WO2019187320A1 - Method for sterilizing food - Google Patents

Method for sterilizing food Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2019187320A1
WO2019187320A1 PCT/JP2018/042594 JP2018042594W WO2019187320A1 WO 2019187320 A1 WO2019187320 A1 WO 2019187320A1 JP 2018042594 W JP2018042594 W JP 2018042594W WO 2019187320 A1 WO2019187320 A1 WO 2019187320A1
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Prior art keywords
food
container
sterilization
sterilizing
substance
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PCT/JP2018/042594
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French (fr)
Japanese (ja)
Inventor
高塩 仁愛
耕太郎 鈴木
俊憲 武井
昌志 森本
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株式会社ゼンショーホールディングス
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Priority to JP2018068201A priority Critical patent/JP7082896B2/en
Priority to JP2018-068201 priority
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Publication of WO2019187320A1 publication Critical patent/WO2019187320A1/en

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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; TREATMENT THEREOF, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23BPRESERVING, e.g. BY CANNING, MEAT, FISH, EGGS, FRUIT, VEGETABLES, EDIBLE SEEDS; CHEMICAL RIPENING OF FRUIT OR VEGETABLES; THE PRESERVED, RIPENED, OR CANNED PRODUCTS
    • A23B7/00Preservation or chemical ripening of fruit or vegetables
    • A23B7/14Preserving or ripening with chemicals not covered by groups A23B7/08 or A23B7/10
    • A23B7/144Preserving or ripening with chemicals not covered by groups A23B7/08 or A23B7/10 in the form of gases, e.g. fumigation; Compositions or apparatus therefor
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; TREATMENT THEREOF, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23LFOODS, FOODSTUFFS, OR NON-ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES, NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES A21D OR A23B-A23J; THEIR PREPARATION OR TREATMENT, e.g. COOKING, MODIFICATION OF NUTRITIVE QUALITIES, PHYSICAL TREATMENT; PRESERVATION OF FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS, IN GENERAL
    • A23L19/00Products from fruits or vegetables; Preparation or treatment thereof
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; TREATMENT THEREOF, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23LFOODS, FOODSTUFFS, OR NON-ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES, NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES A21D OR A23B-A23J; THEIR PREPARATION OR TREATMENT, e.g. COOKING, MODIFICATION OF NUTRITIVE QUALITIES, PHYSICAL TREATMENT; PRESERVATION OF FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS, IN GENERAL
    • A23L3/00Preservation of foods or foodstuffs, in general, e.g. pasteurising, sterilising, specially adapted for foods or foodstuffs
    • A23L3/34Preservation of foods or foodstuffs, in general, e.g. pasteurising, sterilising, specially adapted for foods or foodstuffs by treatment with chemicals
    • A23L3/3409Preservation of foods or foodstuffs, in general, e.g. pasteurising, sterilising, specially adapted for foods or foodstuffs by treatment with chemicals in the form of gases, e.g. fumigation; Compositions or apparatus therefor
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; TREATMENT THEREOF, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23LFOODS, FOODSTUFFS, OR NON-ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES, NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES A21D OR A23B-A23J; THEIR PREPARATION OR TREATMENT, e.g. COOKING, MODIFICATION OF NUTRITIVE QUALITIES, PHYSICAL TREATMENT; PRESERVATION OF FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS, IN GENERAL
    • A23L3/00Preservation of foods or foodstuffs, in general, e.g. pasteurising, sterilising, specially adapted for foods or foodstuffs
    • A23L3/34Preservation of foods or foodstuffs, in general, e.g. pasteurising, sterilising, specially adapted for foods or foodstuffs by treatment with chemicals
    • A23L3/3454Preservation of foods or foodstuffs, in general, e.g. pasteurising, sterilising, specially adapted for foods or foodstuffs by treatment with chemicals in the form of liquids or solids

Abstract

Provided is a method for sterilizing food, the method being capable of sterilizing germs or microorganisms that enter tissue of food such as vegetables. The method for sterilizing food comprises: an introduction step for introducing a microbicidal substance into a container that stores food having fine pores on the surface thereof; and a sterilization step for increasing the pressure inside the container and impregnating the microbicidal substance into the fine pores of the food.

Description

食物の殺菌方法Food sterilization method
 本発明は、表面に微細孔を有する食物の殺菌方法、特に気孔を有する野菜の殺菌方法に関する。 The present invention relates to a method for sterilizing food having fine pores on the surface, and particularly to a method for sterilizing vegetables having pores.
 従来から野菜等の食物を洗浄する手段として、次亜塩素酸等による殺菌、除菌が一般的に知られている。しかし、次亜塩素酸等の薬剤による殺菌方法では、殺菌処理を施した後、薬剤を食物に残存させないようにするために水洗等の処理が必要となる。このような処理を不要とする技術として、次亜塩素酸等の薬剤の代わりに殺菌性物質としてオゾンを用いる方法が知られている(下記特許文献1及び2参照)。これらの方法では、減圧雰囲気下でオゾン(オゾン水)を供給することで食物表面の凹凸により生じる空隙部などにもオゾンを効率よく付着させ、殺菌効果を高めている。 Conventionally, sterilization and sterilization with hypochlorous acid and the like are generally known as means for washing food such as vegetables. However, in the sterilization method using a drug such as hypochlorous acid, after the sterilization process, a process such as washing with water is necessary to prevent the drug from remaining in food. As a technique that does not require such treatment, a method is known in which ozone is used as a bactericidal substance instead of a chemical such as hypochlorous acid (see Patent Documents 1 and 2 below). In these methods, by supplying ozone (ozone water) in a reduced-pressure atmosphere, ozone is efficiently adhered to voids or the like caused by unevenness on the food surface, and the sterilizing effect is enhanced.
特開2006-204106号JP 2006-204106 A 特開2015-128388号JP2015-128388A
 上述のように、特許文献1及び2などによる殺菌方法では密閉空間で減圧をおこなうため、殺菌対象の食物表面に対してオゾンを系外に漏出させることなく効率的に到着させることができる。一方、野菜などの食物にはその表面に気孔などの微細孔を有するものが多く存在する。しかし、上述の殺菌方法では、組織内にまで浸透した菌及び微生物(以下、これらを総称して単に“菌”と称することがある)を死滅させることは難しい。例えば、気孔を有する野菜の場合、表面に付着した菌のみならず、土壌などから気孔を経由して野菜の細胞間隙に菌が入り込むことがある。鮮度や衛生面の観点からは、これら細胞間隙内に侵入した菌も死滅させることが望ましい。しかし、野菜内部に侵入した菌を死滅させるためには現状加熱殺菌以外に方法はなく、非加熱状態で野菜の組織内にまで浸透した菌を効果的に殺菌できる方法の開発が求められていた。 As described above, in the sterilization method according to Patent Documents 1 and 2, etc., pressure is reduced in a sealed space, so that ozone can be efficiently delivered to the surface of the food to be sterilized without leaking out of the system. On the other hand, many foods such as vegetables have fine pores such as pores on the surface. However, in the above-described sterilization method, it is difficult to kill bacteria and microorganisms that have penetrated into tissues (hereinafter, these may be simply referred to as “bacteria”). For example, in the case of vegetables having pores, bacteria may enter not only the bacteria attached to the surface but also soil from the soil through the pores. From the viewpoint of freshness and hygiene, it is desirable to kill bacteria that have entered these cell gaps. However, there is no method other than the current heat sterilization to kill the bacteria that have invaded the inside of the vegetables, and there has been a demand for the development of a method that can effectively sterilize the bacteria that have penetrated into the vegetable tissue in a non-heated state. .
 上述の課題を解決すべく、本発明は、野菜等の食物の組織内に入り込んだ菌や微生物を効果的に殺菌できる食物の殺菌方法を提供することすることを目的とする。 In order to solve the above-described problems, an object of the present invention is to provide a food sterilization method capable of effectively sterilizing bacteria and microorganisms that have entered a food tissue such as vegetables.
<1> 表面に微細孔を有する食物が収納された容器に殺菌性物質を導入する導入工程と、前記容器内の圧力を上昇させ、前記殺菌性物質を前記食物の微細孔に含侵させる殺菌工程と、を含む食物の殺菌方法。
 <2> 前記食物が、前記微細孔として気孔を有する野菜である前記<1>に記載の食物の殺菌方法。
 <3> 前記殺菌性物質が、気体状、溶液状又はその混合物である前記<1>又は<2>に記載の食物の殺菌方法。
 <4> 前記導入工程は、前記殺菌性物質を含む気体を前記容器に導入する前記<1>~<3>のいずれかに記載の食物の殺菌方法。
 <5> 前記導入工程は、前記食物に青色光を照射する工程を含む前記<1>~<4>のいずれかに記載の食物の殺菌方法。
 <6> 前記殺菌性物質が、オゾンである前記<1>~<5>のいずれかに記載の食物の殺菌方法。
 <7> 前記導入工程は、前記殺菌性物質を含む直径100μm未満の微細気泡を含む液体を前記容器内に導入する前記<1>~<6>のいずれかに記載の食物の殺菌方法。
 <8> 前記導入工程は、前記容器内を減圧した後に前記殺菌性物質を前記容器内に導入する前記<1>~<7>のいずれかに記載の食物の殺菌方法。
 <9> 前記殺菌工程は、前記導入工程によって導入された殺菌性物質を含む気体によって前記容器内の圧力を上昇させる前記<1>~<8>のいずれかに記載の食物の殺菌方法。
 <10> 前記容器が、真空予冷施設の真空予冷庫である前記<1>~<8>のいずれかに記載の食物の殺菌方法。
<1> An introduction step of introducing a bactericidal substance into a container containing food having fine pores on the surface, and a sterilization for increasing the pressure in the container and impregnating the bactericidal substance into the fine pores of the food And a method for sterilizing food comprising the steps.
<2> The method for sterilizing food according to <1>, wherein the food is a vegetable having pores as the fine pores.
<3> The method for sterilizing food according to <1> or <2>, wherein the bactericidal substance is in the form of a gas, a solution, or a mixture thereof.
<4> The food sterilization method according to any one of <1> to <3>, wherein the introducing step introduces a gas containing the bactericidal substance into the container.
<5> The food sterilization method according to any one of <1> to <4>, wherein the introducing step includes a step of irradiating the food with blue light.
<6> The method for sterilizing food according to any one of <1> to <5>, wherein the bactericidal substance is ozone.
<7> The food sterilization method according to any one of <1> to <6>, wherein the introducing step introduces a liquid containing microbubbles having a diameter of less than 100 μm containing the bactericidal substance into the container.
<8> The food sterilization method according to any one of <1> to <7>, wherein the introducing step introduces the bactericidal substance into the container after decompressing the inside of the container.
<9> The method for sterilizing food according to any one of <1> to <8>, wherein in the sterilization step, the pressure in the container is increased by a gas containing the sterilizing substance introduced in the introduction step.
<10> The food sterilization method according to any one of <1> to <8>, wherein the container is a vacuum precooling chamber of a vacuum precooling facility.
 本発明によれば、野菜等の食物の組織内に入り込んだ菌や微生物を効果的に殺菌できる食物の殺菌方法を提供することができる。 According to the present invention, it is possible to provide a method for sterilizing food that can effectively sterilize bacteria and microorganisms that have entered food tissues such as vegetables.
 以下、本発明の内容について実施態様を用いて詳細に説明する。但し、以下の実施形態は例示であり、本発明はこれらの実施形態に限定されるものではない。 Hereinafter, the contents of the present invention will be described in detail using embodiments. However, the following embodiments are examples, and the present invention is not limited to these embodiments.
《食物の殺菌方法》
 本実施形態の食物の殺菌方法(以下、単に「本実施形態の殺菌方法」と称することがある。)は、表面に微細孔を有する食物が収納された容器に殺菌性物質を導入する導入工程と、前記容器内の圧力を上昇させ、前記殺菌性物質を前記食物の微細孔に含侵させる殺菌工程と、を含む。
 本実施形態の殺菌方法は、容器内の圧力を上昇させながら殺菌性物質によって殺菌処理をおこなうことで、殺菌性物質を微細孔から食物の構造内に含浸させることができる。これにより、食物の構造内に侵入した菌や微生物を効果的に死滅させることができる。このため、本実施形態の殺菌方法を用いることで、従来得ることが困難であった程度にまで生野菜等の生菌数を低減させることができる。生菌数は特に生野菜などの鮮度に与える影響が大きい。例えば、本実施形態の殺菌方法を用いて得られた生野菜を用いたカット野菜は、従来品(例えば、野菜を200ppmの次亜塩素酸ナトリウム水溶液に5分間浸漬し、その後、無菌水でリンスして製造)を用いたカット野菜と比べて、生菌数を十分に減少させることができることができる。また、本実施形態の殺菌方法にて殺菌された野菜を用いたカット野菜は、香味が優れると共に、日持ちが従来品に比して約2倍と長く、約10日間劣化することなく品質を維持出来るなど、鮮度維持能力に優れる。
《Food sterilization method》
The food sterilization method of the present embodiment (hereinafter may be simply referred to as “the sterilization method of the present embodiment”) is an introduction step of introducing a bactericidal substance into a container in which food having fine pores is stored on the surface. And a sterilization step of increasing the pressure in the container and impregnating the microbicidal substance with the microbicidal substance.
In the sterilization method of the present embodiment, the sterilization treatment is performed with the sterilizing substance while increasing the pressure in the container, whereby the sterilizing substance can be impregnated into the structure of the food from the fine holes. Thereby, the microbe and microorganisms which invaded in the structure of food can be killed effectively. For this reason, by using the sterilization method of this embodiment, the number of viable bacteria such as raw vegetables can be reduced to the extent that it has been difficult to obtain in the past. The number of viable bacteria has a great influence on the freshness of raw vegetables. For example, the cut vegetables using the raw vegetables obtained by using the sterilization method of the present embodiment are conventional products (for example, the vegetables are immersed in a 200 ppm sodium hypochlorite aqueous solution for 5 minutes and then rinsed with sterile water. The number of viable bacteria can be sufficiently reduced as compared with cut vegetables using In addition, the cut vegetables using the vegetables sterilized by the sterilization method of the present embodiment have excellent flavor, and the shelf life is about twice as long as that of conventional products, and the quality is maintained without deterioration for about 10 days. It has excellent freshness maintenance ability.
 なお、オゾンが人体に与える影響については一般に知られているところであるが、その暴露限界は許容濃度として0.1ppm(あるいは0.2mg/m3)程度であるといわれている。このため、食品工場のような閉鎖系でそのままオゾンを取り扱うためには通常特別な装置を用いる必要があり、例えば、完全な密閉系の中でオゾンが外に漏れないように厳重に管理しながら野菜などの殺菌をおこなうことが望まれる。かかる観点では密閉された殺菌槽や燻蒸槽等の容器にオゾンを導入することが好ましい。また、上述の特許文献1及び2のような殺菌方法においては、オゾンを系外へ漏出させない効果も得られると考えられる。 The influence of ozone on the human body is generally known, but the exposure limit is said to be about 0.1 ppm (or 0.2 mg / m 3 ) as an allowable concentration. For this reason, in order to handle ozone as it is in a closed system such as a food factory, it is usually necessary to use a special device. For example, while strictly controlling so that ozone does not leak outside in a completely closed system, It is desirable to sterilize vegetables. From such a viewpoint, it is preferable to introduce ozone into a sealed container such as a sterilization tank or a fumigation tank. Moreover, in the sterilization methods as described in Patent Documents 1 and 2, it is considered that an effect of preventing ozone from leaking out of the system can be obtained.
 以下、本実施形態の殺菌方法について、導入工程及び殺菌工程を中心に各工程について説明する。 Hereinafter, regarding the sterilization method of the present embodiment, each step will be described focusing on the introduction step and the sterilization step.
<導入工程>
 導入工程は、表面に微細孔を有する食物が収納された容器に殺菌性物質を導入する工程である。容器に収納される食物は、導入工程の前に、非可食部分を除去したり泥等を落とすための洗浄などをおこなう工程(準備工程)を実施してもよい。また、容器内に収納される食物は裁断前の食物であってもよいし、裁断工程によって裁断された後の食物であってもよい。準備工程や裁断工程など他の工程については後述する。
 導入工程に用いられる容器は、殺菌工程における加圧や後述する減圧工程に耐えられ、且つ、殺菌性物質を導入できる手段を備えた容器であれば特に限定されることなく用いることができる。また、容器は密封状態にできるなど内部の殺菌性物質が容器外に漏れないような機構を有するものが好ましい。容器のサイズや形状については特に限定はなく、対象となる食物や容器内の圧力変動の程度に応じて適宜選定して用いることができる。このような容器には、例えば、一般的な耐圧容器の他に、真空予冷施設に設置される真空予冷庫等の大型の装置も含まれる。
<Introduction process>
The introduction step is a step of introducing a bactericidal substance into a container in which food having fine pores is stored on the surface. The food stored in the container may be subjected to a process (preparation process) of removing non-edible portions or removing mud or the like before the introducing process. Moreover, the food stored in the container may be food before cutting, or may be food after being cut by a cutting process. Other processes such as a preparation process and a cutting process will be described later.
The container used for the introduction step can be used without any particular limitation as long as it is a container that can withstand the pressurization in the sterilization step and the decompression step described later and includes a means capable of introducing a bactericidal substance. Moreover, what has a mechanism in which an inside bactericidal substance does not leak out of a container, such as a container being sealed, is preferable. The size and shape of the container are not particularly limited, and can be appropriately selected and used according to the target food and the degree of pressure fluctuation in the container. Such containers include, for example, large devices such as a vacuum precooling chamber installed in a vacuum precooling facility in addition to a general pressure resistant container.
 上述のように、容器として真空予冷施設に設置された真空予冷庫を用いることができる。特に、真空予冷施設は、通常産地の畑に設置されるのでオゾンを扱いやすく好ましい。また、このような施設が畑などに設置されていると野菜の収穫後即時に処理できるので鮮度維持にも有効である。ここで、「真空予冷」とは、減圧による気化熱で青果物などの食物を冷却することを意味し、「真空予冷庫」とは当該真空予冷に用いられ減圧手段(庫内に気体を導入又は庫内の気体を吸引できるポンプ等)を備えた保管庫を意味する。真空予冷庫内の圧力が下がると水の蒸発温度が下がるため、食物表面の水分を気化し、その気化熱で真空予冷庫内を冷却することができる。例えば、真空予冷庫内の水の蒸発温度は圧力との関係で決まるため、真空予冷庫内の圧力を調整することで真空予冷庫内の冷却温度を設定することができる。また、特に限定されるものではないが、真空予冷庫内において後述する裁断工程や包装工程をおこなってもよいし、導入工程及び殺菌工程をおこなう真空予冷施設の真空予冷庫を、裁断工程及び包装工程と共にラインの一部に含み真空予冷庫外でこれらの工程がおこなわれる態様であってもよい。 As described above, a vacuum precooling chamber installed in a vacuum precooling facility can be used as a container. In particular, the vacuum pre-cooling facility is usually installed in a field of production area, and therefore, ozone is easy to handle and is preferable. In addition, if such a facility is installed in a field or the like, it can be processed immediately after harvesting vegetables, which is effective in maintaining freshness. Here, “vacuum precooling” means that food such as fruits and vegetables is cooled by the heat of vaporization due to decompression, and “vacuum precooling cabinet” is used for the vacuum precooling and is used for decompression means (gas is introduced into the chamber or It means a storage with a pump that can suck the gas in the storage. When the pressure in the vacuum precooling chamber decreases, the evaporation temperature of water decreases, so that moisture on the food surface can be vaporized and the inside of the vacuum precooling chamber can be cooled by the heat of vaporization. For example, since the evaporation temperature of water in the vacuum precooling chamber is determined by the relationship with the pressure, the cooling temperature in the vacuum precooling chamber can be set by adjusting the pressure in the vacuum precooling chamber. In addition, although not particularly limited, the cutting process and the packaging process described later may be performed in the vacuum precooling chamber, or the vacuum precooling facility of the vacuum precooling facility performing the introduction process and the sterilization process is divided into the cutting process and the packaging. It may be an aspect in which these steps are performed outside the vacuum precooling chamber by being included in a part of the line together with the steps.
(表面に微細孔を有する食物)
 本実施形態の殺菌方法は、表面に微細孔を有する食物を殺菌対象とする。ここで、“微細孔”とは、直径1.0mm以下の孔を意味する。当該微細孔としては、例えば、植物の気孔が例に挙げられるがこれに限定されるものではない。同様に、表面に微細孔を有する食物としては、例えば、微細孔として気孔を有する野菜や果物などが挙げられる。気孔は葉のみならず茎や果実なども観察され、例えば、レタス、キャベツなどの葉物野菜の他、キュウリ、アスパラガラス、ブロッコリー、青ネギ、玉ねぎなどが挙げられる。なお、本実施例において“野菜”と称した場合、野菜に加えて果物も含まれる。但し、本実施形態における微細孔を有する食物は野菜や果物に限定されるものではない。
(Food with micropores on the surface)
In the sterilization method of the present embodiment, food having fine pores on the surface is targeted for sterilization. Here, “micropore” means a hole having a diameter of 1.0 mm or less. Examples of the micropores include plant pores, but are not limited thereto. Similarly, foods having fine pores on the surface include, for example, vegetables and fruits having pores as fine pores. As for the pores, not only leaves but also stems and fruits are observed, and examples include leafy vegetables such as lettuce and cabbage, cucumber, asparagus glass, broccoli, green onion, onion and the like. In addition, when it calls "vegetables" in a present Example, in addition to vegetables, fruit is also included. However, the food having micropores in the present embodiment is not limited to vegetables and fruits.
 植物の気孔は2つの孔辺細胞の間にある通気口であり、蒸散、呼吸、同化に際しての水蒸気や気体の通路となる。気孔を有する植物は、気孔のすぐ内側に細胞間隙があり、さらに葉の中の細胞間隙へと連なっている。このため、葉の内部の細胞も、気孔を通って入る空気に直接に触れることができる構造となっている。また、一般に気孔は葉の表面より裏面に多く存在し、当該気孔から土壌微生物が葉のなかに侵入することがある。このように気孔から植物体に侵入した菌や微生物は、細胞間隙で増殖することがある。本実施形態の殺菌方法によれば、気孔内で増殖した菌や微生物等をも効果的に死滅させることができる。 Plant stomata are vents between two guard cells, and serve as a passage for water vapor and gas during transpiration, respiration, and assimilation. A plant having a pore has a cell space immediately inside the pore, and further leads to a cell space in a leaf. For this reason, the cells inside the leaves can also directly touch the air entering through the pores. In general, there are more pores on the back surface than the front surface of the leaf, and soil microorganisms may enter the leaf from the pores. Thus, the bacteria and microorganisms that have entered the plant body from the pores may grow in the cell space. According to the sterilization method of the present embodiment, it is possible to effectively kill bacteria, microorganisms and the like that have proliferated in the pores.
(殺菌性物質)
 殺菌性物質は対象となる菌や微生物などを死滅させる効果を有する物質を意味する。本実施形態の殺菌方法で除去される「菌」としては、例えば、土壌由来の雑菌や野菜に付着してその鮮度を低下させるような菌を始め、健康被害を惹起する大腸菌、サルモネラ菌、ブドウ球菌等が挙げられ、細菌、真菌全般をも含む。
(Bactericidal substance)
The bactericidal substance means a substance having an effect of killing target bacteria or microorganisms. Examples of the “bacteria” removed by the sterilization method of the present embodiment include, for example, bacteria that adhere to soil-derived germs and vegetables and reduce the freshness thereof, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Staphylococci that cause health hazards. Including bacteria and fungi in general.
 殺菌性物質はこれら菌を死滅させる効果を有する物質であれば特に限定されないが、植物組織内の殺菌処理に用いた後、殺菌活性が残存せず消滅する化合物が望ましい。例えば、オゾンなど最終的に酸素分子に変化する化合物を利用すると、殺菌処理後、特に殺菌性物質自体を洗浄するなどの処理が不要になる。同様に、プラズマによって生成されたスーパーオキシドアニオンラジカル(O2 -・)と液体中のプロトンとが反応して生成されたヒドロペルオキシラジカル(HOO・)や、国際公開WO2016/035342A1に記載の過硝酸(HOONO2)なども、殺菌後、それぞれ不活性で安定な形になって反応が終結するので、塩素系の化合物のように系外に除去する必要がないため、本実施形態における殺菌性物質として好適に用いることができる。 The bactericidal substance is not particularly limited as long as it has an effect of killing these bacteria, but a compound that does not have a bactericidal activity and disappears after use in a bactericidal treatment in a plant tissue is desirable. For example, when a compound that finally changes to oxygen molecules, such as ozone, is used, after the sterilization treatment, a treatment such as washing the sterilizing substance itself is not necessary. Similarly, a hydroperoxy radical (HOO.) Generated by a reaction between a superoxide anion radical (O 2 ·) generated by plasma and a proton in a liquid, or pernitric acid described in International Publication WO2016 / 035342A1 (HOONO 2 ) and the like also become inactive and stable after sterilization, and the reaction is terminated. Therefore, it is not necessary to remove them out of the system like chlorinated compounds. Can be suitably used.
 容器に導入される殺菌性物質の状態は特に限定はなく、気体状、溶液状、又はその混合物(気体と溶液との混合物)のいずれの状態であってもよい。例えば、気体状の殺菌性物質を容器内に導入する場合、圧力勾配をつくって、当該殺菌性物質が、空気、窒素ガス、又はその混合ガスなどの気体と一緒に或いは単独で容器内に導入される。また、殺菌性物質が溶液状である場合も同様に、溶液状の殺菌性物質を単独で容器内に導入してもよいし、空気などの気体と一緒に容器内に導入してもよい。なお、気体状の殺菌性物質や、空気等の気体と殺菌性物質とを一緒に用いる場合、これらを殺菌工程における容器内の圧力を上昇させる手段として用いることができる。また、殺菌性物質の容器内への導入手段は特に限定されるものではなく、殺菌対象の食物に万遍なく殺菌性物質がいきわたるように導入されればよく、導入される殺菌性物質の状態などに応じて公知の導入手段を適宜選定することができる。例えば、気体状の殺菌性物質を空気等の気体と一緒に導入する場合、後述のように予め容器内が減圧されている場合には容器内の負圧を利用して殺菌性物質が容器内に導入されるように構成できる。一方、容器内が常圧(大気圧)状態である場合には、ポンプ等の手段によって、殺菌性物質を空気等の気体と一緒に容器内に導入し容器内を加圧するように構成することができる。また、殺菌性物質が溶液状の場合には、気体状の場合と同様に空気等と一緒に容器内に導入させてもよいし、又は、オゾン水等をシャワー状にして殺菌対象物に連続的に散布してもよい。 The state of the bactericidal substance introduced into the container is not particularly limited, and may be any state of gas, solution, or a mixture thereof (a mixture of gas and solution). For example, when a gaseous sterilizing substance is introduced into a container, a pressure gradient is created so that the sterilizing substance is introduced into the container together with a gas such as air, nitrogen gas, or a mixed gas thereof alone. Is done. Similarly, when the bactericidal substance is in the form of a solution, the solution-like bactericidal substance may be introduced alone into the container, or may be introduced into the container together with a gas such as air. In addition, when using gaseous bactericidal substances or gas, such as air, and a bactericidal substance together, these can be used as a means to raise the pressure in the container in a sterilization process. In addition, the means for introducing the bactericidal substance into the container is not particularly limited, and it may be introduced so that the bactericidal substance can be uniformly distributed in the food to be sterilized. A known introduction means can be appropriately selected according to the above. For example, when a gaseous sterilizing substance is introduced together with a gas such as air, if the inside of the container has been previously depressurized as will be described later, the sterilizing substance is placed in the container using the negative pressure in the container. It can be configured to be introduced into. On the other hand, when the inside of the container is in a normal pressure (atmospheric pressure) state, it is configured to introduce a bactericidal substance into the container together with a gas such as air and pressurize the container by means of a pump or the like. Can do. Further, when the bactericidal substance is in the form of a solution, it may be introduced into the container together with air or the like as in the case of the gaseous state, or ozone water or the like is made into a shower form and continuously applied to the object to be sterilized. May be sprayed.
 上述のように、本実施形態における殺菌性物質としては、オゾンを用いることができる。オゾンはオゾンガスとして用いてもよいし、オゾン水として用いてもよい。オゾン水は、例えば、オゾンガスを水に溶かしたり、水の電気分解を利用するなど公知の方法で得ることができる。オゾン水は、オゾンそのものとオゾンから生成するヒドロキシラジカルの酸化力によって殺菌効果を奏することができる。例えば、3ppm~5ppmのオゾン水は、有効塩素1ppmの微酸性電解水と同程度の殺菌力を発揮できるといわれている。また、オゾンの安定性は低いため、殺菌工程において用いられた後、すみやかに分解して酸素になる。例えば、オゾン濃度(10ppm)のガスは3分間程度で、その濃度が約3分の1に減少する。 As described above, ozone can be used as the bactericidal substance in this embodiment. Ozone may be used as ozone gas or ozone water. The ozone water can be obtained by a known method such as dissolving ozone gas in water or utilizing electrolysis of water. Ozone water can exhibit a bactericidal effect by the oxidizing power of the hydroxyl radicals generated from ozone itself and ozone. For example, it is said that 3 ppm to 5 ppm of ozone water can exhibit the same degree of bactericidal activity as slightly acidic electrolyzed water of 1 ppm effective chlorine. In addition, since the stability of ozone is low, it is quickly decomposed into oxygen after being used in the sterilization process. For example, the ozone concentration (10 ppm) gas is reduced to about one third in about 3 minutes.
 殺菌性物質としてオゾンガスを用いる場合、オゾンガス中のオゾン濃度が1ppm~20ppmであることが好ましく、2.0ppm~5.0ppmがさらに好ましい。
 同様に殺菌性物質としてオゾン水を用いる場合、オゾン水はオゾンガスよりも高い酸化能があるため野菜自体を傷めるおそれがあるため、オゾン水中のオゾン濃度は1ppm~10ppmであることが好ましく、2.0ppm~5.0ppmがさらに好ましい。殺菌性物質の供給量については特に限定はないが、例えば、空気等の気体と一緒に殺菌性物質を容器内に導入する場合には、容器サイズと増加させる圧力等との関係により適宜殺菌性物質の濃度と供給量とを調整すればよい。
When ozone gas is used as the sterilizing substance, the ozone concentration in the ozone gas is preferably 1 ppm to 20 ppm, more preferably 2.0 ppm to 5.0 ppm.
Similarly, when ozone water is used as a bactericidal substance, ozone water has a higher oxidizing ability than ozone gas and may damage vegetables itself, so the ozone concentration in ozone water is preferably 1 ppm to 10 ppm. More preferably, it is 0 ppm to 5.0 ppm. The supply amount of the bactericidal substance is not particularly limited. For example, when the bactericidal substance is introduced into the container together with a gas such as air, the bactericidal substance is appropriately sterilized depending on the relationship between the container size and the pressure to be increased. What is necessary is just to adjust the density | concentration and supply amount of a substance.
(微細気泡を含む液体)
 また、導入工程は、殺菌性物質を含む直径100μm未満の微細気泡を含む液体を容器内に導入する態様としてもよい。このように微細気泡を含む液体を用いることで、微細孔内の菌や微生物に対し、さらに効果的に殺菌効果を向上させることができる。微細気泡を含む液体を用いる場合、殺菌性物質は気体状(例えば、オゾンガス)で含まれていてもよいし、溶液状(例えば、オゾン水)で含まれていてもよい。
(Liquid containing fine bubbles)
Further, the introducing step may be an aspect in which a liquid containing microbubbles having a diameter of less than 100 μm containing a bactericidal substance is introduced into the container. Thus, by using the liquid containing fine bubbles, the bactericidal effect can be improved more effectively against the bacteria and microorganisms in the micropores. In the case of using a liquid containing fine bubbles, the bactericidal substance may be contained in a gaseous state (for example, ozone gas) or in a solution state (for example, ozone water).
 ここで、「微細気泡」は、直径100μm未満の微細気泡であり、所謂「マイクロバブル」と称されるマイクロオーダーの微細気泡を用いることができる。また、十分な殺菌効果を得る観点から、微細気泡の直径は100μm未満であることが好ましく、直径が1μm未満の微細気泡(所謂「ウルトラファインバブル」)であることがさらに好ましく、10nm~500nmであることが特に好ましい。
 液体中の微細気泡の存在は、例えばレーザー光の散乱を用いることによって確認することができる。
Here, the “fine bubbles” are fine bubbles having a diameter of less than 100 μm, and micro-sized fine bubbles called “micro bubbles” can be used. Further, from the viewpoint of obtaining a sufficient bactericidal effect, the diameter of the fine bubbles is preferably less than 100 μm, more preferably a fine bubble having a diameter of less than 1 μm (so-called “ultra fine bubble”), and 10 nm to 500 nm. It is particularly preferred.
The presence of fine bubbles in the liquid can be confirmed, for example, by using laser light scattering.
 微細気泡の直径の測定方法は特に限定されるものではないが、例えば、動的光散乱法(DLS)、粒子トラッキング解析(particle tracking analysis)、レーザー解析法、共振式質量測定法(RMM)等の公知の方法を適宜用いることができる。これら公知の方法で測定した微細気泡の平均直径を前記微細気泡の直径とみなすことができる。 The method for measuring the diameter of the fine bubbles is not particularly limited. For example, dynamic light scattering (DLS), particle tracking analysis, laser analysis, resonance mass measurement (RMM), etc. These known methods can be used as appropriate. The average diameter of the fine bubbles measured by these known methods can be regarded as the diameter of the fine bubbles.
 また、洗浄工程に用いられる液体中の微細気泡の濃度は特に限定されるものではないが、洗浄殺菌効率の観点から、105個/ml以上であることが好ましく、107個/ml以上がさらに好ましく、108個/ml以上が特に好ましい。当該微細気泡の濃度は、例えば、マイクロトラックベル社製のゼータビュー(登録商標)等で測定することができる。 Further, the concentration of fine bubbles in the liquid used in the washing step is not particularly limited, but from the viewpoint of washing and sterilization efficiency, it is preferably 10 5 / ml or more, and 10 7 / ml or more. More preferably, 10 8 pieces / ml or more is particularly preferable. The concentration of the fine bubbles can be measured by, for example, Zetaview (registered trademark) manufactured by Microtrack Bell.
 微細気泡を含む液体は特に限定されるものではなく、一般に青果物の洗浄に用いられる脱イオン水、飲用可の井水や水道水などを用いることができる。またこれらに限られず、オゾン水、エタノール、酢酸、有機酸等の水溶液を用いることもできる。 The liquid containing fine bubbles is not particularly limited, and deionized water generally used for washing fruits and vegetables, potable well water and tap water can be used. Moreover, it is not restricted to these, Aqueous solution, such as ozone water, ethanol, acetic acid, an organic acid, can also be used.
 本実施形態において微細気泡の発生手法は特に限定されることなく公知の手法を用いることができる。前記公知の手法としては、例えば、液体に気体を混合し、当該液体に高いせん断力等を付与することで微細気泡を発生させる手法を挙げることができる。より具体的には、気体を混合した液体をポンプで複雑な流体経路を有するミキサー等に送液し、液体中の気泡にせん断力を加えることで気泡を微細化することができる。また、用いられる装置によっても異なるが、例えば、気泡の微細化工程を数回繰り返すことで理想的な微細気泡を発生させることができる。液体に混合される気体は特に限定されるものではないが、例えば、空気、窒素ガス、オゾンガス等を用いることができ、特にオゾンガスを用いて微細気泡を作製することが好ましい。微細気泡の発生装置としては市販されている超高密度ウルトラファインバブル発生装置等を用いることができる。なお、炭酸ガス(二酸化炭素)は野菜の気孔を閉じさせる作用があるため、炭酸ガス以外のガスを用いて微細気泡を発生させることが好ましい。また、導入工程を含め他の工程(特に導入及び殺菌工程前の工程)においても炭酸ガスを極力用いないことが好ましく、さらに密閉空間にあっては炭酸ガス(二酸化炭素)を除去(例えば、400ppm以下に)してから各々の工程を実施してもよい。 In the present embodiment, a method for generating fine bubbles is not particularly limited, and a known method can be used. Examples of the known method include a method of generating fine bubbles by mixing a gas with a liquid and applying a high shearing force or the like to the liquid. More specifically, the liquid in which the gas is mixed can be sent to a mixer or the like having a complicated fluid path with a pump, and the bubbles can be refined by applying a shearing force to the bubbles in the liquid. Moreover, although it changes with apparatuses used, an ideal microbubble can be generated by repeating the bubble miniaturization process several times, for example. Although the gas mixed with the liquid is not particularly limited, for example, air, nitrogen gas, ozone gas or the like can be used, and it is particularly preferable to produce fine bubbles using ozone gas. As a microbubble generator, a commercially available ultra-high density ultrafine bubble generator or the like can be used. In addition, since carbon dioxide (carbon dioxide) has an action of closing the pores of vegetables, it is preferable to generate fine bubbles using a gas other than carbon dioxide. Further, it is preferable not to use carbon dioxide as much as possible in other steps including the introduction step (especially the steps before the introduction and sterilization step), and carbon dioxide (carbon dioxide) is removed (for example, 400 ppm) in a sealed space. Each step may be performed after the following.
(照射工程)
 本実施形態における導入工程は、食物に青色光を照射する工程を含んでいてもよい。本発明者らの研究によると、気孔の開閉が殺菌効率に影響を与えることが判明した。青色光を野菜に照射すると気孔を開らかせることができることから、照射工程を併用することでさらに殺菌効率を向上し、野菜から回収される生菌率をさらに低下させることができる。
(Irradiation process)
The introducing step in the present embodiment may include a step of irradiating food with blue light. According to the studies by the present inventors, it has been found that the opening and closing of the pores affects the sterilization efficiency. Since the pores can be opened by irradiating vegetables with blue light, the sterilization efficiency can be further improved by using the irradiation step in combination, and the viable bacteria rate recovered from the vegetables can be further reduced.
 ここで、青色光とは、波長380nm~500nmの光を意味する。用いた青色LEDの最大発光波長は460nmである。照射工程における青色光の照射量は特に限定はないが、照射効果および照射効率の観点から、例えば、50~500μmolm-2-1が好ましく、30~100μmolm-2-1が特に好ましい。特に限定はないが照射工程は、殺菌性物質を導入する前又は導入しながら実施することが好ましい。また、照射工程は導入工程に引き続き、後に続く殺菌工程において継続的に行ってもよい。なお、野菜を過度に昇温させないためにパルス照射も有効である。さらに、固く巻かれた葉物野菜のような野菜であってもであっても、外側の葉に青色光を照射することで外部から野菜への菌の侵入を効果的に防止することができる。 Here, blue light means light having a wavelength of 380 nm to 500 nm. The blue LED used has a maximum emission wavelength of 460 nm. The amount of blue light irradiation in the irradiation step is not particularly limited, but from the viewpoint of irradiation effect and irradiation efficiency, for example, 50 to 500 μmolm −2 s −1 is preferable, and 30 to 100 μmolm −2 s −1 is particularly preferable. Although there is no particular limitation, the irradiation step is preferably performed before or while introducing the bactericidal substance. Further, the irradiation step may be continuously performed in the subsequent sterilization step following the introduction step. In addition, pulse irradiation is also effective in order not to raise the temperature of vegetables excessively. Furthermore, even if it is a vegetable such as a leafy vegetable that is tightly wound, it is possible to effectively prevent bacteria from entering the vegetable from the outside by irradiating the outer leaves with blue light. .
<殺菌工程>
 殺菌工程は、殺菌性物質を殺菌対象と共存させた後、容器内の圧力を上昇させ、殺菌性物質を食物の微細孔に含侵させる工程である。本実施形態の殺菌方法は、容器内の圧力を上昇させながら殺菌性物質によって殺菌処理をおこなうことで、殺菌性物質を微細孔から食物の構造内に含浸させることができる。容器内の圧力を上昇させる手段は特に限定されるものではなく、例えば、予め容器内を減圧しその後負圧を利用して容器内に気体を導入して容器内の圧力を大気圧にまで上昇させる手段(減圧手段)や、常圧(大気圧)状態の容器内に気体を導入して容器内の圧力を大気圧から上昇させる手段が挙げられる(加圧手段)。本工程において、圧力の上昇程度は特に限定はないが、食物への負担や容器内の温度との観点から、1atm(1.01325×105Pa(760torr))程度であることが好ましい。なお、殺菌工程によって食物の殺菌処理を終えた後、殺菌性物質や水等を除去するために食物に脱水処理を施してもよい。脱水処理としては、例えば、遠心脱水等の手段が挙げられる。
<Sterilization process>
The sterilization process is a process in which the sterilizing substance is allowed to coexist with the sterilization target, and then the pressure in the container is increased to impregnate the microbicidal substance of the food with the sterilizing substance. In the sterilization method of the present embodiment, the sterilization treatment is performed with the sterilizing substance while increasing the pressure in the container, whereby the sterilizing substance can be impregnated into the structure of the food from the fine holes. The means for increasing the pressure in the container is not particularly limited. For example, the pressure in the container is reduced in advance, and then the gas is introduced into the container using negative pressure to increase the pressure in the container to atmospheric pressure. And a means for increasing the pressure in the container from the atmospheric pressure by introducing gas into the container in a normal pressure (atmospheric pressure) state (pressurizing means). In this step, the increase in pressure is not particularly limited, but is preferably about 1 atm (1.01325 × 10 5 Pa (760 torr)) from the viewpoint of the burden on food and the temperature in the container. In addition, after finishing the sterilization process of food by a sterilization process, in order to remove a bactericidal substance, water, etc., you may perform a dehydration process to food. Examples of the dehydration treatment include means such as centrifugal dehydration.
(減圧手段)
 殺菌工程において容器内の圧力を上昇させるために減圧手段を利用する場合、予め導入工程において容器内を減圧した後に殺菌性物質を容器内に導入することで容器内の圧力を上昇させることができる。より具体的には、まず、導入工程において食物を収納した容器内を真空ポンプ等と利用して減圧する。この際減圧の程度は特に限定はないが、減圧によって容器内の温度が気化熱によって低下し、食物に付着した水分が凍結しない程度におこなうことが好ましい。かかる観点から、例えば、減圧の際の容器内の圧力は、1.0torr~50torr(約133.322Pa~約6666.12Pa)とすることができ、好ましくは、5.0torr~10torr(約666.61Pa~約1333.22Pa)とすることができる。その後容器内の負圧を利用して気体と共に殺菌性物質を導入することで容器内の圧力を大気圧にまで上昇させることができる。すなわち、殺菌工程は、導入工程において導入された殺菌性物質を含む気体を利用して容器内の圧力を上昇させることができる。この際、容器内を減圧する時間は特に限定されないが、減圧によって容器内の温度が低下し、食物に付着した水分が凍結するのを防止する観点から、1分間~50分間が好ましく、2分間~10分間がさらに好ましい。同様に、減圧手段を利用する場合には、減圧によって容器内の温度が低下し、食物に付着した水分が凍結するのを防止する観点から、減圧手段を利用する場合には容器内の温度が4℃~30℃、好ましくは5℃~15℃となるようにガス供給量等を調整することが好ましい。
(Pressure reduction means)
When using a decompression means to increase the pressure in the container in the sterilization process, the pressure in the container can be increased by introducing a sterilizing substance into the container after reducing the pressure in the container in advance in the introduction process. . More specifically, first, the inside of the container containing the food is decompressed using a vacuum pump or the like in the introduction step. At this time, the degree of decompression is not particularly limited, but it is preferable that the decompression is performed so that the temperature in the container is reduced by the heat of vaporization and the water adhering to the food is not frozen. From this point of view, for example, the pressure in the container at the time of depressurization can be 1.0 to 50 torr (about 133.322 Pa to about 6666.12 Pa), and preferably 5.0 to 10 torr (about 666. 61 Pa to about 1333.22 Pa). Then, the pressure in the container can be increased to atmospheric pressure by introducing the bactericidal substance together with the gas using the negative pressure in the container. That is, the sterilization process can raise the pressure in the container using the gas containing the sterilizing substance introduced in the introduction process. At this time, the time for depressurizing the inside of the container is not particularly limited, but is preferably 1 minute to 50 minutes from the viewpoint of preventing the temperature in the container from being reduced by the depressurization and freezing of water adhering to food. More preferred is ˜10 minutes. Similarly, when using the decompression means, the temperature in the container is reduced when the decompression means is used from the viewpoint of preventing the temperature inside the container from being reduced by the decompression and preventing the water adhering to food from freezing. It is preferable to adjust the gas supply amount and the like so as to be 4 ° C. to 30 ° C., preferably 5 ° C. to 15 ° C.
(加圧手段)
 殺菌工程において容器内の圧力を上昇させるために加圧手段を利用する場合、当該加圧手段について特に限定はないが、例えば、常圧(大気圧)雰囲気下の容器内に、ポンプ等を用いて殺菌性物質を含む気体を導入させることで、容器内の圧力を上昇させることができる。すなわち、この場合も導入工程によって導入された殺菌性物質を含む気体によって容器内の圧力を上昇させる態様となる。この際、加圧の程度(圧力の上昇の程度)は特に限定はないが、作業効率や容器の耐性の観点から、例えば、容器内の圧力が、2atm程度(約2.02650×105Pa)になるまで加圧することが好ましい。加圧手段によって容器内を加圧した場合、一点時間経過後、内容物が破裂しないように一定時間をかけて容器内の圧力を解放する。この際、加圧時間としては、食物への負荷を低減させる等の観点から、5分間~60分間が好ましく、1分間~30分間がさらに好ましい。同様に、加圧手段を利用する場合には、加圧や温度上昇による食物への負荷を低減させる等の観点から、容器内の温度が3℃~30℃、好ましくは5℃~10℃となるようにガス供給量等を調整することが好ましい。なお、減圧および加圧からなる工程は1回のみに限らず、繰り返し行うこととしてもよい。
(Pressurizing means)
In the case of using a pressurizing means for increasing the pressure in the container in the sterilization process, the pressurizing means is not particularly limited. For example, a pump or the like is used in a container under an atmospheric pressure (atmospheric pressure) atmosphere. By introducing a gas containing a bactericidal substance, the pressure in the container can be increased. That is, also in this case, the pressure in the container is increased by the gas containing the bactericidal substance introduced by the introduction process. At this time, the degree of pressurization (the degree of increase in pressure) is not particularly limited, but from the viewpoint of work efficiency and container resistance, for example, the pressure in the container is about 2 atm (about 2.02650 × 10 5 Pa). It is preferable to pressurize until). When the inside of the container is pressurized by the pressurizing means, the pressure in the container is released over a certain period of time so that the contents do not rupture after one point of time. In this case, the pressurization time is preferably 5 minutes to 60 minutes, and more preferably 1 minute to 30 minutes, from the viewpoint of reducing the load on food. Similarly, when a pressurizing means is used, the temperature in the container is 3 ° C. to 30 ° C., preferably 5 ° C. to 10 ° C. from the viewpoint of reducing the load on food due to pressurization and temperature rise. It is preferable to adjust the gas supply amount and so on. In addition, the process consisting of pressure reduction and pressurization is not limited to once, and may be repeated.
<他の工程>
 本実施形態の殺菌方法は、上述の導入工程及び殺菌工程に加えて、準備工程、裁断工程、洗浄工程、包装工程等を含んでいてもよい。また、各工程の間又は各工程自体に脱水処理、異物検出、重量チェック等を行う工程が含まれていてもよい。
<Other processes>
The sterilization method of the present embodiment may include a preparation process, a cutting process, a cleaning process, a packaging process, and the like in addition to the introduction process and the sterilization process described above. Moreover, the process of performing a dehydration process, a foreign material detection, a weight check etc. may be included between each process or each process itself.
 また、殺菌工程後のみならず、本実施形態の各工程は、無菌状態で行われることが好ましい。
 ここで、「無菌状態」とは、対象食物に応じて通常求められる程度の実用上の無菌を意味し完全な無菌である必要はなく、設定した賞味期限内に微生物的に安全な製品を製造できる状態(環境)を示す。例えば、「無菌状態」としては、一般的な規格として、環境中の一般生菌数では5CFU/cm2以下、大腸菌群が陰性となる条件を採用することができる(参考文献: BC Centre for Disease Control. Environmental hygiene monitoring: A guide for Environmental Health Officers,BC Centre for Disease Control,2010年10月5日[平成29年7月12日検索]、インターネット<http://www.bccdc.ca/NR/rdonlyres/EF1461BE-0301-4A59-8843-420072412721/0/EnvMonitoringHygieneGuideforEHOs.pdf>)。
Moreover, it is preferable that each process of this embodiment is performed aseptically as well as after a sterilization process.
Here, “aseptic condition” means practical sterility that is usually required according to the target food, and it is not necessary to be completely aseptic. Produce a microbially safe product within the set shelf life. Indicates the possible state (environment). For example, as the “sterile state”, as a general standard, the condition that the number of general viable bacteria in the environment is 5 CFU / cm 2 or less and the coliform group is negative can be adopted (reference: BC Center for Disease) Control.Environmental hygiene monitoring: A guide for Environmental Health Offices, BC Center for Disease Control, October 5th, 2010 [NR / c / w, c / w rdonlyres / EF1461BE-0301-4A59-8843-4200724127721 / 0 / EnvMonitoringHygieneGuidef rEHOs.pdf>).
 具体的には、特に限定されるものではないが、例えば、各工程(少なくとも裁断工程及び包装工程)を本実施形態における“無菌状態”で実施するためには、少なくとも対象食物と接する可能性がある装置及びその周辺の環境が、環境中の一般生菌数が5CFU/cm2以下、大腸菌群が陰性となる状態を基準とすることができる。
 また、無菌状態の対象としては、上述の殺菌の対象となる菌が挙げられる。前記無菌状態は、例えば、裁断加工に用いられる装置及び当該装置が設置される部屋の床や壁や他の設置物、或いは、裁断加工を行う人等に対して、前記殺菌の対象となる菌の除菌処理を施すことで達成することができる。また、無菌状態を維持するために、クリーンベンチやクリーンルームを利用してもよい。無菌状態における裁断加工は、クリーンベンチ内でヒトの手を介して行ってよく、また、工業用ロボット等を用いて自動的に行うものであってよい。
 なお、無菌状態の確保は、消費者の口に入る製品やその原料が次亜塩素酸等の化学物質に触れる機会をなくすか、最低限度に抑えることを前提として、設備や施設を殺菌することによって行うことが好ましい。即ち、設備施設の殺菌剤としては次亜塩素酸等でも可能であり、複数の殺菌処理を組み合わせることが好ましい。
Specifically, although not particularly limited, for example, in order to perform each process (at least the cutting process and the packaging process) in the “sterile state” in the present embodiment, there is a possibility that at least the target food may be contacted. A certain device and the surrounding environment can be based on the condition that the number of viable bacteria in the environment is 5 CFU / cm 2 or less and the coliform group is negative.
In addition, examples of aseptic objects include the bacteria that are the targets of sterilization described above. The aseptic condition is, for example, the device used for the cutting process, the floor or wall of the room where the apparatus is installed, other installations, the person performing the cutting process, etc. This can be achieved by applying a sterilization treatment. Further, a clean bench or a clean room may be used in order to maintain aseptic conditions. The aseptic cutting process may be performed through a human hand in a clean bench, or may be automatically performed using an industrial robot or the like.
In order to ensure sterility, sterilization of equipment and facilities is based on the premise that products that enter the consumer's mouth and their raw materials will be exposed to chemical substances such as hypochlorous acid, or will be kept to a minimum. It is preferable to carry out by. That is, hypochlorous acid or the like can be used as a disinfectant for equipment facilities, and it is preferable to combine a plurality of disinfection treatments.
(準備工程)
 本実施形態の殺菌方法は、準備工程を含んでいてもよい。準備工程は、食材から非可食部分を除去したり、食物表面の泥等の除去するために予備洗浄処理などを施す工程である。本実施形態において、準備工程は導入工程の前に実施されることが好ましい。
(Preparation process)
The sterilization method of this embodiment may include a preparation step. The preparation step is a step of performing a pre-cleaning process or the like in order to remove non-edible portions from the food material or to remove mud on the food surface. In the present embodiment, the preparation step is preferably performed before the introduction step.
(裁断工程)
 本実施形態の殺菌方法は、裁断工程を含んでいてもよい。裁断工程は、対象となる食物を裁断する工程である。本実施形態においては、裁断工程を上述の導入工程及び殺菌工程の前に実施し、裁断後の食物を本実施形態の殺菌方法によって殺菌する流れであってもよいし、導入工程及び殺菌工程の後の実施し、殺菌済の食物を裁断する流れであってもよい。上述のように、裁断工程は、無菌状態で行われることが好ましい。
(Cutting process)
The sterilization method of the present embodiment may include a cutting step. The cutting process is a process of cutting the target food. In the present embodiment, the cutting process may be performed before the above-described introduction process and the sterilization process, and the food after the cutting may be sterilized by the sterilization method of the present embodiment. It may be a flow that is performed later and cuts sterilized food. As described above, the cutting step is preferably performed in an aseptic state.
 裁断加工における裁断(カット)は、対象食物に応じて通常用いられる手法を適宜選定することができる。裁断の手法としては、例えば、青果物の場合には、輪切り、斜め切り、短冊切り、みじん切り、さいの目切り、ペースト加工等種々の手法が挙げられる。また、裁断加工に用いられる装置も対象食物等に応じて適宜選定することができる。
 また、裁断加工時における加工条件も特に限定はないが、例えば、炭酸ガス雰囲気下で、湿度(RH)50%~90%程度、温度1℃~15℃程度(好ましくは、2℃~5℃)で実施することが好ましい。
For the cutting (cutting) in the cutting process, a method that is usually used can be appropriately selected according to the target food. As a cutting method, for example, in the case of fruits and vegetables, various methods such as round cutting, diagonal cutting, strip cutting, chopping, diced cutting, and paste processing can be cited. Moreover, the apparatus used for a cutting process can also be suitably selected according to object food etc.
Further, the processing conditions at the time of cutting are not particularly limited. For example, in a carbon dioxide atmosphere, the humidity (RH) is about 50% to 90%, and the temperature is about 1 ° C. to 15 ° C. (preferably 2 ° C. to 5 ° C. ) Is preferable.
(洗浄工程)
 本実施形態の殺菌方法は、洗浄工程を含んでいてもよい。洗浄工程は、主として食物を洗浄し、当該食物の表面から菌を除去することを目的とする工程である。洗浄工程に用いられる殺菌剤としては、例えば、次亜塩素酸ナトリウム、亜塩素酸ナトリウム、硝酸カルシウム、水酸化カルシウム、過硝酸、過酢酸、及び、オゾンから選ばれる少なくとも一種を挙げることができる。洗浄工程においては、対象食物を、これら殺菌剤、好ましくは、次亜塩素酸ナトリウム、亜塩素酸ナトリウム、硝酸カルシウム及び水酸化カルシウムから選ばれる少なくとも一種の水溶液に浸漬して洗浄することができる。殺菌剤を用いた際の洗浄条件は、特に限定されるものではなく、使用する殺菌剤の種類、対象食物のサイズ及びその種類に応じて適宜決定することができる。
 また、洗浄工程においては、殺菌剤に代えて、又は、殺菌剤と併せて上述の微細気泡(マイクロバブル、ウルトラファインバブル)を含む液体を用いて洗浄することもできる。
(Washing process)
The sterilization method of this embodiment may include a cleaning step. The washing step is a step mainly aimed at washing food and removing bacteria from the surface of the food. Examples of the disinfectant used in the washing step include at least one selected from sodium hypochlorite, sodium chlorite, calcium nitrate, calcium hydroxide, pernitric acid, peracetic acid, and ozone. In the washing step, the target food can be washed by immersing it in at least one aqueous solution selected from these fungicides, preferably sodium hypochlorite, sodium chlorite, calcium nitrate and calcium hydroxide. The washing conditions when using the bactericide are not particularly limited, and can be appropriately determined according to the type of bactericide to be used, the size of the target food, and the type.
Further, in the cleaning step, cleaning may be performed using a liquid containing the above-described fine bubbles (micro bubbles, ultra fine bubbles) instead of the sterilizing agent or in combination with the sterilizing agent.
(包装工程)
 本実施形態の殺菌方法は、包装工程を含んでいてもよい。包装工程は、各工程を経た食物を無菌状態で包装する工程である。包装工程における対象食物の包装は、無菌状態が保たれることを条件とする以外特に限定はなく、公知の手法を適宜採用することができる。例えば、窒素ガス等の不活性ガスを充填させた袋や包装材で密封する手法等を採用することができるが、包装後においても一定期間滅菌状態を確保できるような手段を採用することが好ましい。このような手段としては、塩化ビニリデン樹脂製やポリ塩化ビニル樹脂製等の食品包装用ラップを用い、適当な量をトレーに格納しラップフィルムでパックする方法や、真空パック、無菌化包装及び脱酸素剤を用いる方法などが挙げられる。
(Packaging process)
The sterilization method of the present embodiment may include a packaging process. The packaging process is a process of packaging the food that has undergone each process in a sterile state. The packaging of the target food in the packaging process is not particularly limited except that the aseptic condition is maintained, and a known method can be appropriately employed. For example, a method of sealing with a bag filled with an inert gas such as nitrogen gas or a packaging material can be employed, but it is preferable to employ a means that can ensure a sterilized state for a certain period even after packaging. . As such means, food packaging wrap made of vinylidene chloride resin or polyvinyl chloride resin is used, and an appropriate amount is stored in a tray and packed with a wrap film, or vacuum packed, sterilized packaging and removal. Examples include a method using an oxygen agent.
 また、包装時における諸条件も特に限定はないが、例えば、3~10%炭酸ガス雰囲気下で、湿度(RH)50%~90%程度、温度1℃~15℃程度(好ましくは、2℃~5℃)で実施することが好ましい。 There are no particular restrictions on the packaging conditions. For example, in a 3 to 10% carbon dioxide atmosphere, the humidity (RH) is about 50% to 90%, and the temperature is about 1 ° C to 15 ° C (preferably 2 ° C). It is preferable to carry out at ~ 5 ° C.
 以上、本発明の殺菌方法について詳細な実施形態を持って説明したが、本発明の構成は上述の実施形態に限定されるものではない。 As mentioned above, although the sterilization method of the present invention has been described with a detailed embodiment, the configuration of the present invention is not limited to the above-described embodiment.
 以下、実施例によって本発明の殺菌方法を具体的に説明する。ただし、本発明は以下の態様に限定されるものではない。 Hereinafter, the sterilization method of the present invention will be specifically described by way of examples. However, the present invention is not limited to the following modes.
[比較例1]
 流通している野菜(キュウリ、レタス、キャベツ)を入手し、従来の手法によってサラダバー用のカット野菜(野菜サンプル)を製造した。
 まず、材料の野菜を、流水で洗浄し、滅菌した調理具(包丁、まな板)でスライスして、サラダバー用に仕上げた。殺菌は野菜をスライスした後、150ppmの次亜塩素酸ナトリウム水溶液に5分間浸漬し、チラー水で塩素臭がなくなるまで洗浄した。
[Comparative Example 1]
Circulating vegetables (cucumber, lettuce, cabbage) were obtained, and cut vegetables (vegetable samples) for salad bars were produced by conventional methods.
First, the vegetable material was washed with running water, sliced with a sterilized cooking tool (knife, cutting board), and finished for a salad bar. For sterilization, after slicing vegetables, they were immersed in a 150 ppm sodium hypochlorite aqueous solution for 5 minutes and washed with chiller water until the chlorine odor disappeared.
[実施例1]
 比較例1と同様に野菜(キュウリ、レタス、キャベツ)を入手し、いずれもガラス製の真空デシケーターに収納した。次いで、デシケーター内を5.0torrまで減圧した。減圧後、負圧を利用して2ppmの気体状のオゾンを含む空気をデシケーター内に導入し、デシケーター内の圧力を大気圧まで戻した(即ち、圧力を755Torr上昇させた)。その後、ドラフトチャンバー中でデシケーターから各野菜を取り出し、滅菌した調理具(包丁、まな板)でスライスして、野菜サンプルを製造した。減圧時、デシケーター内の温度は18℃であった。
[Example 1]
Vegetables (cucumber, lettuce, cabbage) were obtained in the same manner as in Comparative Example 1, and all were stored in a glass vacuum desiccator. Next, the pressure in the desiccator was reduced to 5.0 torr. After depressurization, air containing 2 ppm of gaseous ozone was introduced into the desiccator using negative pressure, and the pressure in the desiccator was returned to atmospheric pressure (ie, the pressure was increased by 755 Torr). Then, each vegetable was taken out from the desiccator in the draft chamber, and it sliced with the sterilized cooking tool (a kitchen knife, a cutting board), and manufactured the vegetable sample. During decompression, the temperature in the desiccator was 18 ° C.
[実施例2]
 青色LED(最大発光波長460nm;(株)日本医化器械製作所製)を500Wの白色電球に付け、デシケーター外部からデシケーター内の野菜を5分間照射した以外は実施例1と同様にして実施例2の野菜サンプルを製造した。
[Example 2]
Example 2 Example 2 was carried out in the same manner as Example 1 except that a blue LED (maximum emission wavelength: 460 nm; manufactured by Nippon Medical Instruments Co., Ltd.) was attached to a 500 W white light bulb and the vegetables in the desiccator were irradiated for 5 minutes from the outside of the desiccator. Of vegetable samples.
[実施例3]
 「2ppmの気体状のオゾンを含む空気」の代わりに、2ppmのオゾンを溶解したファインバブル水(NANOX社製装置で製造)を空気と共に噴霧して、デシケーター内の圧力を大気圧まで戻した以外は実施例1と同様にして実施例3の野菜サンプルを製造した。この際、ファインバブル水として、気泡数億個/mlのファインバブル(微細気泡の直径は100nm付近にピークがある)水を用いた。ファインバブル水は(株)ナノクス製の装置(装置名:ナノフレッシャー(登録商標))を用いて製造した。具体的には、水道水100Lをナノフレッシャーによって室温・2時間の条件でオゾンガスによって通気処理を行った。
[Example 3]
Instead of “air containing 2 ppm gaseous ozone”, fine bubble water (manufactured by a device manufactured by NANOX) dissolved in 2 ppm ozone was sprayed together with air, and the pressure in the desiccator was returned to atmospheric pressure. Produced the vegetable sample of Example 3 in the same manner as Example 1. At this time, fine bubble water with several hundred million bubbles / ml of bubbles (diameter of fine bubbles has a peak near 100 nm) was used as fine bubble water. Fine bubble water was manufactured using a device manufactured by Nanocus Co., Ltd. (device name: Nano Fresher (registered trademark)). Specifically, 100 L of tap water was subjected to aeration treatment with ozone gas under a condition of room temperature and 2 hours by a nano flesher.
《生菌数の測定》
 各野菜サンプルを直ちに滅菌生理的食塩水に投じ、ストマッカ―処理して菌液を調製し、得られた菌液を37℃、2日培養した。得られた菌液をコンパクト・ドライ(日水製薬製)で一般生菌数を測定した。また、殺菌処理を施していない野菜サンプルについて同様の測定を行った。これらの結果を下記表に示す。なお、表中の値は3回試験をおこなった結果の平均値である。
<Measurement of viable count>
Each vegetable sample was immediately poured into sterilized physiological saline, treated with a stomacher to prepare a bacterial solution, and the obtained bacterial solution was cultured at 37 ° C. for 2 days. The number of general viable bacteria was measured for the obtained bacterial solution with Compact Dry (manufactured by Nissui Pharmaceutical). Moreover, the same measurement was performed about the vegetable sample which has not performed sterilization treatment. These results are shown in the table below. In addition, the value in a table | surface is an average value of the result of having done the test 3 times.
Figure JPOXMLDOC01-appb-T000001
 
Figure JPOXMLDOC01-appb-T000001
 
 前記表から明らかなように、いずれの野菜でも、従来法で殺菌処理した比較例1の野菜サンプルと比べて本技術によって殺菌処理した野菜を用いた野菜サンプルは、一般生菌数が低かった。特に、気孔を開く効果のある青色光線を照射して真空処理した実施例2、及び、オゾンを含有するファインバブル水を用いた場合、実施例1に比して一般生菌数がさらに低下していた。これらの結果から、従来法による表面殺菌では十分に殺菌できない菌が野菜の組織内に存在し、これらを殺滅するには、本発明のような圧力差を利用して気孔内にオゾンのような残留性の無い化合物を含浸させることが効果的であることがわかる。 As can be seen from the above table, the vegetable samples using the vegetables sterilized by this technique compared to the vegetable samples of Comparative Example 1 that were sterilized by the conventional method had lower general viable cell counts. In particular, when Example 2 which was vacuum-treated by irradiating blue light having an effect of opening pores and fine bubble water containing ozone were used, the number of viable bacteria was further reduced as compared with Example 1. It was. From these results, there are bacteria in the vegetable tissue that cannot be sufficiently sterilized by surface sterilization by the conventional method, and in order to kill them, the pressure difference as in the present invention is used to put ozone in the pores. It can be seen that it is effective to impregnate a compound having no residual property.
 上記実施形態においては、キュウリ、レタス、キャベツの例を示したがこれに限らず、タマネギや青ネギ、モヤシ、豆苗、ミツバなど他の野菜に対しても適用可能である。 In the above embodiment, examples of cucumber, lettuce and cabbage are shown, but the present invention is not limited to this, and can be applied to other vegetables such as onion, green onion, bean sprouts, bean seedlings, and honey bees.
 2018年3月30日に出願された日本国特許出願2018-68201号の開示は、その全体が参照により本明細書に取り込まれる。
 また、明細書に記載された全ての文献、特許出願、及び技術規格は、個々の文献、特許出願、及び技術規格が参照により取り込まれることが具体的かつ個々に記された場合と同程度に、本明細書中に参照により取り込まれる。
The disclosure of Japanese Patent Application No. 2018-68201 filed on Mar. 30, 2018 is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.
In addition, all the documents, patent applications, and technical standards described in the specification are as much as if the individual documents, patent applications, and technical standards were specifically and individually stated to be incorporated by reference. , Incorporated herein by reference.

Claims (10)

  1.  表面に微細孔を有する食物が収納された容器に殺菌性物質を導入する導入工程と、
     前記容器内の圧力を上昇させ、前記殺菌性物質を前記食物の微細孔に含侵させる殺菌工程と、
    を含む食物の殺菌方法。
    An introduction step of introducing a bactericidal substance into a container in which food having micropores on the surface is stored;
    A sterilization step of increasing the pressure in the container and impregnating the microbicidal material with the microbicidal substance;
    Method for sterilizing food containing
  2.  前記食物が、前記微細孔として気孔を有する野菜である請求項1に記載の食物の殺菌方法。 The method for sterilizing food according to claim 1, wherein the food is a vegetable having pores as the fine pores.
  3.  前記殺菌性物質が、気体状、溶液状又はその混合物である請求項1又は2に記載の食物の殺菌方法。 The method for sterilizing food according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the bactericidal substance is in the form of a gas, a solution, or a mixture thereof.
  4.  前記導入工程は、前記殺菌性物質を含む気体を前記容器に導入する請求項1~3のいずれか一項に記載の食物の殺菌方法。 The method for sterilizing food according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the introducing step introduces a gas containing the sterilizing substance into the container.
  5.  前記導入工程は、前記食物に青色光を照射する工程を含む請求項1~4のいずれか一項に記載の食物の殺菌方法。 The method for sterilizing food according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the introducing step includes a step of irradiating the food with blue light.
  6.  前記殺菌性物質が、オゾンである請求項1~5のいずれか一項に記載の食物の殺菌方法。 The method for sterilizing food according to any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein the bactericidal substance is ozone.
  7.  前記導入工程は、前記殺菌性物質を含む直径100μm未満の微細気泡を含む液体を前記容器内に導入する請求項1~6のいずれか一項に記載の食物の殺菌方法。 The method for sterilizing food according to any one of claims 1 to 6, wherein in the introducing step, a liquid containing microbubbles having a diameter of less than 100 µm containing the bactericidal substance is introduced into the container.
  8.  前記導入工程は、前記容器内を減圧した後に前記殺菌性物質を前記容器内に導入する請求項1~7のいずれか一項に記載の食物の殺菌方法。 The method for sterilizing food according to any one of claims 1 to 7, wherein, in the introducing step, the sterilizing substance is introduced into the container after the inside of the container is depressurized.
  9.  前記殺菌工程は、前記導入工程によって導入された殺菌性物質を含む気体によって前記容器内の圧力を上昇させる請求項1~8のいずれか一項に記載の食物の殺菌方法。 The method for sterilizing food according to any one of claims 1 to 8, wherein in the sterilization step, the pressure in the container is increased by a gas containing a sterilizing substance introduced in the introduction step.
  10.  前記容器が、真空予冷施設の真空予冷庫である請求項1~8のいずれか一項に記載の食物の殺菌方法。
     
    The food sterilization method according to any one of claims 1 to 8, wherein the container is a vacuum precooling chamber of a vacuum precooling facility.
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Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2011010841A (en) * 2009-07-01 2011-01-20 Hoya Corp Endoscopic device
JP2011224038A (en) * 2010-04-15 2011-11-10 Olympus Corp Image processing device and program
JP2012170641A (en) * 2011-02-22 2012-09-10 Olympus Corp Fluorescence observation apparatus
WO2015049962A1 (en) * 2013-10-02 2015-04-09 オリンパスメディカルシステムズ株式会社 Endoscope system

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2011010841A (en) * 2009-07-01 2011-01-20 Hoya Corp Endoscopic device
JP2011224038A (en) * 2010-04-15 2011-11-10 Olympus Corp Image processing device and program
JP2012170641A (en) * 2011-02-22 2012-09-10 Olympus Corp Fluorescence observation apparatus
WO2015049962A1 (en) * 2013-10-02 2015-04-09 オリンパスメディカルシステムズ株式会社 Endoscope system

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