WO2020052528A1 - Method for producing high-strength near-net-shaped metal part - Google Patents

Method for producing high-strength near-net-shaped metal part Download PDF

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WO2020052528A1
WO2020052528A1 PCT/CN2019/105001 CN2019105001W WO2020052528A1 WO 2020052528 A1 WO2020052528 A1 WO 2020052528A1 CN 2019105001 W CN2019105001 W CN 2019105001W WO 2020052528 A1 WO2020052528 A1 WO 2020052528A1
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metal
net
mold
strength
shape
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PCT/CN2019/105001
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French (fr)
Chinese (zh)
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杨云峰
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佛山峰合精密喷射成形科技有限公司
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Priority to CN201811052890.5A priority Critical patent/CN109290543A/en
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22DCASTING OF METALS; CASTING OF OTHER SUBSTANCES BY THE SAME PROCESSES OR DEVICES
    • B22D17/00Pressure die casting or injection die casting, i.e. casting in which the metal is forced into a mould under high pressure
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22DCASTING OF METALS; CASTING OF OTHER SUBSTANCES BY THE SAME PROCESSES OR DEVICES
    • B22D17/00Pressure die casting or injection die casting, i.e. casting in which the metal is forced into a mould under high pressure
    • B22D17/007Semi-solid pressure die casting

Abstract

Disclosed is a method for producing a high-strength metal complex-shaped near-net-shaped metal blank, comprising the following steps: manufacturing a metal ingot blank using a metal spray forming process; heating the metal ingot blank to a semi-solid temperature; and molding a semi-solid metal ingot blank to a near-net-shaped metal part using processes such as extrusion. The method uses the characteristic that the spray-forming ultra-high-speed coagulation can directly create a fine and uniform spheroidal texture that has a better semi-solid thixoforging characteristic than a material manufactured by means of a traditional method, and is directly used to produce a semi-solid formed high-strength and complex near-net-shaped part, with the advantages of low costs for equipment and the production process, a high efficiency and more stable and reliable quality.

Description

一种生产高强度近净形金属零件的方法Method for producing high-strength near-net-shape metal parts 技术领域Technical field
本发明涉及近净形零件加工领域,特别涉及一种生产高强度近净形金属零件的方法。The invention relates to the field of processing near-net-shape parts, in particular to a method for producing high-strength near-net-shape metal parts.
背景技术Background technique
很多复杂形状的金属,例如铝合金,的复杂近净形零件是通过铸造铝合金压铸成形。但这种方法受制于合金种类和工艺局限,传统压铸件的强度较低,大多在100-300MPa范围,而且压铸件容易存在气孔或者内部组织疏松,难以达到高端零部件的使用要求,其金相图如图1所示。Many complex-shaped metals, such as aluminum alloys, are formed by casting aluminum alloys by die casting. However, this method is limited by the type and process of the alloy. The strength of traditional die-casting parts is low, most of which are in the range of 100-300 MPa. Moreover, the die-casting parts are prone to pores or loose internal structures, and it is difficult to meet the requirements of high-end parts. Figure shown in Figure 1.
上世纪七十年代出现的金属喷射成形技术可是金属液以一万度/秒数量级的速度超高速冷凝,可制备出传统压技术难以生产的组织细小均匀高合金材料,由此生产的某些7-系铝合金强度可达800MPa,其金相图如图2所示。但是正是由于金属喷射成形技术生成的产品的材质强度较高,所以其可塑性差,本领域一直都是用金属喷射成形技术来直接生产零件坯,之后通过切削、打磨工艺成形最终的零件。对于复杂的零件,喷射成形的技术尽管能做到精密的成形,但是零件结构越复杂、越精密,其层厚就越小,导致其成形的时间就越长。The metal spray forming technology appeared in the 1970s, but the metal liquid condenses at a high speed of the order of 10,000 degrees per second. It can prepare fine and uniform high-alloy materials that are difficult to produce by traditional pressing technology. -The strength of the aluminum alloy is 800 MPa, and its metallographic diagram is shown in Figure 2. However, it is precisely because of the high strength of the material produced by the metal injection molding technology that its plasticity is poor. In the field, metal injection molding technology has been used to directly produce part blanks, and then the final parts are formed by cutting and grinding processes. For complex parts, although the spray forming technology can achieve precise forming, the more complex and precise the part structure, the smaller the layer thickness and the longer the forming time.
而且,如果把这些金属喷射成形的零件坯进行重熔压铸,其组织和性能又会变回成很差水平,其金相图如图3所示。Moreover, if these metal injection-molded part blanks are remelted and die-cast, their structures and properties will return to a very poor level. The metallographic diagram is shown in Figure 3.
半固态成形技术也是上世纪七十年代发明的一种新的金属成形技术。通过各种工艺手段把金属凝固过程中生成的树枝晶(如图1所示)变成球团状晶后具有半固态触变特性和压力下流变充型能力。与传统的压铸相比,半固态成形产品具有强度和致密度高、收缩率低从而近净形零件的尺寸形状更精准、成形温度较低使得模具寿命提高等优点。半固态温度是指固-液温度区间的温度。所述近净形零件,是指零件成形后,仅需少量加工或不再加工。Semi-solid forming technology is also a new metal forming technology invented in the 1970s. The dendritic crystals (as shown in Figure 1) generated during the solidification of the metal are transformed into pellets by various processes and have semi-solid thixotropic properties and rheological filling ability under pressure. Compared with traditional die-casting, semi-solid formed products have the advantages of high strength and density, low shrinkage, so that the size and shape of near-net-shape parts are more accurate, and the forming temperature is lower, which improves the life of the mold. The semi-solid temperature is the temperature in the solid-liquid temperature range. The near-net shape part means that after the part is formed, only a small amount of processing or no processing is required.
目前制备半固态成形金属原料的办法主要有两种:1)凝固过程中实施超声波震动法,其金相图如图4所示;2)凝固过程中实施热搅拌法,其金相图如图5所示。但它们的工艺复杂、成本高、效率低。而本领域技术人员花费大量的时间、精力去解决如何让树枝晶能更好、更均匀、更快地碎化的问题。At present, there are mainly two methods for preparing semi-solid forming metal raw materials: 1) The ultrasonic vibration method is used during the solidification process, and the metallographic diagram is shown in Figure 4; 5 shown. But their processes are complex, costly and inefficient. However, those skilled in the art spend a lot of time and energy to solve the problem of how to make dendritic crystals better, more uniform, and faster.
金属喷射成形强度高,但重新熔铸后的组织和性能会显著变差,而且铸造工艺性能差。半固态成形的工艺流程中,又必须对材料进行重新熔铸,所以金属喷射成形和半固态成形技术两者是新兴的并行的技术,由于两者工艺流程本身就存在着相互抵触的情况,而各有各的优点,各有各的缺点。复杂零件成形来说,半固态成形的成形速度快,但是强度低,金属喷射成形的加工时间长,但是强度高。The metal spray forming strength is high, but the structure and properties after remelting will be significantly deteriorated, and the casting process performance is poor. In the process of semi-solid forming, the material must be re-melted. Therefore, metal spray forming and semi-solid forming are both emerging and parallel technologies. Because the two processes have conflicts, the There are advantages and disadvantages. For the forming of complex parts, the forming speed of semi-solid forming is high, but the strength is low. The processing time of metal injection molding is long, but the strength is high.
金属喷射成形工艺要制作高强度近净形金属零件的研究方向是加快每个层厚形成的速度,而半固态成形的研究方向是如何将树枝晶有效、快速地打碎从而提高其强度。两者的研究方向完全的不同。The research direction of metal spray forming process to make high-strength near-net-shape metal parts is to accelerate the formation of each layer thickness, and the research direction of semi-solid forming is how to effectively and quickly dendrites are broken to increase their strength. The research directions of the two are completely different.
发明内容Summary of the Invention
本发明要解决的技术问题是:提供一种生产高强度近净形金属零件的方法。The technical problem to be solved by the present invention is to provide a method for producing a high-strength near-net-shape metal part.
本发明解决其技术问题的解决方案是:The solution to the technical problem of the present invention is:
一种生产高强度近净形金属零件的方法,包括如下步骤:A method for producing a high-strength near-net-shape metal part includes the following steps:
步骤a)采用金属喷射成形工艺制作出金属锭坯;Step a) making a metal ingot by a metal spray forming process;
步骤c)对金属锭坯加热至半固态温度;Step c) heating the metal ingot to a semi-solid temperature;
步骤d)用挤压工艺将具有半固态温度的金属锭坯用模具形成近净形金属零件。Step d) forming the metal ingot having a semi-solid temperature into a near-net shape metal part by an extrusion process.
作为上述方案的进一步改进,在步骤c)和步骤d)之间还设有步骤c1):对金属锭坯进行保温5秒至30秒。As a further improvement of the foregoing solution, a step c1) is further provided between step c) and step d): the metal ingot is held for 5 seconds to 30 seconds.
作为上述方案的进一步改进,步骤c)中,采用电磁感应器对金属锭坯进行加热。As a further improvement of the above solution, in step c), the metal ingot is heated by using an electromagnetic inductor.
作为上述方案的进一步改进,步骤d)中,近净形金属零件的成形过程是这样的:模具包括上模、下模,上模、下模上均设有依次相连的进料口段、流道段、型腔段,上模和下模的进料口段、流道段、型腔段拼合成依次连通的进料口、流道、型腔,将处于半固态温度的金属锭坯放入进料口,用与进料口的形状、大小适配的压棍挤压金属锭坯,压棍将处于半固态温度的金属锭坯从模具的进料口,经过狭小的流道进入到模具的型腔中并进行填充,从而形成近净形金属零件。As a further improvement of the above solution, in step d), the forming process of the near-net-shape metal part is as follows: the mold includes an upper mold and a lower mold, and the upper mold and the lower mold are each provided with successively connected feeding port sections, flows, The channel section, cavity section, upper and lower mold inlets, runners, and cavity sections are assembled into successively connected inlets, runners, and cavities, and the metal ingots at a semi-solid temperature are placed. Into the feed inlet, the metal ingot is extruded with a pressing rod that is suitable for the shape and size of the inlet. The press rod passes the metal ingot at a semi-solid temperature from the mold inlet through the narrow flow channel to the The cavity of the mold is filled and filled to form a near-net shape metal part.
作为上述方案的进一步改进,流道的横截面面积不大于压棍横截面积的十分之一。As a further improvement of the above solution, the cross-sectional area of the flow channel is not greater than one-tenth of the cross-sectional area of the pressing rod.
作为上述方案的进一步改进,步骤d)中,金属锭坯的体积>型腔的体 积+流道的体积,压棍对金属锭坯冲压成形的压力称为第一压力,在完成模具的型腔填充后,压棍用第二压力对近净形金属零件进行保压。As a further improvement of the above solution, in step d), the volume of the metal ingot> the volume of the cavity + the volume of the runner, and the pressure of the pressing rod to press the metal ingot is called the first pressure. After completing the cavity of the mold After filling, the pressure stick uses a second pressure to hold the near-net shape metal part.
作为上述方案的进一步改进,第二压力一般大于第一压力,保压时间不小于3秒As a further improvement of the above solution, the second pressure is generally greater than the first pressure, and the holding time is not less than 3 seconds
作为上述方案的进一步改进,步骤d)近净形金属零件的成形过程是这样的:所述模具为锻造模具,所述模具包括上模和下模,将金属锭坯放在上模和下模之间,用模锻设备让上模和下模进行合模,从而形成近净形金属零件。As a further improvement of the above solution, the forming process of step d) of a near-net shape metal part is such that the mold is a forging mold, the mold includes an upper mold and a lower mold, and a metal ingot is placed on the upper mold and the lower mold. In between, the upper and lower dies are closed with a die forging device to form a near-net shape metal part.
作为上述方案的进一步改进,步骤a)和步骤c)之间还设有步骤b):用压力加工工艺把金属锭坯加工成具有单一截面的金属锭坯。As a further improvement of the above solution, a step b) is further provided between step a) and step c): the metal ingot is processed into a metal ingot with a single cross-section by a pressing process.
作为上述方案的进一步改进,步骤b)中所述的压力加工工艺包括热挤压、热轧中的任意一种。As a further improvement of the above solution, the pressure processing process described in step b) includes any one of hot extrusion and hot rolling.
本发明的有益效果是:由于本发明的金属锭坯是采用金属喷射成形工艺制成的,其内部组织非常的细小均匀,不存在着枝晶。把这样的金属锭坯加热至半固态温度不至于产生晶枝,而且流动性好,从而将金属锭坯进行压力成形,将其直接用来生产半固态成形高强度复杂近净形零件,具有设备和工艺流程成本低、效率高、质量更稳定可靠的特点。本发明利用金属喷射成形超高冷凝速度获取细小圆整金相组织的金属特点,直接将其作为半固态成形坯料生产高强度近净形金属零件,取代传统搅拌等繁琐制备半固态成形坯料的技术,具有工艺流程简短、质量高、综合技术经济效益高的有点。本发明用于金属零件成形。The beneficial effect of the present invention is that since the metal ingot of the present invention is made by a metal spray forming process, its internal structure is very fine and uniform, and there is no dendrite. Heating such a metal ingot to a semi-solid temperature will not produce crystallites, and the fluidity is good. Therefore, the metal ingot is pressure-formed and used directly to produce semi-solid formed high-strength complex near-net-shaped parts. It has equipment and Low cost, high efficiency, more stable and reliable quality. The invention utilizes the ultra-high condensing speed of metal spray forming to obtain the metal characteristics of a small round metallographic structure, and directly uses it as a semi-solid forming blank to produce high-strength near-net-shape metal parts, instead of the traditional technology of preparing the semi-solid forming blank, which is a cumbersome process such as traditional stirring. It has the advantages of short process flow, high quality, and comprehensive technical and economic benefits. The invention is used for forming metal parts.
附图说明BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
为了更清楚地说明本发明实施例中的技术方案,下面将对实施例描述中所需要使用的附图作简单说明。显然,所描述的附图只是本发明的一部分实施例,而不是全部实施例,本领域的技术人员在不付出创造性劳动的前提下,还可以根据这些附图获得其他设计方案和附图。In order to explain the technical solution in the embodiments of the present invention more clearly, the drawings used in the description of the embodiments will be briefly described below. Obviously, the drawings described are only a part of the embodiments of the present invention, but not all the embodiments. Those skilled in the art can also obtain other designs and drawings according to these drawings without creative efforts.
图1是铸造A390铝合金的金相图;Figure 1 is a metallographic diagram of a cast A390 aluminum alloy;
图2是喷射成形A390铝合金的金相图;Figure 2 is a metallographic diagram of the spray-formed A390 aluminum alloy;
图3是金喷射成形A390铝合金重新进行熔铸冷却后的金相图;3 is a metallographic diagram of the metal injection-molded A390 aluminum alloy after re-melting and cooling;
图4是A390铝合金液采用超声波振动法制备的金属锭坯料的金相图;4 is a metallographic diagram of a metal ingot blank prepared by an ultrasonic vibration method of an A390 aluminum alloy liquid;
图5是A390铝合金液采用热拌法制备的金属锭坯料的金相图;5 is a metallographic diagram of a metal ingot blank prepared by the hot-mix method of A390 aluminum alloy liquid;
图6是A390铝合金采用本发明制备的近净形金属零件的金相图。6 is a metallographic diagram of a near-net shape metal part prepared by the A390 aluminum alloy using the present invention.
具体实施方式detailed description
以下将结合实施例和附图对本发明的构思、具体结构及产生的技术效果进行清楚、完整地描述,以充分地理解本发明的目的、特征和效果。显然,所描述的实施例只是本发明的一部分实施例,而不是全部实施例,基于本发明的实施例,本领域的技术人员在不付出创造性劳动的前提下所获得的其他实施例,均属于本发明保护的范围。另外,文中所提到的所有联接/连接关系,并非单指构件直接相接,而是指可根据具体实施情况,通过添加或减少联接辅件,来组成更优的联接结构。本发明中的各个技术特征,在不互相矛盾冲突的前提下可以交互组合。In the following, the concept, specific structure, and technical effects of the present invention will be clearly and completely described in combination with the embodiments and the drawings to fully understand the objects, features, and effects of the present invention. Obviously, the described embodiments are only a part of the embodiments of the present invention, but not all the embodiments. Based on the embodiments of the present invention, other embodiments obtained by those skilled in the art without creative efforts belong to The scope of the invention. In addition, all the connection / connection relationships mentioned in the article are not directly connected by a single-finger member, but mean that a better connection structure can be formed by adding or reducing connection accessories according to the specific implementation situation. Various technical features in the present invention can be combined and interacted on the premise of not conflicting with each other.
参照图6,这是本发明的应用于A390铝合金的实施例,具体地:Referring to FIG. 6, this is an embodiment of the present invention applied to A390 aluminum alloy, specifically:
一种生产高强度近净形金属零件的方法,包括如下步骤:A method for producing a high-strength near-net-shape metal part includes the following steps:
步骤a)采用金属喷射成形工艺制作出金属锭坯;Step a) making a metal ingot by a metal spray forming process;
步骤c)对金属锭坯加热至半固态温度;Step c) heating the metal ingot to a semi-solid temperature;
步骤d)用模具压力成形将具有半固态温度的金属锭坯用模具形成近净形金属零件。Step d) forming the metal ingot with a semi-solid temperature into a near-net-shape metal part by using a die pressure forming.
本发明的方法利用喷射成形的超高速凝固能直接制成具有细小均匀球团状组织的半固态成形原料,比传统方法制成的原料具有更好的半固态触变成形特性,将其直接用来生产半固态成形高强度复杂形状的近净形零件,具有设备和工艺流程成本低、效率高、质量更稳定可靠的特点。对比图2、图6可知,本发明不但能让近净形金属零件的内部组件结构更加致密,而且基本保持了喷射成形金属细小球状晶粒结构,具有较高的半固态触变性和流动充型能力,从而实现复杂形状零件的模压成形,而且结构更加致密,所以本发明还能保留金属喷射成形的高强度的特性,而本身强度和可塑性本身就是一对矛盾体,但是通过本发明正是将这两个矛盾体结合在一起。亦即,本发明的半固态成形的工艺避免对喷射成形的金属材料进行重新熔铸,保持其优越的组织和性能,进而成形复杂形状的高强度近净形零件。传统的半固态成形原料的晶粒转变为球形的过程是在搅拌、振动时实现的。而本发明的半固态成形原料通过喷射成形超高速凝固直接生成更好的品质,大大简化工艺流程、降低成本、提供零件性能。The method of the present invention can directly produce a semi-solid forming raw material with a fine and uniform pellet-like structure by using ultra-high-speed solidification of spray forming. It is used to produce semi-solid formed near-net-shape parts with high strength and complex shapes. It has the characteristics of low equipment and process flow, high efficiency, and more stable and reliable quality. Comparing FIG. 2 and FIG. 6, it can be known that the present invention not only can make the internal component structure of the near-net-shape metal part denser, but also basically maintains the fine spherical grain structure of the spray-formed metal, and has high semi-solid thixotropy and flow filling. Ability to achieve the compression molding of parts with complex shapes, and the structure is more dense, so the invention can still retain the high strength characteristics of metal injection molding, while strength and plasticity itself are a pair of contradictions, but through the present invention is exactly These two contradictions are combined. That is, the semi-solid forming process of the present invention avoids re-melting the spray-formed metal material, maintains its superior structure and performance, and then forms a complex-shaped high-strength near-net-shape part. The traditional process of transforming the crystal grains of semi-solid forming raw materials into spherical shapes is realized under stirring and vibration. The semi-solid forming raw material of the present invention directly generates better quality through ultra-high-speed solidification by spray forming, which greatly simplifies the process flow, reduces costs, and provides part performance.
本实施例的步骤a)和步骤c)之间还设有步骤b):用压力加工工艺把金属锭坯加工成具有单一截面的金属锭坯。这样便于金属锭坯进行精准地截段,每一段的金属锭坯均作为步骤c)中的金属锭坯。A step b) is further provided between steps a) and c) of this embodiment: a metal ingot blank is processed into a metal ingot blank with a single cross-section by a pressure processing process. This facilitates accurate segmentation of the metal ingot, and each segment of the metal ingot is used as the metal ingot in step c).
本实施例的步骤b)是将金属锭坯压实成棒状,在实际生产加工时,可以将冷却后的棒状的金属锭坯截段,然后将截段后的金属锭坯进行步骤c)。In step b) of this embodiment, the metal ingot is compacted into a rod shape. In actual production and processing, the cooled rod-shaped metal ingot can be cut into sections, and then the cut metal rod can be subjected to step c).
步骤b)中所述的压力加工等工艺包括热挤压、热轧中的任意一种。这样能提高金属锭坯的塑性,能很好地将金属锭坯内的孔隙进行消除,并有利于制备合适形状和重量的半固态成形原料坯。The processes such as pressure processing described in step b) include any one of hot extrusion and hot rolling. In this way, the plasticity of the metal ingot can be improved, the pores in the metal ingot can be eliminated well, and the semi-solid forming raw material blank with a suitable shape and weight can be prepared.
金属喷射成形的金属锭坯内部存在少量(约1%体积)的孔隙经过步骤b)、d)后能将得以有效地消除,能有效保障金属近净形零件的强度。A small amount (about 1% by volume) of pores in the metal ingot blank formed by metal spraying can be effectively eliminated after steps b) and d), and the strength of the metal near-net-shape parts can be effectively guaranteed.
为了让金属锭坯的内外温度较为一致,在步骤c)和步骤d)之间还设有步骤c1):对金属锭坯进行保温5秒至30秒。In order to make the inner and outer temperature of the metal ingot more consistent, step c1) is further provided between step c) and step d): the metal ingot is kept warm for 5 seconds to 30 seconds.
本实施例的步骤c)中,采用电磁感应器对金属锭坯进行加热,这样能通过调整频率和功率很好地对金属整体同时地加热,避免传统的外部加热法让金属锭坯的外部先热甚至熔化,内部才能达到半固态温度,有效地减少加热时间,实现很好的整体温度的控制,同时让金属锭坯的内部和外部均不会再次出现树枝晶,在确保生产效率的前提下,避免了本发明在背景技术中记载的“喷射成形材料重熔压铸,其组织和性能又会变回成很差水平”的问题。In step c) of this embodiment, the metal ingot is heated by using an electromagnetic inductor, so that the entire metal can be heated at the same time by adjusting the frequency and power, avoiding the traditional external heating method to allow the outside of the metal ingot to be heated first. The heat can even be melted to reach the semi-solid temperature inside, which can effectively reduce the heating time and achieve a good overall temperature control. At the same time, no dendrites will appear inside and outside the metal ingot. Under the premise of ensuring production efficiency Therefore, the problem of "remelting and injection molding of spray-formed material, and its structure and performance will return to a very poor level" described in the background art of the present invention is avoided.
步骤d)中,近净形金属零件的成形过程是这样的:模具包括上模、下模,上模、下模上均设有依次相连的进料口段、流道段、型腔段,上模和下模的进料口段、流道段、型腔段拼合成依次连通的进料口、流道、型腔,将处于半固态温度的金属锭坯放入进料口,用与进料口的形状、大小适配的压棍挤压金属锭坯,压棍将处于半固态温度的金属锭坯从模具的进料口,经过狭小的流道进入到模具的型腔中并进行填充,从而形成近净形金属零件。由于流道的横截面积较小,所以在充型时,金属锭坯在流道中受到的压力会非常的大,这样能让近净形金属零件的内部结构会更加的致密。本 实施例的进料口、压棍、金属锭坯的形状和大小均相同,这样能最大限度地防止气体进入近净形金属零件的内部,也能防止金属锭坯表面发生塑性变形从而包住气体,将气体带入到近净形金属零件的内部。In step d), the forming process of the near-net-shape metal part is as follows: the mold includes an upper mold and a lower mold, and the upper mold and the lower mold are provided with a feeding inlet section, a flow channel section and a cavity section which are sequentially connected, The upper, lower, and lower mold inlets, runners, and cavities are combined into successively connected inlets, runners, and cavities. Metal ingots at a semi-solid temperature are placed in the inlets. The shape and size of the feeding port are adapted to press the metal ingot. The pressing rod will pass the metal ingot at the semi-solid temperature from the mold inlet through the narrow flow channel into the mold cavity and carry out Fill to form a near-net shape metal part. Because the cross-sectional area of the flow channel is small, the pressure of the metal ingot in the flow channel during the filling process will be very large, which can make the internal structure of the near-net-shape metal parts more dense. The shapes and sizes of the feed inlet, the pressing rod, and the metal ingot in this embodiment are all the same, so that gas can be prevented from entering the interior of the near-net-shape metal part to the maximum, and the surface of the metal ingot can be prevented from being plastically deformed and wrapped. Gas, which brings the gas into the interior of the near-net-shape metal part.
流道的横截面面积通常被设置成不大于压棍横截面积的十分之一。流道的横截面面积小,能加大晶粒融合、磨圆的作用。The cross-sectional area of the flow channel is usually set to not more than one tenth of the cross-sectional area of the press stick. The small cross-sectional area of the flow channel can increase the effect of grain fusion and rounding.
步骤d)中,金属锭坯的体积>型腔的体积+流道的体积,压棍对金属锭坯的压力称为第一压力,在完成模具的型腔填充后,压棍用第二压力对近净形金属零件进行保压,以避免气体析出和形成疏松。本实施例的第二压力大于第一压力,保压时间不小于3秒,由于有保压的设置,能很好地保障近净形金属零件的致密度。In step d), the volume of the metal ingot> the volume of the cavity + the volume of the runner. The pressure of the press rod on the metal ingot is called the first pressure. After the cavity of the mold is filled, the second pressure is used for the press rod. Hold pressure on near-net-shape metal parts to avoid gas precipitation and formation of porosity. In this embodiment, the second pressure is greater than the first pressure, and the holding time is not less than 3 seconds. Due to the setting of the holding pressure, the density of the near-net-shaped metal part can be well guaranteed.
当然,也可以在步骤b)中,将金属锭坯用压力加工工艺将金属锭坯压成整体形状接近近净形金属零件然后再进行如下的步骤b)。Of course, in step b), the metal ingot can be pressed into a near-net-shape metal part by a pressing process, and then the following step b) is performed.
步骤d)所述模具为锻造模具,所述模具包括上模和下模,将金属锭坯放在上模和下模之间,用模锻设备让上模和下模进行合模,从而形成近净形金属零件。Step d) the mold is a forging mold, the mold includes an upper mold and a lower mold, a metal ingot is placed between the upper mold and the lower mold, and the upper mold and the lower mold are closed by a forging equipment, thereby forming Near-net-shape metal parts.
在完成近净形零件坯的加工后,可进一步地进行机加工,从而去除飞边、流道余料,还可以进一步地进行热处理。After the processing of the near-net-shape part blank is completed, further machining can be performed to remove burrs and runner material, and further heat treatment can be performed.
以上对本发明的较佳实施方式进行了具体说明,但本发明并不限于所述实施例,熟悉本领域的技术人员在不违背本发明精神的前提下还可作出种种的等同变型或替换,这些等同的变型或替换均包含在本申请权利要求所限定的范围内。The preferred embodiments of the present invention have been specifically described above, but the present invention is not limited to the embodiments. Those skilled in the art can make various equivalent modifications or replacements without departing from the spirit of the present invention. Equivalent variations or substitutions are included in the scope defined by the claims of the present application.

Claims (10)

  1. 一种生产高强度近净形金属零件的方法,其特征在于:包括如下步骤:A method for producing a high-strength near-net-shape metal part, which is characterized by comprising the following steps:
    步骤a)采用金属喷射成形工艺制作出金属锭坯;Step a) making a metal ingot by a metal spray forming process;
    步骤c)对金属锭坯加热至半固态温度;Step c) heating the metal ingot to a semi-solid temperature;
    步骤d)用模具压力成形的方法将具有半固态温度的金属锭坯用模具形成近净形金属零件。Step d) forming the metal ingot having a semi-solid temperature into a near-net-shape metal part by using a die pressure forming method.
  2. 根据权利要求1所述的一种生产高强度近净形金属零件的方法,其特征在于:在步骤c)和步骤d)之间还设有步骤c1):对金属锭坯进行保温5秒至30秒。The method for producing a high-strength near-net-shape metal part according to claim 1, further comprising a step c1) between step c) and step d): holding the metal ingot blank for 5 seconds to 30 seconds.
  3. 根据权利要求1所述的一种生产高强度近净形金属零件的方法,其特征在于:步骤c)中,采用电磁感应器对金属锭坯进行加热。The method for producing a high-strength near-net-shape metal part according to claim 1, wherein in step c), the metal ingot is heated by an electromagnetic inductor.
  4. 根据权利要求1所述的一种生产高强度近净形金属零件的方法,其特征在于:步骤d)中,近净形金属零件的成形过程是这样的:模具包括上模、下模,上模、下模上均设有依次相连的进料口段、流道段、型腔段,上模和下模的进料口段、流道段、型腔段拼合成依次连通的进料口、流道、型腔,将处于半固态温度的金属锭坯放入进料口,用与进料口的形状、大小适配的压棍挤压金属锭坯,压棍将处于半固态温度的金属锭坯从模具的进料口,经过狭小的流道进入到模具的型腔中并进行填充,从而形成近净形金属零件。The method for producing a high-strength near-net-shape metal part according to claim 1, wherein in step d), the forming process of the near-net-shape metal part is as follows: the mold includes an upper mold, a lower mold, and an upper mold; Both the die and the lower die are provided with a feeding inlet section, a runner section and a cavity section which are connected in sequence. The upper and lower die inlet sections, the runner section and the cavity section are connected into a sequentially connected inlet. , Runner, cavity, put the metal ingot at the semi-solid temperature into the feeding port, and press the metal ingot with the pressing rod that matches the shape and size of the feeding port. The pressing rod will be at the semi-solid temperature. The metal ingot enters the cavity of the mold through the narrow flow channel from the feeding port of the mold and is filled, thereby forming a near-net shape metal part.
  5. 根据权利要求4所述的一种生产高强度近净形金属零件的方法,其特征在于:流道的横截面面积不大于压棍横截面积的十分之一。The method for producing a high-strength near-net-shape metal part according to claim 4, wherein the cross-sectional area of the flow channel is not more than one-tenth of the cross-sectional area of the pressing rod.
  6. 根据权利要求4所述的一种生产高强度近净形金属零件的方法,其特征 在于:步骤d)中,金属锭坯的体积>型腔的体积+流道的体积,压棍对金属锭坯冲压成形的压力称为第一压力,在完成模具的型腔填充后,压棍用第二压力对近净形金属零件进行保压。The method for producing a high-strength near-net-shape metal part according to claim 4, characterized in that in step d), the volume of the metal ingot blank> the volume of the cavity + the volume of the flow channel, and the pressing rod is used for the metal ingot The pressure of the blank press forming is called the first pressure. After the cavity filling of the mold is completed, the pressure stick uses the second pressure to maintain the near-net shape metal parts.
  7. 根据权利要求4所述的一种生产高强度近净形金属零件的方法,其特征在于:第二压力一般大于第一压力,保压时间不小于3秒The method for producing a high-strength near-net-shape metal part according to claim 4, wherein the second pressure is generally greater than the first pressure, and the holding time is not less than 3 seconds
  8. 根据权利要求1所述的一种生产高强度近净形金属零件的方法,其特征在于:步骤d)近净形金属零件的成形过程是这样的:所述模具为锻造模具,所述模具包括上模和下模,将金属锭坯放在上模和下模之间,用模锻设备让上模和下模进行合模,从而形成近净形金属零件。The method for producing a high-strength near-net-shape metal part according to claim 1, characterized in that: the step d) the forming process of the near-net-shape metal part is such that the mold is a forging mold, and the mold includes The upper mold and the lower mold, the metal ingot blank is placed between the upper mold and the lower mold, and the upper mold and the lower mold are closed by a forging device, thereby forming a near-net shape metal part.
  9. 根据权利要求1所述的一种生产高强度近净形金属零件的方法,其特征在于:步骤a)和步骤c)之间还设有步骤b):用压力加工工艺把金属锭坯加工成金属锭坯。The method for producing a high-strength near-net-shape metal part according to claim 1, wherein step b) is further provided between step a) and step c): the metal ingot is processed into Metal ingots.
  10. 根据权利要求9所述的一种生产高强度近净形金属零件的方法,其特征在于:步骤b)中所述的压力加工工艺包括热挤压、热轧中的任意一种。The method for producing a high-strength near-net-shape metal part according to claim 9, characterized in that the press working process in step b) comprises any one of hot extrusion and hot rolling.
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