WO2018232335A1 - Battery pack module - Google Patents

Battery pack module Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2018232335A1
WO2018232335A1 PCT/US2018/037896 US2018037896W WO2018232335A1 WO 2018232335 A1 WO2018232335 A1 WO 2018232335A1 US 2018037896 W US2018037896 W US 2018037896W WO 2018232335 A1 WO2018232335 A1 WO 2018232335A1
Authority
WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
battery cell
battery
battery pack
pack module
assembly
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/US2018/037896
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Martin KRUSZELNICKI
Original Assignee
Kruszelnicki Martin
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US201762603941P priority Critical
Priority to US201762603944P priority
Priority to US62/603,944 priority
Priority to US62/603,941 priority
Priority to US15/937,728 priority patent/US20180277808A1/en
Priority to US15/937,728 priority
Application filed by Kruszelnicki Martin filed Critical Kruszelnicki Martin
Publication of WO2018232335A1 publication Critical patent/WO2018232335A1/en

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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/60Heating or cooling; Temperature control
    • H01M10/61Types of temperature control
    • H01M10/613Cooling or keeping cold
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/60Heating or cooling; Temperature control
    • H01M10/62Heating or cooling; Temperature control specially adapted for specific applications
    • H01M10/625Vehicles
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/60Heating or cooling; Temperature control
    • H01M10/65Means for temperature control structurally associated with the cells
    • H01M10/655Solid structures for heat exchange or heat conduction
    • H01M10/6556Solid parts with flow channel passages or pipes for heat exchange
    • H01M10/6557Solid parts with flow channel passages or pipes for heat exchange arranged between the cells
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/60Heating or cooling; Temperature control
    • H01M10/65Means for temperature control structurally associated with the cells
    • H01M10/656Means for temperature control structurally associated with the cells characterised by the type of heat-exchange fluid
    • H01M10/6567Liquids
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M2220/00Batteries for particular applications
    • H01M2220/20Batteries in motive systems, e.g. vehicle, ship, plane

Abstract

A battery pack module assembly includes a plurality of battery cell stacks. A cooling coil is disposed between the plurality of battery cell stacks. The coiling coil includes an inlet for coolant moving into the coiling coil, and an outlet for coolant moving out from the cooling coil. A filler material is disposed around and between the battery cell stacks. The assembly also includes a plurality of bus bars, where each bus bar is configured to provide electrical communication between at least two of the plurality of battery cell stacks.

Description

BATTERY PACK MODULE

RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application is a continuation-in-part of U.S. Non-provisional Application Serial no. 15/937,728, filed March 27, 2018, and also claims the benefit of and priority to U.S. Provisional Application Serial No. 62/601,643, filed March 27, 2017,

U.S. Provisional Application Serial No. 62/603,941, filed June 16, 2017, and U.S. Provisional Application Serial No. 62/603,944, filed June 16, 2017, the entire contents of which are hereby incorporated herein by reference.

BACKGROUN D [0002] The present invention relates generally to battery packs. More particularly, the present invention relates to a battery pack module for an electric vehicle.

[0003] Traditional internal combustion engine motor vehicles (e.g., automobiles, trucks, and the like) have dominated transportation for the better part of a century. These traditional internal combustion motor vehicles, however, are powered by fossil fuels. Fossil fuels are known contributors to air pollution and climate change. In recent decades, alternatives to traditional interna l combustion engine motor vehicles have arisen (e.g., electric vehicles ("EV"), and gasoline-electric hybrid ("Hybrid") vehicles) as a way to mitigate climate change, air pollution, and the like. These alternative vehicles use rechargeable batteries to provide power for operation of the alternative vehicle (e.g., moving the vehicle) and powering various systems within the alternative vehicle. Individual batteries may be placed together within a battery pack.

[0004] Different types of battery packs associated with electric vehicles have been proposed. However, such battery packs have their limitations and can always be improved.

[0005] Accordingly, there is a need for an improved battery pack module for an electric vehicle. There is also a need for a battery pack module that provides uniform thermal management. There is an additional need for a battery pack module that is easier to manufacture, assemble, adjust, and maintain. The present invention satisfies these needs and provides other related advantages.

SUMMARY

[0006] The battery pack module assembly illustrated herein provides an improved battery pack module. The battery pack module assembly illustrated herein provides an improved battery pack module for an electric vehicle. The battery pack module assembly illustrated herein provides uniform thermal management. The battery pack module assembly illustrated herein is easier to manufacture, assemble, adjust, and maintain.

[0007] A battery pack module assembly illustrated herein provides an energy

storage system with a 7.2kWh nominal battery module capacity. The battery pack module includes laser-welded bus bars, stacks of battery cells, a heat transferring material (i.e., filler material) to fill gaps between stacks of battery cells, and a cooling coil filled with a direct expansion refrigerant fluid. This battery pack module provides useful advantages, such as: a closed loop cooling system that reduces pressure drop losses with regard to an overall cooling system (e.g., in a vehicle); rapid fluid migration and uniform heat transfer to keep battery cells at even temperatures; a very tight arrangement of battery cells that allows more battery cells to be packed into a given space; and should a rupture occur in one of the cooling coil channels, significant cooling/heating can nevertheless be provided by way of other undamaged channels within the cooling coil and the heat capacity of the filler material.

Moreover, in the occurrence of a thermal event, the filler material can act as a fire suppressant mitigating the propagation of the event.

[0008] In an illustrative embodiment, a battery pack module assembly includes a plurality of battery cell stacks. A cooling coil is disposed between the plurality of battery cell stacks. The coiling coil includes an inlet for coolant moving into the coiling coil, and an outlet for coolant moving out from the cooling coil. A filler material is disposed around and between the battery cell stacks. The assembly also includes a plurality of bus bars. Each bus bar is configured to provide electrical communication between at least two of the plurality of battery cell stacks.

[0009] In another illustrative embodiment, the coiling coil conforms to at least two of the plurality of battery cell stacks. [0010] In a further illustrative embodiment, each battery cell stack includes at least one connecting tab laser welding at least two battery cells of each stack together in electro-mechanical engagement.

[0011] In yet another illustrative embodiment, the battery pack module assembly further includes first and second spacer supports. Each spacer support has apertures such that the apertures of the first support are aligned with the apertures of the second support, and each battery cell stack is inserted through an aligned pair of apertures.

[0012] In still another illustrative embodiment, the filler material includes dielectric thermally conductive material.

[0013] In another illustrative embodiment, each bus bar includes at least one

recessed point configured to engage one end of each battery cell stack, and wherein bus bars on opposite sides of the assembly each provide compression against a side of the battery cell stack facing that particular bus bar such that there is electrical contact between the bus bars and the battery cell stack.

[0014] In an illustrative embodiment, each battery cell stack includes a plurality of battery cells, wherein a connecting tab is disposed between adjacent battery cells, and laser welded to each of the adjacent battery cells.

[0015] Other features and advantages of the present invention will become

apparent from the following more detailed description, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, which illustrate, by way of example, the principles of the invention.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF TH E DRAWI NGS

[0016] The various present embodiments now will be discussed in detail with an emphasis on highlighting the advantageous features with reference to the drawings of various embodiments. The illustrated embodiments are intended to illustrate, but not to limit the invention. These drawings include the following figures, in which like numerals indicate like parts:

[0017] FIGURE 1 illustrates a perspective view of a main body of a battery pack module assembly in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

[0018] FIGURE 2 illustrates an exploded perspective view of a battery pack module assembly in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

[0019] FIGU RE 3 illustrates a side view of the main body of FIGURE 1;

[0020] FIGURE 3A illustrates a n enlarged view of a portion of the main body taken along line 3A of FIGURE 3;

[0021] FIGURE 4 illustrates a perspective cutaway view of a portion of the main body of FIGURE 1;

[0022] FIGU RE 5 illustrates a cutaway, perspective view of a side of the main body of FIGURE 1;

[0023] FIGURE 6 illustrates a cross-sectional view of the portion of the main body, taken along line 6-6 of FIGURE 5; [0024] FIGURE 7 illustrates a perspective view of the main body of FIGURE 6;

[0025] FIGU RE 8 illustrates a view of the side of the main body of FIGURE 5;

[0026] FIGURE 9 illustrates a cross-sectional view of an expandable clip on one of the covers aligned with, but not engaging, a recess located on the rear side of the main body; [0027] FIGURE 10 illustrates a cross-sectional view of the expandable clip of the cover engaging the recess of the rear side of the main body; [0028] FIGU RE 11 illustrates is a perspective view of a battery pack module assembly in accordance with another embodiment of the present invention, including triple battery cell stacks, spacers, bus bars and a U-shaped cooling coil with the inlet and outlet manifolds;

[0029] FIGURE 12 illustrates a side view of the battery pack module assembly of FIGU RE 11, with module inlet and outlet manifolds connecting to the cooling coil;

[0030] FIGU RE 13 illustrates a cross-sectional view of the battery pack module of FIGU RE 1, with four (4) rows of battery cell stacks and the cooling coil running between the battery cells and longitudinally along a length of the battery pack module;

[0031] FIGU RE 14 illustrates a perspective view of a U-shaped cooling coil in

accordance with an embodiment of the invention, with corrugated surfaces of cooling channels conforming to the triple battery cell stacks shape of a battery pack module;

[0032] FIGURE 15 illustrates an exploded perspective view of a stack of three battery cells in series connected via connecting tabs in accordance with an embodiment of the invention;

[0033] FIGURE 16 illustrates a side view of the stack of three battery cells seen in FIGURE 5;

[0034] FIGURE 17 illustrates an exploded perspective view of a stack of three battery cells in series connected via connecting tabs in accordance with another

embodiment of the invention;

[0035] FIGURE 18 illustrates a side view of the stack of three battery cells seen in FIGURE 7;

[0036] FIGURE 19-21 illustrate the influence of filler material heat conductivity (at respective thermal conductivities of 1 W/mK, 2 W/mk, and 5 W/mk) on mitigation of temperature raise within the battery pack module of FIGURE 1; and [0037] FIGU RE 22 illustrates a graph illustrating temperature (degrees Celsius) versus thermal conductivity (Watt per meter-Kelvin (W/mK)), within the battery pack module of FIGURE 1;

[0038] FIGURE 23 illustrates a battery pack assembly, in accordance with an

embodiment of the invention, having twenty (20) individual battery pack modules of

FIGU RE 1, where the battery pack modules are arranged in two (2) rows with cooling coil manifolds facing each other and heat transfer channels aligned to a middle of the battery pack along a longitudinal length of the battery pack; and

[0039] FIGURE 24 illustrates filler material filling-in spaces around each of the

battery cell stacks and the cooling coil.

DETAILED DESCRI PTION

[0040] The following detailed description describes present em bodiments with reference to the drawings. In the drawings, reference numbers label elements of present embodiments. These reference numbers are reproduced below in connection with the discussion of the corresponding drawing features.

[0041] It is to be understood that the figures and descriptions of the present

invention have been simplified to illustrate elements that are relevant for a clear understanding of the present invention, while eliminating, for the purpose of clarity, many other elements found in battery pack modules. Those of ordinary skill in the pertinent arts may recognize that other elements and/or steps are desirable and/or required in implementing the present invention. However, because such elements and steps are well known in the art, and because they do not facilitate a better understanding of the present invention, a discussion of such elements and steps is not provided herein. The disclosure herein is directed to all such variations and modifications to such elements and methods known to those skilled in the pertinent arts.

[0042] As shown in FIGS. 1-10 for purposes of illustration, an embodiment of the present invention resides in a battery pack module assembly 20 includes a housing 22 having a main body 24, a first or front cover 26, and a second or rear cover 28.

[0043] The front cover 26 matingly engages a first or front side 30 of the main body 24, and the second or rear cover 28 matingly engages a second or rear side 32 of the main body 24. The front and rear sides 30, 32 of the main body 24 are on opposite sides of the main body 24. The main body 24 includes an interior 34 having a plurality of bores or hollow cylinders 36. A first end of each hollow cylinder 36 has an opening 38 on the front side 30 (i.e., a front opening 38) of the main body 24, and a second end of each hollow cylinder 36 has an opening 40 on the rear side 32 (i.e., a rear opening 40) of the main body 24.

[0044] Each hollow cylinder 36 is configured for insertion of at least one generally cylindrical battery cell (not shown) within an interior 44 of the hollow cylinder 36. Each cylindrical bore 36 in the assembly 20 is designed to accommodate at least one (1) cylindrical battery cell. However, depending on the size of the hollow cylinders 36 and/or the battery cells, the hollow cylinder can accommodate more than one (1) battery cell. If, for example, there is more than one (1) battery cell in a single cylindrical bore 36, the battery cells are positioned in tandem (also referred to as being "stacked") within the cylindrical bore 36. Depending on the design of the assembly 20, any number of battery cells from one (1) battery cell (i.e., not stacked) to several battery cells can be stacked in one hollow cylinder 36. Various materials may be disposed in between stacked cells to improve inter-cell electrical connection including, but not limited to, a copper allow powder (not shown), an electrically conductive compound (e.g., an electrically conductive glue), or the like. 5] The main body 24 has a generally rectangular shape, and the lengths of all the cylindrical bores 36 are equal. If, for example, the cylindrical bore 36 can accommodate three (3) stacked battery cells (each battery cell having the same size/length), then no cylindrical bore 36 in the assembly 20 will contain less than three (3) battery cells (unless a hollow cylinder 36 is left empty). Alternatively, the main body 24 can be irregularly-shaped such that a portion of the main body 24 is sized to include at least one hollow cylinder 36 capable of holding only one (1) battery cell of a particular size, while at least one (1) other portion of the main body 24 is sized to include at least one hollow cylinder 36 capable of holding two (2) or more battery cells. The battery cell can be a rechargeable battery (e.g., a lithium-ion battery, lead-acid, nickel metal hydride, etc.). The battery cell can be any battery in cylindrical form factor (e.g., 18650, 21700, etc.). The body or casing of the battery cell is made from nickel-plated steel. The battery cell casing has a negative terminal along the sides and bottom of the casing and has a positive terminal only on a top portion of the battery cell. The casing of the battery cell is a negative terminal throughout the length of the battery cell and conductive circuitry 82 of a battery monitoring system 84 makes direct electrical and physical contact with the exterior surface of the battery cell. Each hollow cylinder 36 has an inner diameter sized and shaped to friction-fit a generally cylindrical battery cell inserted within the interior 44 of the hollow cylinder 36. Alternatively, if a particular battery cell has an outer diameter less than the interior diameter of the hollow cylinder 36, an electrically conductive and/or thermally conductive sleeve may be positioned around that particular battery cell such that electrical and/or thermal contact is made between the battery cell and the hollow cylinder 36. In another alternative, the battery cell can be in other forms (e.g., rectangular), with the shape of bore 36 being a similar shape for receiving one or more of the similarly-shaped battery cells therewithin. 6] The main body 24 includes at least one port 46 that provides an inlet for liquid coolant (not shown) moving into the interior 34 of the main body 24 (i.e., an inlet port 46), and at least one port 48 that provides an outlet for coolant moving out from the interior 34 of the main body 24 (i.e., an outlet port 48). The ports 46, 48 are located on the same side of the main body 24. Alternatively, the inlet port 46 and the outlet port 48 may be disposed on opposite sides of the main body 24 from each other, or on such various sides of the main body 24 as is required to accommodate a particular layout required for positioning the ports 46, 48. The interior 34 of the housing 22 is configured for coolant (not shown) to flow therewithin (coolant channels through which coolant flows being defined by the space not taken up by the hollow cylinders 36 and supports 78, 80) and around at least a portion of an exterior surface 50 of each hollow cylinder 36. Various coolants may be used including, without limitation, a glycol-water mixtu re or any other liquid used in heat transfer applications. Coolant flowing within the interior 34 of the main body 24 does not come into contact with any of the battery cells disposed within the hollow cylinders 36. The coolant originates from a coolant reservoir (not shown) located external to the battery pack module assembly 20, and at least one pump (not shown) located external to the battery pack module assembly 20 is used to pump the liquid coolant into and out from the interior of the main body 34 through the ports 46, 48. In the alternative, the main body 24 may include a single port used for both intake and outtake of coolant (the port may be configured such that coolant moving into the interior 34 of the main body 24 is kept separate from the coolant moving out from the interior 34 of the main body 24. Coolant flows through the interior 34 of the main body 24 and circulates uniformly around every hollow cylinder 36, and from top-to-bottom, and side-to-side of the interior 34. [0047] In another illustrative embodiment, the main body 24 includes a divider wall 52 that divides the interior 34 of the main body 24 into upper and lower chambers 54, 56. The upper and lower chambers 54, 56 are configured such that coolant is flowable from one chamber to the other chamber. For example, when the inlet port 46 and the outlet port 48 are located on the same side of the main body 24, the divider wall 52 does not extend in the interior 34 all the way to the opposite side wall of main body 24 and defines an aperture (not shown) through which coolant passes. If the inlet portion 46 is located such that coolant enters the main body 24 into the upper chamber 54, the coolant will flow within the interior 34 to the opposite end of the main body 24, move down into the lower chamber 56 and flow back towards the outlet port 48. Alternatively, divider wall 52 may extend within the interior 34 from one side to the opposite side, dividing the interior 34 into upper and lower chambers 54, 56, but the divider wall 52 includes a plurality of apertures along the length of the divider wall 52, that are sized and shaped to allow coolant to flow from one chamber to another, depending on the location of the respective locations of the inlet and outlet ports 46, 48 in relation to the upper and lower chambers 54, 56. In another alternative, there may be no divider wall in the interior 34 of the main body 24, and coolant is free to flow throughout the interior 34 of the main body 24. Alternatively, when the inlet port 46 is located on one side of the main body 24, and the outlet port 48 is located on the opposite side of the main body 24, the divider wall is not required and coolant flows in one direction from the inlet port 46 to the outlet port 48. In a further alternative, the inlet port 46 may be located such that coolant enters the lower chamber 56 and then moves up into the upper chamber 54 and exits from the outlet port 48.

[0048] The exterior surface 50 of each hollow cylinder 36 includes a plurality of ribs 58. The ribs 58 provide increased heat exchange surface for contact with coolant flowing over the exterior surface 50 of each hollow cylinder 36. Coolant flowing around each hollow cylinder 36 contacts at least a portion of the ribs 58.

[0049] The main body 24 is of single-piece construction, and may be constructed using 3D printing. In the alternative, the main body 24 may be integrally constructed from individual components. Alternatively, the main body 24 (or the individual elements thereof) may be constructed using other techniques that include, without limitation, injection molding. The main body 24 may be made from various materials including, without limitation, a dielectric thermally conductive material; any plastic material; a thermally conductive plastic, metal or other suitable material. The size and shape of the main body 24 can be accommodated to any space available. 0] The assembly includes a number of bus bars 60, with each bus bar 60 configured to provide electrical communication between at least two battery cells. At least one (1) bus bar 60 is disposed between the front cover 26 and the main body 24, and is configured to electrically engage battery cells disposed within the hollow cylinders 36 on the front side 30 of the main body 24. At least one (1) bus bar 60 is disposed between the rear cover 28 and the main body 24, and is configured to electrically engage battery cells disposed within the hollow cylinders 36 on the rear side 32 of the main body 24. The bus bars 60 associated with the front and rear covers 26, 28 can be negative or positive or a combination thereof, depending on the series and parallel configuration of the assembly 20. Usually, depending on the number of battery cells in the assembly 20, there are a larger number of battery cells connected in parallel and a fewer number of battery cells connected in series. For example, a battery pack module assembly 20 can be 6S44P (i.e., there are six (6) batteries connected in series and forty four (44) in parallel). If three (3) battery cells are positioned in each hollow cylinder 36, the bus bars 60 associated with each cover 26, 28 are then designed to achieve a desired serial/parallel configuration. However, any desired serial/parallel configuration can be achieved. The bus bar configuration is designed accordingly to the voltage requirements of the assembly 20, and the battery cell arrangement in the main body 24. As seen in Figure 2, for example, there is a rear bus bar 64 associated with the rear cover 28, but there is a front positive bus bar 66 and a front negative bus bar 68 associated with the front cover 26. A divided bus bar configurations provides voltage build-up. For example, if each battery cell is 3.6 volts, and there are three (3) battery cells in a stack, the voltage of the battery cell stack will be 10.8 volts. If the bus bar configurations were identical on both sides of the main body 24, a total voltage of the assembly 20 would be only 10.8 volts. However, if the bus bar configuration is divided, as seen in Figure 2, the divided configuration creates more battery cell stacks in series. If one of the bus bars is divided, then it creates a total of six (6) battery cells in series, and the total voltage of the assembly 20 will go up to 21.6 volts. Any configuration of the bus bar and a number of battery cells stacked together can be used. For example, there may be a battery pack module assembly that has single battery cell in a single cylinder 36.

[0051] The bus bars 60 are designed in a tilted lattice configuration. Each bus bar 60 includes one (1) or more recessed points 62 stamped into the bus bar 60, and configured to engage the positive and/or negative terminals of the battery cells in each hollow cylinder 36 having terminals that are located at the front and rear sides 30, 32 of the main body 24, and generally co-planar therewith. The recessed points 62 are disposed at the intersection of two (2) pieces of the lattice. The recessed points 62 of the bus bars 60 on opposite sides of the main body 24 each provide compression against a side (i.e., a terminal) of the battery cell facing that particular bus bar 60 such that there is electrical contact between the bus bars 60 and the battery cells. Bus bars 60 on opposite sides 30, 32 of the main body 24 each provide compression against ends (i.e., terminals) of the battery cell(s) facing outwardly from the hollow cylinder 36 such that there is electrical contact between the bus bars 60 and the battery cell(s).

[0052] The bus bars 60 may be made from various electrically conductive materials including, without limitation, cooper, aluminum, gold, and other highly conductive materials. The tilt or recession of the lattice of each bus bar 60 allows each of the recessed points 62 (e.g., a center rounded spot) to be aligned with the longitudinal center of the particular battery cell engaged by that recessed point 62 in order to provide mechanical compression of the recessed points 62 against the terminal of the battery cell. In the alternative, laser or resistance welding may be used to engage the recessed points 62 (e.g., center rounded spots (not shown)) configured to engage a battery cell terminal.

[0053] In the alternative, when the hollow cylinders 36 are sized to accommodate at least two (2) stacked battery cells, each recessed point 62 is configured to engage one (1) of the terminals of the stacked battery cells. The recessed points 62 provide compression between the stacked battery cells, with the recessed points 62 acting like springs. Bus bars 60 on opposite sides 30, 32 of the main body 24 each provide compression against a side (i.e., terminal) of the stacked battery cells facing those particular bus bars 60 such that there is electrical contact between the bus bars 60 and the stacked battery cells (which also provides compression (which also furthers electrical contact) between the battery cells of the at least two stacked battery cells). Mechanical compression is preferred due to ease of manufacture. If mechanical compression is employed, an electrically conductive compound may be used to increase conductivity.

4] The front cover 26 includes a plurality of male fasteners 70, and the main body 24 includes a plurality of female fasteners 72 for matingly engaging the male fasteners 70 of the front cover 26. The front cover 26 and the main body 24 matingly engage when the male and female fasteners 70, 72 matingly engage. Likewise, the rear cover 28 includes a plurality of male fasteners 70, and the main body 24 includes a plurality of female fasteners 72 for matingly engaging the male fasteners 70 of the rear cover 28. The rear cover 28 and the main body 24 matingly engage when the male and female fasteners 70, 72 matingly engage. The male fasteners 70 may be in various forms including, without limitation, expandable clips. The female fasteners 72 may be in various forms including, without limitation, a recess sized and shaped to fit the expandable clip. The recess 72 is sized such that the walls of the recess 72 compress the resilient expandable head 74 of the clip 70 as the clip 70 enters the recess 72 until the head 74 reaches a chamber portion 76 of the recess 72 shaped to receive the head 74, at which point head 74 begins to expand until the head 74 contacts the wal ls of the chamber portion 76. The recess 72 is formed within the main body 24 such that the chamber portion 76 is disposed within a portion that appears as a post 86 on the inner wall of the main body 24. When the clips 70 are held within the recesses 72, the covers 26, 28 are removably engaged to the main body 24. When a user wishes to remove one or both of the covers 26, 28, the user pulls on the desired cover 26, 28, which in turn pulls the clips 70 from the recess 72. As force is exerted to remove the desired cover 26, 28, the walls of each recess 72 compress the resilient expandable head 74 of the clip 70 associated with that recess 72 until the head 74 is free from the recess 72. Alternatively, other fasteners can be used including, without limitation, pins, clips, latches, straps, hook and eye fasteners, toggle fasteners, snaps (male and female), male/female engaging fasteners, magnetic fasteners, or the like. Other alternatives include bolts that will go through the main body 24 and covers 26, 28; pins that will be melted down securing the covers 26, 28; or screws that can pass through the covers 26, 28 and matingly engage recesses on the main body 24. The fasteners 70 may be of single-piece construction with the covers 26, 28. Alternatively, the male fastener 70 may be of single-piece construction with the main body 24, and the female fastener 72 formed into the covers 26, 28.

[0055] The main body 24 further includes a plurality of struts or supports 78

interconnecting the hollow cylinders 36 and the main body 24. The number of supports 78 required depends on the size of the main body 24 and num ber of hollow cylinders 36. The supports 78 are used to connect the hollow cylinders 36 to the interior sides of the main body 24. The main body 24 also includes a plurality of struts or supports 80 interconnecting the hollow cylinders 36. The number of supports 80 required depends on the size of the main body 24 and the number of hollow cylinders 36.

[0056] The main body 24 further includes electrically conductive material or circuitry 82 that provides electrical connection between a battery management system 84 and battery cells for balancing and cell voltage monitoring, state of charge and state of health calculation. The battery pack module assembly 20 includes the circuitry 82 to allow monitoring of the voltage on every single battery cell. The circuitry 82 may be 3D printed integrated circuitry (using electrically conductive material that can be 3D printed) for balancing and cell voltage monitoring. This allows for all battery cells to be monitored. The conductive circuitry 82 may be routed anywhere along the exterior and/or interior of the main body 24 so that the conductive circuitry 82 is electrically connected to each battery cell. The conductive circuitry 82 may be routed through various structures including, but not limited to, supports 78, 80 and the divider wall 52 to reach the battery cells. Each battery cell has contact with circuitry 82 but some circuits 82 are shared (e.g., by stacked battery cells) to reduce complexity. The battery pack module assembly 20 provides uniform thermal management of cylindrical battery cells inserted in the assembly 20. The battery management system 84 may include a computing device that can store information in a memory accessible by the one or more processors , including instructions that can be executed by the one or more processors. The memory can also include data that can be retrieved, manipulated or stored by the processor. The memory can be of any non-transitory type capable of storing information accessible by the processor, such as a solid state hard drive (SSD), disk based hard-drive, memory card, ROM, RAM, DVD, CD-ROM, Blu-Ray, write-capable, and read-only memories. The instructions can be any set of instructions to be executed directly, such as machine code, or indirectly, such as scripts, by the one or more processors. In that regard, the terms "instructions," "application," "steps," and " programs" can be used

interchangeably herein. The instructions can be stored in a proprietary or nonproprietary language, object code format for direct processing by a processor, or in any other computing device language including scripts or collections of independent source code modules that are interpreted on demand or compiled in advance. Data may be retrieved, stored or modified by the one or more processors in accordance with the instructions. For instance, although the subject matter described herein is not limited by any particular data structure, the data can be stored in computer registers, in a relational or non-relational database as a table having many different fields and records, or XM L documents. Moreover, the data can comprise any information sufficient to identify the relevant information, such as numbers, descriptive text, proprietary codes, pointers, references to data stored in other memories such as at other network locations, or information that is used by a function to calculate the relevant data. 7] In use, a main body 24 is manufactured to accommodate the size and shape of a space available for the battery pack module assembly 20 as well as electrical needs. Once the electrical needs are known, the num ber of hollow cylinders required (and number of stacked/un-stacked battery cells) may be determined along with the arrangement of the battery cells in parallel/series configuration. The bus bar pattern is designed accordingly to the battery cell arrangement in the main body 24. The arrangement of hollow cylinders 36 allows for a maximum number of battery cells to be placed in a given volume, with proper thermal management. The main body 24 and the covers 26, 28 may be constructed using 3D printing techniques. The bus bars 60 may also be constructed using 3D printing either alone or as part of constructing the covers 26, 28. Once the main body 24 and covers 26, 28 are ready, battery cells may be inserted within the hollow cylinders 36, and the covers 26, 28 attached to the main body 24 using the fasteners 70, 72. The battery cell assembly 20 may then positioned within the desired space and connected to coolant (e.g., appropriate connections are made between the inlet and outlet ports 46, 48 and the coolant reservoir and pump) and electrical systems (e.g., appropriate connections are made between circuitry of the main body 24 and a wire harness of the electrical system of, for example, an electric vehicle).

[0058] As shown in FIGS. 11-24 for purposes of illustration, another embodiment of the present invention resides in a battery pack module assembly 120 includes a number of spacers 122, a plurality of battery cell stacks 124, a number of bus bars 126, a generally U-shaped cooling coil 128 having an inlet manifold 130 and an outlet manifold 132, and filler material 150. In general, the filler material 150 fills in all the gaps and spaces around the battery cell stacks 124, and between the battery cell stacks 124 and the cooling coil 128 in particular. The filler material 150 may be various materials including, without limitation, a dielectric thermally conductive material (e.g., a dielectric material having a high thermal conductivity), any plastic material, a thermally conductive plastic, or other suitable material. The filler material 150 surrounds components of the assembly 120 including, but not limited to, the battery cell stacks 124 and the cooling coil 128 and provides heat transfer, electrical insulation, vibration protection, and thermal runaway protection (e.g., fire protection).

[0059] The assembly 120 may be integrally constructed from individual components, and is generally rectangular in shape. Alternatively, the size and shape of the assembly 120 can be accommodated to any space available in an electric vehicle 40, 240 for a battery pack. Depending on design requirements, and space available in the vehicle 40, 240, the assembly 120 can be smaller or larger, or any required shape/size. The assembly 120 can also use different sizes of battery cells 134, and different numbers of battery cells 134, in order to achieve a desired charge capacity. [0060] Battery modules can be arranged according to available space and battery case can have different size as well. This is only example how it can be installed (this illustrates modules in case that will be installed under vehicle floor)The assembly 120 seen in FIGURE 11 illustrates a battery pack module having four (4) rows of triple battery cell stacks 124 assembled with spacers 122 and bus bars 126. I n this assembly 120, a pair of spacers 122 provide inner support for the battery cell stacks 124 as the battery cell stacks 124 pass through apertures (not shown) on the spacers 122 such that the interfaces 190 between a middle battery cell 134 in the stack 124 and the two battery cells 134 at the ends of each stack 124 are disposed in or around the apertures of the spacers 122. The spacers 122 are made from various materials including, but not limited to, plastic. The battery pack module has two (2) bus bars 126 on opposite sides of the battery cell stacks 124 from each other. The bus bars 126 connect the battery cell stacks 124 in series and parallel configurations such that, at any given time, there are nine (9) battery cells 134 connected in series and forty-four (44) battery cells 134 connected in parallel. The bus bars 126 may be made from various materials including, but not limited to, metallic materials with high electrical conductivity (e.g., copper or aluminum a lloys), and are designed to minimize the electrical resistance and the weight of the assembly 120. Each bus bar 126 includes at least one welding tab 127 that allow for laser welding of the battery cell stacks 124 to the bus bars 126. Such welding tabs 127 are elastic, flexible, and designed to accommodate the volume expansion that may be experienced by the battery cell stacks 124 over the cycle life of the assembly 120.

[0061] The assembly 120 has a generally rectangular shape, and the lengths of all the battery cell stacks 124 are generally equal. Alternatively, the assembly 120 can be irregularly-shaped such that a portion is sized to include only one (1) battery cell 134 of a particular size, while at least one (1) other portion of the assembly 120 is sized to include a battery cell stack 124 having two (2) or more battery cells 134. The battery cell 134 can be a rechargeable battery (e.g., a lithium-ion battery, lead-acid, nickel metal hydride, etc.). The battery cell 134 can be any battery in cylindrical form factor (e.g., 18650, 21700, etc.). The body or casing of the battery cell 134 is made from nickel-plated steel. The battery cell casing has a negative terminal along the sides and bottom of the casing and has a positive terminal only on a top portion of the battery cell. The casing of the battery cell is a negative terminal throughout the length of the battery cell and conductive circuitry (not shown) of a battery monitoring system (not shown) makes direct electrical and physical contact with the exterior surface of the battery cell stack 124. In the alternative, each battery cell stack 124 can be heat-shrink wrapped by an appropriate heat shrink material. In another alternative, an electrically conductive and/or thermally conductive sleeve may be positioned around a battery cell stack 124. In another alternative, the battery cell 134 can be in other forms (e.g., rectangular).

[0062] Each battery cell stack 124 includes a number of individual battery cells 134.

The battery cells 134 of each battery cell stack 124 are electrically-mechanically connected in series. For example, as seen in FIGU RE 11, the battery cells 134 of each battery cell stack 124 are arranged in stacks of three (3) battery cells. Alternatively, the number of battery cells 134 in a battery cell stack 124 can vary from as few as one (1) battery cell 134 (i.e., not stacked) to as many as desired to fulfill the design requirements (e.g., charge capacity, space requirements, etc.) of a particular battery pack module assembly 120. Likewise, the number of battery cell stacks 124 in any particular battery pack module assembly 120 can vary depending on the design requirements of that particular battery pack module assembly 120. The battery cells 134 may be connected in series by laser welding. In the embodiment seen in FIGURE 11, the battery cells 134 are electrically connected through the bus bars 126 such that, at any given time, there are always nine (9) cells in series and forty-four (44) in parallel.

[0063] Each bus bar 126 is configured to electrically engage the battery cell stacks 124. A bus bar 126 is configured to electrically engage the terminals of battery cell stacks 124 on a first side of the assembly 120, a nd another bus bar 126 is configured to electrically engage the terminals of battery cell stacks 124 on a second side of the assembly 120 opposite the first side. The bus bars 126 can be negative or positive or a combination thereof, depending on the series and parallel configuration of the assembly 120. Usually, depending on the number of battery cell stacks 124 and battery cells 134 in the assembly 120, there are a larger number of battery cells connected in parallel and a fewer number of battery cells connected in series. However, any desired serial/parallel configuration can be achieved. The bus bar configuration is designed accordingly to the voltage requirements of the assembly 120, and the battery pack module arrangement in the battery pack assembly 200. A divided bus bar configuration can provide voltage build-up. Any configuration of the bus bars 126 and a number of battery cell stacks 124 can be used.

[0064] Each bus bar 126 includes one (1) or more recessed points (not shown)

stamped into the bus bar 126, and configured to engage the positive and/or negative terminals of the battery cell stacks 124 having terminals that are located at the first and second sides of the assembly 120, and generally co-planar therewith. The recessed points of the bus bars 126 on opposite sides of the assembly 120 each provide compression against a side (i.e., a terminal) of the battery cell 134 facing that particular bus bar 126 such that there is electrical contact between the bus bars 126 and the battery cells 134. Bus bars 126 on opposite sides of the assembly 120 each provide compression against ends (i.e., terminals) of the battery cell(s) 134 facing outwardly such that there is electrical contact between the bus bars 126 and the battery cell(s) 134.

[0065] The bus bars 126 may be made from various electrically conductive materials including, without limitation, cooper, aluminum, gold, and other highly conductive materials. Each of the recessed points (e.g., a center rounded spot) are aligned with the longitudinal center of the terminal of the particular battery cell 134 engaged by that recessed point in order to provide mechanical compression of the recessed points against the terminal of the battery cell. In the alternative, laser or resistance welding may be used to engage the recessed points (e.g., center rounded spots (not shown)) configured to engage a battery cell terminal.

[0066] The cooling coil 128 includes multiple cooling channels 136. The embodiment seen in FIGURE 12 illustrates a cooling coil 128 having six (6) cooling channels 136 connected to the inlet manifold 130 and the outlet manifold 132. The number of cooling channels 136 of a particular cooling coil 128 can vary depending on the design requirements of that particular battery pack module assembly 120. For example, the cooling coil 128 may have multiple cooling channels 136 to provide uniform cooling throughout the assembly 120 and minimize the distance between the battery cell stacks 124. The battery cells 134 can be stacked from one (1) battery cell 134 to multiple battery cells 134, and in different arrangements with cooling coil 128. The cooling coil 128 can be made from various materials including, without limitation, an aluminum alloy to allow for easy assembly, welding, shaping, and light weight. Furthermore, the cooling coil 128 is essentially U-shaped to provide a close loop flow to the cooling fluid or coolant, and insuring uniform temperature distribution and efficient heat removal. The coolant is used to remove the heat generated by the battery cells 134 during charge and discharge. The filler material 150 provides thermal contact between the cooling coil 128 and the battery cells 134. As seen in FIGURES 11 and 12, there are three (3) pairs of cooling channels 136 (i.e., two (2) cooling channels 136 per each battery cell 134 of the battery cell stack 124). This is merely illustrative as the number of cooling channels 136 per battery cell 134 may vary per each design, and depend on the number of battery cells 134 in a particular battery cell stack 124. There are spaces 149 between the pairs of cooling channels 136 to accommodate the spacers 122. 7] The inlet manifold 130 includes an inlet port 138 a nd the outlet manifold 132 includes an outlet port 140. The ports 138, 140 are located on the same side of the assembly 120. Alternatively, the inlet port 138 and the outlet port 140 may be disposed on opposite sides of the assembly 120 from each other, or on such various sides of the assembly 120 as is required to accommodate a particular layout required for positioning the ports 138, 140. The inlet and outlet manifolds 130, 132 are connected to channels capable of supplying cooled or heated coolant (e.g., refrigerant fluid) to the assembly 120. The channels (e.g., piping) supplies cold cooling medium and collects warm cooling medium (e.g., the cooling medium being liquid coolant, refrigerant or the like). In cold climates, the battery cells 134 need to be warmed or heated, and in those situations, a warmed or heated medium would be supplied to the assembly 120. Cooling fluid enters the battery pack module assembly 120 by entering the inlet manifold 130 through the inlet port 138, enters and passes through the cooling channels 136 of the cooling coil 128, exits the cooling channels 136 into the outlet manifold 132, and exits the battery pack module assembly 120 by passing through the outlet port 140.

[0068] As seen in FIGURE 13, the battery pack module assembly 120 includes four (4) rows of battery cell stacks 124. The cooling coil 128 has a first portion 142 running longitudinally along a length of the battery pack module assembly 120 between the two (2) upper rows of battery cell stacks 124 in a first direction, a U- shaped portion 144 that curves one hundred eighty degrees (180 degrees) around the center or middle two (2) rows of battery cell stacks at a distal end of the battery pack module assembly 120, and a second portion 146 running longitudinal ly along a length of the battery pack module assembly 120 between the two (2) lower rows of battery cell stacks 124 in a second direction generally opposite the first direction. The surfaces of the portions 142, 144, 146 of the cooling coil 128 have a corrugated appearance 148. The corrugation provides more surface for heat exchange. In the alternative, the surface of the cooling coil 128 can be flat instead of corrugated. In another alternative, the cooling coil can be a single width piece. The coiling coil 128 can be made from various materials including, but not limited to, an aluminum alloy or other material that can sustain high pressure of the coolant/refrigerant inside and has good thermal conductivity. Along the length of the cooling coil 128, the shape of the portions 142, 144, 146 of the cooling coil 128 conform to the shape of the battery cells 134 contacting those portions 142, 144, 146 of the cooling coil 128, as seen in FIGURES 9-10. As seen in FIGU RE 14, the corrugated surfaces 148 of the cooling channels 136 conform to the shape of the triple battery cell stacks 124 of the battery pack module assembly 120. The corrugations 148 provide increased heat exchange surface for contact with the filler material 150. The cooling coil 128 can be longer or shorter depending on the size of the assembly 120.

[0069] Various coolants may be used including, without limitation, a refrigerant fluid (e.g., R1234yf or C02), a glycol-water mixture or any other liquid used in heat transfer applications. In the alternative, the coolant could be a gas under high pressure using direct expansion. Coolant flowing within the cooling coil 128 does not come into contact with any of the battery cells 134. The coolant originates from a coolant reservoir (not shown) located external to the battery pack module assembly 120, and at least one pump (not shown) located external to the battery pack module assembly 120 is used to pump the liquid coolant into and out from the cooling coil 128 through the ports 138, 140. I n the alternative, the assembly 120 may include a single port used for both intake and outtake of coolant (the port may be configured such that coolant moving into the cooling coil 128 is kept separate from the coolant moving out from the cooling coil 128. 0] FIGURES 15 and 16 illustrates a battery cell stack 124 having three (3) battery cells 134 in series connected via connecting tabs 160, and laser welding technology. The battery cell stack 124 has three (3) battery cells 134 laser welded together. In a battery cell stack 124 having three (3) battery cells 134, there are two (2) connecting tabs 160, where each connecting tab 160 is disposed at the interface between two (2) of the battery cells 134. Each connecting tab 160 is conformal to the shape of the battery cells 134 and connects the positive top terminal of a particular battery cell 134 with the bottom negative terminal of the directly adjacent battery cell 134. Each connecting tab 160 includes a connector 162 and an insulator 164. The connector 162 may be made from various electrically conductive materials including, without limitation, copper, gold, or the like. The connector 162 includes a terminal portion 166, and two (2) flanges 168 sized and shaped to conform to the shape of the battery cell 134. The flanges 168 engage the sides of the battery cell 134 at a negative terminal end of the battery cell 134 and are laser welded thereto, and the terminal portion 166 engages the negative terminal of that battery cell 134. The insulator 164 is in the shape of a spacer washer, and disposed between the connector 162 and a positive terminal end of an adjacent battery cell 134. The open central portion of the insulator 164 allows the positive terminal of the battery cell 134 to operationally engage the terminal portion 166 of the connector 162. The positive terminal is laser welded to the terminal portion 166. The insulator 164 is insulating the negative terminal of the battery cell 134 (e.g., the bottom portion and outer body of the battery cell 134) and the connector 162. The insulator 164 is only placed before laser welding and is held by the connector 162. Alternatively, or in addition thereto, various materials may be disposed in-between the stacked battery cells 134 to improve inter-cell electrical connection including, but not limited to, a copper allow powder (not shown), an electrically conductive compound (e.g., an electrically conductive glue), or the like. 1] FIGURES 17 and 18 illustrates a battery cell stack 124 having three (3) battery cells 134 in series connected via connecting tabs 170, and laser welding technology. The connecting tab 170 is structurally and operationally similar to the connecting tab 160, except that the connecting tab 170 has three (8) flanges 178. The battery cell stack 124 has three (3) battery cells 134 laser welded together. In a battery cell stack 124 having three (3) battery cells 134, there are two (2) connecting tabs 170, where each connecting tab 170 is disposed at the interface between two (2) of the battery cells 134. Each connecting tab 170 is conformal to the shape of the battery cells 134 and connects the positive top terminal of a particular battery cell 134 with the bottom negative terminal of the directly adjacent battery cell 134. Each connecting tab 170 includes a connector 172 and an insulator 174. The connector 172 may be made from various electrically conductive materials including, without limitation, copper, gold, or the like. The connector 172 includes a terminal portion 176, and three (3) flanges 178 sized and shaped to conform to the shape of the battery cell 134. The flanges 178 engage the sides of the battery cell 134 at a negative terminal end of the battery cell 134 and are laser welded thereto, and the terminal portion 176 engages the negative terminal of that battery cell 134. The insulator 174 is in the shape of a spacer washer having a cylindrical wall extending upwardly therefrom, and disposed between the connector 172 and a positive terminal end of an adjacent battery cell 134. The insulator acts as an insulating sleeve that provides electrical insulation between the positive and negative terminals of adjacent battery cells 134. The upwardly extending wall of the insulator 174 allows that portion of the insulator to act as a sleeve that provides mounting features to battery module framing, and helps position the cooling coil 128 at the same time. The open central portion of the insulator 174 allows the positive terminal of the battery cell 134 to operationally engage the terminal portion 176 of the connector 172. The positive terminal is laser welded to the terminal portion 176. The insulator 174 is insulating the negative terminal of the battery cell 134 (e.g., the bottom portion and outer body of the battery cell 134) and the connector 172. The insulator 174 is only placed before laser welding and is press-fit held by the connector 172. Alternatively, or in addition thereto, various materials may be disposed in-between the stacked battery cells 134 to improve inter-cell electrical connection including, but not limited to, a copper allow powder (not shown), an electrically conductive compound (e.g., an electrically conductive glue), or the like.

[0072] In an alternative, the direct expansion cooling coil has a built-in expansion valve/orifice in the bottom manifold, managing both cooling and heating loop depends on the direction of refrigerant flow. Coolant/refrigerants (e.g., R1234yf or C02) are used. The cooling coil is made of aluminum and coated with aluminum nitride, providing dielectric properties and increased thermal conductivity. Battery cells in welded in stacks of three battery cells, with cell interconnection being achieved with a connecting piece that is laser welded to positive and negative terminals of adjoining battery cells, with an insulated sleeve in between. The insulated sleeve provides electrical insulation between the positive and negative battery cell terminals, but the insulated sleeve also provides mounting features to battery module framing, and positions the cooling coil at the same time. Once the battery cell stacks, bus bars, spacers and coiling coil are assembled, the filler material fills in the gaps and spaces between the components. The filler material may initially be in liquid form (e.g., a liquid compound that is based on aluminum nitride) and additives. The filler material then solidifies and provides exceptional thermal conductivity, dielectrics, and vibration resistance. Additionally, the filler material will act as fire suppressant in case of a thermal event. The C02 will also suppress a fire in the event of a rupture of the cooling coil. The battery cell stacks are horizontally oriented. The orientation of the battery cell stacks, and having multiple battery cells in each stack, allows increased energy density. The assembly 120 provides low complexity, fast assembly, and more efficient cooling/heating that results in better cycle life.

[0073] FIGURES 19-22 illustrate the influence of filler material heat conductivity (at respective thermal conductivities of 1 Watt per meter-Kelvin (W/mK), 2 W/mk, and 5 W/mk) on mitigation of temperature raise (measured in degrees Celsius) within the battery pack module assembly 120, and provide thermal model representation of the cooling coil 128 and the filler material 150 illustrating the influence of the filler material thermal conductivity on the cell temperature distribution. FIGURE 22 illustrates a graph illustrating temperature (measured in degrees Celsius) versus thermal conductivity (measured in Watt per meter-Kelvin (W/mK)), within the battery pack module assembly 120 of FIGURE 1.

[0074] FIGU RES 23 and 24 illustrates a battery pack assembly 2007 in accordance with an embodiment of the invention, having twenty (20) individual battery pack module assemblies 120 of FIGURE 1, where the battery pack module assemblies 120 are arranged in two (2) rows (ten (10) battery pack module assemblies 120 per row) with cooling coil manifolds 130, 132 facing each other and heat transfer channels 202 aligned to a middle of the battery pack assembly 200 along a longitudinal length of the battery pack assembly 200. The battery pack assembly 200 includes a battery case 204 in which the battery pack module assemblies 120 are disposed. The case 204 can be made from various materials including, without limitation, metal, a composite material, or any material strong enough to hold the battery pack module assemblies 120. The battery pack module assemblies are inserted into a lower portion of the case, and covered with a cover (not shown) forming an upper portion of the case 204. Alternatively, the structure can be different (e.g., in case the battery pack 200 is part of a unibody, part of the vehicle structure, or just solely holds battery pack module assemblies 120). The battery pack module assemblies 120 can be arranged in series and in multiple rows and columns configurations. For example, the assemblies 120 are arranged in two (2) rows with the cooling manifolds 130, 132 of each two (2) assemblies 120 facing each other and connected to two

heating/cooling channels 202 that extend through the middle of the battery pack assembly 200 along its longitudinal length. The battery pack module assemblies 120 are electrically connected, and the battery pack assembly 200 is electrically connected to an electric vehicle 40, 240 in which the battery pack assembly 200 is disposed.

[0075] The assembly 120 further includes electrically conductive material or circuitry (not shown) that provides electrical connection between a battery management system (not shown) and battery cells 134 for balancing and cell voltage monitoring, state of charge and state of health calculation. Individual assemblies 120 may be monitored as well as the battery pack assembly 200 as a whole. The battery pack module assembly 120 includes the circuitry to allow monitoring of the voltage on every single battery cell. This allows for all battery cells 134 to be monitored. The conductive circuitry may be routed anywhere along the exterior and/or interior of the main body 24 so that the conductive circuitry is electrically connected to each battery cell 134. The conductive circuitry may be routed through various structures including, but not limited to, supports spacers 122 and the cooling coil 128 to reach the battery cells 134. Each battery cell 134 has contact with the circuitry but some circuits are shared (e.g., by stacked battery cells) to reduce complexity. The battery pack module assembly 120 provides uniform thermal management of cylindrical battery cells 134 inserted in the assembly 120. The battery management system may include a computing device that can store information in a memory accessible by the one or more processors , including instructions that can be executed by the one or more processors. The memory can also include data that can be retrieved, manipulated or stored by the processor. The memory can be of any non-transitory type capable of storing information accessible by the processor, such as a solid state hard drive (SSD), disk based hard-drive, memory card, ROM, RAM, DVD, CD-ROM, Blu-Ray, write-capable, and read-only memories. The instructions can be any set of instructions to be executed directly, such as machine code, or indirectly, such as scripts, by the one or more processors. In that regard, the terms "instructions," "application," "steps," and " programs" can be used interchangeably herein. The instructions can be stored in a proprietary or non-proprietary language, object code format for direct processing by a processor, or in any other computing device language including scripts or collections of independent source code modules that are interpreted on demand or compiled in advance. Data may be retrieved, stored or modified by the one or more processors in accordance with the instructions. For instance, although the subject matter described herein is not limited by any particular data structure, the data can be stored in computer registers, in a relational or non-relational database as a table having many different fields and records, or

XML documents. Moreover, the data can comprise any information sufficient to identify the relevant information, such as numbers, descriptive text, proprietary codes, pointers, references to data stored in other memories such as at other network locations, or information that is used by a function to calculate the relevant data.

[0076] In an alternative, methods other than laser welding can be used to connect various components (e.g., battery cells 134, bus bars 126, etc.) of the battery pack module assembly 120. The methods include, but are not limited to, ultrasonic welding, resistance welding, soldering, bonding, etc. In another alternative, instead of welding, components could be connected by mechanical compression.

[0077] In use, a battery pack module assembly 120 is manufactured to

accommodate the size and shape of a space available for a battery pack assembly 200 as well as electrical needs. Once the electrical needs are known, the number of battery cell stacks 124 may be determined along with the arrangement of the battery cell stacks 124 in parallel/series configuration. The bus bar pattern is designed accordingly to the battery cell arrangement. The arrangement of battery cell stacks 124 allows for a maximum number of battery cells 134 to be placed in a given volume, with proper thermal management. Once the assembly 120 is assembled, the battery cell assembly 120 may then positioned within the battery pack assembly 200, which is then positioned in the desired space and connected to coolant (e.g., appropriate connections are made between the inlet and outlet ports 138, 140 and the coolant reservoir and pump) and electrical systems (e.g., appropriate connections are made between circuitry of the assemblies 120 and a wire harness of the electrical system of, for example, an electric vehicle 40, 240).

[0078] Although the present invention has been discussed a bove in connection with use on an electric automobile, the present invention is not limited to that environment and may also be used on other fully-electric or hybrid vehicles including, but not limited to, space vehicles, buses, trains, carts, carriages, and other means of transportation.

[0079] Likewise, the present invention is also not to be limited to use in vehicles and may be used in non-vehicle or stationary environments. The present invention can be used to build battery packs for numerous applications including, without limitation, electric vehicles, hybrid vehicles, energy storage, locomotives, aerospace vehicles, marine vehicles, and many other applications that require battery packs. Furthermore, the present invention is also not to be limited to use in connection with electric vehicles, and may be used in any environment where electrical power is required.

[0080] In addition, the claimed invention is not limited in size and may be

constructed in miniature versions or for use in very large-scale applications in which the same or similar principles of motion and friction control as described above would apply. Likewise, the length and width of the battery pack module are not to be construed as drawn to scale, and that the lengths/widths of the battery pack module may be adjusted in conformance with the area available for its placement. Furthermore, the figures (and various components shown therein) of the specification are not to be construed as drawn to scale.

[0081] Throughout this specification the word "comprise", or variations such as "comprises" or "comprising", will be understood to imply the inclusion of a stated element, integer or step, or group of elements, integers or steps, but not the exclusion of any other element, integer or step, or group of elements, integers or steps.

[0082] The use of the expression "at least" or "at least one" suggests the use of one or more elements or ingredients or quantities, as the use may be in the embodiment of the disclosure to achieve one or more of the desired objects or results.

[0083] The numerical values mentioned for the various physical parameters,

dimensions or quantities are only approximations and it is envisaged that the values higher/lower than the numerical values assigned to the parameters, dimensions or quantities fall within the scope of the disclosure, unless there is a statement in the specification specific to the contrary.

[0084] The terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular

example embodiments only and is not intended to be limiting. As used herein, the singular forms "a", "an" and "the" may be intended to include the plural forms as well, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise. The terms "comprises," "comprising," "including," and "having," are inclusive and therefore specify the presence of stated features, integers, steps, operations, elements, and/or components, but do not preclude the presence or addition of one or more other features, integers, steps, operations, elements, components, and/or groups thereof. The method steps, processes, and operations described herein are not to be construed as necessarily requiring their performance in the particular order discussed or illustrated, unless specifically identified as an order of performance. It is also to be understood that additional or alternative steps may be employed.

[0085] When an element or layer is referred to as being "on", "engaged to",

"connected to" or "coupled to" another element or layer, it may be directly on, engaged, connected or coupled to the other element or layer, or intervening elements or layers may be present. In contrast, when an element is referred to as being "directly on," "directly engaged to", "directly connected to" or "directly coupled to" another element or layer, there may be no intervening elements or layers present. Other words used to describe the relationship between elements should be interpreted in a like fashion (e.g., "between" versus "directly between," "adjacent" versus "directly adjacent," etc.). As used herein, the term "and/or" includes any and all combinations of one or more of the associated listed items.

[0086] Spatially relative terms, such as "front," "rear," "left," "right," "inner,"

"outer," "beneath", "below", "lower", "above", "upper," "horizontal," "vertical" and the like, may be used herein for ease of description to describe one element or feature's relationship to another element(s) or feature(s) as illustrated in the figures. Spatially relative terms may be intended to encompass different orientations of the device in use or operation in addition to the orientation depicted in the figures. For example, if the device in the figures is turned over, elements described as "below" or "beneath" other elements or features would then be oriented "above" the other elements or features. Thus, the example term "below" can encompass both an orientation of above and below. The device may be otherwise oriented (rotated 90 degrees or at other orientations) and the spatially relative descriptors used herein interpreted accordingly.

[0087] The above description presents the best mode contemplated for carrying out the present invention, and of the manner and process of making and using it, in such full, clear, concise, and exact terms as to enable any person skilled in the art to which it pertains to make and use this invention. This invention is, however, susceptible to modifications and alternate constructions from that discussed above that are fully equivalent. Consequently, this invention is not limited to the particular

embodiments disclosed. On the contrary, this invention covers all modifications and alternate constructions coming within the spirit and scope of the invention as generally expressed by the following claims, which particularly point out and distinctly claim the subject matter of the invention.

Claims

CLAI MS What is claimed is:
1. A battery pack module assembly, comprising: a plurality of battery cell stacks; a cooling coil disposed between the plurality of battery cell stacks, wherein the coiling coil includes an inlet for coolant moving into the coiling coil, and an outlet for coolant moving out from the cooling coil; a filler material disposed around and between the battery cell stacks; and a plurality of bus bars, wherein each bus bar is configured to provide electrical communication between at least two of the plurality of battery cell stacks.
2. The battery pack module assembly of Claim 1, wherein the coiling coil conforms to at least two of the plurality of battery cell stacks.
3. The battery pack module assembly of Claim 1, wherein each battery cell stack includes at least one connecting tab laser welding at least two battery cells of each stack together in electro-mechanical engagement.
4. The battery pack module assembly of Claim 1, further including first and second spacer supports, each spacer support having apertures, wherein the apertures of the first support are aligned with the apertures of the second support, and each battery cell stack is inserted through an aligned pair of apertures.
5. The battery pack module assembly of Claim 1, wherein the filler material comprises dielectric thermally conductive material.
6. The battery pack module assembly of Claim 1, wherein each bus bar includes at least one recessed point configured to engage one end of each battery cell stack, and wherein bus bars on opposite sides of the assembly each provide compression against a side of the battery cell stack facing that particular bus bar such that there is electrical contact between the bus bars and the battery cell stack.
7. The battery pack module assembly of Claim 1, wherein each battery cell stack includes a plurality of battery cells, wherein a connecting tab is disposed between adjacent battery cells, and laser welded to each of the adjacent battery cells.
PCT/US2018/037896 2017-03-27 2018-06-15 Battery pack module WO2018232335A1 (en)

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US62/603,941 2017-06-16
US15/937,728 2018-03-27
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US20140186675A1 (en) * 2013-01-03 2014-07-03 Caterpillar Inc. Cooling jacket for battery pack
US20140355221A1 (en) * 2013-05-30 2014-12-04 Denso Corporation Power converter with bus bars
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US20160285139A1 (en) * 2015-03-23 2016-09-29 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha Battery pack
US20160301045A1 (en) * 2015-04-13 2016-10-13 Johnson Controls Technology Company Adhesive tape for positioning battery cells in a battery module
US20170141374A1 (en) * 2014-06-18 2017-05-18 Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. Battery Pack Tab Welding Method

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
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US20060127686A1 (en) * 2004-12-15 2006-06-15 Meloni Paul A Thermally conductive polyimide film composites having high thermal conductivity useful in an electronic device
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US20140186675A1 (en) * 2013-01-03 2014-07-03 Caterpillar Inc. Cooling jacket for battery pack
US20140355221A1 (en) * 2013-05-30 2014-12-04 Denso Corporation Power converter with bus bars
US20170141374A1 (en) * 2014-06-18 2017-05-18 Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. Battery Pack Tab Welding Method
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