WO2018190928A1 - Modified header for communication in a next-generation wi-fi network - Google Patents

Modified header for communication in a next-generation wi-fi network Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2018190928A1
WO2018190928A1 PCT/US2018/013573 US2018013573W WO2018190928A1 WO 2018190928 A1 WO2018190928 A1 WO 2018190928A1 US 2018013573 W US2018013573 W US 2018013573W WO 2018190928 A1 WO2018190928 A1 WO 2018190928A1
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Prior art keywords
frame
wireless communication
connection
header
wireless
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PCT/US2018/013573
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French (fr)
Inventor
Ehud Reshef
Yaron Alpert
Chittabrata GHOSH
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Ehud Reshef
Yaron Alpert
Ghosh Chittabrata
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Priority to US201762485695P priority Critical
Priority to US62/485,695 priority
Application filed by Ehud Reshef, Yaron Alpert, Ghosh Chittabrata filed Critical Ehud Reshef
Publication of WO2018190928A1 publication Critical patent/WO2018190928A1/en

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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
    • H04W76/00Connection management
    • H04W76/10Connection setup
    • H04W76/11Allocation or use of connection identifiers
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
    • H04W12/00Security arrangements, e.g. access security or fraud detection; Authentication, e.g. verifying user identity or authorisation; Protecting privacy or anonymity ; Protecting confidentiality; Key management; Integrity; Mobile application security; Using identity modules; Secure pairing of devices; Context aware security; Lawful interception
    • H04W12/06Authentication

Abstract

A wireless communication device, method and product. The device includes a memory and processing circuitry coupled to the memory. The processing circuitry comprises logic and is configured to: communicate in a first wireless communication mode using a first header including fields comprising information on a Source Address (SA) and a Destination Address (DA), and communicate using a second, modified header in a second wireless communication mode different from the first wireless communication mode; establish, using the first wireless communication mode, a wireless connection between the wireless communication device and another wireless communication device, the wireless connection corresponding to a set of fixed communication parameters; generate a wireless frame including the modified header, the modified header including a connection identifier (Connection ID) to designate fixed communication parameters of the set of fixed communicate parameters that include a SA and a DA for the wireless frame; and cause transmission of the wireless frame to the other wireless communication device using the second wireless communication mode.

Description

MODIFIED HEADER FOR COMMUNICATION IN A NEXT-GENERATION WI-FI NETWORK

CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION

[0001] This application claims the benefit of and priority from U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/485,695 entitled "Low Cost Low Power (LCLP) Connection Oriented Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN)," filed April 14, 2017, the entire disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference.

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0002] This disclosure generally relates to systems, methods, and devices for wireless communications and, more particularly, to Low Complexity Low Power (LCLP) networks including Internet-of-Things (loT) devices, such as in Wi-Fi Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) under the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 standard and related amendments.

BACKGROUND

[0003] A need for efficient use of resources within a wireless network requires continuous improvement of the use of time and frequency resources within that network. Low-power wireless devices such as Internet-of-Things (loT) devices are becoming more and more prevalent, and are now among the many devices requesting access to wireless resources, such as those within a WLAN. loT systems may have differing needs with respect to resource use as compared with their non-loT counterparts.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0004] Fig. 1 depicts a diagram illustrating an example network environment for an illustrative narrowband networking system, according to some demonstrative embodiments;

[0005] Fig. 2 depicts a radio system configured according to some demonstrative embodiments;

[0006] Fig. 3a depicts a Medium Access Control (MAC) header according to the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11-2016 standard; [0007] Fig. 3b depicts an 802.11 data unit (DU) including a Counter Mode Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol (CCMP) header following the MAC header according to 802.11-2016;

[0008] Fig. 4 depicts a signaling protocol including a modified MAC header according to some demonstrative embodiments;

[0009] Fig. 5a depicts a DU including a modified MAC header according to some demonstrative embodiments;

[0010] Fig. 5b depicts the Frame Control field of the DU of Fig. 5a;

[0011] Fig. 6 illustrates a flow-chart of a first method according to some demonstrative embodiments;

[0012] Fig. 7 illustrates a flow-chart of a second method according to some demonstrative embodiments; and

[0013] Fig. 8 illustrates a product of manufacture in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0014] The next generation of the IEEE 802.11 standard is planning an address a new standardization effort targeting Low Complexity and Low Power (LCLP) loT systems, which may be included in a dedicated amendment in 802.11, or which may be included in the next generation of 802.11. This LCLP Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) has as one of its focuses Internet-of-Things (loT) devices enabling reduced complexity requirements for implementation (less complex and less power-hungry hardware), and enjoying low power operation with the much-simplified system configurations. One manner in which embodiments address the need for reduced power and complexity in a LCLP network is by bringing about a reduction in the Medium Access Control (MAC) Layer 2 (L2) encapsulation. To address the enablement of LCLP in WLAN, an aim is to significantly reduce the bandwidth used for transmission and reception. For example, the bandwidth may include 2 MHz, which represents a lOx reduction with respect to a regular 802.11 Wi-Fi channel of 20 MHz. Reducing bandwidth aims among other things to reduce the peak transmit (TX) power reduce protocol overheads and digital implementation complexity. For example, in order to maintain the same power spectral density, and therefore underlying performance, the TX power may be reduced by about 10 dB (i.e. a factor of 10) following the bandwidth reduction. There is a further side benefit, albeit a marginal one, of reducing the Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) as a result of the reduced number of subcarriers resulting from using a smaller bandwidth.

[0015] loT LCLP devices, such as light switches, light bulbs, sensors, thermostats, etc.) are typically characterized by low bandwidth and low airtime usage, and as a result do not need the flexibility of communicating with any legal device, as would other devices in a typical WLAN.

[0016] The current WLAN MAC encapsulation overheads vary from 20 bytes to 32 bytes, and up to 36 bytes of data for a High-Throughput (HT) protocol. Such overhead is defined to be in addition to the number of bytes needed for the data portion in the fame body, and counting in the Frame Check Sequence (FCS), this overhead increases to be from 24 bytes to 40 bytes. Because of the limited message size envisioned for a LCLP data unit (DU), such as, for example, a Physical Layer Convergence Procedure Protocol Data Unit (PPDU), a MAC Protocol Data Unit (MPDU), or a MAC Service Data Unit (MSDU). Reducing the MAC encapsulation overhead of a LCLP DU while maintaining packet encapsulation routing and security functionalities advantageously reduced MAC head complexity and allows a more efficient use of the air medium while reducing power consumption on the side of an loT system.

[0017] According to some demonstrative embodiments, a wireless communication device may communicate in a first wireless communication mode using a first header including fields comprising information on a Source Address (SA) and a Destination Address (DA). The first communication mode may include for example communication of wireless frames compliant with existing Wi-Fi standards, such as an IEEE 802.11 standard that use legacy headers, such as legacy MAC headers. The device may further be adapted to communicate using a second, modified header in a second wireless communication mode different from the first wireless communication mode. The second wireless communication mode may include for example communication that involves use of a modified header, such as a modified MAC header that includes a Connection ID to designate the SA and DA of frames being communicated, rather than fields that contain information regarding the SA and DA. A device according to some demonstrative embodiments may further establish, using the first wireless communication mode, a wireless connection between the wireless communication device and another wireless communication device, the wireless connection corresponding to a set of fixed communication parameters. For example, the device may first establish a wireless connection with the other wireless communication device using frames that include MAC headers including fields including information on SA and DA. Once the connection is established, the device may generate a wireless frame including the modified header, the modified header including the Connection ID to designate fixed communication parameters of the set of fixed communicate parameters that include a SA and a DA for the wireless frame. The modified header may therefore not include fields that include information on the SA and DA, but rather a Connection ID that, by virtue of the bits therein, designates, through the pre-negotiation with the other wireless device during connection establishment, which SA and DA are being referred to. The device may then cause transmission of the wireless frame to the other wireless communication device using the second wireless communication mode.

[0018] According to some demonstrative embodiments, a wireless communication device may be configured to communicate a modified MAC header with a reducing encapsulation overhead as compared with a legacy WLAN MAC header while maintaining the routing functionalities of the legacy WLAN MAC header. Optionally, the modified MAC header may maintain the same security functionalities as those in the legacy WLAN MAC header as well. A principle of some embodiments is based on an understanding that, in a LCLP network, once a connection is established between two wireless communication devices, one of them being an loT device, a number of communication parameters regarding the connection stay fixed from one DU to another DU being communicated between the two devices. The modified MAC header of embodiments leverages this knowledge by including a Connection ID in the modified MAC header, the Connection ID designating fixed communication parameters for a given connection that include a Source Address (SA) and a Destination Address (DA) for the DU that includes the modified MAC header. The modified MAC header will therefore have no need to include any distinct Address fields, as SA and DA will both be indicated by being designated by way of the Connection ID.

[0019] Some demonstrative embodiments advantageously significantly reduce the MAC header overhead based on extensions to the existing 802.11 procedure, including: the notion of establishing a connection and exchanging signaling to agree on connection parameters for defined a set of pre-defined modified MAC headers to be used over the established connection; and reducing overhead information transfer by communicating using the modified MAC header. The modified MAC header may use a Connection ID that serves, during decoding of the same, to indicate which set of fixed communication parameters for a given connection are being used.

[0020] According to some demonstrative embodiments, replacing the standard WLAN MAC header by a modified MAC header as described herein may enable a receiver to use the 802.11 standard routing and security methods by re-creating the information normally provided in the legacy MAC header (this is in part because the Connection ID may serve to signal a number of communication parameters) and the receiver would know which communication parameters are being designated by a given Connection ID through a pre- negotiation regarding the same prior to the modified MAC header being sent. The modified MAC header may, according to some embodiments, include error correction/detection codes that increase the reliability of the proposed signaling scheme.

[0021] According to an alternative embodiment, a new narrowband (that is, a bandwidth that is less than an operating bandwidth of the device, such as, for example in Wi-Fi where the operating bandwidth may be 20 MHz, and a narrowband channel may then have a bandwidth of less than 20 MHz, such as for example: 10, 4, 2 or 1 MHz, that is, narrower than the current 20 MHz min BW) mode may be defined where the header is built on top of the 802.11ax PHY format. Since 802.11ax has all of the communication parameters for a full bandwidth DU, which information could not be decoded by a LCLP device, according to this alternative embodiment, the LCLP device may see only the High Efficiency (HE) Short Training Field (STF) or Long Training Field (LTF) HE-STF/LTF part of an 802.11ax DU, and then the data (skipping the fields in between), and the data portion could include the modified MAC header as described herein. According to another embodiment, the modified MAC header may be a modified MAC common PPDU header or part of one or more of MPDU/MSDU headers.

[0022] The descriptions herein are for purposes of illustration and are not meant to be limiting. Numerous other examples, configurations, processes, etc., may exist, some of which are described in detail below. Example embodiments will now be described in more detail with reference to the accompanying figures. [0023] In the following detailed description, numerous specific details are set forth in order to provide a thorough understanding of some embodiments. However, it will be understood by persons of ordinary skill in the art that some embodiments may be practiced without these specific details. In other instances, well-known methods, procedures, components, units and/or circuits have not been described in detail so as not to obscure the discussion.

[0024] Fig. 1 is a diagram illustrating an example network environment, according to some demonstrative embodiments. Wireless network 100 may include one or more wireless stations (STAs) STA A, STA B, STA C, STA D, STA E and one or more access point(s) AP, such as AP 104, which may communicate in accordance with various communication standards and protocols, such as, Wi-Fi, IEEE 802.15.4 low-rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPAN), Wireless Universal Serial Bus, Wi-Fi Peer-to-Peer (P2P), Bluetooth, Near Field Communication, or any other communication standard. The AP may be part of an Extended Service Set (ESS) 101 including a backbone that has a controller 102 as shown. The STAs may include mobile devices that are non-stationary (e.g., not having fixed locations) or may they may be stationary devices. The STAs as shown in Fig. 1 may include loT systems, such as sensors, actuators, gauges and mobile devices as a few examples.

[0025] As used herein, the term "Internet of Things (loT) device" is used to refer to any object (e.g., an appliance, a sensor, etc.) that has an addressable interface (e.g., an Internet protocol (IP) address, a Bluetooth identifier (ID), a near-field communication (NFC) ID, etc.) and can transmit information to one or more other devices over a wired or wireless connection. An loT system may have a passive communication interface, such as a quick response (QR) code, a radio-frequency identification (RFID) tag, an NFC tag, or the like, or an active communication interface, such as a modem, a transceiver, a transmitter-receiver, or the like. An loT system can have a particular set of attributes (e.g., a device state or status, such as whether the loT system is on or off, open or closed, idle or active, available for task execution or busy, and so on, a cooling or heating function, an environmental monitoring or recording function, a light-emitting function, a sound-emitting function, etc.) that can be embedded in and/or controlled/monitored by a central processing unit (CPU), microprocessor, ASIC, or the like, and configured for connection to an loT network such as a local ad-hoc network or the Internet. For example, loT systems may include, but are not limited to, refrigerators, toasters, ovens, microwaves, freezers, dishwashers, dishes, hand tools, clothes washers, clothes dryers, furnaces, air conditioners, thermostats, televisions, light fixtures, vacuum cleaners, sprinklers, electricity meters, gas meters, etc., so long as the devices are equipped with an addressable communications interface for communicating with the loT network. loT systems may also include slot phones, desktop computers, laptop computers, tablet computers, personal digital assistants (PDAs), etc. Accordingly, the loT network may be comprised of a combination of "legacy" Internet-accessible devices (e.g., laptop or desktop computers, slot phones, etc.) in addition to devices that do not typically have Internet-connectivity (e.g., dishwashers, etc.).

[0026] In some embodiments, the STAs and AP 104 of Fig. 1 may include one or more systems similar to that of the radio system shown by way of example in Fig. 2 to be described further below. The STA and/or AP of Fig. 1 may also include mesh stations in, for example, a mesh network, in accordance with one or more IEEE 802.11 standards and/or 3GPP standard, or higher layer standards (such as, for example, a network layer standard) managed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) community, such as, for example, the Routing Protocol for Low power and Lossy Networks (RPL) routing standard. Any of the STAs and AP of Fig. 1 may be configured to communicate with each other via one or more communications networks. The STAs of Fig. 1 may also communicate directly with each other without the intermediary of AP 104 (in a P2P fashion).

[0027] Any of the STAs or AP of Fig. 1 may be configured to perform directional transmission and/or directional reception in conjunction with wirelessly communicating in a wireless network. Any of the STAs or AP of Fig. 1 may be configured to perform such directional transmission and/or reception using a set of multiple antenna arrays (e.g., DMG antenna arrays or the like). Each of the multiple antenna arrays may be used for transmission and/or reception in a particular respective direction or range of directions. Any of the STAs or AP of Fig. 1 may be configured to perform any given directional transmission towards one or more defined transmit sectors. Any of the STAs or AP of Fig. 1 may be configured to perform any given directional reception from one or more defined receive sectors. MIMO beamforming in a wireless network may be accomplished using RF beamforming and/or digital beamforming. In some embodiments, in performing a given MIMO transmission, the STAs or AP of Fig. 1 may be configured to use all or a subset of its one or more communications antennas to perform MIMO beamforming.

[0028] Referring still to Fig. 1, AP 104 and STA A, STA B, STA C, STA D, and STA E together form a basic service set (BSS) 102 that is defined by a wireless coverage area of the AP. The STAs and AP of the network 100 may be configured to communicate using narrowband (NB) subchannels of a wideband channel according to some demonstrative embodiments, as will be explained in further detail in relation to Fig. 2 below. For example, according to one embodiment, a STA and/or AP according to demonstrative embodiments may be configured to establish a wireless connection with another STA and/or AP, and to use a modified MAC header as described therein to communication with that other STA and/or AP once the connection has been established and defined. Further details regarding the establishment of the connection, pre-negotiation of communication parameters, and use of a Connection ID within the modified MAC header, and other details, will be described further below.

[0029] Reference will now be made to Fig. 2. Fig. 2 depicts one embodiment of radio system 200 such as one embodiment of a STA, or one embodiment of a AP, such as AP 104, or any of the STAs shown in Fig. 1, which may be configured to allow the use of aggregated TXOP slots according to some demonstrated embodiments. At certain points within the below description, Fig. 2 will be described in reference to a system such as a STA, while at certain other points within the below description, Fig. 2 will be described in reference to a system such as an AP. The context will however be clear based on the description being provided. Furthermore, in the instant description, "processor" and "processing circuitry" are used interchangeably, and refer to circuitry forming one or more processor "blocks" that provides processing functionality.

[0030] Fig. 2 shows a block diagram of a wireless communication radio system 200 such as STA or AP (hereinafter STA/AP) such as any of the STAs or any of the APs of Fig. 1, according to some demonstrative embodiments. A wireless communication system may include a radio card 202 in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments. Radio card 202 may include radio front-end module (FEM) circuitry 204, radio IC circuitry 206 and baseband processor 208. In Fig. 2, it is to be noted that the representation of a single antenna may be interpreted to mean one or more antennas. [0031] FEM circuitry 204 may include Wi-Fi functionality, and may include receive signal path comprising circuitry configured to operate on Wi-Fi signals received from one or more antennas 201, to amplify the received signals and to provide the amplified versions of the received signals to the radio IC circuitry 206 for further processing. FEM circuitry 204 may also include a transmit signal path which may include circuitry configured to amplify signals provided by the radio IC circuitry 206 for wireless transmission by one or more of the antennas 201. The antennas may include directional or omnidirectional antennas, including, for example, dipole antennas, monopole antennas, patch antennas, loop antennas, microstrip antennas or other types of antennas suitable for transmission of RF signals. In some multiple- input multiple-output (MIMO) embodiments, the antennas may be effectively separated to take advantage of spatial diversity and the different channel characteristics that may result.

[0032] Radio Integrated Circuit (IC) circuitry 206 may include Wi-Fi functionality, and may include a receive signal path which may include circuitry to down-convert signals received from the FEM circuitry 204 and provide baseband signals to baseband processor 208. The radio IC circuitry 206 may also include a transmit signal path which may include circuitry to up-convert baseband signals provided by the baseband processor 208 and provide RF output signals to the FEM circuitry 204 for subsequent wireless transmission by the one or more antennas 201.

[0033] Baseband processor 208 may include processing circuitry that provides Wi-Fi functionality. In the instant description, the baseband processor 208 may include a memory 209, such as, for example, a set of RAM arrays in a Fast Fourier Transform or Inverse Fast Fourier Transform block (not shown) of the baseband processor 208. Processing circuitry 210 may include control logic to process the signals received from the receive signal path of the radio IC circuitry 206. Baseband processor 208 is also configured to also generate corresponding baseband signals for the transmit signal path of the radio IC circuitry 206, and may further include physical layer (PHY) and medium access control layer (MAC) circuitry, and may further interface with application processor 211 for generation and processing of the baseband signals and for controlling operations of the radio IC circuitry 206. Referring still to Fig. 2, according to the shown embodiment, a MAC management processor 213 may include a processor having logic to provide a number of higher MAC functionalities. In the alternative, or in conjunction with the MAC management processor 213, some of the higher- level MAC functionalities above may be provided by application processor 211.

[0034] In some demonstrative embodiments, the front-end module circuitry 204, the radio IC circuitry 206, and baseband processor 208 may be provided on a single radio card, such as wireless radio card 202. In some other embodiments, the one or more antennas 201, the FEM circuitry 204 and the radio IC circuitry 206 may be provided on discrete/separate cards or platforms. In some other embodiments, the radio IC circuitry 206 and the baseband processor 208 may be provided on a single chip or integrated circuit (IC), such as IC 212. The FEM, radio IC and baseband may be provided on a single chip such as wireless circuit card 260.

[0035] In some demonstrative embodiments, the wireless radio card 202 may include a Wi-Fi radio card and may be configured for Wi-Fi communications, although the scope of the embodiments is not limited in this respect. In some other embodiments, the radio card 202 may be configured to transmit and receive signals transmitted using one or more modulation techniques other than OFDM or OFDMA, such as spread spectrum modulation (e.g., direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) and/or frequency hopping code division multiple access (FH-CDMA)), time-division multiplexing (TDM) modulation, and/or frequency- division multiplexing (FDM) modulation, and On-Off Keying (OOK), although the scope of the embodiments is not limited in this respect.

[0036] In some demonstrative embodiments, the system 200 may optionally include other radio cards, such as a cellular radio card 216 configured for cellular (e.g., 3GPP such as LTE, LTE-Advanced or 5G communications).

[0037] In some IEEE 802.11 embodiments, the radio card 202 may be configured for communication over various channel bandwidths including bandwidths having center frequencies of 900 MHz, 2.4 GHz, 5 GHz, and bandwidths of less than 5 MHz, or of about 0.5 MHz, 1 MHz, 2 MHz, 2.5 MHz, 4 MHz, 5MHz, 8 MHz, 10 MHz, 16 MHz, 20 MHz, 40MHz, 80MHz, 160MHz, 320MHz (with contiguous bandwidths) or 80+80MHz (160MHz), 160+160MHz (320MHz) (with non-contiguous bandwidths), or any combination of the above frequencies or bandwidths, or any frequencies or bandwidths between the ones expressly noted above. In some demonstrative embodiments, a 220 MHz channel bandwidth may be used. The scope of the embodiments is not limited with respect to the above center frequencies however.

[0038] Referring still to Fig. 2, in some demonstrative embodiments, STA/AP may further include an input unit 218, an output unit 219, a memory unit 215. STA/AP may optionally include other suitable hardware components and/or software components. In some demonstrative embodiments, some or all of the components of STA/AP may be enclosed in a common housing or packaging, and may be interconnected or operably associated using one or more wired or wireless links. In other embodiments, components of STA/AP may be distributed among multiple or separate devices.

[0039] In some demonstrative embodiments, application processor 211 may include, for example, a Central Processing Unit (CPU), a Digital Signal Processor (DSP), one or more processor cores, a single-core processor, a dual-core processor, a multiple-core processor, a microprocessor, a host processor, a controller, a plurality of processors or controllers, a chip, a microchip, one or more circuits, circuitry, a logic unit, an Integrated Circuit (IC), an Application-Specific IC (ASIC), or any other suitable multi-purpose or specific processor or controller. Application processor 211 may execute instructions, for example, of an Operating System (OS) of STA/AP and/or of one or more suitable applications.

[0040] In some demonstrative embodiments, input unit 218 may include, for example, one or more input pins on a circuit board, a keyboard, a keypad, a mouse, a touch-screen, a touch-pad, a track-ball, a stylus, a microphone, or other suitable pointing device or input device. Output unit 219 may include, for example, one or more output pins on a circuit board, a monitor, a screen, a touch-screen, a flat panel display, a Light Emitting Diode (LED) display unit, a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) display unit, a plasma display unit, one or more audio speakers or earphones, or other suitable output devices.

[0041] In some demonstrative embodiments, memory 215 may include, for example, a Random-Access Memory (RAM), a Read-Only Memory (ROM), a Dynamic RAM (DRAM), a Synchronous DRAM (SD-RAM), a flash memory, a volatile memory, a non-volatile memory, a cache memory, a buffer, a short-term memory unit, a long-term memory unit, or other suitable memory units. Storage unit 217 may include, for example, a hard disk drive, a floppy disk drive, a Compact Disk (CD) drive, a CD-ROM drive, a DVD drive, or other suitable removable or non-removable storage units. Memory unit 215 and/or storage unit 217, for example, may store data processed by STA/AP.

[0042] The system 200 may further include a sensing mechanism 250. For example, the system may include a temperature sending mechanism, a moisture sensing mechanism, a power sensing mechanism, a motion sensing mechanism, or any other sensing mechanism, which may be coupled to the baseband processor 208 and application processor 211 It is noted that, although a number of components are shown in Fig. 2 as being part of system 200, embodiments encompass by way of example, an entirely different system, a system that includes more or different components, a system that omits some of the shown components.

[0043] Reference is now made to Fig. 3a, which shows a format 300a for a legacy W LAN/Wi-Fi DU including a legacy WLAN MAC header, where one of the STAs or AP of Fig. 1 may be used to communicate the DU. A legacy 802.11 including the legacy MAC header, a frame body, followed by a Frame Check Sequence (FCS). The legacy MAC header includes a Frame Control Field, a Duration/ID field, Address fields 1-3, and a Sequence Control field, which may be followed by an Address field 4, a QoS Control field and a High Throughput (HT) Control field. The legacy MAC header is followed by a Frame body, which may vary in size. The FCS carries a 32-bit CRC (i.e. Cyclic Redundancy Code). The MAC frame format or DU as shown comprises a set of fields that occur in a fixed order in all DUs. Fig. 3a depicts the generic MAC DU format as defined in legacy IEEE 802.11 MAC specifications.

[0044] Referring still to Fig. 3a, Address fields 2 and 3, the Sequence Control field, the Address field 4, and the Frame Body are present in particular frame types only. They do not exist in all the frames. Each of these fields are defined below.

[0045] The Duration/ID field is 16 bits, and, in control type frames of subtype Power Save (PS)-Poll, carries the association identity (AID) of the STA that transmitted the frame. In all the other frames, this field contains a duration value as specified for the frame.

[0046] There can be from one to four Address fields in the legacy MAC header (with four shown in Fig. 3a). The Address fields may carry information regarding the SA and the DA with respect to the wireless connection within which the frame/DU is transmitted. The DA is the destination of the DU (or fragment thereof) in the frame body field. The SA is the address of the MAC entity that initiated the DU (or fragment thereof) in the frame body field. The Address fields define relevant parts of the routing functionality of the legacy MAC header. [0047] The Sequence control field includes sequence control information, may be 16 bits, and may include two sub-fields, including a sequence number (12 bits) and fragment number preceding the Sequence Number (4 bits). The Sequence Number indicates sequence number of a MSDU/ MAC Management Control Protocol Data Unit (MPDU), with each MSDU/MMPDU transmitted by a STA being assigned a sequence number, which remains constant in all retransmission of the MSDU/MMPDU. The fragment number field indicates the number of each fragment of an MSDU/MMPDU. The fragment number is set to zero in the first or only fragment of an MSDU/MMPDU and is incremented by one for each successive fragment of that MSDU/MMPDU. The fragment number remains constant in all retransmissions of the fragment.

[0048] The Frame Body field is a variable length field that contains information specific to individual frame types and subtypes. The WLAN FCS field is a 32-bit field containing a 32-bit CRC. The FCS is calculated over all the fields of the legacy MAC header and the Frame Body field. These are referred to as the calculation fields. As frames are about to be sent, the FCS is calculated and appended. When a STA receives a frame, it can calculate the FCS of the frame and compare it to the one received. If they match, it is assumed that the frame was not distorted during the transmission.

[0049] As seen in Fig. 3a, the legacy MAC header can include from 20 to 32 Bytes, and 36 Bytes in the case of a HT protocol, of data, in addition to the data in the Frame Body. With the FCS, the amount of overhead with respect to the Frame Body increased to from 24 to 40 Bytes. In such a scenario, for a simple loT device such as a light bulb, which may support only very limited messages, where a large amount of the information in the legacy MAC header may be included in a single Byte of information, the transmission of the DU would still require a transmission of at least 24 Bytes of overhead on top of the Frame Body.

[0050] Referring next to Fig. 3b, an extended MAC frame or MAC DU format 300b is shown according to a legacy frame format which includes a security header in the form of a Counter Mode Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol (CCMP) Header. Fig. 3b is means to provide an example of security features of a MAC frame or DU according to the state of the art. The CCMP Header is compliant with a CCMP encryption protocol designed for WLAN products that implements the standards of 802. Hi (corresponding to Section 12 of the 802.11-2016 standard). CCMP is an enhanced data cryptographic encapsulation mechanism designed for data confidentiality and was created to address the vulnerabilities presented by Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP).

[0051] A CCMP DU as shown in Fig. 3b comprises five sections. The first is the legacy MAC Header which contains the SA and the DA of the DU. The second is the CCMP Header which is composed of 8 octets and consists of the packet number (PN), an Ext IV field, and a key ID field. The packet number is a 48-bit number stored across 6 octets. The PN codes are the first two and last four octets of the CCMP header and are incremented for each subsequent packet. Between the PN codes are a reserved octet and a Key ID octet. The Key ID octet contains the Ext IV (bit 5), Key ID (bits 6-7), and a reserved subfield (bits 0-4). CCMP uses these values to encrypt the data and the Message Integrity Code (MIC) field. The third section is the data sent in the packet. Lastly are the Message Integrity Code (MIC) which protects the integrity and authenticity of the packet and the frame check sequence (FCS) which is used for error detection and correction. Of these sections, only the data and MIC are encrypted.

[0052] Some demonstrative embodiments propose to replace the MAC header part and any Key IDs by the Connection ID in a modified MAC header, and to include the PN codes in a Message Information (Message Info) field of the MAC header as will be explained in further detail with respect to Fig. 5 below. Some demonstrative embodiments are predicated on the understanding that most fields in a legacy MAC header will remain fixed (will represent fixed communication parameters) for a LCLP loT connection, which is static and for the most part expected to be unchanging through time.

[0053] In order to achieve a modified MAC header according to embodiments, some demonstrative embodiments envisage a pre-negotiation/configuration of the fixed communication parameters to be included in the modified MAC header before it is generated, the fixed communication parameters being a function of the wireless connection established between two wireless communication devices. The above is so that the receiver can correctly decode the data based on the modified MAC header.

[0054] Assuming that a modified MAC header according to some demonstrative embodiments can be reduced to, for example, 8 Bytes of data, while still maintaining the capability to support a virtually unlimited number of LCLP connections, including a reasonable Frame Body, a total MAC DU overhead may advantageously be reduced by more than about 50%, significantly reducing transmission times, increasing overall network efficiency, and reducing power consumption by loT devices implementing use of the modified MAC header.

[0055] Referring next to Fig. 4, a signaling exchange 400 is shown to implement use of a modified MAC header according to one demonstrative embodiment. Fig. 4 demonstrates one principle of embodiments which is to provide four phases of communication between a non- AP STA (STA) and an AP in a loT network, such as a LCLP network. A basic principle according to some demonstrative embodiments is to create the notion of a "connection" for a LCLP WLAN instead of providing a full legacy MAC header for communication.

[0056] As seen in Fig. 4, a first phase 402 of signaling exchange 400 between a STA and an AP, such as, for example, one of the STAs and the AP of Fig. 1, may include a LCLP Association phase 402, which may utilize a standard WLAN signaling format, including setting up a secure WLAN connection. A mobile station, such as a STA or AP must be in an authenticated and associated state before bridging can occur. The STA and AP will, in this first phase, exchange a series of 802.11 management frames in order to get to an authenticated and associated state.

[0057] In the first phase 402, the STA may send a probe request frame 402a to discover 802.11 networks within its proximity. Probe requests advertise the STA's supported data rates and 802.11 capabilities, such as, for example, compliance with 802.11ax. The probe request may be sent from the STA in a broadcast manner, and all AP's that receive it will respond. APs receiving the probe request frame 402a, such as the AP of Fig. 4, may check to see if the STA has at least one common supported data rate. If they have compatible data rates, a probe response frame 402b may be sent by the AP advertising the SSID (Service Set Identifier to identify the wireless network name), supported data rates, encryption types if required, and other 802.11 capabilities of the AP.

[0058] The STA may choose a compatible network from the probe response frame 402b it receives. Compatibility could be based on encryption type. Once a compatible network is discovered, the STA may attempt low-level 802.11 authentication with the AP of Fig. 4. Thereafter, the STA may send a low-level 802.11 authentication request frame 402c to the AP setting the authentication to "open" and the sequence to "0x0001." The AP may receive the authentication request frame 402c and may respond to the STA with authentication response frame 402d set to "open" indicating a sequence of "0x0002." [0059] Once the STA of Fig. 4 determines that it wishes to associate with the shown AP, it may send an association request frame 402e to that AP. The association request frame 402e may contain chosen encryption types if required and other compatible 802.11 capabilities. In response to a determination that elements in the association request frame 402e match the capabilities of the AP, the AP may create an Association ID for the STA and respond with an association response frame 402f with a success message granting network access to the STA. After association response frame 402f, the STA is successfully associated to the AP.

[0060] First phase 402 may including setting up a secure WLAN connection, as suggested by the paragraphs above. The security setup is optional, and may differ as between various security modes and enablers defined in the 802. Hi amendment, and now embedded in 802.11-2016. A basic four-way handshake may happen between the STA and the AP as part of setting up a secure WLAN.

[0061] In the event that a LCLP WLAN has separate control and data/management planes, embodiments envision an LCLP STA, such as the STA of Fig. 4, to use a pre-defined or predetermined control sub-channel for discovery and association procedures (e.g. first phase 402 of Fig. 4). In general, for narrowband channel (e.g. using a bandwidth of 2 MHz) operation, there are 9 different 2 MHz Resource Units (RUs) in a single 20 MHz 802.11ax channel. Since it may take a significant amount of time and power for a LCLP device to search across all allowed 20 MHz channels, and all 9 RU options per 20 MHz channel, one of the 9 RUs, that is, any fixed RU of the 9 RUs, such as a middle RU as a preferred option, may be used for the control plane, discovery, and association procedures as described by way of example in the context of first phase 402 in Fig. 4. Using a pre-defined or predetermined control sub-channel as suggested above for the first phase 402 advantageously allows for reduced power consumption at a LCLP STA, avoiding the necessity to perform live scanning on every available control sub-channel.

[0062] According to an alternative embodiment, first phase 402 may involve a "light association" procedure which involves doing away with the six-frame exchange (frames 402a- 402f, that is, probe request and response frames, authentication request and response frames, and association request and response frames). Light association may be warranted to the extent that most loT devices, such as the STA of Fig. 4, are envisioned to be installed in a static environment. By way of example, a light association may keep the STA and the AP associated with one another for longer durations, such as, for example, for days. According to an embodiment for a light association procedure, a Neighborhood Report frame communicated between the STA and the AP may be used to avoid communication of the probe request and response frames 402a and 402b. According to an embodiment of light association, a lifetime of the keys (which may be based on Protected Management Frames as set forth in 802. llw) may be increased beyond a duty cycle of the STA. The light association may, according to an alternative, involve an association/dissociation process per frame exchange, such as, for example, once per duty cycle, in order to avoid sending keep-alive messages). The STA, such as the STA of Fig. 4, may send a Generic Advertisement Service (GAS) frame to the AP, and the AP may respond with a GAS response frame including a permission or authorization to associate and a soft authentication of the STA.

[0063] Referring still to Fig. 4, a second phase 404 may involve a LCLP_Connected connection establishment (CCE). CCE is a new (non-legacy) phase proposed according to some demonstrative embodiments, in which a newly defined LCLP_Connected protocol may be set up between the STA and the AP. In this second phase 404, the STA may send a LCLP Connection Setup Request frame 404a to the AP requesting that DUs between the STA and the AP include a modified MAC header according to one or more demonstrative embodiments. In response to the LCLP Connection Setup Request frame 404a, the AP may send a LCLP Connection Setup Response frame 404b which may include information of a Connection ID to be included as part of the modified MAC header, and/or information on LCLP connection parameters associated with the Connection ID, such communication parameters including, for example, at least one of information on at least one of a SA or a DA for subsequent DUs communicated between the STA and the AP, a Quality of Service (QoS) type for the subsequent DUs, an Access Category (AC) for the subsequent DUs, a Traffic Stream Indication (TID) for the frame, or a Modulation and Coding Scheme (MCS) for the subsequent DUs. The second phase 404 provides for a pre-negotiation that would allow a receiver of a DU including the modified MAC header to re-create at least some of the information normally provided in the legacy MAC header (this is in part because the Connection ID may serve to signal a number of communication parameters such as some of the exemplary communication parameters noted herein) and the receiver would know which communication parameters are being designated by a given Connection ID through this pre- negotiation prior to the modified MAC header being sent.

[0064] Referring still to Fig. 4, a third phase 406 of the signaling exchange 400 may include a LCLP_Connected message transfer including data exchange at 406a between the STA and the AP. The LCLP data exchange 406a may include the sending and receiving of DUs including a modified MAC header according to some demonstrative embodiments.

[0065] As shown in Fig. 4, a fourth optional phase 408 may include a LCLP_Connected teardown procedure where a LCLP_Connected connection may be deleted from the LCLP AP database. For example, the AP may elect to remove a LCLP_Connected context from its database. As shown in Fig. 4, in phase 408, the STA may send a LCLP_Connection Teardown request 408a to the AP, and the AP may, in response, issue a command 408b to itself to remove the Connection ID and associated communication parameter information from its database.

[0066] A significant value of embodiments is the provision of a modified MAC header that leads to reduced MAC overhead in wireless communication within loT networks involving WLAN.

[0067] Reference is now made to Fig. 5a, which shows a DU 500a including a modified MAC header 502 according to some demonstrative embodiments. DU 500a may include a MPDU, which may be part of a PPDU (not shown), and further includes a Frame Body 504 and a FCS 506 as shown. As noted previously, a new narrowband (e.g. low BW of 2 MHz) mode may be defined where the modified MAC header is built on top of the 802.11ax PHY format, where the 802.11ax DU data portion could include the modified MAC header as described herein. According to another embodiment, the modified MAC header may be a modified MAC common PPDU header or part of one or more of MPDU/MSDU headers. Optionally, a header of the DU may include a combination header including a modified PHY preamble with a modified MAC header similar to the modified MAC header described herein. The Frame Control part of MAC header 502 may be retained as a 2 Byte field for backwards compatibility with legacy 802.11 devices. More on the Frame Control field will be provided further below with respect to Fig. 5b. The newly defined Connection ID filed of the MAC header 502 may include 4 Bytes, and may be a uniquely defined ID used to designate a set of fixed communication parameters pre-negotiated during a connection setup phase. This Connection ID field advantageously allows doing away at least with the Address fields (see Fig. 3a) of a legacy MAC header.

[0068] Referring still to Fig. 5a, the newly defined Message ID field may include 2 Bytes, and may further provide information on a length of the Frame Body 504 (frame body length), and may further include a unique connection message ID. The unique connection message ID may, in one embodiment, include information to allow the receiver to re-create the information present in a CCMP header (see Fig. 5b). The unique connection message ID may according to one embodiment, change from one DU to the next, may be such that it is not trivial to reconstruct by a third-party device, and may further be simple enough to compute and verify by LCLP devices. A possible example of a mechanism that could be encoded within the unique message ID field may include a next output of a known state machine (e.g. in 11 bits), such as, for example, a maximal length Pseudo-Noise (PN) sequence or a compressed sequence number (SN) to reflect a value of a full SN, with the specific sequence defined as part of the connection establishment. For example, there may exist forty different 11-stage, 6-tap maximal length PN sequences for use as part of the unique connection message ID.

[0069] Given an expected low data rate of LCLP transmissions using the LCLP_Connected mode of operation according to embodiments, which uses a modified MAC header, it is expected that a predetermined number of (such as, for example 31) Bytes of Frame Body should be sufficient for such transmissions, that that any message larger than the predetermined number of Bytes threshold could use a standard WLAN message format employing a legacy MAC header.

[0070] According to one embodiment, the AP is configured to implement an error recovery mechanism to recover a LCLP_Connected context or data relating to a Connection ID that was deleted as part of a teardown request by a STA. Such recovering mechanism may for example be triggered in response to the AP receiving a message that relates to the prior connection (which was identified by the deleted Connection ID) with the STA.

[0071] Referring next to Fig. 5b, a frame format of a Frame Control field such as the Frame Control field of Fig. 5a is shown. The shown frame format corresponds to the Frame Control field frame format of a legacy MAC header where the value of the Type subfield is 1 and the value of the Subtype subfield is 6, and some demonstrative embodiments envisage reusing this frame format for the modified MAC header in a LCLP DU communication. The subfields within the shown Frame Control field may, according to some demonstrative embodiments, have values that are different from those present in a legacy Frame Control field. As seen in Fig. 5b, the Frame Control field 500b may include a Protocol Version subfield, a Type subfield, a Subtype subfield, a To Distribution System (DS) subfield, a From DS subfield, a More Fragments subfield, a Retry subfield, a Power Management subfield, a More Data subfield, a Protected Frame subfield, and a High Throughput Control/Order (+HTC/Order) subfield. According to one embodiment, the values for at least the Protocol Version Subfield, the To DS subfield, the from DS subfield or the More Fragments subfield may be compressed. According to one embodiment, to indicate the LCLP protocol, the Protocol Version subfield may be set to a value other than "0" or "00," such as, for example, to "01." Since a LCLP connection is expected to be static for the most part, involving a fixed environment, with transmission of only a limited amount of data, and a fixed source and destination, some demonstrative embodiments assume that the To DS, From DS, More Fragments, More Data and +HTC/Order subfields will have fixed values in a LCLP DU transmission. As a result, the flexibility of a longer legacy MAC header would not be required. For example, the More Fragments subfield may always be "0" for a LCLP DU, the More Data subfield will always be "0" for a LCLP DU, and if a value is "1" the AP may then send a longer transmission using a legacy MAC header under 802.11. According to some demonstrative embodiments, the value of the To DS and From DS subfields may be 1 and 0 respectively, a fixed combination.

[0072] According to some demonstrative embodiments, a wireless communication device, such as baseband processor 208 of Fig. 2, including a memory 209 and processing circuitry 210 coupled to the memory, may include logic, and may be configured to communicate in a first wireless communication mode using a first header including information on a Source Address (SA) and a Destination Address (DA), and communicating using a second, modified header in a second wireless communication mode different from the first wireless communication mode; establish, using the first wireless communication mode, a wireless connection between the wireless communication device and another wireless communication device, the wireless connection corresponding to a set of fixed communication parameters; generate a wireless frame including the modified header, the modified header including a connection identifier (Connection ID) to designate fixed communication parameters of the set of fixed communicate parameters that include a SA and a DA for the wireless frame; and cause transmission of the wireless frame to the other wireless communication device using the second wireless communication mode.

[0073] According to some embodiments, the memory may encompass memory 209 and/or memory 215, and the processing circuitry may encompass processing circuitry 210 of Fig. 2 and/or application processor 211 of Fig. 2. According to some embodiments the wireless communication device may be a system-level device such as the system 200 of Fig. 2.

[0074] Fig. 6 illustrates a flow diagram of illustrative process 600 according to some demonstrative embodiments. The process of Fig. 6 may for example be performed by a wireless communication device, such as a baseband processor, or a larger system, such as a STA. At block 602, the process includes communicating in a first wireless communication mode using a first header including information on a Source Address (SA) and a Destination Address (DA), and communicating using a second, modified header in a second wireless communication mode different from the first wireless communication mode. At block 604, the process includes establishing, using the first wireless communication mode, a wireless connection between the wireless communication device and another wireless communication device, the wireless connection corresponding to a set of fixed communication parameters. At block 606, the process includes generating a wireless frame including the modified header, the modified header including a connection identifier (Connection ID) to designate fixed communication parameters of the set of fixed communicate parameters that include a SA and a DA for the wireless frame. At block 608, the process includes causing transmission of the wireless frame to the other wireless communication device using the second wireless communication mode. Causing transmission may, for example, correspond to phase 2 406 of Fig. 4.

[0075] Fig. 7 illustrates a flow diagram of illustrative process 700 according to some demonstrative embodiments. At block 702, the process includes communicating in a first wireless communication mode using a first header including fields comprising information on a Source Address (SA) and a Destination Address (DA), and communicating using a second, modified header in a second wireless communication mode different from the first wireless communication mode. At block 704, the process includes establishing, using the first wireless communication mode, a wireless connection between the wireless communication device and another wireless communication device, the wireless connection corresponding to a set of fixed communication parameters. At block 706, the process includes decoding a wireless frame including the modified header and a frame body, the modified header including a connection identifier (Connection ID) to designate fixed communication parameters of the set of fixed communicate parameters that include a SA and a DA for the wireless frame. At block 708, the process includes decoding the frame body based on a decoding of the modified header.

[0076] Fig. 8 illustrates a product of manufacture 802, in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments. Product 802 may include one or more tangible computer- readable non-transitory storage media 804, which may include computer-executable instructions, e.g., implemented by logic 806, operable to, when executed by at least one computer processor, enable the at least one computer processor to implement one or more operations at one or more STAs or APs, and/or to perform one or more operations described above with respect to Figs. 4-7, and/or one or more operations described herein. The phrase "non-transitory machine-readable medium" is directed to include all computer-readable media, with the sole exception being a transitory propagating signal.

[0077] In some demonstrative embodiments, product 802 and/or storage media 804 may include one or more types of computer-readable storage media capable of storing data, including volatile memory, non-volatile memory, removable or non-removable memory, erasable or non-erasable memory, writeable or re-writeable memory, and the like. For example, storage media 804 may include, RAM, DRAM, Double-Data-Rate DRAM (DDR- DRAM), SDRAM, static RAM (SRAM), ROM, programmable ROM (PROM), erasable programmable ROM (EPROM), electrically erasable programmable ROM (EEPROM), Compact Disk ROM (CD-ROM), Compact Disk Recordable (CD-R), Compact Disk Rewriteable (CD-RW), flash memory (e.g., NOR or NAND flash memory), content addressable memory (CAM), polymer memory, phase-change memory, ferroelectric memory, silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide- silicon (SONOS) memory, a disk, a floppy disk, a hard drive, an optical disk, a magnetic disk, a card, a magnetic card, an optical card, a tape, a cassette, and the like. The computer-readable storage media may include any suitable media involved with downloading or transferring a computer program from a remote computer to a requesting computer carried by data signals embodied in a carrier wave or other propagation medium through a communication link, e.g., a modem, radio or network connection. [0078] In some demonstrative embodiments, logic 806 may include instructions, data, and/or code, which, if executed by a machine, may cause the machine to perform a method, process and/or operations as described herein. The machine may include, for example, any suitable processing platform, computing platform, computing device, processing circuitry, computing system, processing system, computer, processor, or the like, and may be implemented using any suitable combination of hardware, software, firmware, and the like.

[0079] In some demonstrative embodiments, logic 806 may include, or may be implemented as, software, a software module, an application, a program, a subroutine, instructions, an instruction set, computing code, words, values, symbols, and the like. The instructions may include any suitable type of code, such as source code, compiled code, interpreted code, executable code, static code, dynamic code, and the like. The instructions may be implemented according to a predefined computer language, manner or syntax, for instructing a processor to perform a certain function. The instructions may be implemented using any suitable high-level, low-level, object-oriented, visual, compiled and/or interpreted programming language, such as C, C++, Java, BASIC, Matlab, Pascal, Visual BASIC, assembly language, machine code, and the like.

[0080] The terms "plurality" and "a plurality", as used herein, include, for example, "multiple" or "two or more". For example, "a plurality of items" includes two or more items.

[0081] References to "one embodiment", "an embodiment", "demonstrative embodiment", "various embodiments" etc., indicate that the embodiment(s) so described may include a particular feature, structure, or characteristic, but not every embodiment necessarily includes the particular feature, structure, or characteristic. Further, repeated use of the phrase "according to some demonstrative embodiments" does not necessarily refer to the same embodiment, although it may.

[0082] As used herein, unless otherwise specified the use of the ordinal adjectives "first", "second", "third" etc., to describe a common object, merely indicate that different instances of like objects are being referred to, and are not intended to imply that the objects so described must be in a given sequence, either temporally, spatially, in ranking, or in any other manner.

[0083] Some embodiments may be used in conjunction with various devices and systems, for example, a User Equipment (UE), a Mobile Device (MD), a wireless station (STA), a Personal Computer (PC), a desktop computer, a mobile computer, a laptop computer, a notebook computer, a tablet computer, a server computer, a handheld computer, a handheld device, a wearable device, a sensor device, an Internet of Things (loT) device, a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) device, a handheld PDA device, an on-board device, an off-board device, a hybrid device, a vehicular device, a non-vehicular device, a mobile or portable device, a consumer device, a non-mobile or non-portable device, a wireless communication station, a wireless communication device, a wireless Access Point (AP), a wired or wireless router, a wired or wireless modem, a video device, an audio device, an audio-video (A/V) device, a wired or wireless network, a wireless area network, a Wireless Video Area Network (WVAN), a Local Area Network (LAN), a Wireless LAN (WLAN), a Personal Area Network (PAN), a Wireless PAN (WPAN), and the like.

[0084] Some embodiments may be used in conjunction with devices and/or networks operating in accordance with existing and/or published IEEE 802.11 standards or amendments (including IEEE 802.11ax, IEEE 802.11-2016 (IEEE 802.11-2016, IEEE Standard for Information technology-Telecommunications and information exchange between systems Local and metropolitan area networks-Specific requirements Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications, 2016); IEEE802.11ac-2013 ("IEEE P802.11ac-2013, IEEE Standard for Information Technology - Telecommunications and Information Exchange Between Systems - Local and Metropolitan Area Networks - Specific Requirements - Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications - Amendment 4: Enhancements for Very High Throughput for Operation in Bands below 6GHz", December, 2013); IEEE 802. Had ("IEEE P802.11ad-2012, IEEE Standard for Information Technology - Telecommunications and Information Exchange Between Systems - Local and Metropolitan Area Networks - Specific Requirements - Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications - Amendment 3: Enhancements for Very High Throughput in the 60GHz Band", 28 December, 2012) IEEE P802.11ah; IEEE 802.11-2016 , IEEE-802.11REVmd ("IEEE 802.11-REVmdTM/D1.0, draft standard for Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems Local and metropolitan area networks Specific requirements; Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specification"); IEEE 802.11ax (IEEE 802.11ax, High Efficiency WLAN (HEW)); I EEE802.11-ay (P802.11ay Standard for Information Technology-Telecommunications and Information Exchange Between Systems Local and Metropolitan Area Networks-Specific Requirements Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications-Amendment: Enhanced Throughput for Operation in License-Exempt Bands Above 45 GHz)) and/or future versions and/or derivatives thereof) and/or future versions and/or derivatives thereof, devices and/or networks operating in accordance with existing Wireless-Gigabit-Alliance (WGA) specifications (Wireless Gigabit Alliance, Inc WiGig MAC and PHY Specification Version 1.1, April 2011, Final specification) and/or future versions and/or derivatives thereof, devices and/or networks operating in accordance with existing Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) Alliance (WFA) Peer-to-Peer (P2P) specifications (Wi-Fi P2P technical specification, version 1.5, August 4, 2014) and/or future versions and/or derivatives thereof, devices and/or networks operating in accordance with existing cellular specifications and/or protocols, e.g., 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) and/or future versions and/or derivatives thereof, devices and/or networks operating in accordance with existing Bluetooth (BT) specifications and/or protocols and/or future versions and/or derivatives thereof, units and/or devices which are part of the above networks, and the like.

[0085] Some embodiments may be used in conjunction with one way and/or two-way radio communication systems, cellular radio-telephone communication systems, a mobile phone, a cellular telephone, a wireless telephone, a Personal Communication Systems (PCS) device, a PDA device which incorporates a wireless communication device, a mobile or portable Global Positioning System (GPS) device, a device which incorporates a GPS receiver or transceiver or chip, a device which incorporates an RFID element or chip, a Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) transceiver or device, a Single Input Multiple Output (SIMO) transceiver or device, a Multiple Input Single Output (MISO) transceiver or device, a device having one or more internal antennas and/or external antennas, Digital Video Broadcast (DVB) devices or systems, multi-standard radio devices or systems, a wired or wireless handheld device, e.g., a Smartphone, a Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) device, or the like.

[0086] Some embodiments may be used in conjunction with one or more types of wireless communication signals and/or systems, for example, Radio Frequency (RF), Infra-Red (IR), Frequency-Division Multiplexing (FDM), Orthogonal FDM (OFDM), Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiple Access (OFDMA), FDM Time-Division Multiplexing (TDM), Time- Division Multiple Access (TDMA), Multi-User MIMO (MU-MIMO), Spatial Division Multiple Access (SDMA), Extended TDMA (E-TDMA), General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), extended GPRS, Code-Division Multiple Access (CDMA), Wideband CDMA (WCDMA), CDMA 2000, single-carrier CDMA, multi-carrier CDMA, Multi-Carrier Modulation (MDM), Discrete Multi- Tone (DMT), Bluetooth®, Global Positioning System (GPS), Wi-Fi, Wi-Max, ZigBeeTM, Ultra- Wideband (UWB), Global System for Mobile communication (GSM), 2G, 2.5G, 3G, 3.5G, 4G, Fifth Generation (5G), or Sixth Generation (6G) mobile networks, 3GPP, Long Term Evolution (LTE), LTE advanced, Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE), or the like. Other embodiments may be used in various other devices, systems and/or networks.

[0087] The term "wireless communication device", as used herein, includes, for example, a device capable of causing wireless communication, a communication station capable of wireless communication, a portable or non-portable device capable of wireless communication, or the like. In some demonstrative embodiments, a wireless device may be or may include a peripheral that is integrated with a computer, or a peripheral that is attached to a computer. In some demonstrative embodiments, the term "wireless communication device" may optionally include a wireless service. Wireless communication devices or systems may include, for example, a UE, an MD, a STA, an AP, a PC, a desktop computer, a mobile computer, a laptop computer, an UltrabookTM computer, a notebook computer, a tablet computer, a server computer, a handheld computer, an Internet of Things (loT) device, a sensor device, a handheld device, a wearable device, a PDA device, a handheld PDA device, an on-board device, an off-board device, a hybrid device (e.g., combining cellular phone functionalities with PDA device functionalities), a consumer device, a vehicular device, a non-vehicular device, a mobile or portable device, a non-mobile or non-portable device, a mobile phone, a cellular telephone, a PCS device, a PDA device which incorporates a wireless communication device, a mobile or portable GPS device, a DVB device, a relatively small computing device, a non-desktop computer, a "Carry Small Live Large" (CSLL) device, an Ultra Mobile Device (UMD), an Ultra Mobile PC (UMPC), a Mobile Internet Device (MID), an "Origami" device or computing device, a device that supports Dynamically Composable Computing (DCC), a context-aware device, a video device, an audio device, an A/V device, a Set-Top-Box (STB), a Blu-ray disc (BD) player, a BD recorder, a Digital Video Disc (DVD) player, a High Definition (HD) DVD player, a DVD recorder, a HD DVD recorder, a Personal Video Recorder (PVR), a broadcast HD receiver, a video source, an audio source, a video sink, an audio sink, a stereo tuner, a broadcast radio receiver, a flat panel display, a Personal Media Player (PMP), a digital video camera (DVC), a digital audio player, a speaker, an audio receiver, an audio amplifier, a gaming device, a data source, a data sink, a Digital Still camera (DSC), a media player, a Smartphone, a television, a music player, or the like.

[0088] The term "communicating" as used herein with respect to a communication signal includes transmitting the communication signal and/or receiving the communication signal. For example, a communication unit, which is capable of communicating a communication signal, may include a transmitter to transmit the communication signal to at least one other communication unit, and/or a communication receiver to receive the communication signal from at least one other communication unit. The verb communicating may be used to refer to the action of transmitting or the action of receiving. In one example, the phrase "communicating a signal" may refer to the action of transmitting the signal by a first device, and may not necessarily include the action of receiving the signal by a second device. In another example, the phrase "communicating a signal" may refer to the action of receiving the signal by a first device, and may not necessarily include the action of transmitting the signal by a second device.

[0089] As used herein, the term "circuitry" may refer to, be part of, or include, an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), an integrated circuit, an electronic circuit, one or more processors (shared, dedicated, or group), and/or memory (shared, dedicated, or group), that execute one or more software or firmware programs, a combinational logic circuit, and/or other suitable hardware components that provide the described functionality. In some embodiments, the circuitry may be implemented in, or functions associated with the circuitry may be implemented by, one or more software or firmware modules. In some embodiments, circuitry may include logic, at least partially operable in hardware.

[0090] The term "logic" may refer, for example, to computing logic embedded in circuitry of a computing apparatus and/or computing logic stored in a memory of a computing apparatus. For example, the logic may be accessible by a processor of the computing apparatus to execute or implement the computing logic to perform computing functions and/or operations. In one example, logic may be embedded in various types of memory and/or firmware, e.g., silicon blocks of various chips and/or processors. Logic may be included in, and/or implemented as part of, various circuitry, e.g. radio circuitry, receiver circuitry, control circuitry, transmitter circuitry, transceiver circuitry, processor circuitry, and/or the like. In one example, logic may be embedded in volatile memory and/or non-volatile memory, including random access memory, read only memory, programmable memory, magnetic memory, flash memory, persistent memory, and the like. Logic may be executed by one or more processors using memory, e.g., registers, stuck, buffers, and/or the like, coupled to the one or more processors, e.g., as necessary to execute the logic.

[0091] Some demonstrative embodiments may be used in conjunction with a WLAN, e.g., a Wi-Fi network. Other embodiments may be used in conjunction with any other suitable wireless communication network, for example, a wireless area network, a "piconet", a WPAN, a WVAN and the like.

[0092] Some demonstrative embodiments may be implemented fully or partially in software and/or firmware. This software and/or firmware may take the form of instructions contained in or on a non-transitory computer-readable storage medium. Those instructions may then be read and executed by one or more processors to enable performance of the operations described herein. Those instructions may then be read and executed by one or more processors to cause the system 200 of Fig. 2 to perform the methods and/or operations described herein. The instructions may be in any suitable form, such as but not limited to source code, compiled code, interpreted code, executable code, static code, dynamic code, and the like. Such a computer-readable medium may include any tangible non-transitory medium for storing information in a form readable by one or more computers, such as but not limited to read only memory (ROM); random access memory (RAM); magnetic disk storage media; optical storage media; a flash memory, etc.

[0093] EXAMPLES

[0094] The following examples pertain to further embodiments.

[0095] Example 1 includes a wireless communication device including a memory and processing circuitry coupled to the memory, the processing circuitry comprising logic to: communicate in a first wireless communication mode using a first header including fields comprising information on a Source Address (SA) and a Destination Address (DA), and communicate using a second, modified header in a second wireless communication mode different from the first wireless communication mode; establish, using the first wireless communication mode, a wireless connection between the wireless communication device and another wireless communication device, the wireless connection corresponding to a set of fixed communication parameters; generate a wireless frame including the modified header, the modified header including a connection identifier (Connection ID) to designate fixed communication parameters of the set of fixed communicate parameters that include a SA and a DA for the wireless frame; and cause transmission of the wireless frame to the other wireless communication device using the second wireless communication mode.

[0096] Example 2 includes the subject matter of Example 1, and optionally, wherein the device is configured to communicate using a first bandwidth and a second bandwidth narrower than the first bandwidth, the first communication mode and the second communication mode using the second bandwidth.

[0097] Example 3 includes the subject matter of Example 2, and optionally, wherein the first header is a legacy Medium Access Control (MAC) header, and the modified header is one of a modified MAC header or a combination header including a modified PHY preamble with a modified MAC header.

[0098] Example 4 includes the subject matter of Example 3, and optionally, wherein the modified MAC header does not include any Address field.

[0099] Example 5 includes the subject matter of Example 1, and optionally, wherein the fixed communication parameters of the set of fixed communication parameters further include at least one of information on Quality of Service (QoS) for the frame or information or a Traffic Stream Identification (TID) for the frame.

[0100] Example 6 includes the subject matter of Example 3, and optionally, wherein: the fixed communication parameters of the set of fixed communication parameters are first fixed communication parameters of the set of fixed communication parameters; the modified MAC header further includes a Frame Control field to designate second fixed communication parameters of the set of fixed communication parameters, the Frame Control field including a Protocol Version subfield, a To Distribution System (DS) field, a From DS subfield, a More Fragments subfield, and a More Data subfield; and the second fixed communication parameters include compressed values for the Protocol Version subfield, the To DS subfield, the From DS subfield, and the More Fragments subfield. [0101] Example 7 includes the subject matter of Example 3, and optionally, wherein: the frame includes a plurality of frames comprising respective Data Units (DUs); and the modified MAC header further includes a Message Information (Message Info) field, the Message Info field including information on at least one of a frame body length for a frame body of each of the DUs, a duration for transmission of each of the DUs, sequence control information corresponding to each of the DUs and including a fragment number and a sequence number, or a unique connection message ID corresponding to each of the DUs, the information in the Message Info field to be different as between the plurality of DUs.

[0102] Example 8 includes the subject matter of Example 7, and optionally, wherein the unique connection message ID of the Message Info field includes information on one of a maximal length Pseudo-Noise (PN) sequence or a compressed sequence number (SN) to reflect a value of a full SN.

[0103] Example 9 includes the subject matter of Example 1, and optionally, wherein the processing circuitry comprises logic to establish the connection by: causing transmission of a probe request frame to the other wireless communication device; decoding a probe response frame from the other wireless communication device, the probe response frame being in response to the probe request frame; causing transmission of an authentication request frame to the other wireless communication device after decoding the probe response frame; decoding an authentication response frame from the other wireless communication device, the authentication response frame being in response to the authentication request frame; causing transmission of an association request frame to the other wireless communication device after decoding the authentication response frame; and decoding an association response frame from the other wireless communication device, the association response frame being in response to the association request frame.

[0104] Example 10 includes the subject matter of Example 1, and optionally, wherein the processing circuitry comprises logic to establish the connection by: decoding a Generic Advertisement Service (GAS) frame from the other wireless communication device; and causing transmission of a GAS response frame to the other wireless communication device in response to the GAS frame, the GAS response frame including an authorization to the other wireless communication device to associate. [0105] Example 11 includes the subject matter of Example 1, and optionally, wherein the processing circuitry comprises logic to establish the connection by: decoding a connection set up request frame from the other wireless communication device including a request to communicate using the modified header; and causing transmission of a connection set up response frame to the other wireless communication device including the fixed communication parameters for the connection.

[0106] Example 12 includes the subject matter of Example 1, and optionally, wherein the processing circuitry comprises logic to establish the connection using a pre-determined control sub-channel.

[0107] Example 13 includes the subject matter of Example 3, and optionally, wherein the modified MAC header further includes a Frame Control field and a Message Information (Message Info) field, the frame further including a Data Unit (DU) comprising a Frame Body and a Frame Check Sequence (FCS) field following the modified MAC header.

[0108] Example 14 includes the subject matter of Example 1, and optionally, wherein the processing circuitry further includes logic to perform a connection teardown of the connection including causing transmission of a message to the other wireless communication device to tear down the connection.

[0109] Example 15 includes the subject matter of Example 2, and optionally, wherein the first bandwidth is 20 MHz and the second bandwidth is less than 20 MHz.

[0110] Example 16 includes the subject matter of Example 15, and optionally, wherein the second bandwidth is at least one of 1 MHz, 2 MHz, 4 MHz or 10 MHz.

[0111] Example 17 includes the subject matter of Example 1, and optionally, wherein the first header is in conformance with an Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 standard.

[0112] Example 18 includes the subject matter of Example 1, and optionally, further including a radio integrated circuit coupled to the processing circuitry, and a front-end module coupled to the radio integrated circuit.

[0113] Example 19 includes the subject matter of Example 18, and optionally, further including one or more antennas coupled to the front-end module.

[0114] Example 20 includes a product comprising one or more tangible computer-readable non-transitory storage media comprising computer-executable instructions operable to, when executed by at least one computer processor, cause the at least one computer processor to implement operations at a wireless communication device, the operations comprising: communicate in a first wireless communication mode using a first header including fields comprising information on a Source Address (SA) and a Destination Address (DA), and communicate using a second, modified header in a second wireless communication mode different from the first wireless communication mode; establish, using the first wireless communication mode, a wireless connection between the wireless communication device and another wireless communication device, the wireless connection corresponding to a set of fixed communication parameters; generate a wireless frame including the modified header, the modified header including a connection identifier (Connection ID) to designate fixed communication parameters of the set of fixed communicate parameters that include a SA and a DA for the wireless frame; and cause transmission of the wireless frame to the other wireless communication device using the second wireless communication mode.

[0115] Example 21 includes the subject matter of Example 20, and optionally, wherein the operations further include communicating using a first bandwidth and a second bandwidth narrower than the first bandwidth, the first communication mode and the second communication mode using the second bandwidth.

[0116] Example 22 includes the subject matter of Example 21, and optionally, wherein the first header is a legacy Medium Access Control (MAC) header, and the modified header is one of a modified MAC header or a combination header including a modified PHY preamble with a modified MAC header.

[0117] Example 23 includes the subject matter of Example 22, and optionally, wherein the modified MAC header does not include any Address field.

[0118] Example 24 includes the subject matter of Example 20, and optionally, wherein the fixed communication parameters of the set of fixed communication parameters further include at least one of information on Quality of Service (QoS) for the frame or information or a Traffic Stream Identification (TID) for the frame.

[0119] Example 25 includes the subject matter of Example 22, and optionally, wherein: the fixed communication parameters of the set of fixed communication parameters are first fixed communication parameters of the set of fixed communication parameters; the modified MAC header further includes a Frame Control field to designate second fixed communication parameters of the set of fixed communication parameters, the Frame Control field including a Protocol Version subfield, a To Distribution System (DS) field, a From DS subfield, a More Fragments subfield, and a More Data subfield; and the second fixed communication parameters include compressed values for the Protocol Version subfield, the To DS subfield, the From DS subfield, and the More Fragments subfield.

[0120] Example 26 includes the subject matter of Example 22, and optionally, wherein: the frame includes a plurality of frames comprising respective Data Units (DUs); and the modified MAC header further includes a Message Information (Message Info) field, the Message Info field including information on at least one of a frame body length for a frame body of each of the DUs, a duration for transmission of each of the DUs, sequence control information corresponding to each of the DUs and including a fragment number and a sequence number, or a unique connection message ID corresponding to each of the DUs, the information in the Message Info field to be different as between the plurality of DUs.

[0121] Example 27 includes the subject matter of Example 26, and optionally, wherein the unique connection message ID of the Message Info field includes information on a maximal length Pseudo-Noise (PN) sequence or a compressed sequence number (SN) to reflect a value of a full SN.

[0122] Example 28 includes the subject matter of Example 20, and optionally, wherein the operations further include establishing the connection by: causing transmission of a probe request frame to the other wireless communication device; decoding a probe response frame from the other wireless communication device, the probe response frame being in response to the probe request frame; causing transmission of an authentication request frame to the other wireless communication device after decoding the probe response frame; decoding an authentication response frame from the other wireless communication device, the authentication response frame being in response to the authentication request frame; causing transmission of an association request frame to the other wireless communication device after decoding the authentication response frame; and decoding an association response frame from the other wireless communication device, the association response frame being in response to the association request frame.

[0123] Example 29 includes the subject matter of Example 20, and optionally, wherein the operations further include establishing the connection by: decoding a Generic Advertisement Service (GAS) frame from the other wireless communication device; and causing transmission of a GAS response frame to the other wireless communication device in response to the GAS frame, the GAS response frame including an authorization to the other wireless communication device to associate.

[0124] Example 30 includes the subject matter of Example 20, and optionally, wherein the operations include establishing the connection by: decoding a connection set up request frame from the other wireless communication device including a request to communicate using the modified header; and causing transmission of a connection set up response frame to the other wireless communication device including the fixed communication parameters for the connection.

[0125] Example 31 includes the subject matter of Example 20, and optionally, wherein the operations further include establishing the connection by using a pre-determined control subchannel.

[0126] Example 32 includes the subject matter of Example 22, and optionally, wherein the modified MAC header further includes a Frame Control field and a Message Information (Message Info) field, the frame further including a Data Unit (DU) comprising a Frame Body and a Frame Check Sequence (FCS) field following the modified MAC header.

[0127] Example 33 includes the subject matter of Example 20, and optionally, wherein the operations further include performing a connection teardown of the connection including causing transmission of a message to the other wireless communication device to tear down the connection.

[0128] Example 34 includes the subject matter of Example 21, and optionally, wherein the first bandwidth is 20 MHz and the second bandwidth is less than 20 MHz.

[0129] Example 35 includes the subject matter of Example 34, and optionally, wherein the second bandwidth is at least one of 1 MHz, 2 MHz, 4 MHz or 10 MHz.

[0130] Example 36 includes the subject matter of Example 20, and optionally, wherein the first header is in conformance with an Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 standard.

[0131] Example 37 includes a method to be performed at a wireless communication device, the method comprising: communicating in a first wireless communication mode using a first header including information on a Source Address (SA) and a Destination Address (DA), and communicating using a second, modified header in a second wireless communication mode different from the first wireless communication mode; establishing, using the first wireless communication mode, a wireless connection between the wireless communication device and another wireless communication device, the wireless connection corresponding to a set of fixed communication parameters; generating a wireless frame including the modified header, the modified header including a connection identifier (Connection ID) to designate fixed communication parameters of the set of fixed communicate parameters that include a SA and a DA for the wireless frame; and causing transmission of the wireless frame to the other wireless communication device using the second wireless communication mode.

[0132] Example 38 includes the subject matter of Example 37, and optionally, further including communicating using a first bandwidth and a second bandwidth narrower than the first bandwidth, the first communication mode and the second communication mode using the second bandwidth.

[0133] Example 39 includes the subject matter of Example 38, and optionally, wherein the first header is a legacy Medium Access Control (MAC) header, and the modified header is one of a modified MAC header or a combination header including a modified PHY preamble with a modified MAC header.

[0134] Example 40 includes the subject matter of Example 39, and optionally, wherein the modified MAC header does not include any Address field.

[0135] Example 41 includes the subject matter of Example 37, and optionally, wherein the fixed communication parameters of the set of fixed communication parameters further include at least one of information on Quality of Service (QoS) for the frame or information or a Traffic Stream Identification (TID) for the frame.

[0136] Example 42 includes the subject matter of Example 39, and optionally, wherein: the fixed communication parameters of the set of fixed communication parameters are first fixed communication parameters of the set of fixed communication parameters; the modified MAC header further includes a Frame Control field to designate second fixed communication parameters of the set of fixed communication parameters, the Frame Control field including a Protocol Version subfield, a To Distribution System (DS) field, a From DS subfield, a More Fragments subfield, and a More Data subfield; and the second fixed communication parameters include compressed values for the Protocol Version subfield, the To DS subfield, the From DS subfield, and the More Fragments subfield.

[0137] Example 43 includes the subject matter of Example 39, and optionally, wherein: the frame includes a plurality of frames comprising respective Data Units (DUs); and the modified MAC header further includes a Message Information (Message Info) field, the Message Info field including information on at least one of a frame body length for a frame body of each of the DUs, a duration for transmission of each of the DUs, sequence control information corresponding to each of the DUs and including a fragment number and a sequence number, or a unique connection message ID corresponding to each of the DUs, the information in the Message Info field to be different as between the plurality of DUs.

[0138] Example 44 includes the subject matter of Example 43, and optionally, wherein the unique connection message ID of the Message Info field includes information on a maximal length Pseudo-Noise (PN) sequence or a compressed sequence number (SN) to reflect a value of a full SN.

[0139] Example 45 includes the subject matter of Example 37, and optionally, wherein establishing the connection includes: causing transmission of a probe request frame to the other wireless communication device; decoding a probe response frame from the other wireless communication device, the probe response frame being in response to the probe request frame; causing transmission of an authentication request frame to the other wireless communication device after decoding the probe response frame; decoding an authentication response frame from the other wireless communication device, the authentication response frame being in response to the authentication request frame; causing transmission of an association request frame to the other wireless communication device after decoding the authentication response frame; and decoding an association response frame from the other wireless communication device, the association response frame being in response to the association request frame.

[0140] Example 46 includes the subject matter of Example 37, and optionally, wherein establishing the connection includes: decoding a Generic Advertisement Service (GAS) frame from the other wireless communication device; and causing transmission of a GAS response frame to the other wireless communication device in response to the GAS frame, the GAS response frame including an authorization to the other wireless communication device to associate. [0141] Example 47 includes the subject matter of Example 37, and optionally, wherein establishing the connection includes: decoding a connection set up request frame from the other wireless communication device including a request to communicate using the modified header; and causing transmission of a connection set up response frame to the other wireless communication device including the fixed communication parameters for the connection.

[0142] Example 48 includes the subject matter of Example 37, and optionally, wherein establishing the connection includes establishing the connection using a pre-determined control sub-channel.

[0143] Example 49 includes the subject matter of Example 39, and optionally, wherein the modified MAC header further includes a Frame Control field and a Message Information (Message Info) field, the frame further including a Data Unit (DU) comprising a Frame Body and a Frame Check Sequence (FCS) field following the modified MAC header.

[0144] Example 50 includes the subject matter of Example 37, and optionally, further including performing a connection teardown of the connection including causing transmission of a message to the other wireless communication device to tear down the connection.

[0145] Example 51 includes the subject matter of Example 38, and optionally, wherein the first bandwidth is 20 MHz and the second bandwidth is less than 20 MHz.

[0146] Example 52 includes the subject matter of Example 51, and optionally, wherein the second bandwidth is at least one of 1 MHz, 2 MHz, 4 MHz or 10 MHz.

[0147] Example 53 includes the subject matter of Example 37, and optionally, wherein the first header is in conformance with a legacy Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 standard.

[0148] Example 54 includes a wireless communication device including: means for communicating in a first wireless communication mode using a first header including fields comprising information on a Source Address (SA) and a Destination Address (DA), and means for communicating using a second, modified header in a second wireless communication mode different from the first wireless communication mode; means for establishing, using the first wireless communication mode, a wireless connection between the wireless communication device and another wireless communication device, the wireless connection corresponding to a set of fixed communication parameters; means for generating a wireless frame including the modified header, the modified header including a connection identifier (Connection ID) to designate fixed communication parameters of the set of fixed communicate parameters that include a SA and a DA for the wireless frame; and means for causing transmission of the wireless frame to the other wireless communication device using the second wireless communication mode.

[0149] Example 55 includes the subject matter of Example 54, and optionally, wherein the device is configured to communicate using a first bandwidth and a second bandwidth narrower than the first bandwidth, the first communication mode and the second communication mode using the second bandwidth.

[0150] Example 56 includes the subject matter of Example 55, and optionally, wherein the first header is a legacy Medium Access Control (MAC) header, and the modified header is one of a modified MAC header or a combination header including a modified PHY preamble with a modified MAC header.

[0151] Example 57 includes a wireless communication device including a memory and processing circuitry coupled to the memory, the processing circuitry comprising logic to: communicate in a first wireless communication mode using a first header including fields comprising information on a Source Address (SA) and a Destination Address (DA), and communicate using a second, modified header in a second wireless communication mode different from the first wireless communication mode; establish, using the first wireless communication mode, a wireless connection between the wireless communication device and another wireless communication device, the wireless connection corresponding to a set of fixed communication parameters; decode a wireless frame including the modified header and a frame body, the modified header including a connection identifier (Connection ID) to designate fixed communication parameters of the set of fixed communicate parameters that include a SA and a DA for the wireless frame; and decode the frame body based on a decoding of the modified header.

[0152] Example 58 includes the subject matter of Example 57, and optionally, wherein the device is configured to communicate using only a narrowband channel.

[0153] Example 59 includes the subject matter of Example 58, and optionally, wherein the first header is a legacy Medium Access Control (MAC) header, and the modified header is one of a modified MAC header or a combination header including a modified PHY preamble with a modified MAC header. [0154] Example 60 includes the subject matter of Example 59, and optionally, wherein the modified MAC header does not include any Address field.

[0155] Example 61 includes the subject matter of Example 57, and optionally, wherein the fixed communication parameters of the set of fixed communication parameters further include at least one of information on Quality of Service (QoS) for the frame or information or a Traffic Stream Identification (TID) for the frame.

[0156] Example 62 includes the subject matter of Example 59, and optionally, wherein: the fixed communication parameters of the set of fixed communication parameters are first fixed communication parameters of the set of fixed communication parameters; the modified MAC header further includes a Frame Control field to designate second fixed communication parameters of the set of fixed communication parameters, the Frame Control field including a Protocol Version subfield, a To Distribution System (DS) field, a From DS subfield, a More Fragments subfield, and a More Data subfield; and the second fixed communication parameters include compressed values for the Protocol Version subfield, the To DS subfield, the From DS subfield, and the More Fragments subfield.

[0157] Example 63 includes the subject matter of Example 59, and optionally, wherein: the frame includes a plurality of frames comprising respective Data Units (DUs); the frame body includes a plurality of frame bodies within respective ones of the DUs; and the modified MAC header further includes a Message Information (Message Info) field, the Message Info field including information on at least one of a frame body length for the frame body of each of the DUs, a duration for transmission of each of the DUs, sequence control information corresponding to each of the DUs and including a fragment number and a sequence number, or a unique connection message ID corresponding to each of the DUs, the information in the Message Info field to be different as between the plurality of DUs.

[0158] Example 64 includes the subject matter of Example 63, and optionally, wherein the unique connection message ID of the Message Info field includes information on a maximal length Pseudo-Noise (PN) sequence or a compressed sequence number (SN) to reflect a value of a full SN.

[0159] Example 65 includes the subject matter of Example 57, and optionally, wherein the processing circuitry comprises logic to establish the connection by: decoding a probe request frame from the other wireless communication device; causing transmission of a probe response frame to the other wireless communication device, the probe response frame being in response to the probe request frame; decoding an authentication request frame from the other wireless communication device after causing transmission of the probe response frame; causing transmission of an authentication response frame to the other wireless communication device, the authentication response frame being in response to the authentication request frame; decoding an association request frame from the other wireless communication device after causing transmission of the authentication response frame; and causing transmission of an association response frame to the other wireless communication device, the association response frame being in response to the association request frame.

[0160] Example 66 includes the subject matter of Example 57, and optionally, wherein the processing circuitry comprises logic to establish the connection by: causing transmission of a Generic Advertisement Service (GAS) frame to the other wireless communication device; and decoding a GAS response frame sent by the other wireless communication device in response to the GAS frame, the GAS response frame including an authorization by the other wireless communication device to associate.

[0161] Example 67 includes the subject matter of Example 57, and optionally, wherein the processing circuitry comprises logic to establish the connection by: causing transmission of a connection set up request frame to the other wireless communication device including a request to communicate using the modified header; and decoding a connection set up response frame sent by the other wireless communication device including the fixed communication parameters for the connection.

[0162] Example 68 includes the subject matter of Example 57, and optionally, wherein the processing circuitry comprises logic to establish the connection using a pre-determined control sub-channel.

[0163] Example 69 includes the subject matter of Example 57, and optionally, wherein the MAC header further includes a Frame Control field and a Message Information (Message Info) field, the frame further including a Frame Check Sequence (FCS) field following the MAC header.

[0164] Example 70 includes the subject matter of Example 57, and optionally, wherein the processing circuitry further includes logic to perform a connection teardown of the connection including decoding a message from the other wireless communication device to tear down the connection, and tearing down the connection. [0165] Example 71 includes the subject matter of Example 57, and optionally, wherein the frame is to be transmitted over a narrowband channel having a bandwidth lower than 20 MHz.

[0166] Example 72 includes the subject matter of Example 71, and optionally, wherein the bandwidth is at least one of 1 MHz, 2 MHz, 4 MHz or 10 MHz.

[0167] Example 73 includes the subject matter of Example 57, and optionally, further including a radio integrated circuit coupled to the processing circuitry, and a front-end module coupled to the radio integrated circuit.

[0168] Example 74 includes the subject matter of Example 73, and optionally, further including one or more antennas coupled to the front-end module.

[0169] Example 75 includes a product comprising one or more tangible computer-readable non-transitory storage media comprising computer-executable instructions operable to, when executed by at least one computer processor, cause the at least one computer processor to implement operations at a wireless communication device, the operations comprising: communicating in a first wireless communication mode using a first header including fields comprising information on a Source Address (SA) and a Destination Address (DA), and communicating using a second, modified header in a second wireless communication mode different from the first wireless communication mode; establishing, using the first wireless communication mode, a wireless connection between the wireless communication device and another wireless communication device, the wireless connection corresponding to a set of fixed communication parameters; decoding a wireless frame including the modified header and a frame body, the modified header including a connection identifier (Connection ID) to designate fixed communication parameters of the set of fixed communicate parameters that include a SA and a DA for the wireless frame; and decoding the frame body based on a decoding of the modified header.

[0170] Example 76 includes the subject matter of Example 75, and optionally, wherein the device is configured to communicate using only a narrowband channel.

[0171] Example 77 includes the subject matter of Example 76, and optionally, wherein the first header is a legacy Medium Access Control (MAC) header, and the modified header is one of a modified MAC header or a combination header including a modified PHY preamble with a modified MAC header. [0172] Example 78 includes the subject matter of Example 77, and optionally, wherein the modified MAC header does not include any Address field.

[0173] Example 79 includes the subject matter of Example 75, and optionally, wherein the fixed communication parameters of the set of fixed communication parameters further include at least one of information on Quality of Service (QoS) for the frame or information or a Traffic Stream Identification (TID) for the frame.

[0174] Example 80 includes the subject matter of Example 77, and optionally, wherein: the fixed communication parameters of the set of fixed communication parameters are first fixed communication parameters of the set of fixed communication parameters; the modified MAC header further includes a Frame Control field to designate second fixed communication parameters of the set of fixed communication parameters, the Frame Control field including a Protocol Version subfield, a To Distribution System (DS) field, a From DS subfield, a More Fragments subfield, and a More Data subfield; and the second fixed communication parameters include compressed values for the Protocol Version subfield, the To DS subfield, the From DS subfield, and the More Fragments subfield.

[0175] Example 81 includes the subject matter of Example 77, and optionally, wherein: the frame includes a plurality of frames comprising respective Data Units (DUs); the frame body includes a plurality of frame bodies within respective ones of the DUs; and the modified MAC header further includes a Message Information (Message Info) field, the Message Info field including information on at least one of a frame body length for the frame body of each of the DUs, a duration for transmission of each of the DUs, sequence control information corresponding to each of the DUs and including a fragment number and a sequence number, or a unique connection message ID corresponding to each of the DUs, the information in the Message Info field to be different as between the plurality of DUs.

[0176] Example 82 includes the subject matter of Example 81, and optionally, wherein the unique connection message ID of the Message Info field includes information on a maximal length Pseudo-Noise (PN) sequence or a compressed sequence number (SN) to reflect a value of a full SN.

[0177] Example 83 includes the subject matter of Example 75, and optionally, wherein the operations further include establishing the connection by: decoding a probe request frame from the other wireless communication device; causing transmission of a probe response frame to the other wireless communication device, the probe response frame being in response to the probe request frame; decoding an authentication request frame from the other wireless communication device after causing transmission of the probe response frame; causing transmission of an authentication response frame to the other wireless communication device, the authentication response frame being in response to the authentication request frame; decoding an association request frame from the other wireless communication device after causing transmission of the authentication response frame; and causing transmission of an association response frame to the other wireless communication device, the association response frame being in response to the association request frame.

[0178] Example 84 includes the subject matter of Example 75, and optionally, wherein the operations further include establishing the connection by: causing transmission of a Generic Advertisement Service (GAS) frame to the other wireless communication device; and decoding a GAS response frame sent by the other wireless communication device in response to the GAS frame, the GAS response frame including an authorization by the other wireless communication device to associate.

[0179] Example 85 includes the subject matter of Example 75, and optionally, wherein the operations further include establishing the connection by: causing transmission of a connection set up request frame to the other wireless communication device including a request to communicate using the modified header; and decoding a connection set up response frame sent by the other wireless communication device including the fixed communication parameters for the connection.

[0180] Example 86 includes the subject matter of Example 75, and optionally, the operations include establishing the connection by using a pre-determined control sub-channel.

[0181] Example 87 includes the subject matter of Example 77, and optionally, wherein the modified MAC header further includes a Frame Control field and a Message Information (Message Info) field, the frame further including a Frame Check Sequence (FCS) field following the modified MAC header.

[0182] Example 88 includes the subject matter of Example 75, and optionally, wherein the operations include establishing the connection by performing a connection teardown of the connection including decoding a message from the other wireless communication device to tear down the connection, and tearing down the connection. [0183] Example 89 includes the subject matter of Example 75, and optionally, wherein the frame is to be transmitted over a narrowband channel having a bandwidth lower than 20 MHz.

[0184] Example 90 includes the subject matter of Example 89, and optionally, wherein the bandwidth is at least one of 1 MHz, 2 MHz, 4 MHz or 10 MHz.

[0185] Example 91 includes a method to be performed at a wireless communication device, the method including: communicating in a first wireless communication mode using a first header including fields comprising information on a Source Address (SA) and a Destination Address (DA), and communicating using a second, modified header in a second wireless communication mode different from the first wireless communication mode; establishing, using the first wireless communication mode, a wireless connection between the wireless communication device and another wireless communication device, the wireless connection corresponding to a set of fixed communication parameters; decoding a wireless frame including the modified header and a frame body, the modified header including a connection identifier (Connection ID) to designate fixed communication parameters of the set of fixed communicate parameters that include a SA and a DA for the wireless frame; and decoding the frame body based on a decoding of the modified header.

[0186] Example 92 includes the subject matter of Example 91, and optionally, wherein the device is configured to communicate using only a narrowband channel.

[0187] Example 93 includes the subject matter of Example 92, and optionally, wherein the first header is a legacy Medium Access Control (MAC) header, and the modified header is one of a modified MAC header or a combination header including a modified PHY preamble with a modified MAC header.

[0188] Example 94 includes the subject matter of Example 93, and optionally, wherein the modified MAC header does not include any Address field.

[0189] Example 95 includes the subject matter of Example 91, and optionally, wherein the fixed communication parameters of the set of fixed communication parameters further include at least one of information on Quality of Service (QoS) for the frame or information or a Traffic Stream Identification (TID) for the frame.

[0190] Example 96 includes the subject matter of Example 93, and optionally, wherein: the fixed communication parameters of the set of fixed communication parameters are first fixed communication parameters of the set of fixed communication parameters; the modified MAC header further includes a Frame Control field to designate second fixed communication parameters of the set of fixed communication parameters, the Frame Control field including a Protocol Version subfield, a To Distribution System (DS) field, a From DS subfield, a More Fragments subfield, and a More Data subfield; and the second fixed communication parameters include compressed values for the Protocol Version subfield, the To DS subfield, the From DS subfield, and the More Fragments subfield.

[0191] Example 97 includes the subject matter of Example 93, and optionally, wherein: the frame includes a plurality of frames comprising respective Data Units (DUs); the frame body includes a plurality of frame bodies within respective ones of the DUs; and the modified MAC header further includes a Message Information (Message Info) field, the Message Info field including information on at least one of a frame body length for the frame body of each of the DUs, a duration for transmission of each of the DUs, sequence control information corresponding to each of the DUs and including a fragment number and a sequence number, or a unique connection message ID corresponding to each of the DUs, the information in the Message Info field to be different as between the plurality of DUs.

[0192] Example 98 includes the subject matter of Example 97, and optionally, wherein the unique connection message ID of the Message Info field includes information on a maximal length Pseudo-Noise (PN) sequence or a compressed sequence number (SN) to reflect a value of a full SN.

[0193] Example 99 includes the subject matter of Example 91, and optionally, further including establishing the connection by: decoding a probe request frame from the other wireless communication device; causing transmission of a probe response frame to the other wireless communication device, the probe response frame being in response to the probe request frame; decoding an authentication request frame from the other wireless communication device after causing transmission of the probe response frame; causing transmission of an authentication response frame to the other wireless communication device, the authentication response frame being in response to the authentication request frame; decoding an association request frame from the other wireless communication device after causing transmission of the authentication response frame; and causing transmission of an association response frame to the other wireless communication device, the association response frame being in response to the association request frame. [0194] Example 100 includes the subject matter of Example 91, and optionally, further including establishing the connection by: causing transmission of a Generic Advertisement Service (GAS) frame to the other wireless communication device; and decoding a GAS response frame sent by the other wireless communication device in response to the GAS frame, the GAS response frame including an authorization by the other wireless communication device to associate.

[0195] Example 101 includes the subject matter of Example 91, and optionally, further including establishing the connection by: causing transmission of a connection set up request frame to the other wireless communication device including a request to communicate using the modified header; and decoding a connection set up response frame sent by the other wireless communication device including the fixed communication parameters for the connection.

[0196] Example 102 includes the subject matter of Example 91, and optionally, the operations include establishing the connection by using a pre-determined control sub-channel.

[0197] Example 103 includes the subject matter of Example 93, and optionally, wherein the modified MAC header further includes a Frame Control field and a Message Information (Message Info) field, the frame further including a Frame Check Sequence (FCS) field following the modified MAC header.

[0198] Example 104 includes the subject matter of Example 91, and optionally, further including establishing the connection by performing a connection teardown of the connection including decoding a message from the other wireless communication device to tear down the connection, and tearing down the connection.

[0199] Example 105 includes the subject matter of Example 91, and optionally, wherein the frame is to be transmitted over a narrowband channel having a bandwidth lower than 20 MHz.

[0200] Example 106 includes the subject matter of Example 105, and optionally, wherein the bandwidth is at least one of 1 MHz, 2 MHz, 4 MHz or 10 MHz.

[0201] An Abstract is provided. It is submitted with the understanding that it will not be used to limit or interpret the scope or meaning of the claims. The following claims are hereby incorporated into the detailed description, with each claim standing on its own as a separate embodiment.

Claims

CLAIMS What is claimed is:
1. A wireless communication device including a memory and processing circuitry coupled to the memory, the processing circuitry comprising logic to:
communicate in a first wireless communication mode using a first header including fields comprising information on a Source Address (SA) and a Destination Address (DA), and communicate using a second, modified header in a second wireless communication mode different from the first wireless communication mode;
establish, using the first wireless communication mode, a wireless connection between the wireless communication device and another wireless communication device, the wireless connection corresponding to a set of fixed communication parameters;
generate a wireless frame including the modified header, the modified header including a connection identifier (Connection ID) to designate fixed communication parameters of the set of fixed communicate parameters that include a SA and a DA for the wireless frame; and
cause transmission of the wireless frame to the other wireless communication device using the second wireless communication mode.
2. The device of claim 1, wherein the device is configured to communicate using a first bandwidth and a second bandwidth narrower than the first bandwidth, the first communication mode and the second communication mode using the second bandwidth.
3. The device of claim 2, wherein the first header is a legacy Medium Access Control (MAC) header, and the modified header is one of a modified MAC header or a combination header including a modified PHY preamble with a modified MAC header, and wherein the modified MAC header does not include any Address field.
4. The device of claim 1, wherein the fixed communication parameters of the set of fixed communication parameters further include at least one of information on Quality of Service (QoS) for the frame or information or a Traffic Stream Identification (TID) for the frame.
5. The device of claim 3, wherein:
the fixed communication parameters of the set of fixed communication parameters are first fixed communication parameters of the set of fixed communication parameters; the modified MAC header further includes a Frame Control field to designate second fixed communication parameters of the set of fixed communication parameters, the Frame Control field including a Protocol Version subfield, a To Distribution System (DS) field, a From DS subfield, a More Fragments subfield, and a More Data subfield; and
the second fixed communication parameters include compressed values for the Protocol Version subfield, the To DS subfield, the From DS subfield, and the More Fragments subfield.
6. The device of claim 3, wherein:
the frame includes a plurality of frames comprising respective Data Units (DUs); and the modified MAC header further includes a Message Information (Message Info) field, the Message Info field including information on at least one of a frame body length for a frame body of each of the DUs, a duration for transmission of each of the DUs, sequence control information corresponding to each of the DUs and including a fragment number and a sequence number, or a unique connection message ID corresponding to each of the DUs, the information in the Message Info field to be different as between the plurality of DUs.
7. The device of claim 6, wherein the unique connection message ID of the Message Info field includes information on one of a maximal length Pseudo-Noise (PN) sequence or a compressed sequence number (SN) to reflect a value of a full SN.
8. The device of claim 1, wherein the processing circuitry comprises logic to establish the connection by:
causing transmission of a probe request frame to the other wireless communication device;
decoding a probe response frame from the other wireless communication device, the probe response frame being in response to the probe request frame;
causing transmission of an authentication request frame to the other wireless communication device after decoding the probe response frame;
decoding an authentication response frame from the other wireless communication device, the authentication response frame being in response to the authentication request frame;
causing transmission of an association request frame to the other wireless communication device after decoding the authentication response frame; and
decoding an association response frame from the other wireless communication device, the association response frame being in response to the association request frame.
9. The device of claim 1, wherein the processing circuitry comprises logic to establish the connection by:
decoding a Generic Advertisement Service (GAS) frame from the other wireless communication device; and causing transmission of a GAS response frame to the other wireless communication device in response to the GAS frame, the GAS response frame including an authorization to the other wireless communication device to associate.
10. The device of claim 1, wherein the processing circuitry comprises logic to establish the connection by:
decoding a connection set up request frame from the other wireless communication device including a request to communicate using the modified header; and
causing transmission of a connection set up response frame to the other wireless communication device including the fixed communication parameters for the connection.
11. The device of claim 1, wherein the processing circuitry comprises logic to establish the connection using a pre-determined control sub-channel.
12. The device of claim 3, wherein the modified MAC header further includes a Frame Control field and a Message Information (Message Info) field, the frame further including a Data Unit (DU) comprising a Frame Body and a Frame Check Sequence (FCS) field following the modified MAC header.
13. The device of claim 1, wherein the processing circuitry further includes logic to perform a connection teardown of the connection including causing transmission of a message to the other wireless communication device to tear down the connection.
14. The device of claim 2, wherein the first bandwidth is 20 MHz and the second bandwidth is at least one of 1 MHz, 2 MHz, 4 MHz or 10 MHz.
15. The device of claim 1, further including a radio integrated circuit coupled to the processing circuitry, and a front-end module coupled to the radio integrated circuit.
16. The device of claim 15, further including one or more antennas coupled to the front- end module.
17. A method to be performed at a wireless communication device, the method comprising:
communicating in a first wireless communication mode using a first header including information on a Source Address (SA) and a Destination Address (DA), and communicating using a second, modified header in a second wireless communication mode different from the first wireless communication mode;
establishing, using the first wireless communication mode, a wireless connection between the wireless communication device and another wireless communication device, the wireless connection corresponding to a set of fixed communication parameters; generating a wireless frame including the modified header, the modified header including a connection identifier (Connection ID) to designate fixed communication parameters of the set of fixed communicate parameters that include a SA and a DA for the wireless frame; and
causing transmission of the wireless frame to the other wireless communication device using the second wireless communication mode.
18. The method of claim 17, further including communicating using a first bandwidth and a second bandwidth narrower than the first bandwidth, the first communication mode and the second communication mode using the second bandwidth.
19. The method of claim 18, wherein the first header is a legacy Medium Access Control (MAC) header, and the modified header is one of a modified MAC header or a combination header including a modified PHY preamble with a modified MAC header and wherein the modified MAC header does not include any Address field.
20. The method of claim 17, wherein the fixed communication parameters of the set of fixed communication parameters further include at least one of information on Quality of Service (QoS) for the frame or information or a Traffic Stream Identification (TID) for the frame.
21. The method of claim 19, wherein:
the fixed communication parameters of the set of fixed communication parameters are first fixed communication parameters of the set of fixed communication parameters; the modified MAC header further includes a Frame Control field to designate second fixed communication parameters of the set of fixed communication parameters, the Frame Control field including a Protocol Version subfield, a To Distribution System (DS) field, a From DS subfield, a More Fragments subfield, and a More Data subfield; and the second fixed communication parameters include compressed values for the Protocol Version subfield, the To DS subfield, the From DS subfield, and the More Fragments subfield.
22. The method of claim 19, wherein:
the frame includes a plurality of frames comprising respective Data Units (DUs); and the modified MAC header further includes a Message Information (Message Info) field, the Message Info field including information on at least one of a frame body length for a frame body of each of the DUs, a duration for transmission of each of the DUs, sequence control information corresponding to each of the DUs and including a fragment number and a sequence number, or a unique connection message ID corresponding to each of the DUs, the information in the Message Info field to be different as between the plurality of DUs.
23. A machine-readable medium including code which, when executed, causes a machine to perform the method of any one of claims 17-22.
24. A wireless communication device including:
means for communicating in a first wireless communication mode using a first header including fields comprising information on a Source Address (SA) and a Destination Address (DA), and means for communicating using a second, modified header in a second wireless communication mode different from the first wireless communication mode;
means for establishing, using the first wireless communication mode, a wireless connection between the wireless communication device and another wireless communication device, the wireless connection corresponding to a set of fixed communication parameters;
means for generating a wireless frame including the modified header, the modified header including a connection identifier (Connection ID) to designate fixed communication parameters of the set of fixed communicate parameters that include a SA and a DA for the wireless frame; and
means for causing transmission of the wireless frame to the other wireless communication device using the second wireless communication mode.
25. The device of claim 24, wherein the device is configured to communicate using a first bandwidth and a second bandwidth narrower than the first bandwidth, the first communication mode and the second communication mode using the second bandwidth.
PCT/US2018/013573 2017-04-14 2018-01-12 Modified header for communication in a next-generation wi-fi network WO2018190928A1 (en)

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