钢轮胶轮共驱型转向架及其交通系统Steel-wheel rubber-wheel common-drive bogie and its transportation system
本发明涉及轨道机车车辆转向架，特别是一种钢轮胶轮共驱型转向架及其交通系统。The invention relates to a bogie of a railway locomotive vehicle, in particular to a steel-wheel rubber-wheel common-drive bogie and a transportation system thereof.
目前，世界上轨道机车车辆领域，速度高、轴重大、运能大等特点成就了钢轮钢轨交通系统运行的主流地位。但钢轨交通系统噪声大、爬坡能力低、曲线通过半径大等问题都有待解决。胶轮城市轨道交通车辆主要有四种：胶轮地铁、单轨系统、自动化导轨交通系统AGT(Automated guideway transit)和劳尔电车。几种胶轮系统车辆的运行性能如表1所示。At present, the world's rail locomotive and vehicle fields, with high speed, heavy axles, and large transportation capacity, have achieved the mainstream status of steel wheeled rail transportation system operation. However, the rail transit system has many problems such as high noise, low climbing ability, and large curve passing radius. There are four main types of rubber-wheeled urban rail transit vehicles: rubber-tired subways, monorail systems, AMT (Automated Guideway Transit), and Raul trams. The running performance of several rubber tire system vehicles is shown in Table 1.
表1 几种胶轮系统车辆的运行性能Table 1 Running performance of several vehicles with rubber wheel systems
经过对比可知，胶轮地铁的运行性能较高。投入运用较具特色的胶轮地铁主要是日本札幌9000系列车辆以及法国巴黎的MP89型车辆和墨西哥的CAF NM-73车辆。日本札幌的9000系列车辆，走行轮加导向轮均采用橡胶轮胎。法国巴黎的MP89型车辆橡胶车轮和钢轨并用，钢轨在轮胎内侧，保证橡胶轮胎爆胎漏气时钢轨能保证车辆正常运行一段距离，最大程度地降低事故的发生，但是其钢轮钢轨不承载，仅依靠橡胶车轮承载，因而其适应性、承载性较差。After comparison, the running performance of the rubber-wheeled subway is higher. The more featured rubber-wheeled subways are mainly Sapporo 9000 series vehicles in Japan, MP89 vehicles in Paris, France, and CAF NM-73 vehicles in Mexico. The 9000 series vehicles in Sapporo, Japan use rubber tires for the running wheels and guide wheels. The MP89 vehicle in Paris, France uses rubber wheels and steel rails together. The steel rails are inside the tires. When the rubber tires burst, the rails can ensure that the vehicle can run normally for a certain distance to minimize the occurrence of accidents, but its steel rails do not carry. Only rely on rubber wheels to carry, so its adaptability and bearing capacity are poor.
发明内容Summary of the Invention
本发明所要解决的技术问题是，针对现有技术不足，提供一种钢轮胶轮共驱型转向架及其交通系统，其将胶轮和钢轮耦合在一起，并可根据客流密疏和运行性能的需求，选择性使用钢轮钢轨系统或胶轮平轨系统。The technical problem to be solved by the present invention is to provide a steel-wheel rubber-wheel common-drive bogie and its transportation system in response to the shortage of the existing technology. For the requirements of running performance, steel wheel rail system or rubber wheel flat rail system can be used selectively.
为解决上述技术问题，本发明提供一种钢轮胶轮共驱型转向架，包括H型构架和安装在H型构架上的两根车轴，所述两根车轴上分别共轴安装有钢轮对和胶轮对，所述钢轮对安装在内侧，所述胶轮对安装在外侧，且所述钢轮对的直径大于所述胶轮对的直径。In order to solve the above technical problems, the present invention provides a steel-wheel rubber-wheel common-drive bogie, comprising an H-shaped frame and two axles mounted on the H-shaped frame, and the two axles are respectively coaxially mounted with steel wheels. And a rubber wheel pair, the steel wheel pair is installed on the inside, the rubber wheel pair is installed on the outside, and the diameter of the steel wheel pair is larger than the diameter of the rubber wheel pair.
上述方案的进一步改进为，所述构架的前、后端的横向方向上分别固定安装导向横梁，两根导向横梁的两端分别设置导向轮，以保证车辆的安全运行方向。The above solution is further improved in that the guide beams are fixedly installed in the transverse direction of the front and rear ends of the frame, respectively, and guide wheels are provided at both ends of the two guide beams to ensure the safe running direction of the vehicle.
为解决上述技术问题，本发明还提供了一种与上述钢轮胶轮共驱型转向架匹配的交通系统，其包括两根平行钢轨和两根平行平轨，所述钢轨与所述钢轮对匹配安装，所述平轨与所述胶轮对匹配安装；所述钢轨和所述平轨分段设置，且平轨的水平高度大于钢轨的水平高度；所述钢轨与所述平轨的过渡区域同时设置所述钢轨和所述平轨，所述钢轨位于所述平轨的内侧，所述平轨的端部斜向下延伸一段而形成低于钢轨的过渡结构。In order to solve the above technical problem, the present invention also provides a transportation system matched with the steel wheel rubber wheel co-drive type bogie, which includes two parallel steel rails and two parallel flat rails, the steel rails and the steel wheels For matching installation, the flat rail is matched with the rubber wheel pair; the steel rail and the flat rail are arranged in sections, and the horizontal height of the flat rail is greater than the horizontal height of the steel rail; The transition area is provided with the steel rail and the flat rail at the same time, the steel rail is located inside the flat rail, and an end of the flat rail extends obliquely downward to form a transition structure lower than the steel rail.
上述方案的进一步改进为，所述钢轮胶轮共驱型交通系统还包括与所述导向轮匹配的侧边导向轨，以实现车辆的安全导向。The above solution is further improved in that the steel-wheel-rubber-wheel-drive-type transportation system further includes a side guide rail matched with the guide wheel to realize safe guidance of the vehicle.
上述方案的进一步改进为，所述钢轮对的轮缘设置与所述两根平行钢轨配合的导向结构。The above solution is further improved in that a rim of the steel wheel pair is provided with a guide structure that cooperates with the two parallel steel rails.
本发明在市区利用胶轮对运行在平轨上，且导向轮采用两侧导向方式，由于胶轮系统具有曲线通过能力强，爬坡能力强，低噪声的特点，因而可以提高乘坐舒适性并实现降低噪声的目的，很好地适应市区内线路要求。在客流量变小的郊区，由于站间距较大需要提高运行速度，本发明则切换成钢轮和钢轨系统，采用轮缘导向，以提高运行速度。The invention uses rubber wheel pairs to run on flat rails in urban areas, and the guide wheels adopt two-sided guidance. Because the rubber wheel system has the characteristics of strong curve passing ability, strong climbing ability, and low noise, it can improve riding comfort. And to achieve the purpose of reducing noise, well adapted to urban line requirements. In the suburbs where the passenger flow becomes smaller, the running speed needs to be increased due to the larger station spacing. The present invention switches to a steel wheel and rail system, and adopts rim guidance to increase the running speed.
与现有技术相比，本发明具有的有益效果为：Compared with the prior art, the present invention has the following beneficial effects:
1、本发明在站间距密集的城区采用胶轮系统，以降低噪声，同时提高车辆爬坡能力；当站间距变大时，切换为钢轮系统，提高车辆运行速度，因而本发明交通系统能有效最终解决不同区域对噪声和速度的需要。1. The invention adopts a rubber wheel system in urban areas with densely spaced stations to reduce noise and improve the climbing ability of vehicles; when the distance between stations becomes larger, it is switched to a steel wheel system to increase the speed of the vehicle. Therefore, the traffic system of the invention can Effectively solve the need for noise and speed in different areas.
2、本发明车轮系统的内侧为钢轮，外侧为胶轮；当胶轮参与运行时，安装在转向架前、后端的导向轮进行导向；当钢轮参与运行时，钢轮轮缘与钢轨配合进行导向。2. The inner side of the wheel system of the present invention is a steel wheel, and the outer side is a rubber wheel; when the rubber wheel participates in operation, the guide wheels installed at the front and rear ends of the bogie guide; when the steel wheel participates in operation, the wheel rim and the rail Cooperate to guide.
3、本发明的钢轮与胶轮共轴安装，故可以通过一套驱动系统进行驱动，通过轨道的切换能快速的实现不同运行模式的切换，且使得本发明中钢轮和胶轮可分别承载；并进一步取消传统的胶轮和钢轮切换机构，简化结构，提高运载的效率。3. The steel wheel and the rubber wheel of the present invention are mounted coaxially, so they can be driven by a set of drive systems. The switching of different operating modes can be quickly realized by switching the track, and the steel wheel and the rubber wheel of the present invention can be separately Load bearing; and further eliminate the traditional rubber wheel and steel wheel switching mechanism, simplify the structure and improve the efficiency of carrying.
附图说明BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
图1为本发明钢轮胶轮共驱型转向架和交通系统主视图。FIG. 1 is a front view of a steel-wheel rubber-wheel common-drive bogie and a transportation system of the present invention.
图2为图1的俯视图。FIG. 2 is a top view of FIG. 1.
图3为图1的右视图。FIG. 3 is a right side view of FIG. 1.
图4为本发明交通系统的俯视图。FIG. 4 is a top view of the transportation system of the present invention.
图5为本发明钢轨与平轨过渡区域的结构示意图。FIG. 5 is a schematic structural diagram of a transition region between a steel rail and a flat rail according to the present invention.
图中：1、车轴；2、构架；3、钢轮对；4、胶轮对；5、导向横梁；6、过渡结构；7、钢 轨；8、平轨；9、导向轮。In the picture: 1. axle; 2. frame; 3. steel wheel pair; 4. rubber wheel pair; 5. guide beam; 6. transition structure; 7. steel rail; 8. flat rail; 9. guide wheel.
如图1－图3所示，本发明钢轮胶轮共驱型转向架包括H型构架2和安装在H型构架2上的两根车轴1，两根车轴1上分别共轴安装有钢轮对3和胶轮对4，其中钢轮对3安装在内侧，胶轮对4安装在外侧，钢轮对3的直径大于胶轮对4的直径。构架2的前、后端分别固定安装导向横梁5，两根导向横梁5的两端分别设置导向轮9。导向轮9的导向方法及结构为已知技术，在此不作过多介绍。As shown in FIG. 1 to FIG. 3, the steel-wheel rubber-wheel common-drive bogie of the present invention includes an H-shaped frame 2 and two axles 1 installed on the H-shaped frame 2. Steel is coaxially mounted on the two axles 1 respectively. Wheel pair 3 and rubber wheel pair 4, wherein steel wheel pair 3 is installed on the inside, rubber wheel pair 4 is installed on the outside, and the diameter of the steel wheel pair 3 is larger than the diameter of the rubber wheel pair 4. The front and rear ends of the frame 2 are respectively fixed with guide beams 5, and two ends of the two guide beams 5 are respectively provided with guide wheels 9. The guiding method and structure of the guide wheel 9 are known techniques, and are not described in detail here.
如图4－图5所示，与本发明钢轮胶轮共驱型转向架匹配的交通系统包括与车轴1两端设置的钢轮对3匹配的两根平行钢轨7和与车轴1两端设置的胶轮对4匹配的两根平行平轨8，钢轨7设置在需要高速运行的郊区，平轨8设置在需要低噪舒适运行的市区。由于钢轮对3的直径大于胶轮对4的直径，故平轨8的水平高度大于钢轨7的水平高度。钢轨7与平轨8的过渡区域共同设置钢轨7和平轨8，钢轨7位于平轨8的内侧，且平轨8的端部斜向下延伸而形成低于钢轨7的过渡结构6，以保证钢轮和胶轮系统平顺切换。As shown in FIG. 4 to FIG. 5, the transportation system matched with the steel-wheel rubber-wheel common-drive bogie of the present invention includes two parallel steel rails 7 matched with steel wheel pairs 3 provided at both ends of the axle 1 and both ends of the axle 1 The set of rubber wheels pair 4 matches two parallel flat rails 8, the steel rails 7 are set in the suburbs where high-speed operation is required, and the flat rails 8 are set in urban areas where low-noise and comfortable operation is required. Since the diameter of the steel wheel pair 3 is larger than the diameter of the rubber wheel pair 4, the horizontal height of the flat rail 8 is greater than the horizontal height of the steel rail 7. The transition area of the rail 7 and the flat rail 8 is provided with the rail 7 and the flat rail 8 together. The rail 7 is located inside the flat rail 8 and the end of the flat rail 8 extends obliquely downward to form a transition structure 6 lower than the rail 7 to ensure The steel wheel and rubber wheel system switch smoothly.
本发明使用时，利用一套驱动结构，一套制动结构就可实现对车轴1(钢轮对3和胶轮对4)的驱动，在需要高速运行的郊区由钢轮对3和两根平行钢轨7形成的钢轮钢轨系统运行,钢轮对3通过其轮缘在钢轨7上导向运行。在需要低噪舒适运行的市区由胶轮对4和平轨8形成的胶轮平轨系统运行,胶轮对4运行在平轨8上，同时藉由两侧导向轮9保证其安全运行方向。钢轮对3和胶轮对4的运行切换时，通过平轨8端部设置的过渡结构6实现。When the present invention is used, a set of driving structures and a set of braking structures can be used to drive the axle 1 (steel wheel pair 3 and rubber wheel pair 4). In suburbs that require high-speed operation, the steel wheel pair 3 and two The steel rail system formed by the parallel steel rails 7 runs, and the steel wheel pair 3 runs on the steel rails 7 through its rim. In the urban areas that require low noise and comfortable operation, the rubber wheel flat rail system formed by the rubber wheel pair 4 and the flat rail 8 runs. The rubber wheel pair 4 runs on the flat rail 8 and at the same time, the guide wheels 9 on both sides ensure its safe running direction. . When the operation of the steel wheel pair 3 and the rubber wheel pair 4 is switched, it is realized by a transition structure 6 provided at the end of the flat rail 8.