) * 2019-01-03 2019-03-26 凌建军 A kind of grain mold proof method and grain mold proof machine and the silo with grain mold proof machine

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