WO2019001531A1 - 电动汽车及其车身结构 - Google Patents

电动汽车及其车身结构 Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2019001531A1
WO2019001531A1 PCT/CN2018/093440 CN2018093440W WO2019001531A1 WO 2019001531 A1 WO2019001531 A1 WO 2019001531A1 CN 2018093440 W CN2018093440 W CN 2018093440W WO 2019001531 A1 WO2019001531 A1 WO 2019001531A1
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WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
section
battery pack
mounting
vehicle body
rear side
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/CN2018/093440
Other languages
English (en)
French (fr)
Inventor
廉玉波
嵇明
刘新春
许成
邓荣添
Original Assignee
比亚迪股份有限公司
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by 比亚迪股份有限公司 filed Critical 比亚迪股份有限公司
Publication of WO2019001531A1 publication Critical patent/WO2019001531A1/zh

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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B62LAND VEHICLES FOR TRAVELLING OTHERWISE THAN ON RAILS
    • B62DMOTOR VEHICLES; TRAILERS
    • B62D25/00Superstructure or monocoque structure sub-units; Parts or details thereof not otherwise provided for
    • B62D25/20Floors or bottom sub-units
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
    • B60K1/00Arrangement or mounting of electrical propulsion units
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
    • B60K1/00Arrangement or mounting of electrical propulsion units
    • B60K1/04Arrangement or mounting of electrical propulsion units of the electric storage means for propulsion
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B62LAND VEHICLES FOR TRAVELLING OTHERWISE THAN ON RAILS
    • B62DMOTOR VEHICLES; TRAILERS
    • B62D21/00Understructures, i.e. chassis frame on which a vehicle body may be mounted
    • B62D21/02Understructures, i.e. chassis frame on which a vehicle body may be mounted comprising longitudinally or transversely arranged frame members
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B62LAND VEHICLES FOR TRAVELLING OTHERWISE THAN ON RAILS
    • B62DMOTOR VEHICLES; TRAILERS
    • B62D21/00Understructures, i.e. chassis frame on which a vehicle body may be mounted
    • B62D21/09Means for mounting load bearing surfaces
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B62LAND VEHICLES FOR TRAVELLING OTHERWISE THAN ON RAILS
    • B62DMOTOR VEHICLES; TRAILERS
    • B62D21/00Understructures, i.e. chassis frame on which a vehicle body may be mounted
    • B62D21/15Understructures, i.e. chassis frame on which a vehicle body may be mounted having impact absorbing means, e.g. a frame designed to permanently or temporarily change shape or dimension upon impact with another body
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B62LAND VEHICLES FOR TRAVELLING OTHERWISE THAN ON RAILS
    • B62DMOTOR VEHICLES; TRAILERS
    • B62D21/00Understructures, i.e. chassis frame on which a vehicle body may be mounted
    • B62D21/15Understructures, i.e. chassis frame on which a vehicle body may be mounted having impact absorbing means, e.g. a frame designed to permanently or temporarily change shape or dimension upon impact with another body
    • B62D21/152Front or rear frames
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
    • B60K1/00Arrangement or mounting of electrical propulsion units
    • B60K1/04Arrangement or mounting of electrical propulsion units of the electric storage means for propulsion
    • B60K2001/0405Arrangement or mounting of electrical propulsion units of the electric storage means for propulsion characterised by their position
    • B60K2001/0438Arrangement under the floor

Definitions

  • the present disclosure relates to a vehicle body structure, and to an electric vehicle having the vehicle body structure.
  • the present disclosure provides a vehicle body structure of an electric vehicle including an electric motor including two rear side members spaced apart in a left-right direction, a floor panel, and a motor anti-collision beam, the rear a longitudinal beam is coupled to the lower surface of the floor panel, the motor is located below the floor panel, and two ends of the motor impact beam are respectively connected to the two rear side members and at least partially lower than the rear The longitudinal beam, the motor impact beam is located behind the motor.
  • the motor anti-collision beam can prevent the rear vehicle from directly hitting the motor and effectively protect the motor; on the other hand, when reversing, the motor anti-collision beam It can prevent ground obstacles (such as road steps, piles, etc.) from invading the motor and further protect the motor.
  • the present disclosure also provides an electric vehicle including the vehicle body structure as described above.
  • FIG. 1 is a partial exploded view of a vehicle body structure in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure.
  • FIG. 2 is a perspective view of a rear section of a rear side member in a vehicle body structure in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure.
  • FIG. 3 is a top plan view of a vehicle body structure in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure.
  • FIG. 4 is a bottom view of a vehicle body structure in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure.
  • Figure 5 is a cross-sectional view taken along line E-E of Figure 4.
  • Figure 6 is an enlarged view of a portion G in Figure 5.
  • Fig. 7 is a sectional view taken along line F-F of Fig. 4;
  • Figure 8 is an enlarged view of a portion H of Figure 7.
  • FIG. 9 is a partial exploded view of a vehicle body structure in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure.
  • FIG. 10 is a side view of a vehicle body structure in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure.
  • FIG. 11 is a front elevational view of a motor impact beam in a vehicle body structure in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure.
  • FIG. 12 is a perspective view of a vehicle body structure in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure.
  • FIG. 13 is a side view of a vehicle body structure in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure.
  • FIG. 14 is a perspective view of a guide beam and a front mounting beam in a vehicle body structure in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure.
  • 15 is a side view of a vehicle body structure in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure.
  • 16 is a partial exploded view of a vehicle body structure in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure.
  • the orientation words used are defined on the basis of the up and down direction, the left and right direction, and the front and rear direction of the vehicle, unless otherwise stated.
  • the X direction is the front and rear direction of the vehicle, that is, the longitudinal direction of the vehicle, wherein the side pointed by the arrow is “front”, and vice versa is “rear”
  • the Y direction is the left and right direction of the vehicle, that is, the vehicle Lateral, wherein the side pointed by the arrow is "right”, and vice versa is “left”
  • the Z direction is the up and down direction of the vehicle, that is, the height direction of the vehicle, wherein the side pointed by the arrow is “up” and vice versa
  • “Inside and outside” are defined based on the contours of the corresponding components, such as the interior and exterior of the vehicle, which are defined on the basis of the vehicle's contour, and the inner side near the center of the vehicle is "inside”
  • beams in this disclosure refer to beams that extend generally in the left and right direction of the vehicle, and all “stringers” refer to beams that extend generally in the fore and aft direction of the vehicle. Further, the terms “floor panel”, “back stringer”, “back bumper beam” and the like referred to in the various embodiments of the present disclosure have their meanings well-known in the art without any other specific explanation.
  • connection is to be understood broadly, and may be in a non-removable manner such as welding, a detachable manner such as a bolt, or the like, unless otherwise explicitly stated and defined.
  • the system is realized in a one-piece manner.
  • a vehicle body structure of an electric vehicle according to an embodiment of the present disclosure will be described below with reference to FIGS.
  • a vehicle body structure including a rear anti-collision beam 270, a floor panel 300, and two rear side members 120 spaced apart in the left-right direction, and a rear anti-collision beam
  • the two ends of the 270 are respectively connected to the rear ends of the two rear side members 120
  • the floor panel 300 has an electric control device mounting area for mounting the electric control device 740 and a rear seat (not shown) for mounting.
  • the electronic control unit mounting area is located rearward of the rear seat mounting area and spaced apart from the rear seat mounting area.
  • the electronic control unit 740 can be used to control the battery pack to be energized and de-energized.
  • the rear side member 120 may include a first section I, a second section II, a third section III, and a fourth section IV in order from the rear to the front, wherein the second section II is in the lateral direction of the vehicle and the floor panel
  • the electronic control device mounting area of 300 corresponds to the electronic control device 740 corresponding to the lateral direction of the vehicle, that is, the distance between the electronic control device 740 and the front end of the vehicle and the distance between the second segment II and the front end of the vehicle.
  • the intensity of the second section II is greater than the intensity of the first section I and greater than the intensity of the third section III.
  • the strength of the second section II is greater than the strengths of the first section I and the third section III, when the vehicle collides, compared to the first section I and the third Section III, the second section II is deformed later or not deformed (in the case of a small collision force), so that the electronic control device 740 corresponding to the second section II is deformed later or not deformed to protect the electricity.
  • the control device 740 can enable the electronic control unit 740 to have sufficient time to control the battery pack 600 to be powered off, thereby avoiding the risk of fire or even explosion when the battery pack 600 is squeezed.
  • the strength of the third section III may be greater than the intensity of the first section I, that is, the intensity of the first section I is the smallest, the third section III is second, and the second section II is The strength is the greatest.
  • the collision force is small, only the first section I is deformed; if the collision force is large, the first section I is first deformed, and then the third section III is deformed. If the collision force is too large, the first section I is first deformed, and then the third section III is deformed, and finally the second section II is deformed.
  • the interface PP of the third section III and the fourth section IV may be located behind the rear seat mounting area of the floor panel 300, ie, the rear seat is located in the fourth section IV in the vehicle transverse direction.
  • the intensity of the fourth segment IV may be greater than the intensity of the third segment III.
  • the intensity of the fourth segment IV may be greater than the intensity of the second segment II.
  • the vehicle body structure may further include a battery pack rear mounting beam 230 (visible in FIG. 12), the battery pack 600 is disposed under the floor panel 300 and located in front of the motor 730, and the motor 730 may pass through the sub-car
  • a frame (not shown) is mounted on the rear side member 120.
  • the battery pack rear mounting beam 230 is disposed under the floor panel 300, and the two ends of the battery pack rear mounting rail 230 are respectively connected to the left and right rear side rails 120, and the battery pack rear mounting beam 230 is spaced apart in the left-right direction.
  • Two battery tray mounting brackets 340, the battery tray mounting bracket 340 extends downward from the battery pack rear mounting rail 230, and the rear end of the battery pack 600 battery pack is mounted on the two battery tray mounting brackets 340.
  • the interface P-P of the third section III and the fourth section IV may be located behind the battery pack rear mounting rail 230, that is, the battery pack rear mounting rail 230 is coupled to the fourth section IV of the rear side rail 120.
  • the fourth section IV By designing the fourth section IV to have a large strength, the fourth section IV is not easily deformed when a rear collision occurs in the vehicle, thereby ensuring the safety of the battery pack.
  • the strength of the fourth section IV is improved by connecting the underfloor beam 280 on the fourth section IV.
  • the vehicle body structure may further include an underfloor beam 280 disposed on a lower surface of the floor panel 300 and located on the floor back beam.
  • the two ends of the underfloor beam 280 are connected to the rear side members 120 on the left and right sides one by one.
  • the underfloor beam 280 serves as a beam that forms the body frame, which can increase the strength and rigidity of the body.
  • the underfloor beam 280 may be disposed at a concave point of the rear side member 120 for preventing bending deformation at the concave point.
  • the rear edge of the underfloor beam 280 may be located on the interface P-P of the third section III and the fourth section IV.
  • the underfloor beam 280 is coupled to the rear end of the fourth section IV.
  • the strength of the fourth section IV is improved by connecting the underfloor beam 280.
  • an upper floor cross member 290 corresponding to the position of the underfloor cross member 280 may be disposed above the floor panel 300, and the floor upper cross member 290, the floor panel 300, and the underfloor cross member 280 are coupled together.
  • the third section III may correspond to the area of the floor panel 300 between the floor upper cross member 290 and the electric control device mounting area in the lateral direction of the vehicle.
  • the battery pack rear mounting beam 230, the underfloor cross member 280 and the two rear side members 120 enclose a closed loop frame structure, which can increase the strength of the vehicle body structure and improve the stability of the vehicle body structure.
  • the battery pack rear mounting beam 230 and the underfloor beam 280 can transmit the collision force directly from the one side rear side member 120 to the other side rear side member 120, such that the floor panel 300 does not substantially participate or Less involvement in the collision force and energy absorption can limit the lateral deformation of the floor panel 300 and the rear side member 120.
  • the rear side member 120 may have any suitable structure as long as the strength relationship of each of the sections satisfies the above requirements.
  • the rear side member 120 may include a rear side rail front section 121 and a rear side rail rear section 122 that are connected to each other, and the underfloor cross member 280 and the floor rear cross member 230 may be coupled to the rear side member.
  • the rear longitudinal beam rear section 122 is provided with a rear longitudinal beam rear section reinforcement structure and a rear longitudinal beam rear section weakening structure, the rear longitudinal beam rear section weakening structure is located in the first section I, and the rear longitudinal beam rear section reinforcement structure is located.
  • Second section II Second section II.
  • the rear side member rear section weakening structure may be a crushing rib 1223 and/or a crushing hole provided on the rear side member rear section 122.
  • the rear section of the rear side member 122 has an upwardly open groove-like structure, and includes a rear section bottom wall 1221 and two rear section side walls 1222.
  • the two rear section side walls 1222 are oppositely disposed, and then The segment bottom wall 1221 connects the two rear side walls 1222.
  • the rear side member rear section reinforcing structure may include a rear side member rear section reinforcing plate 125 disposed inside the rear side member rear section 122, and a rear side member rear section reinforcing plate 125.
  • the front end extends to the interface MM of the second section II and the first section I, and the rear end of the rear side rail reinforcement panel 125 extends to the interface NN of the second section II and the third section III.
  • the second section II can be reinforced by providing the rear side member rear section reinforcing plate 125.
  • the rear side member rear section reinforcing plate 125 can be directly attached to the rear stage bottom wall 1221.
  • the rear side member rear section reinforcing plate 125 may be spaced apart from the rear stage bottom wall 1221 , and the rear side beam rear section reinforcing structure may further include a rear side bottom wall 1221 .
  • the rear side sill rear slabs 126A, 126B between the rear side sill rear reinforced panels 125 and the rear side sill rear slabs are joined to the rear side sill rear section 122 by the rear side sill rear slabs 126A, 126B.
  • the rear side member rear side stays 126A, 126B may be one or plural.
  • the rear rail rear leg slabs 126A, 126B include a front strut 126A and a rear strut 126B.
  • the front struts 126A are in the shape of "several" for supporting the front and middle portions of the rear side slab rear reinforcing plate 125; the rear struts 126B are in a "Z" shape for supporting the rear side sill rear reinforcing plate 125 unit.
  • the front end of the rear side member rear section 122 may extend to the interface NN of the second section II and the third section III, that is, the front end of the rear side member rear section 122 and the rear side member
  • the front end of the rear section reinforcing plate 125 is flush, and the length of the rear side member rear section 122 is equal to the sum of the lengths of the first section I and the second section II.
  • the rear longitudinal beam front section 121 may be provided with a rear longitudinal beam front section rear reinforcing plate 124, and the rear longitudinal beam front section rear reinforcing plate 124 may be disposed at a joint of the rear longitudinal beam front section 121 and the rear longitudinal beam rear section 122.
  • the strength of the joint between the rear longitudinal beam front section 121 and the rear longitudinal beam rear section 122 can be improved, and the joint of the rear longitudinal beam front section 121 and the rear longitudinal beam rear section 122 can be prevented from being broken or deformed. It is beneficial to transmit the collision force backwards or forwards in the event of a frontal collision or a rear collision of the vehicle, thereby improving the collision safety of the vehicle.
  • the rear longitudinal beam front section 121 may further be provided with a reinforcing plate 123 in the front side of the rear longitudinal beam, a part of the reinforcing plate 123 in the front section of the rear longitudinal beam is located in the third section III, and the other part is located in the fourth section IV.
  • the reinforcing plate 123 in the front section of the rear longitudinal beam By providing the reinforcing plate 123 in the front section of the rear longitudinal beam, the entire third section III and the part of the fourth section IV can be reinforced such that the strength of the third section III is greater than the strength of the first section IV, thereby facilitating control to occur.
  • the cross-sectional area of the fourth section IV may be greater than the cross-sectional area of the other sections such that the intensity of the fourth section IV is greater than the other sections.
  • a reinforcing structure such as a stiffener or rib may also be provided on the fourth section IV to increase the strength of the fourth section IV to be greater than the other sections.
  • the vehicle body structure may further include a motor impact beam 440, the two ends of the motor impact beam 440 being respectively One-to-one correspondence is connected to the two rear side members 120, and the motor impact beam 440 is at least partially lower than the rear side member 120, that is, the motor impact beam 440 is at least partially located below the rear side member 120, and the motor anti-collision beam 440 is located on the floor. Below the panel 300 and behind the motor 730.
  • the motor impact beam 440 can prevent the rear vehicle from directly hitting the motor 730 when the rear collision occurs, effectively protecting the motor 730; on the other hand, when reversing
  • the motor impact beam 440 can prevent ground obstacles (eg, road steps, ground piles, etc.) from invading the motor 730, further protecting the motor 730.
  • the motor impact beam 440 can form a lateral support between the two rear side members 120 when a side collision occurs in the vehicle.
  • the lateral deformation of the rear side member 120 and the floor panel 300 is reduced.
  • Both ends of the motor impact beam 440 can be attached to any suitable location of the rear side member 120.
  • both ends of the motor impact beam 440 may be coupled to the second section II of the rear side member 120, that is, the motor impact beam 440 may be disposed directly below the electronic control unit 740. In this way, the strength of the second section II can be enhanced.
  • the motor impact beam 440 can have any suitable structure and shape.
  • the motor impact beam 440 can include a body section 441 and two connecting sections 442 that extend horizontally, each connecting section 442 being generally inclined upward from one end of the body section 441. Extending to connect to the rear side member 120.
  • the main body segment 441 may have a "one" shape, and the connecting portion 442 may have a substantially "Z" shape. In this way, the height of the motor impact beam 440 is made lower, thereby better protecting the motor 730.
  • the lowest point of the motor impact beam 440 may be lower than the lowest point of the motor 730 to better prevent ground obstacles from invading the motor 730 when reversing.
  • a battery pack anti-collision structure is disposed between the battery pack 600 and the motor 730, and the battery pack is used for the collision avoidance structure. Preventing the motor 730 from colliding with the battery pack 600 when a rear collision occurs in the vehicle, that is, when the rear collision of the vehicle causes the motor 730 to move forward (including the forward movement caused by the deformation of the rear side member 120 and the rear vehicle directly hitting the motor 730). When the forward movement is caused, the battery pack collision preventing structure can change the movement trajectory of the motor 730 to some extent, so that the motor 730 does not hit the battery pack 600.
  • the battery pack anti-collision structure can have various suitable structures.
  • the battery pack crash structure may include a guide beam 450 or a guide plate that is disposed obliquely in the front-rear direction, the guide beam 450 or the guide plate extending forward and downward, causing the motor 730 when a rear collision occurs in the vehicle.
  • the motor 730 hits the guide beam 450 or the guide plate, and the guide beam 450 or the guide plate guide motor 730 moves downward while moving forward to avoid the battery pack 600.
  • the battery pack anti-collision structure can change the movement trajectory of the motor 730 to some extent, so that the motor 730 moves downward to avoid the battery located in front of the motor 730.
  • the package 600 prevents the battery pack 600 from being impacted and squeezed.
  • the guide beam 450 or guide plate can be mounted to the rear side member 120 in a variety of ways.
  • the battery pack crash structure may further include a front mounting beam 460 and a rear mounting beam 470, the front mounting beam 460 being connected to the two batteries.
  • the tray mounting bracket 340 has two ends of the rear mounting beam 470 connected to the rear side frame 120.
  • the front end of the guiding beam 450 is connected to the front mounting beam 460, and the rear end of the guiding beam 450 is connected to the rear mounting beam 470. In this manner, the position of the front mounting beam 460 is made lower than the position of the rear mounting beam 470, thereby causing the guiding beam 450 to be tilted.
  • the guide beam 450 itself absorbs a portion of the energy and transfers a portion of the energy through the rear mounting beam 470 to the rear side member 120, passing another portion of the energy through the front mounting beam 460, the battery tray mounting bracket 340, and The floor rear cross member 230 is transmitted to the rear side member 120.
  • the battery pack anti-collision structure is formed as a "work"-shaped structure connected between the two rear side members 120, thereby further reinforcing the vehicle body structure and improving the collision safety of the vehicle.
  • the guide beam 450 can be a straight beam.
  • the guide beam 450 is a bent beam and includes a first section 451 and a second section 452 coupled to the first section 451, the first section 451 being oriented from the rear mounting beam 470 Extending forwardly and downwardly, the second section 452 extends generally horizontally from the first section 451 to connect to the front mounting beam 460. In this manner, the distance between the guide beam 450 and the motor 730 is made closer, and the motor 730 can contact the guide beam 450 earlier, facilitating control of the direction of motion of the motor 730.
  • the battery pack collision preventing structure may further include a front mounting beam 460, a rear mounting beam 470 and a support beam 480, and the front mounting beam 460 is connected to the Two battery tray mounting brackets 340 are described.
  • the two ends of the rear mounting beam 470 are connected to the rear longitudinal beam 120.
  • the rear end of the guiding beam 450 is connected to the rear mounting beam 470.
  • the supporting beam 480 extends substantially in the front-rear direction, and the supporting beam 480 The front end is connected to the front mounting beam 460, and the rear end of the support beam 480 is connected to the middle of the guiding beam 450.
  • the guide beam 450 When the motor 730 hits the guide beam 450, the guide beam 450 itself absorbs a portion of the energy and transfers a portion of the energy to the rear side member 120 via the rear mounting beam 470, and another portion of the energy through the support beam 480, the front mounting beam 460, and the battery tray.
  • the mounting bracket 340 and the battery pack rear mounting beam 230 are transmitted to the rear side member 120.
  • the lower end position of the guide beam 450 may be allowed to be lower (eg, flush with the lower surface of the battery pack or lower than the lower surface of the battery pack), further eliminating the risk of the motor 730 hitting the battery pack 600. .
  • the battery pack crash structure in addition to the guide beam 450, further includes a front mounting beam 460, a rear mounting beam 470, and a mounting stringer 490, the front mounting beam 460 being connected
  • the two ends of the rear mounting beam 470 are connected to the rear side frame 120
  • the front end of the mounting stringer 490 is connected to the battery pack rear mounting beam 230
  • the rear end of the mounting stringer 490 is connected to the rear side.
  • the beam 470 is mounted, the front end of the guiding beam 450 is connected to the front mounting beam 460, the rear end of the guiding beam 450 is connected to the middle of the mounting stringer 490, and the projection of the guiding beam 450 on the floor panel 300 and the mounting stringer 490 are The projections on the floor panel 300 coincide.
  • the guide beam 450 itself absorbs a portion of the energy and transfers a portion of the energy through the mounting stringer 490 to the rear stringer 120 and the battery pack rear mounting beam 230, passing another portion of the energy through the front mounting beam 460.
  • the battery tray mounting bracket 340 and the battery pack rear mounting beam 230 are transmitted to the rear side member 120.
  • the battery pack rear mounting beam 230, the mounting stringer 490 and the rear mounting beam 470 form an "I" shape structure to enhance the vehicle body structure and improve the collision safety of the vehicle;
  • the angle between the 450 and the mounting stringer 490 can further enhance the body structure and improve the stability of the body structure.
  • the rear mounting beam 470 may be a beam inherent to the body structure or a beam separately provided for mounting the guiding beam.
  • the rear mounting cross member 470 can be, for example, the underfloor cross member 280 mentioned above.
  • the battery pack crash structure may include a stop beam or a stop plate, the stop beam or stop plate being connected to The rear side member 120 is disposed between the battery pack 600 and the motor 730 for blocking the motor 730 from moving forward when a rear collision occurs in the electric vehicle.
  • the stop beam can be generally "U" shaped.
  • the present disclosure also provides a vehicle including the vehicle body structure provided by the present disclosure, and therefore, the vehicle has all the advantages and benefits of the vehicle body structure provided by the present disclosure, in order to reduce unnecessary repetition. , will not repeat them here.
  • the vehicle may be an electric vehicle such that the body structure is adapted to the installation of the battery pack.

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  • Engineering & Computer Science (AREA)
  • Chemical & Material Sciences (AREA)
  • Combustion & Propulsion (AREA)
  • Transportation (AREA)
  • Mechanical Engineering (AREA)
  • Body Structure For Vehicles (AREA)
  • Arrangement Or Mounting Of Propulsion Units For Vehicles (AREA)

Abstract

一种电动汽车的车身结构,包括沿左右方向间隔设置的两个后纵梁(120)、地板面板(300)、以及电机防撞梁(440),后纵梁(120)连接于地板面板(300)的下表面,电机(730)位于地板面板(300)的下方,电机防撞梁(440)的两端分别连接于两个后纵梁(120)且至少部分低于后纵梁(120),电机防撞梁(440)位于电机(730)的后方。

Description

电动汽车及其车身结构
相关申请的交叉引用
本申请基于申请号为201710527539.6,申请日为2017年6月30日的中国专利申请提出,并要求该中国专利申请的优先权,该中国专利申请的全部内容在此引入本申请作为参考。
技术领域
本公开涉及一种车身结构,还涉及一种具有该车身结构的电动汽车。
背景技术
在车辆,尤其是乘用车的交通(碰撞)事故中最大程度地减少乘员的死亡率和受伤程度是乘用车的整车研发和制造的核心设计技术。其中,对车身结构的碰撞安全变形结构的设计是提高整车碰撞安全性能的基础。为了满足公众对家用乘用车的越来越高的碰撞安全性的要求,近年来各国的有关部门都在本国的相关法规和评价规范中不断逐步地改进和补充了一些乘用车的碰撞安全性能的试验条件。例如美国正在针对其国内市场销售的车辆,更新其一系列有关安全碰撞性能的法规和评价规范,要求车身成员舱在更多工况下可以承受更大碰撞力而有相对比较小的变形。
随着家用乘用车在全球市场的普及,石化能源短缺及燃烧带来的环保问题越来越严重,所以各国都在积极开发新能源汽车。而电动汽车作为新能源汽车的一个方向正在成为未来的趋势。电动汽车的设计除了要满足传统的设计,还需要考虑设计较高的续航里程,以满足与传统燃油车的竞争力。
为了提升续航距离,电动汽车需要配备更加多的蓄能电池,这样相比同样规格的燃油车,电动汽车的整车重量会大幅度地增加,这就导致在同样试验条件下,车辆的碰撞初期整车动能的增加,也就说,电动汽车的车身结构需要能够承担更大的力和吸收更多的运动能量来提升安全性。进一步地,在电动汽车中,由于需要布置蓄能电池包,大量车身下部的空间被占用,传统燃油车的各种经典的车身碰撞安全结构技术无法使用,因此设计一种既能满足蓄能电池布置又能满足车辆安全的新型车身结构技术势在必行。
发明内容
本公开的目的是提供一种电动汽车的车身结构,该车身结构能够在车辆发生后面碰撞 或者倒车时更好地保护电机。
为了实现上述目的,本公开提供电动汽车的车身结构,所述电动汽车包括电机,所述车身结构包括沿左右方向间隔设置的两个后纵梁、地板面板、以及电机防撞梁,所述后纵梁连接于所述地板面板的下表面,所述电机位于所述地板面板的下方,所述电机防撞梁的两端分别连接于两个所述后纵梁且至少部分低于所述后纵梁,所述电机防撞梁位于所述电机的后方。
通过在电机的后方设置电机防撞梁,一方面,在发生后面碰撞时,电机防撞梁能够防止后方车辆直接撞到电机上,有效保护电机;另一方面,在倒车时,电机防撞梁能够防止地面障碍物(例如,马路台阶、地桩等)对电机造成侵害,进一步保护电机。
本公开还提供一种电动汽车,包括如上所述的车身结构。
本公开的其他特征和优点将在随后的具体实施方式部分予以详细说明。
附图说明
附图是用来提供对本公开的进一步理解,并且构成说明书的一部分,与下面的具体实施方式一起用于解释本公开,但并不构成对本公开的限制。在附图中:
图1是根据本公开的一种实施方式的车身结构的局部爆炸图。
图2是根据本公开的一种实施方式的车身结构中,后纵梁后段的立体图。
图3是根据本公开的一种实施方式的车身结构的俯视图。
图4是根据本公开的一种实施方式的车身结构的仰视图。
图5是图4的E-E断面图。
图6是图5中G部分的放大图。
图7是图4的F-F断面图。
图8是图7中H部分的放大图。
图9是根据本公开的一种实施方式的车身结构的局部爆炸图。
图10是根据本公开的一种实施方式的车身结构的侧视图。
图11是根据本公开的一种实施方式的车身结构中,电机防撞梁的主视图。
图12是根据本公开的一种实施方式的车身结构的立体图。
图13是根据本公开的一种实施方式的车身结构的侧视图。
图14是根据本公开的一种实施方式的车身结构中,引导梁和前安装横梁的立体图。
图15是根据本公开的一种实施方式的车身结构的侧视图。
图16是根据本公开的一种实施方式的车身结构的局部爆炸图。
具体实施方式
以下结合附图对本公开的具体实施方式进行详细说明。应当理解的是,此处所描述的具体实施方式仅用于说明和解释本公开,并不用于限制本公开。
在本公开中,在未作相反说明的情况下,使用的方位词如“上、下、左、右、前、后”是以车辆的上下方向、左右方向和前后方向为基准进行定义的,具体在附图中,X方向为车辆的前后方向,也就是车辆的纵向,其中,箭头指向的一侧为“前”,反之为“后”;Y方向为车辆的左右方向,也就是车辆的横向,其中,箭头指向的一侧为“右”,反之为“左”;Z方向为车辆的上下方向,也就是车辆的高度方向,其中,箭头指向的一侧为“上”反之为“下”;“内、外”是以相应部件的轮廓为基准定义的,例如以车辆轮廓为基准定义的车内和车外,靠近车辆中部的一侧为“内”,反之为“外”。以上定义仅用于辅助说明本公开,不应当理解为对本公开限制。
本公开中所有的“横梁”是指大体沿车辆左右方向延伸的梁,所有的“纵梁”是指大体沿车辆前后方向延伸的梁。此外,在没有其他特殊解释的情况下,本公开各实施方式中涉及的“地板面板”、“后纵梁”、“后防撞横梁”等名词的含义是其在本领域内公知含义。
另外,除非另有明确的规定和限定,术语“连接”、“相连”、“固定”等应做广义理解,其可以是通过例如焊接等不可拆卸的方式,螺栓等可拆卸的方式,或者模制等一体成型的方式实现的。
下面参考图1-图16描述根据本公开实施例的电动汽车的车身结构。
根据本公开的一个方面,提供一种车身结构,如图3和图4所示,包括后防撞横梁270、地板面板300和沿左右方向间隔设置的两个后纵梁120,后防撞横梁270的两端分别一一对应连接于两个后纵梁120的后端,地板面板300具有用于安装电控装置740的电控装置安装区域和用于安装后座椅(未示出)的后座椅安装区域,电控装置安装区域位于后座椅安装区域的后方且与后座椅安装区域间隔开。电控装置740可以用于控制电池包通电和断电。后纵梁120从后向前可以依次包括第一区段I、第二区段II、第三区段III和第四区段IV,其中,第二区段II在车辆的横向上与地板面板300的电控装置安装区域对应,即与电控装置740在车辆的横向上对应,也就是说,电控装置740与车辆前端之间的距离和第二区段II与车辆前端之间的距离基本相等,第二区段II的强度大于第一区段I的强度,并且大于第三区段III的强度。
在本公开的车身结构中,由于第二区段II的强度大于第一区段I和第三区段III的强度,因此当车辆发生后面碰撞时,相比于第一区段I和第三区段III,第二区段II更晚变形或者不变形(在碰撞力较小的情况下),从而使得与第二区段II横向对应的电控装置740更晚变形或者不变形以保护电控装置740,这样就能使电控装置740有充足的时间来控制电池包600断电,避免在电池包600受到挤压时产生失火甚至爆炸等危险。
在一种实施方式中,第三区段III的强度可以大于第一区段I的强度,也就是说,第一区段I的强度最小,第三区段III次之,第二区段II的强度最大。在这种情况下,当车辆发生后面碰撞时,如果碰撞力较小,则仅第一区段I变形;如果碰撞力较大,则第一区段I首先变形,而后第三区段III变形;如果碰撞力过大,则第一区段I首先变形,而后第三区段III变形,最后第二区段II变形。
在一种实施方式中,第三区段III和第四区段IV的分界面P-P可以位于地板面板300的后座椅安装区域的后方,即,后座椅位于第四区段IV在车辆横向上对应的范围内,并且第四区段IV的强度可以大于第三区段III的强度。进一步地,第四区段IV的强度可以大于第二区段II的强度。通过将第四区段IV设计为具有较大的强度,使得在车辆发生后面碰撞时,第四区段IV不易变形,从而保证后排乘员的安全。同时,通过在第四区段IV上连接后座椅安装横梁,使得第四区段IV的强度得到提高。
在一种实施方式中,所述车身结构还可以包括电池包后安装横梁230(图12中可见),电池包600设置在地板面板300的下方且位于电机730的前方,电机730可以通过副车架(未示出)安装在后纵梁120上。电池包后安装横梁230设置在所述地板面板300的下方,电池包后安装横梁230的两端分别连接于左右两侧的后纵梁120,电池包后安装横梁230上沿左右方向间隔设置有两个电池托盘安装支架340,电池托盘安装支架340从电池包后安装横梁230向下延伸,电池包600的电池托盘的后端安装在两个电池托盘安装支架340上。
第三区段III和第四区段IV的分界面P-P可以位于所述电池包后安装横梁230的后方,即电池包后安装横梁230连接于后纵梁120的第四区段IV。通过将第四区段IV设计为具有较大的强度,使得在车辆发生后面碰撞时,第四区段IV不易变形,从而保证电池包的安全。同时,通过在第四区段IV上连接地板下横梁280,使得第四区段IV的强度得到提高。
更具体地,在一种实施方式中,如图1和图4所示,所述车身结构还可以包括地板下横梁280,该地板下横梁280设置在地板面板300的下表面且位于地板后横梁230的后方,地板下横梁280的两端分别一一对应连接于左右两侧的后纵梁120。地板下横梁280作为形成车身骨架的梁,其能够提高车身的强度和刚度。地板下横梁280可以布置在后纵梁120 的内凹点,以用于防止内凹点处弯折变形。
在一种实施方式中,如图4所示,地板下横梁280的后边缘可以位于第三区段III和第四区段IV的分界面P-P上。换句话说,地板下横梁280连接于第四区段IV的后端。通过连接地板下横梁280,使得第四区段IV的强度得到提高。
如图1和图3所示,地板面板300的上方还可以设置有与地板下横梁280位置对应的地板上横梁290,地板上横梁290、地板面板300和地板下横梁280连接在一起。在这种情况下,第三区段III在车辆的横向上可以与地板面板300的位于地板上横梁290和电控装置安装区域之间的区域对应。
电池包后安装横梁230、地板下横梁280和两个后纵梁120围成闭环框架结构,该闭环框架结构能够增加车身结构的强度,提高车身结构的稳定性。在车辆发生侧面碰撞时,电池包后安装横梁230和地板下横梁280能够将碰撞力从一侧的后纵梁120直接传递给另一侧的后纵梁120,使得地板面板300基本不参与或较少参与碰撞传力与吸能,从而能够限制减小地板面板300和后纵梁120的横向变形。
在本公开中,后纵梁120可以具有任意适当的结构,只要其各区段的强度关系满足以上要求即可。
在一种实施方式中,如图1所示,后纵梁120可以包括相互连接的后纵梁前段121和后纵梁后段122,地板下横梁280和地板后横梁230可以连接于后纵梁前段121,后纵梁后段122上设置有后纵梁后段加强结构和后纵梁后段弱化结构,后纵梁后段弱化结构位于第一区段I,后纵梁后段加强结构位于第二区段II。
如图2所示,所述后纵梁后段弱化结构可以为设置在后纵梁后段122上的溃缩筋1223和/或溃缩孔。
如图2所示,后纵梁后段122的横截面呈向上开口的槽状结构,并且包括后段底壁1221和两个后段侧壁1222,两个后段侧壁1222相对设置,后段底壁1221连接两个后段侧壁1222。
如图1、图6和图7所示,所述后纵梁后段加强结构可以包括设置在后纵梁后段122内部的后纵梁后段加强板125,后纵梁后段加强板125的前端延伸至第二区段II和第一区段I的分界面M-M,后纵梁后段加强板125的后端延伸至第二区段II和第三区段III的分界面N-N。通过设置后纵梁后段加强板125,可以对第二区段II进行加强。
后纵梁后段加强板125可以直接贴合在后段底壁1221上。在一种实施方式中,如图7所示,后纵梁后段加强板125可以与后段底壁1221间隔设置,所述后纵梁后段加强结构还可以包括支撑在后段底壁1221和后纵梁后段加强板125之间的后纵梁后段撑板126A、126B, 后纵梁后段加强板通过后纵梁后段撑板126A、126B连接于后纵梁后段122。后纵梁后段撑板126A、126B可以为一个,也可以为多个。在图示实施方式中,后纵梁后段撑板126A、126B包括前撑板126A和后撑板126B。前撑板126A呈“几”字形,用于支撑后纵梁后段加强板125的前部和中部;后撑板126B呈“Z”字形,用于支撑后纵梁后段加强板125的后部。
在一种实施方式中,后纵梁后段122的前端可以延伸至第二区段II和第三区段III的分界面N-N,也就是说,后纵梁后段122的前端与后纵梁后段加强板125的前端平齐,后纵梁后段122的长度等于第一区段I和第二区段II的长度之和。
后纵梁前段121上可以设置有后纵梁前段后加强板124,后纵梁前段后加强板124可以设置在后纵梁前段121与后纵梁后段122的连接处。通过设置后纵梁前段后加强板124,可以提高后纵梁前段121与后纵梁后段122的连接处的强度,防止后纵梁前段121与后纵梁后段122的连接处失效或变形,有利于在车辆发生前面碰撞或后面碰撞时碰撞力向后或向前传递,提高车辆的碰撞安全性。
进一步地,后纵梁前段121上还可以设置有后纵梁前段中加强板123,后纵梁前段中加强板123的一部分位于第三区段III,另一部分位于第四区段IV。通过设置后纵梁前段中加强板123,可以对整个第三区段III以及部分第四区段IV进行加强,使得第三区段III的强度大于第一区段IV的强度,从而便于控制发生后面碰撞时后纵梁各区段的压溃顺序。
在一种实施方式中,第四区段IV的截面积可以大于其他区段的截面积,以使第四区段IV的强度大于其他区段。在其他实施方式中,也可以在第四区段IV上设置加强结构(例如加强板或加强筋)以增加第四区段IV的强度大于其他区段。
为了在车辆发生后面碰撞或倒车时保护电机730,在一种实施方式中,如图9和图10所示,车身结构还可以包括电机防撞梁440,该电机防撞梁440的两端分别一一对应连接于两个后纵梁120,且电机防撞梁440至少部分地低于后纵梁120即电机防撞梁440至少部分位于后纵梁120的下方,电机防撞梁440位于地板面板300的下方且位于电机730的后方。
通过在电机730的后方设置电机防撞梁440,一方面,在发生后面碰撞时,电机防撞梁440能够防止后方车辆直接撞到电机730上,有效保护电机730;另一方面,在倒车时,电机防撞梁440能够防止地面障碍物(例如,马路台阶、地桩等)对电机730造成侵害,进一步保护电机730。
由于电机防撞梁440的两端分别一一对应连接于左右两个后纵梁120,因此,当车辆发生侧面碰撞时,电机防撞梁440可以在两个后纵梁120之间形成横向支撑,减小后纵梁120和地板面板300的横向变形。
电机防撞梁440的两端可以连接在后纵梁120的任意适当位置。在一种实施方式中,电机防撞梁440的两端可以连接于后纵梁120的第二区段II,也就是说,电机防撞梁440可以设置在电控装置740的正下方。以此方式,能够加强第二区段II的强度。
电机防撞梁440可以具有任意适当的结构和形状。在一种实施方式中,如图11所示,电机防撞梁440可以包括主体段441和两个连接段442,主体段441水平延伸,每个连接段442从主体段441的一端大体倾斜向上延伸以连接至后纵梁120。具体地,如图3所示,主体段441可以呈“一”字形,连接段442可以大体呈“Z”形。以此方式,使得电机防撞梁440的高度较低,从而更好地保护电机730。在一种实施方式中,电机防撞梁440的最低点可以低于电机730的最低点,以在倒车时更好地防止地面障碍物对电机730造成侵害。
为了防止车辆发生后面碰撞时电机730向前移动并撞到电池包600上,在一种实施方式中,电池包600和电机730之间设置有电池包防撞结构,该电池包防撞结构用于在车辆发生后面碰撞时防止电机730撞向电池包600,也就是说,当车辆发生后面碰撞引起电机730前移(包括后纵梁120变形引起的前移和后方车辆直接撞到电机730上引起的前移)时,所述电池包防撞结构可以在一定程度上改变电机730的运动轨迹,使得电机730不会撞向电池包600。
所述电池包防撞结构可以具有各种适当的结构。在一种实施方式中,电池包防撞结构可以包括沿前后方向倾斜设置的引导梁450或引导板,所述引导梁450或引导板向前并向下延伸,当车辆发生后面碰撞引起电机730前移时,电机730撞到引导梁450或引导板上,引导梁450或引导板引导电机730在向前移动的同时向下移动以避开电池包600。也就是说,当车辆发生后面碰撞引起电机730前移时,所述电池包防撞结构可以在一定程度上改变电机730的运动轨迹,使得电机730向下移动以避开位于电机730前方的电池包600,防止电池包600受到撞击和挤压。
可以通过多种方式将引导梁450或引导板安装在后纵梁120上。在一种实施方式中,如图12至图14所示,除引导梁450之外,电池包防撞结构还可以包括前安装横梁460和后安装横梁470,前安装横梁460连接于两个电池托盘安装支架340,后安装横梁470的两端连接于后纵梁120,引导梁450的前端连接于前安装横梁460,引导梁450的后端连接于后安装横梁470。通过这种方式,使得前安装横梁460的位置低于后安装横梁470的位置,从而使引导梁450倾斜设置。当电机730撞到引导梁450时,引导梁450本身吸收一部分能量,并且将一部分能量经后安装横梁470传递至后纵梁120,将另一部分能量经前安装横梁460、电池托盘安装支架340和地板后横梁230传递至后纵梁120。在这种实施方式中, 所述电池包防撞结构形成为连接在两个后纵梁120之间的“工”字形结构,从而进一步加强车身结构,提高车辆的碰撞安全性。
引导梁450可以为一根平直的梁。可替换地,如图14所示,引导梁450为一根折弯的梁,并且包括第一段451和与第一段451连接的第二段452,第一段451从后安装横梁470向前并向下延伸,第二段452从第一段451大体水平向前延伸以连接至前安装横梁460。通过这种方式,使得引导梁450与电机730之间的距离更近,电机730能够更早地接触到引导梁450,便于控制电机730的运动方向。
在另一种实施方式中,如图15所示,除引导梁450之外,电池包防撞结构还可以包括前安装横梁460、后安装横梁470和支撑梁480,前安装横梁460连接于所述两个电池托盘安装支架340,后安装横梁470的两端连接于所述后纵梁120,引导梁450的后端连接于后安装横梁470,支撑梁480大体沿前后方向延伸,支撑梁480的前端连接于前安装横梁460,支撑梁480的后端连接于引导梁450的中部。当电机730撞到引导梁450时,引导梁450本身吸收一部分能量,并且将一部分能量经后安装横梁470传递至后纵梁120,将另一部分能量经支撑梁480、前安装横梁460、电池托盘安装支架340和电池包后安装横梁230传递至后纵梁120。在这种实施方式中,可以允许引导梁450的下端位置更低(例如,与电池包的下表面平齐或低于电池包的下表面),进一步消除电机730撞到电池包600上的风险。
在又一种实施方式中,如图16所示,除引导梁450之外,电池包防撞结构还包括前安装横梁460、后安装横梁470和安装纵梁490,所述前安装横梁460连接于所述两个电池托盘安装支架340,后安装横梁470的两端连接于后纵梁120,安装纵梁490的前端连接于电池包后安装横梁230,安装纵梁490的后端连接于后安装横梁470,引导梁450的前端连接于前安装横梁460,引导梁450的后端连接于安装纵梁490的中部,引导梁450在所述地板面板300上的投影与安装纵梁490在所述地板面板300上的投影重合。当电机730撞到引导梁450时,引导梁450本身吸收一部分能量,并且将一部分能量经安装纵梁490传递至后纵梁120和电池包后安装横梁230,将另一部分能量经前安装横梁460、电池托盘安装支架340和电池包后安装横梁230传递至后纵梁120。在这种实施方式中,一方面,电池包后安装横梁230、安装纵梁490和后安装横梁470形成“工”字形结构能够加强车身结构,提高车辆的碰撞安全性;另一方面,引导梁450和安装纵梁490之间的夹角能够进一步加强车身结构,提高车身结构的稳定性。
这里,后安装横梁470可以是车身结构固有的梁,也可以是为了安装引导梁而单独设置的梁。在一种实施方式中,后安装横梁470例如可以是上文提及的地板下横梁280。
与上述采用引导梁或引导板引导电机730运动的实施方式不同,在替代实施方式中,所述电池包防撞结构可以包括止挡横梁或止挡板,该止挡横梁或止挡板连接于所述后纵梁120且设置在电池包600和电机730之间,用于在所述电动汽车发生后面碰撞时阻挡所述电机730向前移动。所述止挡横梁大体可以呈“U”形。
在上述技术方案的基础上,本公开还提供一种车辆,该车辆包括本公开提供的车身结构,因此,该车辆具有本公开提供的车身结构的全部优点和有益效果,为减少不必要的重复,在此不再赘述。具体地,该车辆可以是电动汽车,从而使得车身结构适应电池包的安装。
以上结合附图详细描述了本公开的具体实施方式,但是,本公开并不限于上述实施方式中的具体细节,在本公开的技术构思范围内,可以对本公开的技术方案进行多种简单变型,这些简单变型均属于本公开的保护范围。
另外需要说明的是,在上述具体实施方式中所描述的各个具体技术特征,在不矛盾的情况下,可以通过任何合适的方式进行组合。为了避免不必要的重复,本公开对各种可能的组合方式不再另行说明。
此外,本公开的各种不同的实施方式之间也可以进行任意组合,只要其不违背本公开的思想,其同样应当视为本公开所公开的内容。

Claims (17)

  1. 一种电动汽车的车身结构,所述电动汽车包括电机,其特征在于,所述车身结构包括:
    沿左右方向间隔设置的两个后纵梁;
    地板面板,所述后纵梁连接于所述地板面板的下表面,所述电机位于所述地板面板的下方;以及
    电机防撞梁,所述电机防撞梁的两端分别连接于两个所述后纵梁且至少部分低于所述后纵梁,所述电机防撞梁位于所述电机的后方。
  2. 根据权利要求1所述的车身结构,其特征在于,所述电机通过副车架安装在后纵梁上。
  3. 根据权利要求1或2所述的车身结构,其特征在于,所述电机防撞梁包括主体段和形成在该主体段两端的连接段,所述主体段水平延伸,每个连接段从所述主体段倾斜向上延伸以连接至所述后纵梁。
  4. 根据权利要求3所述的车身结构,其特征在于,所述主体段的最低点低于所述电机的最低点。
  5. 根据权利要求1-4中任一项所述的车身结构,其特征在于,所述车辆还包括电池包和电池包防撞结构,所述电池包设置在所述地板面板的下方且位于所述电机的前方,所述电池包防撞结构设置在所述电池包和所述电机之间,用于在所述电动汽车发生后面碰撞时防止所述电机撞向所述电池包。
  6. 根据权利要求5所述的车身结构,其特征在于,所述电池包防撞结构包括沿前后方向倾斜设置的引导梁或引导板,所述引导梁或引导板向前并向下延伸,用于在所述电动汽车发生后面碰撞时引导所述电机向下移动以避开所述电池包。
  7. 根据权利要求6所述的车身结构,其特征在于,所述车身结构还包括电池包后安装横梁和两个电池托盘安装支架,所述电池包后安装横梁两端连接于所述后纵梁,所述两个电池托盘安装支架沿左右方向间隔设置在所述电池包后安装横梁上,所述电池包的后端安装在所述两个电池托盘安装支架上,
    所述电池包防撞结构还包括前安装横梁和后安装横梁,所述前安装横梁连接于所述两个电池托盘安装支架,所述后安装横梁的两端连接于所述后纵梁,所述引导梁的前端连接于所述前安装横梁,所述引导梁的后端连接于所述后安装横梁。
  8. 根据权利要求6所述的车身结构,其特征在于,所述车身结构还包括电池包后安装 横梁和两个电池托盘安装支架,所述电池包后安装横梁两端连接于所述后纵梁,所述两个电池托盘安装支架沿左右方向间隔设置在所述电池包后安装横梁上,所述电池托盘安装支架从所述电池包后安装横梁向下延伸,所述电池包的后端安装在所述两个电池托盘安装支架上,
    所述电池包防撞结构还包括前安装横梁、后安装横梁和支撑梁,所述前安装横梁连接于所述两个电池托盘安装支架,所述后安装横梁的两端连接于所述后纵梁,所述引导梁或引导板的后端连接于所述后安装横梁,所述支撑梁的前端连接于所述前安装横梁,所述支撑梁的后端连接于所述引导梁或引导板的中部。
  9. 根据权利要求6所述的车身结构,其特征在于,所述车身结构还包括电池包后安装横梁和两个电池托盘安装支架,所述电池包后安装横梁两端连接于所述后纵梁,所述两个电池托盘安装支架沿左右方向间隔设置在所述电池包后安装横梁上,所述电池托盘安装支架从所述电池包后安装横梁向下延伸,所述电池包的后端安装在所述两个电池托盘安装支架上,
    所述电池包防撞结构还包括前安装横梁、后安装横梁和安装纵梁,所述前安装横梁连接于所述两个电池托盘安装支架,所述后安装横梁的两端连接于所述后纵梁,所述安装纵梁的前端连接于所述电池包后安装横梁,所述安装纵梁的后端连接于后安装横梁,所述引导梁或引导板的前端连接于所述前安装横梁,所述引导梁或引导板的后端连接于所述安装纵梁的中部,所述引导梁或引导板在所述地板面板上的投影与所述安装纵梁在所述地板面板上的投影部分重合。
  10. 根据权利要求5-9中任一项所述的车身结构,其特征在于,所述电池包防撞结构包括止挡横梁或止挡板,所述止挡横梁或止挡板连接于所述后纵梁,用于在所述电动汽车发生后面碰撞时阻挡所述电机朝向所述电池包移动。
  11. 根据权利要求10所述的车身结构,其特征在于,所述止挡横梁呈U形,所述止挡横梁的两端分别连接于所述两个后纵梁。
  12. 根据权利要求1-11中任一项所述的车身结构,其特征在于,所述电动汽车还包括电控装置,所述电控装置安装在所述地板面板上,所述后纵梁从后向前依次包括第一区段、第二区段、第三区段和第四区段,所述第二区段在车辆的横向上与所述电控装置对应,所述第二区段强度大于所述第一区段的强度并且大于所述第三区段的强度,所述电机防撞梁的两端连接于所述第二区段。
  13. 根据权利要求12所述的车身结构,其特征在于,第四区段的强度大于所述第一区 段的强度并且大于所述第三区段的强度,所述第三区段的强度大于所述第一区段的强度。
  14. 根据权利要求12或13所述的车身结构,其特征在于,所述后纵梁包括相互连接的后纵梁前段和后纵梁后段,所述后纵梁后段上设置有后纵梁后段加强结构和后纵梁后段弱化结构,所述后纵梁后段弱化结构位于所述第一区段,所述后纵梁后段加强结构位于所述第二区段。
  15. 根据权利要求14所述的车身结构,其特征在于,所述后纵梁后段弱化结构包括溃缩筋和/或溃缩孔。
  16. 根据权利要求14或15所述的车身结构,其特征在于,所述后纵梁后段形成为向上开口的槽状结构,并且包括后段底壁和两个相对设置的后段侧壁,所述后纵梁后段加强结构包括后纵梁后段加强板和后纵梁后段撑板,所述后纵梁后段加强板设置在所述后纵梁后段的内部且与所述后段底壁平行,所述后纵梁后段加强板的前端延伸至所述第二区段和第三区段的分界面,所述后纵梁后段加强板的后端延伸至所述第二区段和第一区段的分界面,所述后纵梁后段撑板支撑在所述后纵梁后段和所述后段底壁之间。
  17. 一种电动汽车,其特征在于,包括根据权利要求1-16中任一项所述的车身结构。
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