WO2020113684A1 - Vertical waste treatment furnace, and waste treatment system and method - Google Patents

Vertical waste treatment furnace, and waste treatment system and method Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2020113684A1
WO2020113684A1 PCT/CN2018/121918 CN2018121918W WO2020113684A1 WO 2020113684 A1 WO2020113684 A1 WO 2020113684A1 CN 2018121918 W CN2018121918 W CN 2018121918W WO 2020113684 A1 WO2020113684 A1 WO 2020113684A1
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Prior art keywords
grate
furnace
waste treatment
cylinder
bevel gear
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PCT/CN2018/121918
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French (fr)
Chinese (zh)
Inventor
舒小明
舒畅
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舒小明
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Priority to CN201811489424.3A priority Critical patent/CN109373328B/en
Priority to CN201811489424.3 priority
Application filed by 舒小明 filed Critical 舒小明
Publication of WO2020113684A1 publication Critical patent/WO2020113684A1/en

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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G5/00Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor
    • F23G5/08Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor having supplementary heating
    • F23G5/14Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor having supplementary heating including secondary combustion
    • F23G5/16Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor having supplementary heating including secondary combustion in a separate combustion chamber
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G5/00Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor
    • F23G5/32Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor the waste being subjected to a whirling movement, e.g. cyclonic incinerators
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23JREMOVAL OR TREATMENT OF COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OR COMBUSTION RESIDUES; FLUES 
    • F23J15/00Arrangements of devices for treating smoke or fumes
    • F23J15/02Arrangements of devices for treating smoke or fumes of purifiers, e.g. for removing noxious material
    • F23J15/04Arrangements of devices for treating smoke or fumes of purifiers, e.g. for removing noxious material using washing fluids
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G2202/00Combustion
    • F23G2202/10Combustion in two or more stages
    • F23G2202/103Combustion in two or more stages in separate chambers
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23JREMOVAL OR TREATMENT OF COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OR COMBUSTION RESIDUES; FLUES 
    • F23J2217/00Intercepting solids
    • F23J2217/50Intercepting solids by cleaning fluids (washers or scrubbers)

Abstract

Disclosed are a vertical waste treatment furnace, and a waste treatment system and method. The vertical waste treatment furnace comprises a furnace cover (300), a furnace body (200) and a furnace base (100). The furnace cover (300) is fixed on a support and is provided with a feeding bin (301). An upper end of the furnace body (200) is movably connected with the furnace cover (300) in a rotating manner, and a lower end thereof is fixedly connected with the furnace base (100). A rotary fire grate (110) is arranged in the furnace base (100). A flue gas treatment device is further arranged on the furnace cover (300), with a first separation device being arranged between the flue gas treatment device and the furnace body (200). The first separation device comprises a first separation plate (201), a flue body (202) and a baffle plate (203), wherein the first separation plate (201) is provided with a through hole (204) used for allowing flue gas of a vaporizing chamber to pass through, the flue body (202) is arranged on an upper surface of the first separation plate (201) and surrounds the periphery of the through hole (204), the baffle plate (203) is arranged at an upper end of the flue body (202), and an exhaust port is formed on the flue body (202). The vertical waste treatment furnace and the waste treatment system occupy a small amount of area and are low in cost, and the waste treatment efficiency of the treatment method is high.

Description

一种立式废物处理炉、废物处理系统和方法Vertical waste treatment furnace, waste treatment system and method
相关申请的交叉引用Cross-reference of related applications
本发明要求于2018年12月06日向中国国家知识产权局提交的中国发明专利申请CN2018114894243的优先权,其全部内容通过引用结合于本发明。The present invention requires the priority of the Chinese invention patent application CN2018114894243 submitted to the State Intellectual Property Office of China on December 06, 2018, the entire content of which is incorporated by reference into the present invention.
技术领域Technical field
本发明涉及一种立式废物处理炉、废物处理系统和方法,属于废物处理技术领域。The invention relates to a vertical waste treatment furnace, waste treatment system and method, and belongs to the technical field of waste treatment.
背景技术Background technique
专利号为ZL2017203491659的中国实用新型专利公开了一种生活垃圾气化焚烧系统,包括气化炉、二燃室5、换热装置、除酸塔8、布袋除尘器9和烟囱10,气化焚烧炉包括一燃室3,一燃室3热解产生的可燃气体通过炉体顶部的气化连接管道4进入二燃室5,进入二燃室5烟气中的可燃成分混合二次风机17供氧,进行富氧高温燃烧,温度控制在850℃~1100℃,烟气停留时间大于2秒,保证可燃气体燃尽。二燃室排出的高温烟气通过换热连接管道13进入热交换器6和余热锅炉12快速降温,保证二噁英不会二次生成,换热产生的热量进行回收利用。尔后烟气进入除酸塔8,经过喷淋碱液混合进行烟气除酸,再进入布袋除尘器9进行除尘,最后由引风机11将烟气送入烟囱10排出。The Chinese utility model patent with patent number ZL2017203491659 discloses a domestic waste gasification incineration system, including a gasification furnace, a second combustion chamber 5, a heat exchange device, an acid removal tower 8, a bag filter 9 and a chimney 10, gasification incineration The furnace includes a combustion chamber 3, and the combustible gas generated by pyrolysis of the first combustion chamber 3 enters the second combustion chamber 5 through the gasification connection pipe 4 at the top of the furnace body, and enters the secondary combustion chamber 5 where the combustible component mixing secondary fan 17 Oxygen, oxygen-enriched high-temperature combustion, the temperature is controlled at 850 ℃ ~ 1100 ℃, the flue gas residence time is greater than 2 seconds, to ensure that the combustible gas burns out. The high-temperature flue gas discharged from the second combustion chamber enters the heat exchanger 6 and the waste heat boiler 12 through the heat exchange connecting pipe 13 to quickly cool down, ensuring that dioxin will not be generated again, and the heat generated by heat exchange is recycled. After that, the flue gas enters the acid-removing tower 8, and the flue gas is de-acidified by spraying the lye mixture, and then enters the bag dust collector 9 to remove the dust, and finally the exhaust fan 11 sends the flue gas into the chimney 10 for discharge.
该系统中的气化炉、二燃室5、换热装置、除酸塔8、布袋除尘器9和烟囱10分体设置,占用面积大;通过多个横向的管路连接,容易积垢,必须经常清洗,成本高。The gasification furnace, the second combustion chamber 5, the heat exchange device, the acid removal tower 8, the bag filter 9 and the chimney 10 in this system are arranged separately, occupying a large area; connected by multiple horizontal pipelines, it is easy to accumulate scale, It must be cleaned frequently and the cost is high.
发明内容Summary of the invention
为克服现有技术中存在的缺点,本发明的发明目的是提供一种立式废物处理炉、废物处理系统和方法,系统占地面积小,处理废物的效率高,成本低。In order to overcome the shortcomings in the prior art, the object of the present invention is to provide a vertical waste treatment furnace, waste treatment system and method. The system occupies a small area, the waste treatment efficiency is high, and the cost is low.
为实现所述发明目的,本发明一方面提供一种立式废物处理炉,其包括炉盖、炉体和炉座,所述炉盖固定在支架上,其设置有进料仓,炉体上端与炉盖可活动地旋转连接,下端与炉座固定连接;所述炉座内设置有旋转炉排,其特征在于,在炉盖上还设置有烟气处理装置,烟气处理装置和炉体之间设置第一分隔装置,其包括第一隔板、筒体和挡板,所述第一隔板上设置有用于供气化室的烟气通过的通孔,筒体设置在在第一隔板上表面上并围绕在通孔的外周,挡板设置在筒体的上端,筒体上设置有排气口。In order to achieve the object of the invention, one aspect of the present invention provides a vertical waste treatment furnace, which includes a furnace cover, a furnace body and a furnace base, the furnace cover is fixed on a bracket, and is provided with a feed bin and an upper end of the furnace body It is rotatably connected with the furnace cover, and the lower end is fixedly connected with the furnace base; the furnace base is provided with a rotating grate, characterized in that the furnace cover is also provided with a flue gas treatment device, a flue gas treatment device and a furnace body A first partitioning device is provided between the first partition board, which includes a first partition, a cylinder and a baffle, the first partition is provided with a through hole for the flue gas of the gasification chamber to pass through, the cylinder is arranged at the first The upper surface of the partition plate surrounds the outer periphery of the through hole, the baffle plate is provided at the upper end of the cylinder body, and the cylinder body is provided with an exhaust port.
优选地,旋转炉排包括安装支架、设置有排渣孔的主动正转炉排、设置有排渣孔的从动正转炉排、设置有排渣孔的反转炉排和驱动机构,所述安装支架中央沿炉体轴向设置有中空的固定轴;固定轴的末端设置有具有空腔的锥形炉排帽,炉排帽下部放射状地设有多个排气孔;导气管经固定轴内的空腔连通于炉排帽的空腔,并通过导气管连通于供气泵;主动正转炉排和从动正转炉排固定于正转轴套上,正转轴套活动地套在固定轴上;反转炉排固定于反转轴套上,反转轴套活动地套在正转轴套上,并设置在主动正转炉排和从动正转炉排之间;驱动机构同时驱动主动正转炉排和从动正转炉排绕固定轴正转,驱动反转炉排绕正转轴套反转。Preferably, the rotary grate includes a mounting bracket, an active forward rotary grate provided with a slag discharge hole, a driven forward rotary grate provided with a slag discharge hole, a reverse grate provided with a slag discharge hole, and a drive mechanism, the installation The center of the bracket is provided with a hollow fixed shaft along the axial direction of the furnace body; the end of the fixed shaft is provided with a conical grate cap with a cavity, and a plurality of exhaust holes are radially arranged at the lower part of the grate cap; The cavity of the grate is connected to the cavity of the grate cap, and is connected to the gas supply pump through the air guide tube; the active forward rotary grate and the driven forward rotary grate are fixed on the forward rotation sleeve, and the forward rotation sleeve is movably sleeved on the fixed shaft; The converter grate is fixed on the reversing shaft sleeve, and the reversing shaft sleeve is movably sleeved on the positive rotation shaft sleeve, and is arranged between the active positive rotation grate and the driven positive rotation grate; the driving mechanism simultaneously drives the active positive rotation grate and the slave The moving forward grate rotates forward around the fixed shaft, and the drive reverse grate rotates around the forward shaft sleeve.
优选地,炉排帽底的半径、从动正转炉排的半径、反转炉排的半径依次增大。Preferably, the radius of the grate cap bottom, the radius of the driven forward grate, and the radius of the reverse grate increase in sequence.
优选地,主动正转炉排上表面的外周和反转炉排下表面的外周分别设置有第一环形锥形齿轮和第二环形锥形齿轮,驱动机构至少包括电动机、齿轮箱和锥齿轮,锥齿轮分别与第一环形锥形齿轮和第二环形锥形齿轮啮合,电动机通过齿轮 箱连接于锥齿轮的轴上,电动机得电旋转经齿轮箱驱动锥齿轮旋转,从而驱动第一环形锥形齿轮正转和第二环形锥形齿轮反转,进一步使主动正转炉排和从动正转炉排绕固定轴正转,驱动反转炉排绕正转轴套反转。Preferably, the outer circumference of the upper surface of the active forward grate and the outer surface of the lower surface of the reverse grate are respectively provided with a first ring-shaped bevel gear and a second ring-shaped bevel gear, and the drive mechanism includes at least a motor, a gear box, and a bevel gear. The gears are respectively meshed with the first ring bevel gear and the second ring bevel gear, the motor is connected to the shaft of the bevel gear through the gear box, and the motor is electrically rotated to drive the bevel gear to rotate through the gear box, thereby driving the first ring bevel gear The forward rotation and the reverse rotation of the second ring bevel gear further rotate the active forward rotation grate and the driven forward rotation grate forward around the fixed shaft, and drive the reverse rotation grate to reverse around the forward rotation shaft sleeve.
优选地,炉排帽底部外周、正转从动炉排外周和反转炉排外周均设有若干个齿。Preferably, the outer circumference of the bottom of the grate cap, the outer circumference of the forward driven grate and the outer circumference of the reverse grate are provided with several teeth.
优选地,烟气处理装置内还设置有第二分隔装置,第二分隔装置将烟气处理装置分成处于气流上游的二次反应室和处于气流下游的水洗室,其包括第二隔板和凸形帽,在第二隔板的上表面设置有环形凹槽,环形凹槽连通于设置于二次反应室侧壁的排水口;第二隔板中央设置有排气管,排气管连通凸形帽的储气室,凸形帽的下部放射状地设有多个排气孔。Preferably, a second separation device is further provided in the flue gas treatment device. The second separation device divides the flue gas treatment device into a secondary reaction chamber upstream of the air flow and a water washing chamber downstream of the air flow, which includes a second partition and a convex Shaped cap, an annular groove is provided on the upper surface of the second partition, and the annular groove is connected to the drain port provided on the side wall of the secondary reaction chamber; an exhaust pipe is provided in the center of the second partition, and the exhaust pipe communicates with the convex In the gas storage chamber of the cap, a plurality of exhaust holes are radially arranged on the lower part of the convex cap.
优选地,二次反应室内还设置有热交换器,空气在热交换器中预热而后从炉底排入到旋转炉内。Preferably, the secondary reaction chamber is also provided with a heat exchanger, and the air is preheated in the heat exchanger and then discharged into the rotary furnace from the bottom of the furnace.
优选地,在水洗室的排气口处设置有除雾装置,除雾装置包括一个或多个并列的除雾单元,除雾单元包括过同轴交替设置的过滤筒和旋流器,所述过滤筒包括内筒和外筒,所述内筒的壁上设置有多个通孔,且沿内筒的外壁周向设置有多个向下倾斜的第一挡水环,所述外筒的内壁沿周向设置有多个向下倾斜的第二挡水环,第一挡水环和第二挡水环交错设置。Preferably, a defogging device is provided at the exhaust port of the water washing room. The defogging device includes one or more parallel defogging units. The defogging unit includes filter cartridges and cyclones alternately arranged over the coaxial. The filter cylinder includes an inner cylinder and an outer cylinder. A plurality of through holes are provided on the wall of the inner cylinder, and a plurality of downwardly inclined first water retaining rings are provided along the circumferential direction of the outer wall of the inner cylinder. The inner wall is provided with a plurality of downwardly inclined second water retaining rings along the circumferential direction, and the first water retaining ring and the second water retaining ring are staggered.
为实现所述发明目的,本发明还提供一种废物处理系统,其包括上述任一所述的立式废物处理炉。To achieve the object of the invention, the present invention also provides a waste treatment system, which includes any of the above-mentioned vertical waste treatment furnaces.
为实现所述发明目的,本发明还提供一种利用权利要求9所述废物处理系统处理废物的方法,其特征在于,其包括使废物在炉体中进行热解气化生成灰渣和合成气体;使气化室排入的物质在二次反应室中进行二次氧化;使二次反应室所 排出的特质经过水洗或碱洗去掉灰尘和酸性气体;将水洗室排出的物质进行除雾得到干净的可排放的气体。In order to achieve the object of the invention, the present invention also provides a method for processing waste using the waste treatment system according to claim 9, characterized in that it includes pyrolysis and gasification of waste in the furnace body to generate ash and synthesis gas ; The substances discharged from the gasification chamber are subjected to secondary oxidation in the secondary reaction chamber; the qualities discharged from the secondary reaction chamber are washed with water or alkali to remove dust and acid gas; the substances discharged from the water washing chamber are obtained by defogging Clean and exhaustable gas.
与现有技术相比,本发明的发明目的是提供一种立式废物处理炉、废物处理系统占地面积小,处理废物的效率高,成本低,所述方法处理废物的效率高。Compared with the prior art, the object of the present invention is to provide a vertical waste treatment furnace, a waste treatment system with a small footprint, high waste treatment efficiency, low cost, and high waste treatment efficiency by the method.
附图的简要说明Brief description of the drawings
图1是现有技术提供的生活垃圾气化焚烧系统的组成示意图;Figure 1 is a schematic diagram of the composition of the domestic waste gasification incineration system provided by the prior art;
图2是本发明提供的一种立式废物处理炉的组成示意图;2 is a schematic diagram of the composition of a vertical waste treatment furnace provided by the present invention;
图3是本发明提供的除雾单元的组成示意图;3 is a schematic diagram of the composition of the defogging unit provided by the present invention;
图4是本发明提供的一种旋转炉排的组成示意图;4 is a schematic diagram of the composition of a rotary grate provided by the present invention;
图5是本发明提供的另一种旋转炉排的组成示意图;5 is a schematic diagram of the composition of another rotary grate provided by the present invention;
图6是本发明提供的一种变形例立式废物处理炉的组成示意图;6 is a schematic diagram of a composition of a vertical waste treatment furnace according to a modification provided by the present invention;
图7是本发明提供的电动机的驱动电路。7 is a driving circuit of a motor provided by the present invention.
本发明的最佳实施方式Best Mode of the Invention
下面将结合附图对本发明的技术方案进行清楚、完整地描述,显然,所描述的实施例是本发明一部分实施例,而不是全部的实施例。基于本发明中的实施例,本领域普通技术人员在没有做出创造性劳动前提下所获得的所有其他实施例,都属于本发明保护的范围。The technical solutions of the present invention will be described clearly and completely below with reference to the drawings. Obviously, the described embodiments are part of the embodiments of the present invention, but not all of the embodiments. Based on the embodiments of the present invention, all other embodiments obtained by a person of ordinary skill in the art without making creative efforts fall within the protection scope of the present invention.
在本发明的描述中,需要说明的是,术语“第一”、“第二”等仅用于描述目的,而不能理解为指示或暗示相对重要性。In the description of the present invention, it should be noted that the terms "first", "second", etc. are for descriptive purposes only, and cannot be understood as indicating or implying relative importance.
在本发明的描述中,需要说明的是,除非另有明确的规定和限定,术语“相 连”、“连接”应做广义理解,例如,可以是固定连接,也可以是可拆卸连接,或一体地连接,也可以是直接相连,也可以通过中间媒介间接相连,还可以是两个元件内部的连通,对于本领域的普通技术人员而言,可以具体情况理解上述术语在本发明中的具体含义。In the description of the present invention, it should be noted that, unless otherwise clearly specified and defined, the terms "connected" and "connected" should be understood in a broad sense, for example, it can be a fixed connection, a detachable connection, or a whole It can be directly connected, or indirectly connected through an intermediate medium, or it can be the connection between two elements. For those of ordinary skill in the art, the specific meaning of the above terms in the present invention can be understood in specific circumstances .
图2是本发明提供的立式废物处理炉的组成示意图,如图2所示,本发明一个实施例提供的立式废物处理炉包括炉盖300、炉体200和炉座100,所述炉盖300固定在支架上,其设置有进料仓301,进料仓内设置有进料机,用于对废物进行破碎。炉体200上端与炉盖300的下端可活动地旋转连接,炉体200下端与炉座100的上端可拆卸地连接;所述炉座100也固定于支架上,其内设置有旋转炉排110。优选地,在炉盖300上还设置有烟气处理装置,烟气处理装置包括外壳302,外壳302和炉体200之间设置第一分隔装置。外壳302内设置有第二分隔装置。2 is a schematic diagram of the composition of a vertical waste treatment furnace provided by the present invention. As shown in FIG. 2, a vertical waste treatment furnace provided by an embodiment of the present invention includes a furnace cover 300, a furnace body 200 and a furnace base 100. The furnace The cover 300 is fixed on the support, and is provided with a feed bin 301, and a feeder is provided in the feed bin for crushing the waste. The upper end of the furnace body 200 is rotatably connected with the lower end of the furnace cover 300, and the lower end of the furnace body 200 is detachably connected with the upper end of the furnace base 100; the furnace base 100 is also fixed on a bracket, and a rotating grate 110 is provided therein . Preferably, a flue gas treatment device is further provided on the furnace cover 300. The flue gas treatment device includes a housing 302, and a first separation device is provided between the housing 302 and the furnace body 200. A second partition device is provided in the housing 302.
第二分隔装置将外壳302分成二次反应室310和过滤室320。炉体200和底座100构成气化室,其用于将待处理废物处理成熔渣和合成气体,所述二次反应室310用于将气化室中排出的物质进行氧化处理,由气化室中排入到二次反应室310中的物体包括合成气体、有害气体和微小固体颗粒。气化室排入的气体在二次反应室310中氧化后,通过第二分隔装置进入到过滤室320。过滤室320将二次反应室310排出的气体进行水洗或者碱液洗以去除气体中所携带的尘粒和可溶于水或者与碱反应的物质;在气化室的下部设置旋转炉排110,旋转炉排110一方面使从进料口投入的废物在气化室内均匀布置,另一方面将灰渣破碎并排入到气化室下方的灰渣斗中,进一步通过灰渣斗口排出。在过滤室320内盘旋设置有喷液管303,出气口处设置有除雾装置400,通过喷液管向水洗室内喷淋净水 或者碱溶液,通过除雾装置400对预排出水洗室内的气体中所含的水份进行去除;所述二次反应室310至少设置有内壳304,内壳304和外壳302之间形成间隙,间隙内通过水流从而形成水套,内壳304和外壳302之间的间隙与过滤室320的排水口连通。本发明,利用水洗过气体的水或者稀溶液流入间隙内,如此节省了水资源。The second partition device divides the housing 302 into the secondary reaction chamber 310 and the filter chamber 320. The furnace body 200 and the base 100 constitute a gasification chamber, which is used to process the waste to be processed into slag and synthesis gas, and the secondary reaction chamber 310 is used to oxidize the substances discharged from the gasification chamber, and then The objects discharged into the secondary reaction chamber 310 in the chamber include synthesis gas, harmful gas, and minute solid particles. The gas discharged from the gasification chamber is oxidized in the secondary reaction chamber 310 and enters the filter chamber 320 through the second partition device. The filter chamber 320 carries out water washing or alkali washing of the gas discharged from the secondary reaction chamber 310 to remove dust particles and substances soluble in water or reacting with alkali carried in the gas; a rotary grate 110 is provided in the lower part of the gasification chamber , On the one hand, the rotary grate 110 makes the waste input from the feed port evenly arranged in the gasification chamber, on the other hand, the ash is crushed and discharged into the ash hopper below the gasification chamber, and further discharged through the ash hopper mouth . A liquid spray pipe 303 is spirally arranged in the filter chamber 320, and a mist eliminator 400 is provided at the air outlet. The spray pipe sprays clean water or an alkaline solution into the washing chamber, and the gas in the washing chamber is pre-exhausted by the mist eliminator 400. Remove the water contained in the; the secondary reaction chamber 310 is provided with at least an inner shell 304, a gap is formed between the inner shell 304 and the outer shell 302, a water jacket is formed by water flow in the gap, the inner shell 304 and the outer shell 302 The gap therebetween communicates with the drain of the filter chamber 320. In the present invention, water or diluted solution washed with gas by water flows into the gap, thus saving water resources.
根据本发明一个实施例,第一分隔装置包括第一隔板201、筒体202和挡板203,所述第一隔板201为双层结构,上层周边与内筒304密封连接,下层的周边与外筒302密封连接,第一隔板201的中央设置有用于供气化室的烟气通过的通孔204,筒体202设置在第一隔板201上表面上并围绕在通孔204的外周,挡板203设置在筒体202的上端,筒体202上设置有出烟口,本发明中,由于设置了如上结构的第一分隔装置,将气化室中大颗粒固体物质由阻挡在气化室中,在气化室中再进行处理,同时二次反应室设置在气化室的上部,不需要额外的管道进行连通,不但降低了成本,而且不会经常需要清洗管道上沉积的污垢。气化室的下方设置有旋转炉排110,风机102通过旋转炉排将空气注入到气化室,风机102注入空气的管路中设置有流量阀103和流量计104,所述流量阀103用于控制供给气化室的空气的流量,所述流量计104用于测量管路中空气的流量。根据本发明一个实施例,在气化室中还设置有用于监测气化室内温度的温度传感器探头和用于监测气化室中压力传感器探头,气化室的温度通常控制在450摄氏度到800摄氏度之间。在作业开始的过程中,废弃物进入进料仓301后,由设置在其内的喂料机连续不断地将其投入气化室内的旋转炉排110残留的灰渣层上而成为配伍层,从而形成初期的沉积层。在初期的沉积层中,配伍层中的废弃物因与燃烧用空气接触,便一边消耗氧气一边从易燃物开始燃烧,并将火种与难燃物一 起保留下来形成燃烧层。在此,使燃烧用空气的供给量为理论空气量的0.2~0.8倍的情况下,燃烧层慢慢地往配伍层扩展,但该燃烧层的扩展随着燃烧用空气中的氧气的耗尽而停滞。燃烧层的扩展一停滞,则燃烧层上的配伍层在几乎不存在氧气的状态下被燃烧层热烘,促使废弃物热分解进而形成碳化层。另外,燃烧层中燃烧完毕的焚化灰渣逐渐沉积到灰渣层。即,在焚烧处理中,使向沉积层供给的燃烧用空气的供给量为理论空气量的0.2~0.8倍的情况下,在沉积层中,从上方起形成“配伍层”、“碳化层”、“燃烧层”及“灰渣层”。由于在沉积层中的配伍层与燃烧层之间形成实质上为无氧气状态的碳化层,从而能够防止配伍层中的易燃物瞬间燃烧的现象,使燃烧状态趋于稳定。According to an embodiment of the present invention, the first separating device includes a first partition 201, a cylinder 202, and a baffle 203. The first partition 201 has a double-layer structure, and the upper periphery is sealedly connected to the inner cylinder 304, and the lower periphery Sealed and connected to the outer cylinder 302, the center of the first partition 201 is provided with a through hole 204 for the passage of flue gas from the gasification chamber, and the cylinder 202 is provided on the upper surface of the first partition 201 and surrounds the through hole 204 On the outer periphery, the baffle 203 is provided at the upper end of the cylinder 202, and the cylinder 202 is provided with a smoke outlet. In the present invention, since the first partition device with the above structure is provided, large solid particles in the gasification chamber are blocked by In the gasification chamber, the treatment is carried out in the gasification chamber, and the secondary reaction chamber is provided in the upper part of the gasification chamber, which does not require additional pipes for communication, which not only reduces the cost, but also does not often need to clean the deposits on the pipes dirt. A rotary grate 110 is provided below the gasification chamber, and a fan 102 injects air into the gasification chamber through the rotary grate. A flow valve 103 and a flow meter 104 are provided in the pipeline of the fan 102 to inject air, and the flow valve 103 is used for To control the flow of air supplied to the gasification chamber, the flow meter 104 is used to measure the flow of air in the pipeline. According to an embodiment of the present invention, a temperature sensor probe for monitoring the temperature in the gasification chamber and a pressure sensor probe for monitoring the temperature in the gasification chamber are also provided in the gasification chamber. The temperature of the gasification chamber is usually controlled at 450 degrees Celsius to 800 degrees Celsius between. In the process of starting the operation, after the waste enters the feed bin 301, the feeder installed therein continuously puts it into the ash layer remaining on the rotary grate 110 in the gasification chamber to become a compatible layer. Thereby forming an initial deposit. In the initial sediment layer, the waste in the compatibility layer comes into contact with the combustion air, and then burns from combustibles while consuming oxygen, and retains the flame and the combustibles to form a combustion layer. Here, when the supply amount of the combustion air is 0.2 to 0.8 times the theoretical air amount, the combustion layer gradually expands to the compatible layer, but the expansion of the combustion layer follows the depletion of oxygen in the combustion air And stagnation. When the expansion of the combustion layer stagnates, the compatibility layer on the combustion layer is thermally dried by the combustion layer in the absence of oxygen, which promotes the thermal decomposition of the waste to form a carbonized layer. In addition, the incinerated ash from the combustion layer is gradually deposited on the ash layer. That is, in the incineration process, when the supply amount of the combustion air supplied to the deposited layer is 0.2 to 0.8 times the theoretical air amount, a "compatibility layer" and a "carbonized layer" are formed from above in the deposited layer , "Combustion layer" and "ash residue layer". Since a carbonized layer that is substantially in an oxygen-free state is formed between the compatibility layer and the combustion layer in the deposited layer, the phenomenon of instantaneous combustion of combustible materials in the compatibility layer can be prevented, and the combustion state tends to be stable.
另外,配伍层中的易燃物不是瞬间燃烧,而是大多数被包含在废弃物中直接从配伍层进入碳化层、从碳化层进入燃烧层。因而,能够维持燃烧层中的燃烧热量。进一步,在所述碳化层中,较长时间内,废弃物包含的发热量高的易燃物在氧气不足的状态下被晾在高温下而抑制燃烧,所以该废弃物中的难燃物充分地被热分解。其结果,能够促使废弃物的燃烧均匀,加上燃烧层中的燃烧热量得到维持,所以最终排出的焚化灰渣中的未燃物的残留量非常小。在灰渣层上沉积了一定量以上的焚化灰渣后,便通过旋转炉排110排除到漏斗部,进一步通过漏斗部下端的排灰口排出到炉外。In addition, the combustibles in the compatibility layer are not burned instantaneously, but most of them are contained in the waste directly from the compatibility layer into the carbonization layer and from the carbonization layer into the combustion layer. Therefore, the heat of combustion in the combustion layer can be maintained. Further, in the carbonized layer, the combustibles with high calorific value contained in the waste are air-dried at a high temperature in a state of insufficient oxygen to suppress combustion, so the combustibles in the waste are sufficient The ground is thermally decomposed. As a result, the combustion of waste can be promoted uniformly, and the heat of combustion in the combustion layer can be maintained, so the residual amount of unburned matter in the incineration ash discharged finally is very small. After depositing more than a certain amount of incineration ash on the ash layer, it is discharged to the funnel through the rotary grate 110, and then discharged to the outside of the furnace through the ash discharge port at the lower end of the funnel.
根据本发明一个实施例,第二分隔装置包括第二分隔板305和凸形帽306,第二分隔板305周边与内筒304密封连接,在第二隔板305的上表面设置有环形凹槽307,所述环形凹槽307连通于内壳304和外壳302之间的间隙;凸形帽302底面的直径略大于环形凹槽303的内径,如此可使喷淋下的液体滑过凸形帽302而直接流到环形凹槽303中。第二分隔板305中央沿炉体轴向设置有排气管308, 排气管308连通凸形帽306的储气室,凸形帽306的下部放射状地设有多个排气孔。第二分隔装置的上部为过滤室320,下部为二次反应室310,废物在气化室中被热解气化生成的合成气体、未反应的气体及二氧芑类等有机化合物的热分解气体通过第一分隔装置后进入二次反应室310进行二次氧化或燃烧。气泵309将氧化剂通过二次反应室310侧壁的进气口排入到二次反应室310,在将氧化剂导入到二次反应室的通路中设置有流量阀311和流量计312,流量阀310用于控制供给二次反应室310的氧化剂的流量,流量计312用于监测所供氧化剂的流量。根据本发明一个实施例,在二次反应室中还设置有用于监测气化室内温度的温度传感器探头和用于监测气化室中压力传感器探头,二次反应室的温度通常控制在700摄氏度到1000摄氏度之间。在二次反应室310中,合成气体、固体微粒等与氧化剂反应生成的气体中包含灰尘和酸性气体,例如任何未反应的碳与氧化剂反应而形成一氧化碳,或使挥发性金属组分与氧化剂反应而形成的金属氧化物,气体包括氮、氧、二氧化碳和/或水蒸气,该气体通过第二分隔装置进入到过滤室。According to an embodiment of the present invention, the second partitioning device includes a second partitioning plate 305 and a convex cap 306, the periphery of the second partitioning plate 305 is hermetically connected to the inner cylinder 304, and a ring shape is provided on the upper surface of the second partition 305 Groove 307, the annular groove 307 communicates with the gap between the inner shell 304 and the outer shell 302; the diameter of the bottom surface of the convex cap 302 is slightly larger than the inner diameter of the annular groove 303, so that the sprayed liquid can slide over the convex The cap 302 flows directly into the annular groove 303. An exhaust pipe 308 is provided in the center of the second partition plate 305 along the axial direction of the furnace body. The exhaust pipe 308 communicates with the gas storage chamber of the convex cap 306, and a plurality of exhaust holes are radially arranged at the lower portion of the convex cap 306. The upper part of the second partition is the filter chamber 320, and the lower part is the secondary reaction chamber 310. The waste is pyrolyzed and gasified in the gasification chamber to generate pyrolysis gas, unreacted gas, and thermal decomposition of organic compounds such as dioxins. After passing through the first partition device, the gas enters the secondary reaction chamber 310 for secondary oxidation or combustion. The air pump 309 discharges the oxidant into the secondary reaction chamber 310 through the air inlet of the side wall of the secondary reaction chamber 310. A flow valve 311 and a flow meter 312 are provided in the passage for introducing the oxidant into the secondary reaction chamber. The flow valve 310 The flow rate of the oxidant supplied to the secondary reaction chamber 310 is controlled, and the flowmeter 312 is used to monitor the flow rate of the supplied oxidant. According to an embodiment of the present invention, a temperature sensor probe for monitoring the temperature in the gasification chamber and a pressure sensor probe for monitoring the temperature in the gasification chamber are also provided in the secondary reaction chamber. The temperature of the secondary reaction chamber is usually controlled at 700 degrees Celsius to Between 1000 degrees Celsius. In the secondary reaction chamber 310, the synthesis gas, solid particles, etc. gas generated by the reaction with the oxidant contains dust and acid gas, for example, any unreacted carbon reacts with the oxidant to form carbon monoxide, or reacts the volatile metal component with the oxidant For the formed metal oxide, the gas includes nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and/or water vapor, and the gas enters the filter chamber through the second partition device.
第二分隔装置的上部为过滤室320,过滤室320的顶部设置有排气口,侧壁偏上的位置设置有进水口,水泵313将干净的水或者碱的水溶液通过有环形喷水管303将水或者碱溶液喷入到过滤室320内部。合成气体等与氧化剂在二次反应室310中再次反应后生成的气体通过凸形帽306下的排气口排入到水洗室320,其从下向上与从上向下喷淋的水或者碱溶液相遇,将气体所携带的灰尘和可溶于水的物质或可与碱进行反应的物质由水带到环形凹槽307,而后流入到外壳302和内壳304之间形成的间隙内。气体经水洗去除掉所携带的灰尘和可溶于水或碱液的物质而流入到排气口,在排气口处设置有除雾装置400,除雾装置将 气体中的大部分水份去除转为干净和相对干燥的可排放气体而排出到外界或者下游处理设备。本发明中,外壳302和内壳304由低碳钢构成并衬有适当隔离/耐火材料。第一分隔装置和第二分隔装置由低碳钢构成并包覆有适当隔离/耐火材料。The upper part of the second partition is the filter chamber 320, the top of the filter chamber 320 is provided with an exhaust port, and the water inlet is provided on the upper side of the side wall, and the water pump 313 passes the clean water or alkaline aqueous solution through the annular water spray pipe 303 Water or alkali solution is sprayed into the inside of the filter chamber 320. The gas generated after the synthesis gas and other oxidants react again in the secondary reaction chamber 310 is discharged into the water washing chamber 320 through the exhaust port under the convex cap 306, which sprays water or alkali from bottom to top and from top to bottom The solutions meet, bringing the dust and water-soluble substances carried by the gas or substances that can react with alkali from the water to the annular groove 307, and then flow into the gap formed between the outer shell 302 and the inner shell 304. The gas is washed with water to remove the carried dust and substances soluble in water or lye and flows into the exhaust port. A demister device 400 is provided at the exhaust port to remove most of the water in the gas. Turn into clean and relatively dry dischargeable gas and discharge it to the outside world or downstream processing equipment. In the present invention, the outer shell 302 and the inner shell 304 are made of mild steel and lined with appropriate insulation/refractory materials. The first divider and the second divider are composed of mild steel and covered with appropriate insulation/refractory materials.
根据本发明一个实施例,除雾装置包括一个或者多个并联设置的除雾单元,如图3所示,除雾单元包括M(M为大于等于1的整数)个过滤筒405和M个旋流器406,M个过滤筒405和M个旋流器406交替并同轴连接,其中,过滤筒包括内筒407和外筒408,内筒407上设置有多个通孔,且沿内筒的外壁沿周向设置有多个向下倾斜的第一挡水环409。外筒408的内壁沿周向设置有多个向下倾斜的第二挡水环410。多个向下倾斜的第一挡水环40和多个向下倾斜的第二挡水环410交错设置,且形成水流通道。由过滤室处理过的气体自下而上流动进入气动旋流除雾单元,经过旋流器406旋流,在旋流器中烟气形成旋转上升气流,使气体中的液滴离心力增大,液滴在离心力的作用下向过滤筒405筒壁方向运动,然后气体通过滤筒,大部分液滴会在离心力的作用下到达过滤筒,通过过滤筒筒壁进入内筒407与外筒408之间的空间,依次沿第一挡水环409的上表面、第二挡水环410的上表面、第一挡水环409和第二挡水环410之间形成的缝隙沿内筒和外筒之间的间隙向下流,从而达到了降低除雾装置出口雾滴浓度的效果,同时减少了水的流失,也避免了液滴中的有害物质造成空气的二次污染。优选地,所述内筒407和外筒408之间形成的空腔的上端由环形板密封414密封,下端畅开并连通于过滤室320。According to an embodiment of the present invention, the demisting device includes one or more demisting units arranged in parallel. As shown in FIG. 3, the demisting unit includes M (M is an integer greater than or equal to 1) filter cartridges 405 and M rotating units. Flower 406, M filter cylinders 405 and M cyclones 406 are alternately and coaxially connected, wherein the filter cylinder includes an inner cylinder 407 and an outer cylinder 408, the inner cylinder 407 is provided with a plurality of through holes, and along the inner cylinder The outer wall of is provided with a plurality of downwardly inclined first water blocking rings 409 along the circumferential direction. The inner wall of the outer cylinder 408 is provided with a plurality of second water blocking rings 410 inclined downward in the circumferential direction. A plurality of downwardly inclined first water blocking rings 40 and a plurality of downwardly inclined second water blocking rings 410 are staggered and form a water flow channel. The gas processed by the filter chamber flows from bottom to top into the pneumatic cyclone defogging unit, and swirls through the cyclone 406, and the flue gas in the cyclone forms a rotating upward airflow, which increases the centrifugal force of the droplets in the gas. The droplets move toward the wall of the filter cartridge 405 under the action of centrifugal force, and then the gas passes through the filter cartridge. The space between, along the upper surface of the first water retaining ring 409, the upper surface of the second water retaining ring 410, the gap formed between the first water retaining ring 409 and the second water retaining ring 410 along the inner cylinder and the outer cylinder The gap between them flows down, so as to achieve the effect of reducing the concentration of mist droplets at the outlet of the demisting device, at the same time reduce the loss of water, and avoid the secondary pollution of the air caused by harmful substances in the droplets. Preferably, the upper end of the cavity formed between the inner cylinder 407 and the outer cylinder 408 is sealed by an annular plate seal 414, and the lower end is open and communicated with the filter chamber 320.
气动旋流除雾单元还包括冲洗装置,所述冲洗装置包括设置在轴213上冲洗水管211和喷嘴212。冲洗装置分为上下两部分组成,分别冲洗处于不同位置的过滤筒;上冲洗单元冲洗顶部过滤筒;下冲洗单元冲洗其余所有的过滤筒。The pneumatic swirl demisting unit further includes a flushing device including a flushing water pipe 211 and a nozzle 212 provided on the shaft 213. The flushing device is divided into upper and lower parts, which respectively flush the filter cartridges in different positions; the upper flushing unit flushes the top filter cartridge; the lower flushing unit flushes all the remaining filter cartridges.
本发明中,旋转器一方面起将要排出的气体中所含的大部分水份去除的作用,另一方面保证整个炉体处于负压状态,从而节省了现有技术中的引风机,如此更加节省了成本。In the present invention, on the one hand, the rotator plays the role of removing most of the water contained in the gas to be discharged, on the other hand, it ensures that the entire furnace body is in a negative pressure state, thereby saving the induced draft fan in the prior art. Saved costs.
图4是本发明提供的一种旋转炉排的组成示意图,如图4所示,所述旋转炉排包括十字支架111、设置有排渣孔的主动正转炉排112、设置有排渣孔的从动正转炉排113、设置有排渣孔的反转炉排114和驱动机构115,所述十字支架111固定于炉座内,其中央沿炉的轴向设置有中空的固定轴116;固定轴116的末端设置有具有空腔的锥形炉排帽117,炉排帽下部放射状地设有多个排气孔,导气管118的一端经固定轴116内的空腔连通于炉排帽117的空腔,另一端连通于供气源;主动正转炉排112和从动正转炉排113固定于正转轴套119上,正转轴套119活动地套在固定轴116上;反转炉排114固定于反转轴套120上,反转轴套120活动地套在正转轴套119上,并设置在主动正转炉排112和从动正转炉排113之间;驱动机构115同时驱动主动正转炉排112和从动正转炉排113绕固定轴116正转,驱动反转炉排114绕正转轴套反转。优选地,炉排帽117底部外周,多个正转从动炉排外周和反转炉排外周均设有若干个齿,炉排帽117底的半径、从动正转炉排113的半径、反转炉排114的半径依次增大,且它们彼此之间设置一定的间距。优选地,主动正转炉排112上表面的外周和反转炉排114下表面的外周分别设置有第一环形锥形齿轮和第二环形锥形齿轮,驱动机构115至少包括电动机、齿轮箱和锥齿轮,锥齿轮分别与第一环形锥形齿轮和第二环形锥形齿轮 啮合,电动机通过齿轮箱连接于锥齿轮的轴上,电动机得电旋转经齿轮箱驱动锥齿轮旋转,从而驱动第一环形锥形齿轮正转和第二环形锥形齿轮反转,进一步使主动正转炉排112和从动正转炉排113绕固定轴116正转,驱动反转炉排114绕正转轴套反转。优选地,炉排帽117底部外周、正转从动炉排113外周和反转炉排114外周均设有若干个齿。本发明中,由于将炉排帽117固定于支架上,气源通过导气管再经固定轴116中的空腔,最后从炉排帽117的下部的排气孔中排出,如此结构,不仅不会使气流通道被灰渣堵塞,同时炉排帽117给沉积层一个支撑力,使主动正转炉排112、从动正转炉排113和反转炉排114旋转更加容易,从而可使驱动电机的功率降低。从动正转炉排113和炉排帽117的底部形成剪切力以将炉渣进行破碎,从动正转炉排113和反转炉排114形成剪切力以将炉渣进行破碎。4 is a schematic diagram of the composition of a rotary grate provided by the present invention. As shown in FIG. 4, the rotary grate includes a cross bracket 111, an active forward rotary grate 112 provided with a slag discharge hole, and a slag discharge hole The driven forward rotary grate 113, the reverse grate 114 provided with a slag discharge hole and the drive mechanism 115, the cross bracket 111 is fixed in the furnace base, and a hollow fixed shaft 116 is provided in the center of the furnace along the axial direction of the furnace; fixed The end of the shaft 116 is provided with a conical grate cap 117 with a cavity, a plurality of exhaust holes are radially arranged at the lower part of the grate cap, and one end of the gas guide tube 118 communicates with the grate cap 117 through the cavity in the fixed shaft 116 The other end of the cavity is connected to the gas supply source; the active forward rotary grate 112 and the driven forward rotary grate 113 are fixed on the forward rotation sleeve 119, and the forward rotation sleeve 119 is movably sleeved on the fixed shaft 116; the reverse grate 114 It is fixed on the reverse shaft sleeve 120, and the reverse shaft sleeve 120 is movably sleeved on the forward shaft sleeve 119, and is arranged between the active forward shaft grate 112 and the driven forward shaft grate 113; the driving mechanism 115 simultaneously drives the active forward shaft furnace The row 112 and the driven forward-rotating grate 113 rotate forward around the fixed shaft 116, and the reverse-rotating grate 114 is driven to rotate around the forward-rotating sleeve. Preferably, the outer circumference of the bottom of the grate cap 117, the outer circumferences of the plurality of forward driven grate and the outer circumference of the reverse grate are provided with a number of teeth, the radius of the bottom of the grate cap 117, the radius of the driven forward grate 113, the reverse The radius of the converter grate 114 increases in sequence, and they are arranged at a certain distance from each other. Preferably, the outer circumference of the upper surface of the active forward grate 112 and the outer surface of the lower surface of the reverse grate 114 are respectively provided with a first ring-shaped bevel gear and a second ring-shaped bevel gear, and the drive mechanism 115 includes at least a motor, a gear box and a cone The gear and the bevel gear are respectively meshed with the first ring bevel gear and the second ring bevel gear. The motor is connected to the shaft of the bevel gear through the gear box. The motor is electrically rotated to drive the bevel gear to rotate through the gear box, thereby driving the first ring The forward rotation of the bevel gear and the reverse rotation of the second ring-shaped bevel gear further rotate the active forward grate 112 and the driven forward grate 113 forward around the fixed shaft 116, and drive the reverse grate 114 reversely around the forward shaft sleeve. Preferably, the outer periphery of the bottom of the grate cap 117, the outer periphery of the forward driven grate 113 and the outer periphery of the reverse grate 114 are all provided with a number of teeth. In the present invention, since the grate cap 117 is fixed to the bracket, the gas source passes through the air duct and then through the cavity in the fixed shaft 116, and finally is discharged from the exhaust hole at the lower part of the grate cap 117. The air flow channel will be blocked by ash, and the grate cap 117 gives a supporting force to the deposited layer, making it easier for the active forward grate 112, driven forward grate 113 and reverse grate 114 to rotate, so that the drive motor can be driven Power is reduced. The driven forward grate 113 and the bottom of the grate cap 117 form a shearing force to crush the slag, and the driven forward grate 113 and the reverse grate 114 form a shearing force to crush the slag.
图5是本发明提供的另一种旋转炉排的组成示意图,图5所示的旋转炉排与图4所示的旋转炉排组成基本相同,所不同的仅是,图5所示的旋转炉排包括多个从动正转炉排,如从动正转炉排113和从动正转炉排121,它们均固定连接于正转轴套116上,且炉排帽117的下端也固定连接在正转轴套116上,炉排帽117的下端平面正中央设置有圆形通孔,通孔中设置有轴承,固定轴116的末端设置在轴承中。如此结构,电动机通过齿轮箱连接于锥齿轮的轴上,电动机得电旋转经齿轮箱驱动锥齿轮旋转,从而驱动第一环形锥形齿轮正转和第二环形锥形齿轮反转,进一步使主动正转炉排112、多个从动正转炉排和炉排帽117绕固定轴116正转,驱动反转炉排114绕正转轴套119反转。该实施例中,多个正转从动炉排外周和反转炉排外周均设有若干个齿,炉排帽底部的半径、多个正转从动 炉排的半径和反转炉排的半径依次增加,该结构可将结焦成大块的硬渣进行破碎。FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram of another rotary grate provided by the present invention. The composition of the rotary grate shown in FIG. 5 and the rotary grate shown in FIG. 4 are basically the same, the only difference is that the rotation shown in FIG. 5 The grate includes a plurality of driven forward rotating grate, such as driven forward rotating grate 113 and driven forward rotating grate 121, both of which are fixedly connected to the forward rotating shaft sleeve 116, and the lower end of the grate cap 117 is also fixedly connected to the forward rotating shaft On the sleeve 116, a circular through hole is provided in the center of the lower end plane of the grate cap 117, a bearing is provided in the through hole, and the end of the fixed shaft 116 is provided in the bearing. In this structure, the motor is connected to the shaft of the bevel gear through the gear box, and the motor is electrically rotated to drive the bevel gear to rotate through the gear box, thereby driving the first ring bevel gear to rotate forward and the second ring bevel gear to reverse, further making the active The forward-rotating grate 112, the plurality of driven forward-rotating grate and the grate cap 117 rotate forward around the fixed shaft 116, and drive the reverse-rotating grate 114 to reverse around the forward-rotating shaft sleeve 119. In this embodiment, a plurality of teeth are provided on the outer circumferences of the multiple forward-rotating driven grate and the reverse grate, the radius of the bottom of the grate cap, the radius of the multiple forward-driven driven grate and the The radius increases in turn, and the structure can break the coking into large pieces of hard slag.
本发明提供的旋转炉排,在炉体不转动的情况下,可使从进料仓301投入的物料形均匀的沉积层,避免了炉内废物堆积,温度波动的现象,也使得残渣结焦成大块的硬渣的现象减少,进一步使工作更加稳定,加快了热解气化速度,提高了效率。The rotary grate provided by the present invention can make the material input from the feed bin 301 form a uniform deposit layer without rotating the furnace body, avoiding the phenomenon of waste accumulation and temperature fluctuation in the furnace, and also making the residue coking The phenomenon of large pieces of hard slag is reduced, which further makes the work more stable, accelerates the speed of pyrolysis and gasification, and improves efficiency.
根据本发明一个实施例,还提供一种废物处理系统,其包括上述的立式废物处理炉。该废物处理系统处理废物的方法包括使废物在炉体中进行热解气化生成灰渣和合成气体;使气化室排入的物质在二次反应室中进行二次氧化;使二次反应室所排出的物质经过水洗或碱洗去掉灰尘和酸性气体;将水洗室排出的物质进行除雾得到干净的可排放的气体。According to an embodiment of the present invention, a waste treatment system is further provided, which includes the above-mentioned vertical waste treatment furnace. The method for processing waste in the waste treatment system includes pyrolysis and gasification of waste in the furnace body to generate ash and synthesis gas; the material discharged from the gasification chamber is subjected to secondary oxidation in the secondary reaction chamber; and the secondary reaction The material discharged from the chamber is washed with water or alkali to remove dust and acid gas; the material discharged from the water washing chamber is defogged to obtain clean and dischargeable gas.
根据本发明一个实施例,在二次反应室中还设置有热交换器,利用热交换器对空气预热而后再导入到气化室,如此,充分地利用了热能。According to an embodiment of the present invention, a heat exchanger is further provided in the secondary reaction chamber, the air is preheated by the heat exchanger and then introduced into the gasification chamber, so that the heat energy is fully utilized.
图6是本发明提供的一种变形例的立式废物处理炉的组成示意图,图6所示的立式废物处理炉与图2所示立式废物处理炉的组成基本相同,所不同的仅是,用于给气化室导入空气的管道从炉底的排渣口伸入,且导气管直接从图5所示的旋转炉排固定轴的空腔中直接伸入到炉排帽的空腔中,如此结构,可将炉体与炉座及旋转炉排的驱动机构一同固定于旋转支架上,通过驱动机构驱动旋转支架旋转,进而使炉体和炉座在固定的炉盖下旋转。所述驱动机构中至少包括电动机。FIG. 6 is a schematic diagram of the composition of a vertical waste treatment furnace according to a modification provided by the present invention. The composition of the vertical waste treatment furnace shown in FIG. 6 and the vertical waste treatment furnace shown in FIG. 2 are basically the same. Yes, the pipe for introducing air into the gasification chamber extends from the slag discharge port at the bottom of the furnace, and the air guide pipe directly extends from the cavity of the fixed shaft of the rotating grate shown in FIG. 5 into the space of the grate cap In the cavity, with such a structure, the furnace body, the furnace base and the driving mechanism of the rotating grate can be fixed on the rotating bracket together, and the rotating bracket is driven to rotate by the driving mechanism, thereby further rotating the furnace body and the furnace base under the fixed furnace cover. The drive mechanism includes at least an electric motor.
根据本发明一个实施例,用于驱动旋转炉排的驱动机构中的电动机和用于驱动炉体的驱动机构中的电动机至少包括定子和转子,所述定子上至少具有三个绕组,优选五个,采用不对称的驱动电路进行驱动。According to an embodiment of the present invention, the motor in the driving mechanism for driving the rotary grate and the motor in the driving mechanism for driving the furnace body at least include a stator and a rotor, and the stator has at least three windings, preferably five , Driven by an asymmetric drive circuit.
图7是本发明提供的电动机的驱动电路,如图7所示,驱动电路将电动机沿圆周依次布置的五个结圈绕组L1、L2、L3、L4和L5分成不对等的两组,主通道和从通道。所述主通道包括三个相互连接的线圈绕组L1、L3和L5,驱动电路包括第一到第八电开关K1、K2、K3、K4、K5、K6、K7和K8,每两个电开关相串联并连接于第一电源VCC1的两输出端,其中,第一线圈绕组L1的第一端连接于第一电开关K1和第二电开关K2相串联的中间节点,第二端连接于第三线圈绕组L3的第一端;第三线圈绕组L3的第一端连接于第三电开关K3和第四电开关K4相串联的中间节点,第二端连接于第五线圈绕组L5的第一端;第五线圈绕组L5的第一端连接于第五电开关K5和第六电开关K6相串联的中间节点,第二端连接于第七电开关K7和第八电开关K8相串联的中间节点,第一到第八电开关K1、K2、K3、K4、K5、K6、K7和K8的控制端连接于第一相驱动电路(图7中未示),以控制各个电控开关的通断,以通过第一到第八电控开关将第一电源VCC1所输出的直流电压转换为交流电压并提供给线圈绕组L1、L3和L5。从通道包括二个相互连接的线圈绕组L2和L4,驱动电路还包括第九到第十四电开关K9、K10、K11、K12、K13和K14,每两个电开关相串联并连接于第二电源VCC2的两输出端,其中,第二线圈绕组L2的第一端连接于第九电开关K9和第十电开关K10相串联的中间节点,第二端连接于第四线圈绕组L4的第一端;第四线圈绕组L4的第一端连接于第十一电开关K11和第十二电开关K12相串联的中间节点,第二端连接于第十三电开关K13和第十四电开关K14相串联的中间节点。第九到第十四电开关K9、K10、K11、K12、K13和K14的控制端连接于第二相驱动电路(图7中未示),以控制各个电控开关的通断,以通过第九到第十四电控开关将第二电源VCC2所输出的直流电压转换为交流电压并提供给线圈绕组L2和L4。7 is a driving circuit of a motor provided by the present invention. As shown in FIG. 7, the driving circuit divides the five loop windings L1, L2, L3, L4, and L5 of the motor in sequence along the circumference into two unequal groups, the main channel And from the channel. The main channel includes three coil windings L1, L3, and L5 connected to each other, and the drive circuit includes first to eighth electrical switches K1, K2, K3, K4, K5, K6, K7, and K8. Connected in series and connected to the two output terminals of the first power supply VCC1, wherein the first end of the first coil winding L1 is connected to the intermediate node where the first electrical switch K1 and the second electrical switch K2 are connected in series, and the second end is connected to the third The first end of the coil winding L3; the first end of the third coil winding L3 is connected to the intermediate node where the third electric switch K3 and the fourth electric switch K4 are connected in series, and the second end is connected to the first end of the fifth coil winding L5 The first end of the fifth coil winding L5 is connected to the intermediate node of the fifth electrical switch K5 and the sixth electrical switch K6 connected in series, the second end is connected to the intermediate node of the seventh electrical switch K7 and the eighth electrical switch K8 connected in series , The control terminals of the first to eighth electrical switches K1, K2, K3, K4, K5, K6, K7 and K8 are connected to the first phase drive circuit (not shown in FIG. 7) to control the on and off of each electric control switch To convert the DC voltage output by the first power supply VCC1 to an AC voltage through the first to eighth electronically controlled switches and provide it to the coil windings L1, L3, and L5. The slave channel includes two coil windings L2 and L4 connected to each other. The drive circuit also includes ninth to fourteenth electrical switches K9, K10, K11, K12, K13, and K14. Each two electrical switches are connected in series and connected to the second Two output ends of the power supply VCC2, wherein the first end of the second coil winding L2 is connected to the intermediate node of the ninth electrical switch K9 and the tenth electrical switch K10 connected in series, and the second end is connected to the first end of the fourth coil winding L4 The first end of the fourth coil winding L4 is connected to the intermediate node of the eleventh electrical switch K11 and the twelfth electrical switch K12 in series, the second end is connected to the thirteenth electrical switch K13 and the fourteenth electrical switch K14 Intermediate nodes in series. The control terminals of the ninth to fourteenth electrical switches K9, K10, K11, K12, K13, and K14 are connected to the second-phase drive circuit (not shown in FIG. 7) to control the on and off of each electrical control switch to pass the The nine to fourteenth electronically controlled switches convert the DC voltage output by the second power supply VCC2 into an AC voltage and provide it to the coil windings L2 and L4.
本发明提供的电动机驱动电路,即使某个电源、电开关或线圈绕组故障,其它电源、电开关、线圈绕组工作正常情况下,电动机都可以正常工作,如此提高了电动机的工作容错能力,提高了可靠性。The motor drive circuit provided by the present invention, even if a certain power supply, electric switch or coil winding is faulty, and other power supplies, electric switch and coil winding work normally, the motor can work normally, thus improving the working fault tolerance of the motor and improving reliability.
工业实用性Industrial applicability
本发明提供一种立式废物处理炉、废物处理系统和方法,系统占地面积小,处理废物的效率高,成本低。在工业上可以制造和实现,具有很强的实用性。The invention provides a vertical waste treatment furnace, a waste treatment system and a method, the system occupies a small area, the waste treatment efficiency is high, and the cost is low. It can be manufactured and realized in industry and has strong practicality.
以上结合附图,详细说明了本发明的工作原理。但是本领域的普通技术人员应当明白,说明书仅是用于解释权利要求书。但本发明的保护范围并不局限于说明书。任何熟悉本技术领域的技术人员在本发明批露的技术范围内,可轻易想到的变化或者替换,都应涵盖在本发明的保护范围之内。因此,本发明的保护范围应该以权利要求书的保护范围为准。The working principle of the present invention has been described in detail above with reference to the drawings. However, those of ordinary skill in the art should understand that the description is only used to interpret the claims. However, the protection scope of the present invention is not limited to the description. Anyone who is familiar with the technical field and can easily think of changes or replacements within the technical scope disclosed by the present invention should be included in the protection scope of the present invention. Therefore, the protection scope of the present invention should be subject to the protection scope of the claims.

Claims (10)

  1. 一种立式废物处理炉,其包括炉盖、炉体和炉座,所述炉盖固定在支架上,其设置有进料仓,炉体上端与炉盖可活动地旋转连接,下端与炉座固定连接;所述炉座内设置有旋转炉排,其特征在于,在炉盖上还设置有烟气处理装置,烟气处理装置和炉体之间设置第一分隔装置,其包括第一隔板、筒体和挡板,所述第一隔板上设置有用于供气化室的烟气通过的通孔,筒体设置在在第一隔板上表面上并围绕在通孔的外周,挡板设置在筒体的上端,筒体上设置有排气口。A vertical waste treatment furnace includes a furnace cover, a furnace body and a furnace base, the furnace cover is fixed on a bracket, a feed bin is provided, the upper end of the furnace body is rotatably connected with the furnace cover, and the lower end is connected with the furnace The seat is fixedly connected; the grate is provided with a rotating grate, characterized in that a flue gas treatment device is further provided on the furnace cover, and a first separation device is provided between the flue gas treatment device and the furnace body, which includes a first A partition plate, a cylinder body and a baffle plate, the first partition plate is provided with a through hole for the passage of flue gas from the gasification chamber, the cylinder body is provided on the upper surface of the first partition plate and surrounds the outer periphery of the through hole The baffle is provided at the upper end of the cylinder, and the cylinder is provided with an exhaust port.
  2. 根据权利要求1所述立式废物处理炉,其特征在于,旋转炉排包括安装支架、设置有排渣孔的主动正转炉排、设置有排渣孔的从动正转炉排、设置有排渣孔的反转炉排和驱动机构,所述安装支架中央沿炉体轴向设置有中空的固定轴;固定轴的末端设置有具有空腔的锥形炉排帽,炉排帽下部放射状地设有多个排气孔;导气管经固定轴内的空腔连通于炉排帽的空腔,并通过导气管连通于供气泵;主动正转炉排和从动正转炉排固定于正转轴套上,正转轴套活动地套在固定轴上;反转炉排固定于反转轴套上,反转轴套活动地套在正转轴套上,并设置在主动正转炉排和从动正转炉排之间;驱动机构同时驱动主动正转炉排和从动正转炉排绕固定轴正转,驱动反转炉排绕正转轴套反转。The vertical waste treatment furnace according to claim 1, wherein the rotary grate includes a mounting bracket, an active forward rotary grate provided with a slag discharge hole, a driven forward rotary grate provided with a slag discharge hole, and a slag discharge Reverse grate and drive mechanism of the hole, the center of the mounting bracket is provided with a hollow fixed shaft along the axial direction of the furnace body; the end of the fixed shaft is provided with a conical grate cap with a cavity, and the lower part of the grate cap is radially arranged There are multiple exhaust holes; the air guide tube is connected to the cavity of the grate cap through the cavity in the fixed shaft, and is connected to the gas supply pump through the air guide tube; the active forward rotary grate and the driven forward rotary grate are fixed on the positive rotation shaft sleeve , The forward shaft sleeve is movably sleeved on the fixed shaft; the reverse grate is fixed on the reverse shaft sleeve, the reverse shaft sleeve is movably sleeved on the forward shaft sleeve, and is set on the active forward rotary grate and the driven forward rotary grate The drive mechanism simultaneously drives the active forward rotary grate and the driven forward rotary grate to rotate forward around the fixed shaft, and the reverse rotation grate to rotate around the forward rotation shaft sleeve.
  3. 根据权利要求2所述立式废物处理炉,其特征在于,炉排帽底的半径、从动正转炉排的半径、反转炉排的半径依次增大。The vertical waste treatment furnace according to claim 2, wherein the radius of the grate cap bottom, the radius of the driven forward rotary grate, and the radius of the reversed grate increase in sequence.
  4. 根据权利要求3所述立式废物处理炉,其特征在于,主动正转炉排上表面的外周和反转炉排下表面的外周分别设置有第一环形锥形齿轮和第二环形锥形齿轮,驱动机构至少包括电动机、齿轮箱和锥齿轮,锥齿轮分别与第一环形锥形齿轮和第二环形锥形齿轮啮合,电动机通过齿轮箱连接于锥齿轮的轴上,电动机得电旋 转经齿轮箱驱动锥齿轮旋转,从而驱动第一环形锥形齿轮正转和第二环形锥形齿轮反转,进一步使主动正转炉排和从动正转炉排绕固定轴正转,驱动反转炉排绕正转轴套反转。The vertical waste treatment furnace according to claim 3, wherein the outer circumference of the upper surface of the active forward rotary grate and the outer circumference of the lower surface of the reverse grate are provided with a first ring bevel gear and a second ring bevel gear, respectively. The driving mechanism includes at least an electric motor, a gear box and a bevel gear. The bevel gear is meshed with the first ring bevel gear and the second ring bevel gear respectively. The motor is connected to the shaft of the bevel gear through the gear box. The motor is electrically rotated through the gear box Drive the bevel gear to rotate, thereby driving the first ring bevel gear forward and the second ring bevel gear reverse, further driving the forward and driven forward grate and the forward grate forward around the fixed axis, and driving the reverse grate forward The shaft sleeve is reversed.
  5. 根据权利要求4所述立式废物处理炉,其特征在于,炉排帽底部外周、正转从动炉排外周和反转炉排外周均设有若干个齿。The vertical waste treatment furnace according to claim 4, characterized in that the outer circumference of the bottom of the grate cap, the outer circumference of the forward driven grate and the outer circumference of the reverse grate are provided with a number of teeth.
  6. 根据权利要求1所述的立式废物处理炉,其特征在于,烟气处理装置内还设置有第二分隔装置,第二分隔装置将烟气处理装置分成处于气流上游的二次反应室和处于气流下游的水洗室,其包括第二隔板和凸形帽,在第二隔板的上表面设置有环形凹槽,环形凹槽连通于设置于二次反应室侧壁的排水口;第二隔板中央设置有排气管,排气管连通凸形帽的储气室,凸形帽的下部放射状地设有多个排气孔。The vertical waste treatment furnace according to claim 1, wherein a second partition device is further provided in the flue gas treatment device, and the second partition device divides the flue gas treatment device into a secondary reaction chamber upstream of the gas flow and A water washing chamber downstream of the airflow, which includes a second partition and a convex cap, an annular groove is provided on the upper surface of the second partition, and the annular groove communicates with a drain provided on the side wall of the secondary reaction chamber; An exhaust pipe is arranged in the center of the partition plate, and the exhaust pipe communicates with the gas storage chamber of the convex cap, and a plurality of exhaust holes are radially arranged on the lower part of the convex cap.
  7. 根据权利要求6所述的立式废物处理炉,二次反应室内还设置有热交换器,空气在热交换器中预热而后从炉底排入到旋转炉内。According to the vertical waste treatment furnace of claim 6, a heat exchanger is further provided in the secondary reaction chamber, the air is preheated in the heat exchanger and then discharged into the rotary furnace from the bottom of the furnace.
  8. 根据权利要求1所述的立式废物处理炉,其特征在于,在水洗室的排气口处设置有除雾装置,除雾装置包括一个或多个并列的除雾单元,除雾单元包括过同轴交替设置的过滤筒和旋流器,所述过滤筒包括内筒和外筒,所述内筒的壁上设置有多个通孔,且沿内筒的外壁周向设置有多个向下倾斜的第一挡水环,所述外筒的内壁沿周向设置有多个向下倾斜的第二挡水环,第一挡水环和第二挡水环交错设置。The vertical waste treatment furnace according to claim 1, wherein a demisting device is provided at the exhaust port of the water washing chamber, the demisting device includes one or more parallel demisting units, and the demisting unit includes A coaxially arranged filter cylinder and cyclone, the filter cylinder includes an inner cylinder and an outer cylinder, a plurality of through holes are provided on the wall of the inner cylinder, and a plurality of directions are provided along the outer wall of the inner cylinder A downwardly inclined first water retaining ring, the inner wall of the outer cylinder is provided with a plurality of downwardly inclined second water retaining rings along the circumferential direction, and the first water retaining ring and the second water retaining ring are staggered.
  9. 一种废物处理系统,其包括权利要求1-8任一所述的立式废物处理炉。A waste treatment system comprising the vertical waste treatment furnace according to any one of claims 1-8.
  10. 一种利用权利要求9所述废物处理系统处理废物的方法,其特征在于,其包括使废物在炉体中进行热解气化生成灰渣和合成气体;使气化室排入的物质在二 次反应室中进行二次氧化;使二次反应室所排出的特质经过水洗或碱洗去掉灰尘和酸性气体;将水洗室排出的物质进行除雾得到干净的可排放的气体。A method for processing waste by using the waste treatment system according to claim 9, characterized in that it includes pyrolysis and gasification of the waste in the furnace body to generate ash and synthesis gas; Secondary oxidation is carried out in the secondary reaction chamber; the qualities discharged from the secondary reaction chamber are washed with water or alkali to remove dust and acid gas; and the substances discharged from the water washing chamber are defogged to obtain clean dischargeable gas.
PCT/CN2018/121918 2018-12-06 2018-12-19 Vertical waste treatment furnace, and waste treatment system and method WO2020113684A1 (en)

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