Method for measuring in-plane shape error of in-situ plane
The invention belongs to a flatness error in-position measuring method, and can be widely applied to flatness measurement of a circular ring part of major engineering equipment such as an aeroengine and a centrifugal compressor.
背景技术 Background technique
When assembling mechanical parts, the shape error of the assembly interface is very important. The shape error often affects the contact stiffness and assembly accuracy. In order to accurately control the assembly performance, the shape error of the part needs to be tested. At present, there are a large number of large circular planes in many major equipments in China. For example, high-pressure, low-pressure turbine shafts in aero engines, high-pressure compressor drums and other parts have a large number of circular planes. These high-precision parts The assembly problem is closely related to the shape error detection, and the workpiece often cannot rotate at random during the assembly process. Therefore, it is very important to perform in-position measurement for the assembly problems of these high-precision parts.
The successive two-point method is an important method for measuring the straightness error. By processing the multi-column test data, the flatness error of the rectangular plane can be obtained, but the processing algorithm can eliminate the unevenness of the sensor probe, but It is impossible to separate the bracket rotation angle error during sensor installation, and it is also difficult to apply to the flatness error detection of a narrow annular plane; the three-point method is an extension of the successive two-point method, and the torus is used as the measurement object detection plane. In the case of degree error, since the three-point method can separate the initial alignment error, it has higher measurement accuracy, but it cannot be applied to in-position measurement, that is, the sensor is fixed during the measurement process and the workpiece is rotated. Suitable for positional tolerance measurement during assembly.
In this paper, an in-situ measurement method based on three-point method is proposed. This method can measure the flatness error of large circular planes in the assembly process, and can effectively eliminate the influence of zeroing error by algorithm. It has important reality. significance.
发明内容 Summary of the invention
For the assembly problem of parts with large circular plane in aeroengine, the invention is based on the basic principle of measuring the circular plane by three-point method. Combined with engineering practice, an in-position measurement for the flatness error of the circular plane is proposed. method.
本方法的技术方案： The technical solution of the method:
The invention relates to a toroidal flatness on-line measuring system, which is applied to a flatness measuring instrument structure of an aeroengine shaft plate and a cone end surface, comprising a posture adjusting part, a rotating part and a measuring part;
调姿部分包括调姿台 5 、调姿台电机 4 和转接板 6 ；调姿台 5 用于调节沿 z 轴和 x
轴的回转角度，由调姿台电机 4 控制，调姿台电机 4 由控制器控制； z 轴为垂直于调姿台 5 平面的轴，调整角度为 0°~360° ； x
轴为垂直调姿台电机 4 轴方向的轴，调整角度为 -30°~30° ；转接板 6 的下表面连接在调姿台 5 台面上，其上表面一侧连接有回转分度盘底座 7
； The posture adjustment section includes a posture adjustment table 5, a posture adjustment motor 4 and an adapter plate 6; the posture adjustment table 5 is used to adjust along the z-axis and x
The angle of rotation of the shaft is controlled by the attitude control motor 4, and the attitude adjustment motor 4 is controlled by the controller; the z-axis is an axis perpendicular to the plane of the attitude table 5, and the adjustment angle is 0°~360°;
The axis is the axis of the vertical alignment motor in the 4-axis direction, and the adjustment angle is -30°~30°; the lower surface of the adapter plate 6 is connected to the 5 table of the posture table, and the rotary indexing plate is connected to one side of the upper surface. Base 7
回转部分包括回转分度盘底座 7 和分回转分度盘 1 ；回转分度盘底座 7
主体为方体框架结构，两侧表面和底面开有 T 型槽， T 型槽与转接板 6 通过螺栓螺母配合连接；回转分度盘 1 上的齿轮与回转分度盘底座 7
上的齿轮啮合；回转分度盘底座 7 顶面设有扳手，扳手向前扳动，带动回转分度盘 1 向前运动，使回转分度盘 1 上的齿轮与回转分度盘底座 7
上的齿轮啮合，可以手动转动所需角度，扳手向回扳动，使回转分度盘 1 与回转分度盘底座 7 上的齿轮脱离啮合，并卡死以固定； The swivel part includes the rotary indexing table base 7 and the rotary indexing table 1; the rotary indexing table base 7
The main body is a square frame structure, T-shaped grooves are formed on both sides and the bottom surface, and the T-shaped groove and the adapter plate 6 are connected by bolts and nuts; the gears on the rotary indexing plate 1 and the rotary indexing table base 7
The upper gear is engaged; the rotary indexing table base 7 is provided with a wrench on the top surface, and the wrench is forwardly moved to drive the rotary indexing plate 1 to move forward, so that the gear on the rotary indexing plate 1 and the rotary indexing table base 7
The upper gear is engaged, the required angle can be manually rotated, and the wrench is pulled back to disengage the rotary indexing plate 1 from the gear on the rotary indexing base 7 and is locked to be fixed;
回转分度盘 1 的最小回转角度为 1° ，回转精度为 10`` ，回转分度盘 1 台面上开有 T
型槽和中心孔；回转分度盘 1 一侧通过中心孔与传感器夹具 10 的心轴定位，通过 T 型槽和螺栓螺母 2 配合固定，另一侧通过齿轮与回转分度盘底座 7
上的齿轮啮合； The rotary indexing plate 1 has a minimum rotation angle of 1° and a rotation accuracy of 10``. The rotary indexing plate has a T on the table.
The groove and the center hole; the rotary indexing plate 1 is positioned by the center hole and the mandrel of the sensor holder 10, and is fixed by the T-slot and the bolt and nut 2, and the other side is passed through the gear and the rotary indexing table base 7
测量部分包括传感器夹具 10 、传感器保持架 9 和接触式传感器 8 ；传感器夹具 10
为圆盘结构，在传感器夹具 10 上共布置有 4 组传感器插孔，其中两组为单排传感器插孔，数量为 3 个，另两组为双排传感器插孔，每排 3 个，共 6
个；每排传感器插孔的中心插孔位置设为 0° 、 90° 、 180° 和 270° ，中心传感器插孔两侧的传感器插孔与中心的夹角为 10°
；每排中所有传感器插孔与圆心的距离相等，排与排之间不相等，传感器插孔与传感器夹具 10 的圆心距离为 100mm~300mm
用来固定接触式传感器 8 ；接触式传感器 8 测量的数据通过 RS232 总线传输到上位机，在上位机内编写 Labview 程序进行数据读取和分析。 The measuring part includes a sensor holder 10, a sensor holder 9 and a contact sensor 8; the sensor holder 10
For the disc structure, a total of four sensor jacks are arranged on the sensor fixture 10, two of which are single-row sensor jacks, the number is three, and the other two are double-row sensor jacks, three in each row. 6
The center jack position of each row of sensor jacks is set to 0°, 90°, 180°, and 270°, and the sensor jacks on both sides of the center sensor jack are at an angle of 10° to the center.
The distance between all the sensor jacks in each row is equal to the center of the circle, and the row and row are not equal. The distance between the sensor jack and the center of the sensor fixture 10 is 100mm~300mm.
The single-row sensor jack is used to measure the shape error on the centerline of the hole on the flange surface, and the double-row sensor socket is used to measure the shape error on both sides of the hole; a sensor holder is installed in each sensor socket.
Used to fix the contact sensor 8; contact sensor 8 The measured data is transmitted to the host computer through the RS232 bus, and the Labview program is written in the host computer for data reading and analysis.
Since the in-position measurement is to be performed, that is, the workpiece does not move, the measuring instrument rotates, and at this time, the coaxiality of the measuring instrument and the torus surface has a great influence on the measured value, and the device can achieve the leveling of the coaxiality, so that The reliability of the flat measurement ring flatness is greatly improved.
The invention has the beneficial effects that the invention realizes the application of the three-point method in measuring the plane shape error of the torus surface, and at the same time realizes the improvement of the algorithm for the in-situ measurement of the toroidal plane shape error by the three-point method, which can realize the The in-position measurement of the toroidal plane shape error can greatly reduce the part processing period and reduce the influence of multiple clamping on the accuracy of the part.
图 1 是本发明的结构示意图。 Figure 1 is a schematic view of the structure of the present invention.
图 2 是传感器调平示意图。 Figure 2 is a schematic diagram of sensor leveling.
图 3 是测量误差示意图。 Figure 3 is a schematic diagram of measurement error.
图中： 1 回转分度盘； 2 螺栓螺母； 3T 型螺栓螺母； 4 调姿台电机； In the figure: 1 rotary indexing plate; 2 bolt and nut; 3T bolt and nut; 4 adjustment table motor;
5 调姿台； 6 转接板； 7 回转分度盘底座； 8 接触式传感器； 9 传感器保持架； 10
传感器夹具； 11 扳手。 5 adjustment table; 6 adapter plate; 7 rotary indexing table base; 8 contact sensor; 9 sensor holder; 10
Sensor fixture; 11 wrench.
具体实施方式 detailed description
以下结合附图和技术方案，进一步说明本发明的具体实施方式。 The specific embodiments of the present invention are further described below in conjunction with the drawings and technical solutions.
一种在位测量圆环形平面形状误差的方法，步骤如下： A method for measuring the shape error of a circular plane in situ, the steps are as follows:
步骤 A ：传感器夹具 10 上至少 安装五个接触式传感器 8 ，其中，三个接触式传感器 8。 Step A: At least five contact sensors 8 are mounted on the sensor fixture 10, of which three are contact sensors 8.