WO2018177038A1 - Serpentine joint for surgical robot, surgical instrument and endoscope - Google Patents

Serpentine joint for surgical robot, surgical instrument and endoscope Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2018177038A1
WO2018177038A1 PCT/CN2018/076310 CN2018076310W WO2018177038A1 WO 2018177038 A1 WO2018177038 A1 WO 2018177038A1 CN 2018076310 W CN2018076310 W CN 2018076310W WO 2018177038 A1 WO2018177038 A1 WO 2018177038A1
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joint
serpentine
surgical robot
flexible
axial
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PCT/CN2018/076310
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French (fr)
Chinese (zh)
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李涛
何超
王常春
何裕源
袁帅
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微创(上海)医疗机器人有限公司
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Priority to CN2017102026368 priority Critical
Priority to CN201710202636.8A priority patent/CN106955161A/en
Application filed by 微创(上海)医疗机器人有限公司 filed Critical 微创(上海)医疗机器人有限公司
Publication of WO2018177038A1 publication Critical patent/WO2018177038A1/en

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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B1/00Instruments for performing medical examinations of the interior of cavities or tubes of the body by visual or photographical inspection, e.g. endoscopes; Illuminating arrangements therefor
    • A61B1/005Flexible endoscopes
    • A61B1/0051Flexible endoscopes with controlled bending of insertion part
    • A61B1/0055Constructional details of insertion parts, e.g. vertebral elements
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B1/00Instruments for performing medical examinations of the interior of cavities or tubes of the body by visual or photographical inspection, e.g. endoscopes; Illuminating arrangements therefor
    • A61B1/005Flexible endoscopes
    • A61B1/0051Flexible endoscopes with controlled bending of insertion part
    • A61B1/0057Constructional details of force transmission elements, e.g. control wires
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B1/00Instruments for performing medical examinations of the interior of cavities or tubes of the body by visual or photographical inspection, e.g. endoscopes; Illuminating arrangements therefor
    • A61B1/005Flexible endoscopes
    • A61B1/008Articulations
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/00234Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets for minimally invasive surgery
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/00234Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets for minimally invasive surgery
    • A61B2017/00238Type of minimally invasive operation

Abstract

Disclosed is a serpentine joint for a surgical robot, the serpentine joint comprising at least one joint connector pair (1) and a flexible structure (2), wherein a first joint connector (10) of each joint connector pair (1) comprises a first spherical face (11); a first meshing mechanism (12) is provided on the first spherical face (11); a second joint connector (20) of each joint connector pair (1) comprises a second spherical face (21); a second meshing mechanism (22) is provided on the second spherical face (21); the first meshing mechanism (12) and the second meshing mechanism (22) are meshed together; and the flexible structure (2) controls the oscillation direction and the oscillation angle of the joint connector pair (1), realising oscillation of the serpentine joint. Using the spherical faces as supporting structures when the joint connector pair (1) oscillates improves the bearing capacity of the serpentine joint; and the meshing movement of the meshing mechanisms (12, 22) realises oscillation of the joint connector pair (1), and the meshing precision of the meshing mechanisms (12, 22) is improved, which can realise high bending precision of the serpentine joint. A surgical instrument and an endoscope comprise the serpentine joint, thereby enabling an end of the instrument or an imaging system to achieve the desired position and posture.

Description

手术机器人用蛇形关节、手术器械及内窥镜Serpentine joints, surgical instruments and endoscopes for surgical robots 技术领域Technical field

本发明涉及医疗器械技术领域,特别涉及一种手术机器人用蛇形关节、手术器械及内窥镜。The present invention relates to the field of medical device technology, and in particular to a serpentine joint, a surgical instrument and an endoscope for a surgical robot.

背景技术Background technique

随着机器人的快速发展,各种具有特色的机器人不断地涌现,而其中,对于仿生机器人的研究则显得越发突出。仿生机器人兼顾生物学的优势和机器人的优势,使其研究和应用越来越广泛,其中,蛇形机器人的研究也越来越多。从早期日本研发的第一台水下蛇形机器人,到中国国防科大研制的中国第一台蛇形机器人,该领域在不断的发展和壮大。With the rapid development of robots, a variety of distinctive robots are constantly emerging, and the research on bionic robots is becoming more and more prominent. Bionic robots take into account the advantages of biology and the advantages of robots, making their research and application more and more extensive. Among them, the research of snake-shaped robots is also increasing. From the first underwater snake-shaped robot developed in Japan to the first snake-shaped robot developed by China National Defense Science and Technology University, the field is constantly developing and expanding.

蛇形机器人产生和发展的根本原因在于其可以完成正常机器人所不能完成的动作。其运动与自然界中的蛇类似,可以实现平面扭转和空间扭转,在运动过程中躲避障碍物,用来完成人或其他机器无法完成的任务。鉴于这一特征,用于医疗手术的蛇形机器人也慢慢地出现了。特别是在微创伤手术过程中,为了实现创口小,达到更佳的治疗效果,减少手术过程中对于其他组织的损害,多采用具有蛇形关节的手术器械以及具有蛇形关节的内窥镜,以实现手术过程中对于其他器官的避让。这一优势使得蛇形关节的手术机器人可以很好的应用在医疗领域。然而,目前用于医疗器械的蛇形关节存在着以下缺陷:The root cause of the development and development of a snake-shaped robot is that it can perform actions that cannot be performed by a normal robot. Its movement is similar to that of snakes in nature. It can achieve plane torsion and space torsion. It avoids obstacles during exercise and is used to accomplish tasks that people or other machines cannot. In view of this feature, snake-shaped robots for medical operations have also appeared slowly. Especially in the process of micro-trauma surgery, in order to achieve a small wound, to achieve better therapeutic effect, and to reduce damage to other tissues during the operation, surgical instruments with serpentine joints and endoscopes with serpentine joints are often used. In order to achieve the avoidance of other organs during the operation. This advantage makes the surgical robot of the serpentine joint well applicable in the medical field. However, the snake joints currently used in medical devices have the following drawbacks:

(1)可转动角度小。国外出现过一种仿恐龙的手术器械,其原理类似于蛇形关节,通过控制其多个关节的旋转实现其弯曲功能。但是该器械受限于关节的结构和传动钢丝的分布,无法实现关节大幅度的弯曲,同时也不能证明其空间扭转的特性。(1) The angle of rotation is small. A surgical instrument that resembles a dinosaur has appeared abroad. Its principle is similar to a snake-shaped joint, and its bending function is realized by controlling the rotation of its multiple joints. However, the device is limited by the structure of the joint and the distribution of the transmission wire, and the joint cannot be greatly bent, and the spatial torsion characteristics cannot be proved.

(2)承载能力差、运动精度低。例如,CN106061425A公开了一种具有增强运动范围的机械肘节关节,如图19所示,该关节700包括第一盘形件710和第二盘形件720,第一盘形件710包括齿712、714,第二盘形件720包括销722、724、726,通过齿712、714和销722、724、726之间的啮合以及通过允许这些齿中的至少一个在关节的摆动过程中与相应的销脱离来实现关节的大角度范围 摆动。但是由于齿712、714和销722、724、726所能提供的支承能力较弱,因此该关节700还在盘形件710和720上分别设置支承凸出部740和744以支承盘形件710、720之间的压力负载,由此增加了结构复杂度,并且图19所示的这种大运动范围的关节难以做到弯曲角度的精细控制。专利US 6817974 B2提出了一种弧面型的蛇形关节,如图20所示,该关节70通过关节元件72-76不同的排布方式可实现空间的扭转运动,但是在弯曲扭转过程中,仅依靠相邻两个关节元件的弧形端面中间的连接部分来支撑关节的前端,承载能力较差,虽然提及了相邻关节元件之间的连接采用齿型配合(采用具有齿形轮廓的销86),但是其利用齿型配合作为连接部分的支撑,当运动到极限位置时,承载能力依然很差;而且当其运动到某一位置时,依靠穿过孔78的钢丝(未图示)的张紧来实现关节的静止,精度低。(2) Poor carrying capacity and low motion accuracy. For example, CN106061425A discloses a mechanical toggle joint having an enhanced range of motion, as shown in FIG. 19, the joint 700 includes a first disc 710 and a second disc 720, the first disc 710 including teeth 712 714, the second disk member 720 includes pins 722, 724, 726, the engagement between the teeth 712, 714 and the pins 722, 724, 726, and by allowing at least one of the teeth to be in the swinging process of the joint The pin is disengaged to achieve a large angular range of the joint. However, since the teeth 712, 714 and the pins 722, 724, 726 can provide a weak support, the joint 700 also provides support projections 740 and 744 on the discs 710 and 720, respectively, to support the disc 710. The pressure load between 720, thereby increasing the structural complexity, and the joint of such a large motion range shown in Fig. 19 is difficult to achieve fine control of the bending angle. Patent US Pat. No. 6,917,974 B2 proposes a serpentine type of serpentine joint. As shown in Fig. 20, the joint 70 can realize the torsional movement of the space by different arrangement of the joint elements 72-76, but during the bending and torsion process, Only relying on the connecting portion in the middle of the curved end faces of two adjacent joint elements to support the front end of the joint, the bearing capacity is poor, although it is mentioned that the connection between adjacent joint elements adopts a toothed fit (using a tooth profile) Pin 86), but with the use of a toothed fit as the support for the joint, the load bearing capacity is still poor when moving to the extreme position; and when it moves to a certain position, it depends on the wire passing through the hole 78 (not shown) The tension is applied to achieve the rest of the joint with low precision.

发明内容Summary of the invention

本发明的目的在于提供一种手术机器人用蛇形关节,以提高手术机器人用蛇形关节的承载能力,以提高手术机器人用蛇形关节的运动精度;本发明的目的还在于提供一种具有蛇形关节的手术器械以及一种具有蛇形关节的内窥镜。It is an object of the present invention to provide a serpentine joint for a surgical robot to improve the bearing capacity of a serpentine joint for a surgical robot to improve the motion accuracy of a serpentine joint for a surgical robot; and an object of the present invention is to provide a snake Surgical instruments for joints and an endoscope with a serpentine joint.

基于上述目的,本发明提供一种手术机器人用蛇形关节,所述手术机器人用蛇形关节具有至少一个自由度,且包括:至少一个关节接头对和柔性结构;其中,In view of the above, the present invention provides a serpentine joint for a surgical robot having at least one degree of freedom with a serpentine joint, and comprising: at least one joint joint pair and a flexible structure; wherein

每个关节接头对包括位于下端的第一关节接头和位于上端的第二关节接头,所述第一关节接头包括第一球面,所述第一球面上设置有第一啮合机构,所述第二关节接头包括第二球面,所述第二球面上设置有第二啮合机构,Each joint joint pair includes a first joint joint at a lower end and a second joint joint at an upper end, the first joint joint includes a first spherical surface, and the first spherical surface is provided with a first engagement mechanism, the second The joint joint includes a second spherical surface, and the second spherical surface is provided with a second meshing mechanism,

所述第一关节接头和所述第二关节接头通过所述第一啮合机构和所述第二啮合机构相啮合,所述柔性结构控制所述关节接头对的摆动。The first articulation joint and the second articulation joint are engaged by the first engagement mechanism and the second engagement mechanism, the flexible structure controlling a swing of the articulating pair.

可选的,在所述的手术机器人用蛇形关节中,所述第一关节接头设有周向布置的多个第一轴向通孔,所述柔性结构延伸通过所述第一轴向通孔;所述第二关节接头设有周向布置的多个第二轴向通孔,所述柔性结构延伸通过所述第二轴向通孔,至少2个所述第一轴向通孔的位置与至少2个所述第二轴向通孔 的位置相对应。Optionally, in the serpentine joint for a surgical robot, the first joint joint is provided with a plurality of first axial through holes arranged circumferentially, and the flexible structure extends through the first axial passage a second joint joint is provided with a plurality of second axial through holes arranged circumferentially, the flexible structure extending through the second axial through hole, at least two of the first axial through holes The position corresponds to the position of at least two of the second axial through holes.

可选的,在所述的手术机器人用蛇形关节中,所述第一轴向通孔的数量与所述第二轴向通孔的数量相同,并且所述第一轴向通孔的位置与所述第二轴向孔的位置一一对应。Optionally, in the serpentine joint for a surgical robot, the number of the first axial through holes is the same as the number of the second axial through holes, and the position of the first axial through hole One-to-one correspondence with the position of the second axial hole.

可选的,在所述的手术机器人用蛇形关节中,所述第一关节接头的中心设置有第三轴向通孔;所述第二关节接头的中心设置有第四轴向通孔;所述第三轴向通孔与所述第四轴向通孔对应。Optionally, in the serpentine joint for a surgical robot, a center of the first joint joint is provided with a third axial through hole; a center of the second joint joint is provided with a fourth axial through hole; The third axial through hole corresponds to the fourth axial through hole.

可选的,在所述的手术机器人用蛇形关节中,所述第一球面的直径和所述第二球面的直径相等。Optionally, in the serpentine joint of the surgical robot, the diameter of the first spherical surface and the diameter of the second spherical surface are equal.

可选的,在所述的手术机器人用蛇形关节中,所述第一啮合机构包括多个相互平行且间隔排列的第一啮齿,相邻两个第一啮齿之间设置有第一齿槽;所述第二啮合机构包括多个相互平行且间隔排列的第二啮齿,相邻两个第二啮齿之间设置有第二齿槽;其中,所述第一啮齿与所述第二齿槽对应,所述第二啮齿与所述第一齿槽对应。Optionally, in the serpentine joint for a surgical robot, the first engaging mechanism includes a plurality of first rods arranged in parallel and spaced apart from each other, and a first slot is disposed between two adjacent first rods. The second engaging mechanism includes a plurality of second rods arranged in parallel and spaced apart from each other, and a second slot is disposed between the adjacent two second rods; wherein the first rod and the second slot Correspondingly, the second rod corresponds to the first slot.

可选的,在所述的手术机器人用蛇形关节中,所述第一啮齿的数量比所述第二啮齿的数量多。Optionally, in the serpentine joint of the surgical robot, the number of the first rods is larger than the number of the second rods.

可选的,在所述的手术机器人用蛇形关节中,所述第一关节接头还包括第一端面,所述第一端面与所述第一球面相对;所述第二关节接头还包括第二端面,所述第二端面与所述第二球面相对。Optionally, in the serpentine joint for a surgical robot, the first joint joint further includes a first end surface, the first end surface is opposite to the first spherical surface; and the second joint joint further includes The second end surface is opposite to the second spherical surface.

可选的,在所述的手术机器人用蛇形关节中,所述第一端面与第二端面直径相等。Optionally, in the serpentine joint of the surgical robot, the first end surface and the second end surface are equal in diameter.

可选的,在所述的手术机器人用蛇形关节中,所述第一端面上设置有径向贯通的第一凹槽;所述第二端面上设置有径向贯通的第二凹槽。Optionally, in the serpentine joint for a surgical robot, the first end surface is provided with a first groove that penetrates in a radial direction; and the second end surface is provided with a second groove that penetrates in a radial direction.

可选的,在所述的手术机器人用蛇形关节中,当所述手术机器人用蛇形关节具有n个自由度时,所述柔性结构至少为2n个,其中n为大于等于1的自然数。Optionally, in the serpentine joint for a surgical robot, when the surgical robot has n degrees of freedom with a serpentine joint, the flexible structure is at least 2n, wherein n is a natural number greater than or equal to 1.

可选的,在所述的手术机器人用蛇形关节中,所述蛇形关节包括多个所述关节接头对,多个所述关节接头对之间依次邻接。Optionally, in the serpentine joint for a surgical robot, the serpentine joint includes a plurality of the joint joint pairs, and the plurality of joint joint pairs are sequentially adjacent to each other.

可选的,在相邻的两个关节接头对中,相邻并且分属于两个不同关节接头对的第一关节接头和第二关节接头固定连接或可拆卸连接。Optionally, in the two adjacent joint joint pairs, the first joint joint and the second joint joint adjacent to and belonging to two different joint joint pairs are fixedly connected or detachably connected.

可选的,在相邻并且分属于两个关节接头对的第一关节接头和第二关节接头中,所述第一关节接头的所述第一啮齿的延伸方向和所述第二关节接头的所述第二啮齿的延伸方向平行或异面。Optionally, in the first joint joint and the second joint joint adjacent to and belonging to the two joint joint pairs, the extending direction of the first rod of the first joint joint and the joint of the second joint joint The second rod extends in parallel or out of plane.

可选的,在相邻并且分属于两个不同关节接头对的第一关节接头和第二关节接头中,所述第一关节接头的所述第一啮齿的延伸方向和所述第二关节接头的所述第二啮齿的延伸方向之间的夹角为45°或者90°。Optionally, in the first joint joint and the second joint joint adjacent to and belonging to two different joint joint pairs, the extending direction of the first rod and the second joint joint of the first joint joint The angle between the extending directions of the second rods is 45° or 90°.

可选的,在所述的手术机器人用蛇形关节中,至少两个所述柔性结构的远端与所述手术机器人用蛇形关节中位于最远端的一个关节接头对中的第二关节接头固定。Optionally, in the serpentine joint for a surgical robot, at least two distal ends of the flexible structure and a second joint of the most distal one of the joints of the serpentine joint of the surgical robot The joint is fixed.

可选的,在所述的手术机器人用蛇形关节中,所有所述柔性结构的远端与所述手术机器人用蛇形关节中位于最远端的一个关节接头对中的第二关节接头固定。Optionally, in the serpentine joint of the surgical robot, the distal end of all the flexible structures is fixed with the second joint of the surgical robot in the most distally located joint joint of the serpentine joint .

本发明还提供一种手术器械,所述手术器械包括器械末端、如上所述的手术机器人用蛇形关节、管状物、柔性件以及控制器;其中,所述器械末端、所述手术机器人用蛇形关节、所述管状物和所述控制器依次连接;所述柔性件一端连接所述控制器,另一端经过所述管状物、所述手术机器人用蛇形关节与所述器械末端连接;所述手术机器人用蛇形关节的柔性结构的近端经过所述管状物与控制器连接;所述控制器通过所述柔性件控制所述器械末端运动,通过所述手术机器人用蛇形关节的柔性结构控制所述蛇形关节摆动。The present invention also provides a surgical instrument including an instrument end, a serpentine joint for a surgical robot, a tubular member, a flexible member, and a controller as described above; wherein the instrument end, the surgical robot uses a snake a joint, the tubular and the controller are connected in sequence; the flexible member is connected to the controller at one end, and the other end is connected to the end of the instrument through the tubular body and the surgical robot with a serpentine joint; The proximal end of the flexible structure of the surgical robot with the serpentine joint is connected to the controller via the tubular; the controller controls the movement of the end of the instrument by the flexible member, and the flexibility of the serpentine joint through the surgical robot The structure controls the swing of the serpentine joint.

本发明还提供一种内窥镜,所述内窥镜包括成像系统、如上所述的手术机器人用蛇形关节、管状物以及控制器;其中,所述成像系统、所述手术机器人用蛇形关节、所述管状物和所述控制器依次连接;所述手术机器人用蛇形关节的柔性结构的近端经过所述管状物与所述控制器连接;所述控制器通过所述手术机器人用蛇形关节的柔性结构控制所述蛇形关节摆动,进而调整所述成像系统的位姿。The present invention also provides an endoscope including an imaging system, a serpentine joint for a surgical robot, a tubular, and a controller as described above; wherein the imaging system, the surgical robot uses a serpentine shape a joint, the tubular, and the controller are sequentially connected; the surgical robot is connected to the controller via the tubular proximal end of the flexible structure of the serpentine joint; the controller is used by the surgical robot The flexible structure of the serpentine joint controls the serpentine joint to oscillate, thereby adjusting the pose of the imaging system.

在本发明提供的手术机器人用蛇形关节中,具有至少一个自由度,且包括 至少一个关节接头对以及柔性结构,每个所述关节接头对包括第一关节接头和第二关节接头,所述第一关节接头包括第一球面,所述第一球面上设置有第一啮合机构,所述第二关节接头包括第二球面,所述第二球面上设置有第二啮合机构,所述第一关节接头和所述第二关节接头通过所述第一啮合机构和所述第二啮合机构相啮合,所述柔性结构控制所述关节接头对的摆动方向和摆动角度,以实现所述蛇形关节的摆动。在本发明中,采用球面作为关节接头对摆动时的支撑结构,球面具有更高的支撑能力,从而提高了所述手术机器人用蛇形关节的承载能力;进一步的,通过啮合机构的啮合运动实现关节接头对的摆动,提高了啮合精度,可以实现所述手术机器人用蛇形关节的高弯曲精度。在本发明提供的手术器械和内窥镜中,包括所述蛇形关节,从而能够使得器械末端或者成像系统到达期望的位置和姿态。In the serpentine joint for a surgical robot provided by the present invention, having at least one degree of freedom, and including at least one joint joint pair and a flexible structure, each of the joint joint pairs including a first joint joint and a second joint joint, The first joint joint includes a first spherical surface, the first spherical surface is provided with a first engaging mechanism, the second joint joint includes a second spherical surface, and the second spherical surface is provided with a second engaging mechanism, the first The joint joint and the second joint joint are engaged by the first engagement mechanism and the second engagement mechanism, the flexible structure controlling a swing direction and a swing angle of the joint joint pair to implement the serpentine joint The swing. In the present invention, the spherical surface is used as a support structure for the joint when the joint is swung, and the spherical surface has a higher supporting ability, thereby improving the bearing capacity of the serpentine joint of the surgical robot; further, the meshing motion of the meshing mechanism is realized. The swing of the joint joint pair improves the meshing accuracy, and the high bending precision of the serpentine joint for the surgical robot can be achieved. In the surgical instrument and endoscope provided by the present invention, the serpentine joint is included to enable the end of the instrument or the imaging system to reach a desired position and posture.

附图说明DRAWINGS

图1是本发明实施例一的具有一个关节接头对的手术机器人用蛇形关节的关节接头对结构示意图;1 is a schematic structural view of a joint joint of a serpentine joint for a surgical robot having an articulating joint according to a first embodiment of the present invention;

图2是本发明实施例一的第一关节接头的结构示意图;2 is a schematic structural view of a first joint joint according to Embodiment 1 of the present invention;

图3是本发明实施例一的第二关节接头的结构示意图;3 is a schematic structural view of a second joint joint according to Embodiment 1 of the present invention;

图4是本发明实施例二的具有两个关节接头对的手术机器人用蛇形关节的关节接头对结构示意图;4 is a schematic structural view of a joint joint of a serpentine joint for a surgical robot having two joint joint pairs according to a second embodiment of the present invention;

图5是本发明实施例二的手术机器人用蛇形关节的弯曲示意图;5 is a schematic view showing the bending of a serpentine joint for a surgical robot according to a second embodiment of the present invention;

图6是本发明实施例三的具有两个关节接头对的手术机器人用蛇形关节的关节接头对结构示意图;6 is a schematic structural view of a joint joint of a serpentine joint for a surgical robot having two joint joint pairs according to a third embodiment of the present invention;

图7是本发明实施例四的具有四个关节接头对的手术机器人用蛇形关节的关节接头对结构示意图;7 is a schematic structural view of a joint joint of a serpentine joint for a surgical robot having four joint joint pairs according to a fourth embodiment of the present invention;

图8至图10是图7所示的四个关节接头对的弯曲示意图;8 to 10 are schematic views showing the bending of the four joint joint pairs shown in Fig. 7;

图11是本发明实施例五的具有四个关节接头对的手术机器人用蛇形关节的关节接头对结构示意图;11 is a schematic structural view of a joint joint of a serpentine joint for a surgical robot having four joint joint pairs according to a fifth embodiment of the present invention;

图12至图14是图11所示的四个关节接头对的弯曲示意图;12 to 14 are schematic views showing the bending of the four joint joint pairs shown in Fig. 11;

图15是本发明实施例六的具有四个关节接头对的手术机器人用蛇形关节的关节接头对结构示意图;15 is a schematic structural view of a joint joint of a serpentine joint for a surgical robot having four joint joint pairs according to a sixth embodiment of the present invention;

图16至图18是图15所示的四个关节接头对的弯曲示意图;16 to 18 are schematic views showing the bending of the four joint joint pairs shown in Fig. 15;

图19是现有技术中一种机械肘节关节的示意图;Figure 19 is a schematic view of a mechanical toggle joint in the prior art;

图20是现有技术中一种弧面型蛇形关节的示意图。Figure 20 is a schematic view of a curved-faced serpentine joint in the prior art.

具体实施方式detailed description

以下结合附图和具体实施例对本发明提出的手术机器人用蛇形关节、手术器械及内窥镜作进一步详细说明。根据下面说明和权利要求书,本发明的优点和特征将更清楚。需说明的是,附图均采用非常简化的形式且均使用非精准的比例,仅用以方便、明晰地辅助说明本发明实施例的目的。特别的,各附图需要展示的侧重点不同,往往都采用了不同的比例。The serpentine joint, the surgical instrument and the endoscope for the surgical robot proposed by the present invention will be further described in detail below with reference to the accompanying drawings and specific embodiments. Advantages and features of the present invention will be apparent from the description and appended claims. It should be noted that the drawings are in a very simplified form and all use non-precise proportions, and are only for convenience and clarity to assist the purpose of the embodiments of the present invention. In particular, the various drawings need to show different emphasis, and often use different proportions.

在本申请中,“近端”和“远端”、“下端”和“上端”是从使用该医疗器械的医生角度来看相对于彼此的元件或动作的相对方位、相对位置、方向,尽管“近端”和“远端”并非是限制性的,但是“近端”、“下端”通常指该医疗设备在正常操作过程中靠近医生的一端,而“远端”、“上端”通常是指首先进入患者体内的一端。In the present application, "proximal" and "distal", "lower end" and "upper end" are relative orientations, relative positions, directions of elements or actions relative to each other from the perspective of a physician using the medical device, although "Proximal" and "distal" are not limiting, but "proximal" and "lower" generally refer to the end of the medical device that is near the doctor during normal operation, while "distal" or "upper" is usually Refers to the end that first enters the patient's body.

实施例一Embodiment 1

在本申请实施例中,所述手术机器人用蛇形关节,具有一个自由度,包括一个关节接头对和柔性结构。首先,请参考图1至图3,其中,图1为本发明实施例的手术机器人用蛇形关节的关节接头对的结构示意图;图2为本发明实施例的第一关节接头的结构示意图;图3为本发明实施例的第二关节接头的结构示意图。如图1至图3所示,每个关节接头对1包括位于下端的第一关节接头10和位于上端的第二关节接头20,所述第一关节接头10包括第一球面11,所述第一球面11上设置有第一啮合机构12,所述第二关节接头20包括第二球面21,所述第二球面21上设置有第二啮合机构22,所述第一关节接头10和所述第二关节接头20通过所述第一啮合机构12和所述第二啮合机构22相啮合,所 述柔性结构控制所述关节接头对1的摆动。在本申请实施例中,采用球面作为关节接头对摆动时的支撑结构,球面具有更高的支撑能力,从而提高了所述手术机器人用蛇形关节的承载能力;进一步的,通过啮合机构的相互啮合来实现关节接头对的摆动,可以实现所述手术机器人用蛇形关节摆动的高精度控制。In the embodiment of the present application, the surgical robot uses a serpentine joint having a degree of freedom, including a joint joint pair and a flexible structure. First, referring to FIG. 1 to FIG. 3, FIG. 1 is a schematic structural view of a joint joint of a serpentine joint for a surgical robot according to an embodiment of the present invention; FIG. 2 is a schematic structural view of a first joint joint according to an embodiment of the present invention; 3 is a schematic structural view of a second joint joint according to an embodiment of the present invention. As shown in FIGS. 1 to 3, each joint joint pair 1 includes a first joint joint 10 at a lower end and a second joint joint 20 at an upper end, the first joint joint 10 including a first spherical surface 11, the first joint A spherical surface 11 is provided with a first engagement mechanism 12, the second joint joint 20 includes a second spherical surface 21, and the second spherical surface 21 is provided with a second engagement mechanism 22, the first joint joint 10 and the The second joint joint 20 is engaged by the first engagement mechanism 12 and the second engagement mechanism 22, and the flexible structure controls the swing of the joint joint pair 1. In the embodiment of the present application, the spherical surface is used as a support structure for the joint when the joint is swung, and the spherical surface has a higher supporting ability, thereby improving the bearing capacity of the serpentine joint of the surgical robot; further, the mutual engagement by the meshing mechanism Engagement to achieve the swing of the joint joint pair can achieve high precision control of the surgical robot with the serpentine joint swing.

在本申请实施例中,所述第一关节接头10和所述第二关节接头20沿一方向摆动,所述柔性结构20控制摆动角度,形成一个自由度。在本申请实施例中,为了控制关节接头对的摆动,所述关节接头对需要所述柔性结构2的数量至少为两根。In the embodiment of the present application, the first joint joint 10 and the second joint joint 20 are swung in one direction, and the flexible structure 20 controls the swing angle to form a degree of freedom. In the embodiment of the present application, in order to control the swing of the joint joint pair, the number of the flexible joints 2 required for the joint joint pair is at least two.

相应的,请继续参考图1至图3,所述第一关节接头10设有周向布置的第一轴向通孔13(也即,所述第一关节接头10的圆周设置有第一轴向通孔13),所述第一轴向通孔13供所述柔性结构延伸通过;所述第二关节接头20设有周向布置的第二轴向通孔23(也即,所述第二关节接头20的圆周设置有第二轴向通孔23),所述第二轴向通孔23供所述柔性结构延伸通过。进一步的,所述第一轴向通孔13的数量为至少两个,优选所述第一轴向通孔13均匀分布于所述第一关节接头10的圆周;所述第二轴向通孔23的数量为至少两个,优选所述第二轴向通孔23均匀分布于所述第二关节接头20的圆周,所述第一轴向通孔13中至少两个与所述第二轴向通孔23的位置相对应,以提供足够数量的通道供所述柔性结构延伸通过,以便于所述柔性结构控制关节接头对摆动。在此,优选的,所述第一轴向通孔13与所述第二轴向通孔23的数量相同,并且位置一一对应。Correspondingly, with continued reference to FIG. 1 to FIG. 3 , the first joint joint 10 is provided with a first axial through hole 13 arranged circumferentially (that is, the circumference of the first joint joint 10 is provided with a first axis To the through hole 13), the first axial through hole 13 extends through the flexible structure; the second joint joint 20 is provided with a second axial through hole 23 arranged circumferentially (ie, the first The circumference of the two joint joint 20 is provided with a second axial through hole 23) through which the flexible structure extends. Further, the number of the first axial through holes 13 is at least two, and the first axial through holes 13 are evenly distributed on the circumference of the first joint joint 10; the second axial through hole The number of 23 is at least two, preferably the second axial through hole 23 is evenly distributed on the circumference of the second joint joint 20, at least two of the first axial through holes 13 and the second shaft The position of the through hole 23 corresponds to provide a sufficient number of passages for the flexible structure to extend through so that the flexible structure controls the joint joint pair to oscillate. Here, preferably, the first axial through hole 13 is the same as the number of the second axial through holes 23, and the positions are in one-to-one correspondence.

在本申请的其他实施例中,所述第一轴向通孔13与所述第二轴向通孔23的数量也可以不相同。蛇形关节中多个关节接头对之间的第一轴向通孔数量可以相同,也可以不相同,第二轴向通孔数量亦是如此,但此时要求所述蛇形关节提供至少两个通道供所述柔性结构延伸通过。具体而言,一个关节接头对中至少有两个所述第一轴向通孔13与所述第二轴向通孔23的位置相对应,以便于控制该关节接头对的柔性结构延伸通过,同时至少该关节接头对近端的所有关节接头对在对应位置上都要提供第一轴向通孔13与所述第二轴向通孔23,形成一通道以便于所述柔性结构延伸通过。即该关节接头对的所述第一轴向通孔 13还与近端相邻的关节接头对中的第二轴向通孔23的位置相对应,而该近端相邻的关节接头对中的第二轴向通孔23与同一关节接头对中的第一轴向通孔13位置对应,以此类推。优选,该关节接头对远端的关节接头对在对应位置上都要提供第一轴向通孔13与第二轴向通孔23,形成一通道以便于所述柔性结构延伸通过(即此时柔性结构固定在远端的关节接头对上)。In other embodiments of the present application, the number of the first axial through holes 13 and the second axial through holes 23 may also be different. The number of the first axial through holes between the plurality of joint joints in the serpentine joint may be the same or different, and the number of the second axial through holes is also the same, but at this time, the serpentine joint is required to provide at least two A channel is provided for the flexible structure to extend through. Specifically, at least two of the first axial through holes 13 of one of the joint joints correspond to the positions of the second axial through holes 23, so as to control the flexible structure of the pair of joints to extend, At the same time, at least the joint joints of the joint joints provide the first axial through holes 13 and the second axial through holes 23 at corresponding positions to form a passage for the flexible structure to extend. That is, the first axial through hole 13 of the joint joint pair also corresponds to the position of the second axial through hole 23 of the proximal joint joint pair, and the proximal adjacent joint joint is centered The second axial through hole 23 corresponds to the position of the first axial through hole 13 of the same joint joint pair, and so on. Preferably, the joint joint to the distal joint joint pair is provided with a first axial through hole 13 and a second axial through hole 23 at corresponding positions to form a passage for the flexible structure to extend through (ie, at this time) The flexible structure is attached to the distal joint joint pair).

在本申请实施例中,所述柔性结构2为钢丝绳。进一步的,如图1至图3所示,配合参照图5,所述钢丝绳2的数量与所述第一轴向通孔13的数量相同均为八个,在此,也即与所述第二轴向通孔23的数量相同,其中,每一根钢丝绳2穿过一个第一轴向通孔13及其对应的一个第二轴向通孔23,进而实现控制关节接头对1的摆动方向和幅度(摆动角度)。较佳的,所述第一轴向通孔13的孔径及所述第二轴向通孔23的孔径均大于或略大于所述钢丝绳2的直径,由此可以便于所述钢丝绳20穿过所述第一轴向通孔13及所述第二轴向通孔23。进一步的,在本实施例中,对于一个关节接头对1而言,所述钢丝绳2的远端与所述第二关节接头20固定。In the embodiment of the present application, the flexible structure 2 is a steel wire rope. Further, as shown in FIG. 1 to FIG. 3 , with reference to FIG. 5 , the number of the wire ropes 2 is the same as the number of the first axial through holes 13 , which is the same as the above. The number of the two axial through holes 23 is the same, wherein each of the steel wires 2 passes through a first axial through hole 13 and a corresponding one of the second axial through holes 23, thereby controlling the swinging direction of the joint joint pair 1 And amplitude (swing angle). Preferably, the aperture of the first axial through hole 13 and the aperture of the second axial through hole 23 are both larger or slightly larger than the diameter of the wire rope 2, thereby facilitating the passage of the wire rope 20 The first axial through hole 13 and the second axial through hole 23 are described. Further, in the present embodiment, for one joint joint pair 1, the distal end of the wire rope 2 is fixed to the second joint joint 20.

请继续参考图1至图3,所述第一关节接头10的中心设置有第三轴向通孔14;所述第二关节接头20的中心设置有第四轴向通孔24;所述第三轴向通孔14与所述第四轴向通孔24对应。通过所述第三轴向通孔14和所述第四轴向通孔24能够使得其他零部件或者电缆通过,从而充分的利用了所述手术机器人用蛇形关节的内部空间,使其更适合应用于微创伤手术。With reference to FIG. 1 to FIG. 3, the center of the first joint joint 10 is provided with a third axial through hole 14; the center of the second joint joint 20 is provided with a fourth axial through hole 24; The three-axis through hole 14 corresponds to the fourth axial through hole 24. The third axial through hole 14 and the fourth axial through hole 24 can pass other components or cables, thereby fully utilizing the internal space of the serpentine joint of the surgical robot, making it more suitable. Used in microtrauma surgery.

在本申请实施例中,所述第一关节接头10位于所述第二关节接头20的近端。所述第一啮合机构12包括多个相互平行且间隔排列的第一啮齿120,相邻两个第一啮齿120之间设置有第一齿槽121;所述第二啮合机构22包括多个相互平行且间隔排列的第二啮齿220,相邻两个第二啮齿220之间设置有第二齿槽221;其中,所述第一啮齿120与所述第二齿槽221对应,所述第二啮齿220与所述第一齿槽121对应。本实施例中,所述第一啮合机构12、第二啮合机构22可以参照直齿圆柱齿轮来设计,即本领域技术人员可以根据手术机器人用蛇形关节的要求,选择合适的模数、齿数设计得到直齿圆柱齿轮的相关参数,并在此基础上将齿轮的参数套用在球面上,此时第一球面11、第二球面21的直径取 决于齿轮的分度圆直径,即取决于模数、齿数。与图19和图20所示的现有关节不同,本实施例中的第一啮齿120与第一齿槽121从第一球面11的一侧延伸至另一侧(被第三轴向通孔14截断的部分除外),第二啮齿220与第二齿槽221也从第二球面21的一侧延伸至另一侧(被第四轴向通孔24截断的部分除外),使得当第一啮合机构12与第二啮合机构22啮合时,相应的啮齿与齿槽之间有更大的接触面积,从而提高支承能力。安装时,所述第一关节接头10和所述第二关节接头20按照第一啮齿120延伸方向与第二啮齿220延伸方向平行的方式布置,第一啮齿120大体上坐落在第二齿槽221中,第二啮齿220大体上坐落在第一齿槽121中。进一步的,所述第一啮齿120的数量比所述第二啮齿220的数量多,例如,所述第一啮齿120比所述第二啮齿220多一个。由此,在所述手术机器人用蛇形关节摆动运动时,还可通过所述第一关节接头10上最外侧的两个第一啮齿120进行限制,提高所述手术机器人用蛇形关节弯曲(运动)时的可靠性。在此,所述第一关节接头10和所述第二关节接头20上的啮齿数量越多,所述第一关节接头10和所述第二关节接头20之间啮合的精度越高,从而使得所述手术机器人用蛇形关节弯曲(运动)时的幅度更加精细化。在本申请实施例中,采用球面及啮合机构作为手术机器人用蛇形关节弯曲(运动)时的支撑结构,从而提高了所述手术机器人用蛇形关节的承载能力。In the embodiment of the present application, the first joint joint 10 is located at the proximal end of the second joint joint 20. The first engaging mechanism 12 includes a plurality of first rods 120 arranged in parallel and spaced apart from each other, and a first slot 121 is disposed between two adjacent first rods 120; the second engaging mechanism 22 includes a plurality of mutual a second tooth 220 disposed parallel and spaced apart, and a second tooth groove 221 disposed between the two adjacent second teeth 220; wherein the first rod 120 corresponds to the second groove 221, the second The rod 220 corresponds to the first gullet 121. In this embodiment, the first engagement mechanism 12 and the second engagement mechanism 22 can be designed with reference to a spur gear, that is, a person skilled in the art can select an appropriate modulus and number of teeth according to the requirements of the serpentine joint of the surgical robot. The relevant parameters of the spur gear are designed, and the parameters of the gear are applied to the spherical surface. The diameter of the first spherical surface 11 and the second spherical surface 21 depends on the diameter of the indexing circle of the gear, that is, depending on the mode. Number, number of teeth. Unlike the prior art joints shown in FIGS. 19 and 20, the first rod 120 and the first gullet 121 in this embodiment extend from one side of the first spherical surface 11 to the other side (by the third axial through hole). Except for the 14-cut portion, the second rod 220 and the second slot 221 also extend from one side of the second spherical surface 21 to the other side (except for the portion that is cut by the fourth axial through hole 24), so that when When the engaging mechanism 12 is engaged with the second engaging mechanism 22, there is a larger contact area between the corresponding rod and the slot, thereby improving the supporting ability. When installed, the first joint joint 10 and the second joint joint 20 are arranged in such a manner that the first rod 120 extends in a direction parallel to the extending direction of the second rod 220, and the first rod 120 is substantially seated in the second groove 221 The second rod 220 is generally seated in the first gullet 121. Further, the number of the first rods 120 is greater than the number of the second rods 220, for example, the first rods 120 are one more than the second rods 220. Therefore, when the surgical robot swings with the serpentine joint, the two outermost first rods 120 on the first joint joint 10 can also be restrained to improve the serpentine joint bending of the surgical robot ( Reliability when moving). Here, the greater the number of rods on the first joint joint 10 and the second joint joint 20, the higher the precision of engagement between the first joint joint 10 and the second joint joint 20, thereby The amplitude of the surgical robot when the snake-shaped joint is bent (moved) is more refined. In the embodiment of the present application, the spherical surface and the meshing mechanism are used as the supporting structure when the serpentine joint of the surgical robot is bent (moved), thereby improving the bearing capacity of the serpentine joint for the surgical robot.

进一步的,所述第一关节接头10还包括第一端面15,所述第一端面15与所述第一球面11相对;所述第二关节接头20还包括第二端面25,所述第二端面25与所述第二球面21相对。优选,所述第一端面15与所述第二端面25直径相等。进一步的,所述第一端面15上设置有径向贯通的第一凹槽16;所述第二端面25上设置有径向贯通的第二凹槽26。较佳的,所述第一凹槽16和所述第二凹槽26均为半圆形凹槽。通过所述第一凹槽16和所述第二凹槽26能够便于实现与相邻的其他关节接头对或零部件的紧固连接,以防发生相互转动。优选的,所述第一凹槽16平行或者垂直于所述第一啮齿120,所述第二凹槽26平行或者垂直于所述第二啮齿220。由此,通过所述第一凹槽16和所述第二凹槽26可以方便的了解所述第一关节接头10和第二关节接头20之间摆动方向。Further, the first joint joint 10 further includes a first end surface 15 opposite to the first spherical surface 11; the second joint joint 20 further includes a second end surface 25, the second The end surface 25 is opposed to the second spherical surface 21. Preferably, the first end surface 15 and the second end surface 25 are equal in diameter. Further, the first end surface 15 is provided with a first groove 16 that penetrates in a radial direction; and the second end surface 25 is provided with a second groove 26 that penetrates in a radial direction. Preferably, the first groove 16 and the second groove 26 are both semi-circular grooves. The first groove 16 and the second groove 26 can facilitate the fastening connection with adjacent joint joints or components to prevent mutual rotation. Preferably, the first groove 16 is parallel or perpendicular to the first rod 120, and the second groove 26 is parallel or perpendicular to the second rod 220. Thereby, the direction of the swing between the first joint joint 10 and the second joint joint 20 can be easily understood by the first groove 16 and the second groove 26.

实施例二Embodiment 2

本实施例中,所述手术机器人用蛇形关节,具有一个自由度,包括两个关节接头对和柔性结构。请参考图4,其为本发明实施例的手术机器人用蛇形关节的关节接头对的结构示意图。如图4所示,所述关节接头对的数量为两个,即第一关节接头对1a,第二关节接头对1b,每个关节接头对如实施例一配置。进一步,在本实施例中,第一关节接头对1a的第二啮齿的延伸方向与相邻的第二关节接头对1b的第一啮齿的延伸方向互相平行。本实施例中,第一关节接头对1a,第二关节接头对1b摆动方向相同,由此,所述手术机器人用蛇形关节仅具有一个自由度,但是能够实现更大的摆动角度。其中,近端的第一关节接头对1a的摆动角度与远端的第二关节接头对1b的摆动角度可以相同,也可以不相同;即第一关节接头对1a中的第一曲面和第二曲面直径的比例,与第二关节接头对1b中的第一曲面和第二曲面直径的比例可以相同,也可以不同。进一步的,近端的第一关节接头对1a中的啮合机构与远端的第二对关节接头1b中的啮合机构可以相同,也可以不相同。即近端的第一关节接头对1a中的啮合机构与远端的第二关节接头对1b中的啮合机构的模数、齿数可以相同也可以不同。对应的,近端的第一关节接头对1a中的啮合机构的啮齿数量、啮齿高度、啮齿间距等与远端的第二关节接头对1b中的啮合机构的啮齿数量、啮齿高度、啮齿间距等可以相同,也可以不相同。In this embodiment, the surgical robot uses a serpentine joint having one degree of freedom, including two joint joint pairs and a flexible structure. Please refer to FIG. 4 , which is a structural diagram of a joint joint of a serpentine joint for a surgical robot according to an embodiment of the present invention. As shown in FIG. 4, the number of joint joint pairs is two, that is, a first joint joint pair 1a and a second joint joint pair 1b, and each joint joint pair is configured as in the first embodiment. Further, in the present embodiment, the extending direction of the second rod of the first joint joint pair 1a and the extending direction of the first rod of the adjacent second joint joint pair 1b are parallel to each other. In the present embodiment, the first joint joint pair 1a and the second joint joint pair 1b swing in the same direction, whereby the surgical robot uses only one degree of freedom for the serpentine joint, but can achieve a larger swing angle. Wherein, the swing angle of the first joint joint pair 1a of the proximal end and the swing angle of the second joint joint pair 1b of the distal end may be the same or different; that is, the first curved surface and the second surface of the first joint joint pair 1a The ratio of the diameter of the curved surface may be the same as or different from the ratio of the first curved surface and the second curved surface in the second joint joint pair 1b. Further, the meshing mechanism in the proximal first joint joint pair 1a and the distal second joint joint 1b may be the same or different. That is, the modulus and the number of teeth of the meshing mechanism in the proximal joint joint pair 1a and the distal second joint joint pair 1b may be the same or different. Correspondingly, the number of rods of the engaging mechanism in the proximal first joint joint pair 1a, the rod height, the rod spacing, and the like, the number of rods of the engaging mechanism in the second joint joint pair 1b at the distal end, the rod height, the rod spacing, etc. They can be the same or different.

当近端的第一关节接头对1a的摆动角度与远端的第二关节接头对1b的摆动角度相同时,两个关节接头对实现的摆动角度为第一关节接头对1a实现的摆动角度的两倍,即所述手术机器人用蛇形关节能够摆动更大的角度;同时,由于通过两个关节接头对实现大角度的摆动,从而所述手术机器人用蛇形关节将具有更好的承载能力;进一步的,由于通过两个关节接头对实现大角度的摆动,相对于通过一个关节接头对实现相同角度的摆动,每个关节接头对的摆动角度较小,由此所述柔性结构能够更方便、更精细化的控制摆动角度。When the swing angle of the first joint joint pair 1a of the proximal end is the same as the swing angle of the second joint joint pair 1b of the distal end, the swing angle of the two joint joint pairs is the swing angle of the first joint joint pair 1a. Twice, that is, the surgical robot can swing a larger angle with a serpentine joint; at the same time, because the two joint joints achieve a large angle of swing, the surgical robot will have a better bearing capacity with a serpentine joint. Further, since a large angle of swing is achieved by the two joint joint pairs, the swing angle of each joint joint pair is small relative to the swing of the same angle by one joint joint, whereby the flexible structure can be more convenient More refined control of the swing angle.

进一步的,近端的第一个关节接头对1a中的第二关节接头20a与远端的第二个关节接头对1b中的第一关节接头10b可拆卸连接,例如通过卡扣结构连接,或者固定连接,例如通过焊接固定,又例如通过一体成型。Further, the second joint joint 20a of the first joint joint pair 1a of the proximal end is detachably connected with the first joint joint 10b of the second joint joint pair 1b of the distal end, for example, by a snap structure, or The fastening is fixed, for example by welding, and for example by integral molding.

请继续参考图4,在此,通过近端的第一关节接头对1a中的第二关节接头20a的第二端面上的第二凹槽和远端的第二关节接头对1b中的第一关节接头10b的第一端面上的第一凹槽的轴线之间的夹角(在此两者之间的夹角为零),可以很方便的了解到所述近端的第一关节接头对1a与远端的第二关节接头对1b之间的摆动方向的关系。With continued reference to FIG. 4, here, the first groove on the second end face of the second joint joint 20a in the proximal first joint joint pair 1a and the first in the second joint joint pair 1b on the distal end The angle between the axes of the first grooves on the first end face of the joint joint 10b (the angle between the two is zero), the first joint joint pair of the proximal end can be conveniently understood The relationship between 1a and the direction of the swing between the second joint joint pair 1b at the distal end.

请参考图5,在本实施例中,所述钢丝绳2的数量为8根,分别控制关节接头对1a和关节接头对1b摆动。在一个优选的方案中,全部8根钢丝绳2的远端均与关节接头对1b中的第二关节接头20b固定。在另一个优选方案中,控制关节接头对1a摆动的4根钢丝绳2的远端与关节接头对1a的第二关节接头20a固定,另外4根控制关节接头对1b摆动的钢丝绳2的远端与关节接头对1b的第二关节接头20b固定。本领域技术人员应知道,在本实施例中,所述蛇形关节具有1个自由度,所以所述钢丝绳2只需两根,即可实现对两对关节接头的控制。在此基础上,可以增加钢丝绳2的数量以实现更加精准的控制。增加的钢丝绳2可以与关节接头对1b的第二关节接头20b固定连接,也可以与关节接头对1a的第二关节接头20a固定连接。在此,两个关节接头对之间固定连接,通过控制各根钢丝绳2的拉伸,便可实现两个关节接头对的摆动,即实现手术机器人用蛇形关节的偏转。Referring to FIG. 5, in the present embodiment, the number of the wire ropes 2 is eight, and the joint joint pair 1a and the joint joint pair 1b are respectively controlled to swing. In a preferred embodiment, the distal ends of all eight wire ropes 2 are fixed to the second joint joint 20b in the joint joint pair 1b. In another preferred embodiment, the distal end of the four wire ropes 2 that control the joint of the joint joint 1a is fixed to the second joint joint 20a of the joint joint pair 1a, and the other four distal ends of the wire rope 2 that control the joint joint to the 1b swing The joint joint is fixed to the second joint joint 20b of the 1b. It should be understood by those skilled in the art that in the present embodiment, the serpentine joint has one degree of freedom, so that only two wires are needed for the control of the two pairs of joints. On this basis, the number of wire ropes 2 can be increased to achieve more precise control. The added wire rope 2 may be fixedly coupled to the second joint joint 20b of the joint joint pair 1b, or may be fixedly coupled to the second joint joint 20a of the joint joint pair 1a. Here, the two joint joints are fixedly connected, and by controlling the tension of each wire rope 2, the swing of the two joint joints can be realized, that is, the deflection of the serpentine joint of the surgical robot is realized.

实施例三Embodiment 3

本实施例中,所述手术机器人用蛇形关节,具有两个自由度,包括两个关节接头对和柔性结构。请参考图6,其为本发明实施例的手术机器人用蛇形关节的关节接头对的结构示意图。如图6所示,所述关节接头对的数量为两个,即第一关节接头对1a,第二关节接头对1b,每个关节接头对如实施例一配置。在此,第一关节接头对1a的第二啮齿的延伸方向与相邻的第二关节接头对1b的第一啮齿的延伸方向异面。具体的,第一关节接头对1a的第二啮齿的延伸方向与相邻的第二关节接头对1b的第一啮齿的延伸方向相互异面垂直(即夹角为90°)。两个关节接头对有两个不同的摆动方向,形成两个自由度,因此所述蛇形关节具有两个自由度。此时,本实施例中所述钢丝绳2至少需要四根,才能控 制所述蛇形关节的摆动。本领域技术人员应理解,控制关节接头对摆动方向的钢丝绳的固定位置,可以在该关节接头对的第二关节接头上,也可以在位于该关节接头对的远端的关节接头对的第二关节接头上(如果有)。例如,在本实施例中,控制关节接头对1a的钢丝绳2,其可以固定在关节接头对1a的第二关节接头20a上,也可以固定在关节接头对1a远端的关节接头对1b的第二关节接头20b上。另外两根控制关节接头对1b的钢丝绳2则只能固定在关节接头对1b的第二关节接头20b上。由此,通过柔性结构的控制,近端的第一关节接头对1a与远端的第二关节接头对1b将分别向两个方向偏转,从而实现手术机器人用蛇形关节的空间扭转动作。In this embodiment, the surgical robot uses a serpentine joint having two degrees of freedom, including two joint joint pairs and a flexible structure. Please refer to FIG. 6 , which is a structural diagram of a joint joint of a serpentine joint for a surgical robot according to an embodiment of the present invention. As shown in FIG. 6, the number of joint joint pairs is two, that is, a first joint joint pair 1a and a second joint joint pair 1b, and each joint joint pair is configured as in the first embodiment. Here, the direction in which the second rod of the first joint joint pair 1a extends is out of plane with the direction in which the first rod of the adjacent second joint joint pair 1b extends. Specifically, the extending direction of the second rod of the first joint joint pair 1a and the extending direction of the first rod of the adjacent second joint joint pair 1b are perpendicular to each other (ie, the angle is 90°). The two joint joint pairs have two different directions of oscillation, forming two degrees of freedom, so that the serpentine joint has two degrees of freedom. At this time, at least four wires 2 are required in the present embodiment to control the swing of the serpentine joint. It should be understood by those skilled in the art that the fixed position of the wire rope for controlling the joint joint in the swinging direction may be on the second joint joint of the joint joint pair or the second joint joint pair at the distal end of the joint joint pair. Joint joint (if any). For example, in the present embodiment, the wire rope 2 of the joint joint pair 1a is controlled, which may be fixed to the second joint joint 20a of the joint joint pair 1a, or may be fixed to the joint joint pair 1b at the distal end of the joint joint pair 1a. Two joint joints 20b. The other two wire ropes 2 for controlling the joint joint pair 1b can only be fixed to the second joint joint 20b of the joint joint pair 1b. Thus, by the control of the flexible structure, the first joint joint pair 1a at the proximal end and the second joint joint pair 1b at the distal end are respectively deflected in two directions, thereby realizing a spatial twisting action of the serpentine joint for the surgical robot.

实施例四Embodiment 4

本实施例中,所述手术机器人用蛇形关节,具有两个自由度,包括四个关节接头对和柔性结构。请参考图7,其为本发明实施例的手术机器人用蛇形关节的关节接头对的结构示意图。如图7所示,所述关节接头对的数量为四个,即依次邻接的第一关节接头对1a,第二关节接头对1b,第三关节接头对1c,第四关节接头对1d。在此,第一关节接头对1a的第二啮齿的延伸方向与相邻的第二关节接头对1b的第一啮齿的延伸方向互相平行;第三关节接头对1c的第二啮齿的延伸方向与相邻的第四关节接头对1d的第一啮齿的延伸方向互相平行;第二关节接头对1b的第二啮齿的延伸方向与相邻的第三关节接头对1c的第一啮齿的延伸方向相互异面垂直。即第一关节接头对1a、第二关节接头对1b摆动方向相同;第三关节接头对1c、第四关节接头对1d摆动方向相同,且与第一关节接头对1a摆动方向垂直。由此,手术机器人用蛇形关节具有两个自由度,既能够实现大角度的弯曲,也能够实现空间扭转动作。其中,所述手术机器人用蛇形关节的运动状态可以参考图8至图10。In this embodiment, the surgical robot uses a serpentine joint having two degrees of freedom, including four joint joint pairs and a flexible structure. Please refer to FIG. 7 , which is a structural diagram of a joint joint of a serpentine joint for a surgical robot according to an embodiment of the present invention. As shown in FIG. 7, the number of joint joint pairs is four, that is, a first joint joint pair 1a, a second joint joint pair 1b, a third joint joint pair 1c, and a fourth joint joint pair 1d which are sequentially adjacent. Here, the extending direction of the second rod of the first joint joint pair 1a and the extending direction of the first rod of the adjacent second joint joint pair 1b are parallel to each other; the extending direction of the second rod of the third joint joint pair 1c is The extending directions of the first rods of the adjacent fourth joint joint pair 1d are parallel to each other; the extending direction of the second rod of the second joint joint pair 1b and the extending direction of the first rod of the adjacent third joint joint pair 1c are mutually The opposite side is vertical. That is, the first joint joint pair 1a and the second joint joint pair 1b swing in the same direction; the third joint joint pair 1c and the fourth joint joint pair 1d swing in the same direction and are perpendicular to the first joint joint pair 1a swing direction. Thereby, the serpentine joint of the surgical robot has two degrees of freedom, and it is possible to realize a large angle of bending and a spatial torsional motion. The motion state of the serpentine joint of the surgical robot can be referred to FIG. 8 to FIG.

在本实施例的蛇形关节中,共有8根钢丝绳2。具体而言,全部8根钢丝绳2固定在关节接头对1d的第二关节接头20d上,或者每2根钢丝绳2固定在一关节接头对上。本领域技术人员应知道,在本实施例中,所述蛇形关节具有2个自由度,所以所述钢丝绳2只需四根,即可实现对两对关节接头的控制。在 此基础上,可以增加钢丝绳2的数量,即一个摆动方向可由多根钢丝绳2控制,以实现更加精准的控制。增加的钢丝绳2可以与关节接头对1d的第二关节接头20d固定连接,也可以与其他关节接头对固定连接。In the serpentine joint of the present embodiment, there are eight wire ropes 2 in total. Specifically, all eight wire ropes 2 are fixed to the second joint joint 20d of the joint joint pair 1d, or each of the two wire ropes 2 is fixed to a joint joint pair. Those skilled in the art should know that in the present embodiment, the serpentine joint has two degrees of freedom, so that the wire rope 2 only needs four wires, so that the control of the two pairs of joint joints can be realized. On the basis of this, the number of the wire ropes 2 can be increased, that is, one swinging direction can be controlled by a plurality of wire ropes 2 to achieve more precise control. The added wire rope 2 can be fixedly connected to the second joint joint 20d of the joint joint pair 1d, or can be fixedly connected to other joint joint pairs.

实施例五Embodiment 5

本实施例中,所述手术机器人用蛇形关节,具有两个自由度,包括四个关节接头对和柔性结构。请参考图11,其为本发明实施例的手术机器人用蛇形关节的关节接头对的结构示意图。如图11所示,所述关节接头对的数量为四个,即依次邻接的第一关节接头对1a,第二关节接头对1b,第三关节接头对1c,第四关节接头对1d。在此,第一关节接头对1a的第二啮齿的延伸方向与相邻的第二关节接头对1b的第一啮齿的延伸方向互相平行;第三关节接头对1c的第二啮齿的延伸方向与相邻的第四关节接头对1d的第一啮齿的延伸方向互相平行;第二关节接头对1b的第二啮齿的延伸方向与第三关节接头对1c的第一啮齿的延伸方向的夹角为45°。即第一关节接头对1a、第三关节接头对1c摆动方向相同;第二关节接头对1b、第四关节接头对1d摆动方向相同,且与第一关节接头对1a摆动方向不同。同实施例四,本实施例中,蛇形关节具有两个自由度,因此,至少需要四根钢丝绳2控制蛇形关节。由此,手术机器人用蛇形关节既能够实现大角度的弯曲,也能够实现空间扭转动作。其中,所述手术机器人用蛇形关节的运动状态可以参考图12至图14。In this embodiment, the surgical robot uses a serpentine joint having two degrees of freedom, including four joint joint pairs and a flexible structure. Please refer to FIG. 11 , which is a structural diagram of a joint joint of a serpentine joint for a surgical robot according to an embodiment of the present invention. As shown in FIG. 11, the number of joint joint pairs is four, that is, a first joint joint pair 1a, a second joint joint pair 1b, a third joint joint pair 1c, and a fourth joint joint pair 1d which are sequentially adjacent. Here, the extending direction of the second rod of the first joint joint pair 1a and the extending direction of the first rod of the adjacent second joint joint pair 1b are parallel to each other; the extending direction of the second rod of the third joint joint pair 1c is The extending directions of the first rods of the adjacent fourth joint joint pair 1d are parallel to each other; the angle between the extending direction of the second rod of the second joint joint pair 1b and the extending direction of the first rod of the third joint joint pair 1c is 45°. That is, the first joint joint pair 1a and the third joint joint pair 1c swing in the same direction; the second joint joint pair 1b and the fourth joint joint pair 1d swing in the same direction, and are different from the first joint joint pair 1a in the swing direction. In the fourth embodiment, in the present embodiment, the serpentine joint has two degrees of freedom, and therefore, at least four wire ropes 2 are required to control the serpentine joint. Thereby, the serpentine joint of the surgical robot can realize a large angle of bending and a spatial torsional motion. The motion state of the serpentine joint of the surgical robot can be referred to FIG. 12 to FIG. 14 .

实施例六Embodiment 6

本实施例中,所述手术机器人用蛇形关节,具有两个自由度,包括四个关节接头对和柔性结构。请参考图15,其为本发明实施例的手术机器人用蛇形关节的关节接头对的结构示意图。如图15所示,所述关节接头对的数量为四个,即依次邻接的第一关节接头对1a,第二关节接头对1b,第三关节接头对1c,第四关节接头对1d。在此,第一关节接头对1a的第二啮齿的延伸方向与相邻的第二关节接头对1b的第一啮齿的延伸方向互相异面垂直;第二关节接头对1b的第二啮齿的延伸方向与相邻的第三关节接头对1c的第一啮齿的延伸方向相互异 面垂直;第三关节接头对1c的第二啮齿的延伸方向与相邻的第四关节接头对1d的第一啮齿的延伸方向互相异面垂直。即第一关节接头对1a、第三关节接头对1c摆动方向相同;第二关节接头对1b、第四关节接头对1d摆动方向相同,且与第一关节接头对1a摆动方向垂直。同实施例四,本实施例中,蛇形关节具有两个自由度,因此,至少需要四根钢丝绳2控制蛇形关节。由此,手术机器人用蛇形关节能够实现大角度的弯曲,同时也能够实现空间扭转动作。其中,所述手术机器人用蛇形关节的运动状态可以参考图16至图18。In this embodiment, the surgical robot uses a serpentine joint having two degrees of freedom, including four joint joint pairs and a flexible structure. Please refer to FIG. 15 , which is a structural diagram of a joint joint of a serpentine joint for a surgical robot according to an embodiment of the present invention. As shown in Fig. 15, the number of joint joint pairs is four, that is, a first joint joint pair 1a, a second joint joint pair 1b, a third joint joint pair 1c, and a fourth joint joint pair 1d which are sequentially adjacent. Here, the extending direction of the second rod of the first joint joint pair 1a is perpendicular to the extending direction of the first rod of the adjacent second joint joint pair 1b; the extension of the second rod of the second joint joint pair 1b The direction of the first rod extending direction of the adjacent third joint joint pair 1c is perpendicular to each other; the extending direction of the second rod of the third joint joint pair 1c and the first rod of the adjacent fourth joint joint pair 1d The extending directions are perpendicular to each other. That is, the first joint joint pair 1a and the third joint joint pair 1c swing in the same direction; the second joint joint pair 1b and the fourth joint joint pair 1d swing in the same direction and are perpendicular to the first joint joint pair 1a swing direction. In the fourth embodiment, in the present embodiment, the serpentine joint has two degrees of freedom, and therefore, at least four wire ropes 2 are required to control the serpentine joint. As a result, the surgical robot can realize a large angle of bending with a serpentine joint, and can also realize a spatial torsional motion. The motion state of the serpentine joint of the surgical robot can be referred to FIG. 16 to FIG. 18.

在本申请的其他实施例中,所述蛇形关节中包含的关节接头对的数量还可以更多,例如为两个至十个中任一自然数,例如为五个、六个、八个或者十个等;相邻两个关节接头对中的啮齿的延伸方向可以平行也可以异面(即既不平行也不相交)。当一关节接头对中的第二啮齿与相邻的关节接头对中的第一啮齿的延伸方向异面时,夹角可为大于0°且小于等于90°中的任一值,优选的,夹角为45°或者90°,从而使得所述手术机器人用蛇形关节能够实现丰富的空间扭转动作。In other embodiments of the present application, the number of joint joints included in the serpentine joint may be more, for example, two to ten natural numbers, for example, five, six, eight or Ten equals; the rods in the adjacent two joint joints may extend in parallel or in different directions (ie, neither parallel nor intersect). When the second rod of the pair of joint joints is different from the direction of extension of the first rod of the pair of adjacent joint joints, the angle may be any value greater than 0° and less than or equal to 90°, preferably, The angle is 45° or 90°, so that the surgical robot can realize a rich spatial torsion action with a serpentine joint.

进一步的,所述蛇形关节具有n(n为大于等于1的自然数)个自由度,即所述蛇形关节中的关节接头对的摆动方向为n种时,蛇形关节中所述关节接头对的个数大于等于n个,所述柔性结构的数量至少为2n个。控制关节接头对摆动方向的柔性结构的固定位置,可以在该关节接头对的第二关节接头上,也可以在该关节接头对的远端的关节接头对的第二关节接头上(如果有)。因此,至少2个柔性结构的远端与关节接头对中位于最远端的一个关节接头对中的第二关节接头固定。更优选的,所有所述柔性结构的一端与所述蛇形关节中位于最远端的一个关节接头对中的第二关节接头固定。例如,钢丝绳穿过每个关节接头对上的第一轴向通孔和第二轴向通孔后固定于最远端的一个关节接头对中的第二关节接头的第二端面,从而通过钢丝绳的拉伸实现对于手术机器人用蛇形关节的弯曲(运动)控制。Further, the serpentine joint has n (n is a natural number greater than or equal to 1) degrees of freedom, that is, when the swinging direction of the joint joint pair in the serpentine joint is n kinds, the joint joint in the serpentine joint The number of pairs is greater than or equal to n, and the number of flexible structures is at least 2n. The fixed position of the flexible joint controlling the joint of the joint to the swinging direction may be on the second joint joint of the joint pair or the second joint joint of the joint joint of the distal end of the joint pair (if any) . Thus, the distal end of at least 2 flexible structures is secured to the second joint joint of the most distally located joint joint of the pair of articulating joints. More preferably, one end of all of said flexible structures is secured to a second articulating joint of a pair of articulating joints located at the most distal end of said serpentine joint. For example, the wire rope passes through the first axial through hole and the second axial through hole on each joint joint and is then fixed to the second end face of the second joint joint of the most distal one of the joint joints, thereby passing the wire rope The stretching achieves bending (motion) control of the serpentine joint of the surgical robot.

本发明还提供了一种手术器械,所述手术器械包括器械末端、蛇形关节、管状物、柔性件以及控制器;其中,所述器械末端、所述蛇形关节、所述管状 物和所述控制器依次连接;所述柔性件一端连接所述控制器,另一端经过所述管状物、所述蛇形关节与所述器械末端连接;所述蛇形关节的柔性结构的近端经过所述管状物与控制器连接;所述控制器通过所述柔性件控制所述器械末端运动,通过所述蛇形关节的柔性结构控制所述蛇形关节的摆动。具体而言,所述器械末端主要包括直接在人体内进行手术操作的剪刀、钳子、电钩等手术工具;蛇形关节两端分别连接器械末端和管状物,所述管状物为中空薄壁管,用于支撑器械末端,使器械末端可伸入人体内的同时,而手术器械的近端置于体外;所述控制器用于控制器械末端运动和蛇形关节运动;所述柔性件一端连接控制器,一端经过管状物分别与蛇形关节和器械末端连接;所述蛇形关节的柔性结构的近端经过所述管状物与控制器连接。手术器械通过对所述蛇形关节姿态的控制,使器械末端到达期望的位置和姿态,通过对器械末端的控制,使器械末端实现夹持,切割等动作。The invention also provides a surgical instrument comprising an instrument tip, a serpentine joint, a tubular, a flexible member, and a controller; wherein the instrument tip, the serpentine joint, the tubular body, and the The controller is connected in sequence; the flexible member is connected to the controller at one end, the other end is connected to the end of the instrument through the tubular body, the serpentine joint; the proximal end of the flexible structure of the serpentine joint passes through The tubular is coupled to the controller; the controller controls movement of the instrument tip by the flexible member, and the swing of the serpentine joint is controlled by the flexible structure of the serpentine joint. Specifically, the end of the instrument mainly includes a surgical tool such as a scissors, a pliers, an electric hook, etc., which are directly operated in a human body; the two ends of the serpentine joint are respectively connected to the end of the instrument and the tubular, and the tubular is a hollow thin-walled tube. For supporting the end of the instrument so that the end of the instrument can extend into the human body while the proximal end of the surgical instrument is placed outside the body; the controller is used to control the movement of the end of the instrument and the movement of the serpentine joint; The distal end of the flexible structure of the serpentine joint is connected to the controller via the tubular body. The surgical instrument controls the posture of the serpentine joint to bring the end of the instrument to a desired position and posture, and controls the end of the instrument to perform clamping, cutting, and the like at the end of the instrument.

本发明还提供了一种内窥镜,所述内窥镜包括成像系统、蛇形关节、管状物以及控制器;其中,所述成像系统、所述蛇形关节、所述管状物和所述控制器依次连接;所述蛇形关节的柔性结构的近端经过所述管状物与所述控制器连接;所述控制器通过所述蛇形关节的柔性结构控制所述蛇形关节运动(摆动)。所述成像系统包括内窥镜的物镜组,实现内窥镜视场中画面的采集;所述蛇形关节用于连接成像系统和管状物,调整成像系统的姿态;所述管状物为中空薄壁管,用于支撑内窥镜的末端和首端,使内窥镜的末端可伸入人体内的同时,内窥镜的首端置于体外;所述的控制器用于控制所述蛇形关节的摆动;所述蛇形关节的柔性结构的近端经过管状物与所述控制器连接。所述内窥镜通过所述控制器实现对蛇形关节的位姿的控制,使内窥镜成像系统可以到达期望的位姿。The invention also provides an endoscope comprising an imaging system, a serpentine joint, a tubular, and a controller; wherein the imaging system, the serpentine joint, the tubular, and the a controller is coupled in sequence; a proximal end of the flexible structure of the serpentine joint is coupled to the controller via the tubular; the controller controls movement of the serpentine joint by a flexible structure of the serpentine joint (swing ). The imaging system includes an objective lens group of an endoscope that realizes acquisition of a picture in an endoscope field of view; the serpentine joint is used to connect an imaging system and a tube, and adjust an attitude of the imaging system; the tube is hollow and thin a wall tube for supporting the end and the head end of the endoscope such that the end of the endoscope can extend into the human body while the head end of the endoscope is placed outside the body; the controller is for controlling the serpentine The swing of the joint; the proximal end of the flexible structure of the serpentine joint is connected to the controller via a tubular. The endoscope achieves control of the pose of the serpentine joint through the controller such that the endoscopic imaging system can reach a desired pose.

综上可见,本发明提供的手术机器人用蛇形关节具有至少一个自由度,其包括至少一个关节接头对以及柔性结构,每个所述关节接头对包括第一关节接头和第二关节接头,所述第一关节接头包括第一球面,所述第一球面上设置有第一啮合机构,所述第二关节接头包括第二球面,所述第二球面上设置有第二啮合机构,所述第一关节接头和所述第二关节接头通过所述第一啮合机构和所述第二啮合机构相啮合,所述柔性结构控制所述关节接头对的摆动方向和摆动 角度,以实现所述蛇形关节的摆动。在本发明中,所述关节接头采用球面作为关节接头对摆动时的支撑结构,球面具有更高的支撑能力,从而提高了所述手术机器人用蛇形关节的承载能力;进一步的,通过啮合机构的啮合运动实现关节接头对的摆动,提高啮合机构的啮合精度,可以实现所述手术机器人用蛇形关节的高弯曲精度。In summary, the present invention provides a serpentine joint for a surgical robot having at least one degree of freedom, including at least one joint joint pair and a flexible structure, each of the joint joint pairs including a first joint joint and a second joint joint. The first joint joint includes a first spherical surface, the first spherical surface is provided with a first engaging mechanism, the second joint joint includes a second spherical surface, and the second spherical surface is provided with a second engaging mechanism, the first An articulating joint and the second articulating joint are engaged by the first engaging mechanism and the second engaging mechanism, the flexible structure controlling a swinging direction and a swinging angle of the joint joint pair to achieve the serpentine shape The swing of the joint. In the present invention, the joint joint adopts a spherical surface as a support structure for the joint when the joint is swung, and the spherical surface has a higher supporting ability, thereby improving the bearing capacity of the serpentine joint of the surgical robot; further, through the meshing mechanism The meshing motion realizes the swing of the joint joint pair, improves the meshing precision of the meshing mechanism, and can achieve high bending precision of the serpentine joint of the surgical robot.

上述描述仅是对本发明较佳实施例的描述,并非对本发明范围的任何限定,本发明领域的普通技术人员根据上述揭示内容做的任何变更、修饰,均属于权利要求书的保护范围。The above description is only for the description of the preferred embodiments of the present invention, and is not intended to limit the scope of the present invention. Any changes and modifications made by those skilled in the art in light of the above disclosure are all within the scope of the appended claims.

Claims (19)

  1. 一种手术机器人用蛇形关节,其特征在于,所述手术机器人用蛇形关节具有至少一个自由度,且包括:至少一个关节接头对和柔性结构;其中,A serpentine joint for a surgical robot, characterized in that the surgical robot has at least one degree of freedom with a serpentine joint, and includes: at least one joint joint pair and a flexible structure;
    每个关节接头对包括位于下端的第一关节接头和位于上端的第二关节接头,所述第一关节接头包括第一球面,所述第一球面上设置有第一啮合机构,所述第二关节接头包括第二球面,所述第二球面上设置有第二啮合机构,Each joint joint pair includes a first joint joint at a lower end and a second joint joint at an upper end, the first joint joint includes a first spherical surface, and the first spherical surface is provided with a first engagement mechanism, the second The joint joint includes a second spherical surface, and the second spherical surface is provided with a second meshing mechanism,
    所述第一关节接头和所述第二关节接头通过所述第一啮合机构和所述第二啮合机构相啮合,所述柔性结构控制所述关节接头对的摆动。The first articulation joint and the second articulation joint are engaged by the first engagement mechanism and the second engagement mechanism, the flexible structure controlling a swing of the articulating pair.
  2. 如权利要求1所述的手术机器人用蛇形关节,其特征在于,所述第一关节接头设有周向布置的多个第一轴向通孔,所述柔性结构延伸通过所述第一轴向通孔;所述第二关节接头设有周向布置的多个第二轴向通孔,所述柔性结构延伸通过所述第二轴向通孔,至少2个所述第一轴向通孔的位置与至少2个所述第二轴向通孔的位置相对应。A serpentine joint for a surgical robot according to claim 1, wherein said first joint joint is provided with a plurality of first axial through holes arranged circumferentially, said flexible structure extending through said first shaft a second through joint, wherein the second joint joint is provided with a plurality of second axial through holes arranged circumferentially, the flexible structure extending through the second axial through hole, at least two of the first axial through holes The position of the hole corresponds to the position of at least two of said second axial through holes.
  3. 如权利要求2所述的手术机器人用蛇形关节,其特征在于,所述第一轴向通孔的数量与所述第二轴向通孔的数量相同,并且所述第一轴向通孔的位置与所述第二轴向孔的位置一一对应。The serpentine joint for a surgical robot according to claim 2, wherein the number of the first axial through holes is the same as the number of the second axial through holes, and the first axial through hole The position is in one-to-one correspondence with the position of the second axial hole.
  4. 如权利要求1所述的手术机器人用蛇形关节,其特征在于,所述第一关节接头的中心设置有第三轴向通孔;所述第二关节接头的中心设置有第四轴向通孔;所述第三轴向通孔与所述第四轴向通孔对应。A serpentine joint for a surgical robot according to claim 1, wherein a center of said first joint joint is provided with a third axial through hole; and a center of said second joint joint is provided with a fourth axial passage a hole; the third axial through hole corresponds to the fourth axial through hole.
  5. 如权利要求1所述的手术机器人用蛇形关节,其特征在于,所述第一球面的直径和所述第二球面的直径相等。A serpentine joint for a surgical robot according to claim 1, wherein a diameter of said first spherical surface and a diameter of said second spherical surface are equal.
  6. 如权利要求1所述的手术机器人用蛇形关节,其特征在于,所述第一啮合机构包括多个相互平行且间隔排列的第一啮齿,相邻两个第一啮齿之间设置有第一齿槽;所述第二啮合机构包括多个相互平行且间隔排列的第二啮齿,相邻两个第二啮齿之间设置有第二齿槽;其中,所述第一啮齿与所述第二齿槽对应,所述第二啮齿与所述第一齿槽对应。A serpentine joint for a surgical robot according to claim 1, wherein said first engaging means comprises a plurality of first rods arranged in parallel and spaced apart from each other, and a first one is disposed between adjacent ones of said first rods a second engaging mechanism comprising a plurality of second rods arranged in parallel and spaced apart from each other, wherein a second tooth groove is disposed between two adjacent second rods; wherein the first rod and the second rod Corresponding to the cogging, the second rod corresponds to the first slot.
  7. 如权利要求6所述的手术机器人用蛇形关节,其特征在于,所述第一啮齿的数量比所述第二啮齿的数量多。A serpentine joint for a surgical robot according to claim 6, wherein the number of the first rods is larger than the number of the second rods.
  8. 如权利要求1所述的手术机器人用蛇形关节,其特征在于,所述第一关节接头还包括第一端面,所述第一端面与所述第一球面相对;所述第二关节接头还包括第二端面,所述第二端面与所述第二球面相对。A serpentine joint for a surgical robot according to claim 1, wherein said first joint joint further comprises a first end surface, said first end surface being opposite said first spherical surface; said second joint joint further A second end surface is included, the second end surface being opposite to the second spherical surface.
  9. 如权利要求8所述的手术机器人用蛇形关节,其特征在于,所述第一端面与第二端面直径相等。The serpentine joint for a surgical robot according to claim 8, wherein the first end surface and the second end surface have the same diameter.
  10. 如权利要求9所述的手术机器人用蛇形关节,其特征在于,所述第一端面上设置有径向贯通的第一凹槽;所述第二端面上设置有径向贯通的第二凹槽。The serpentine joint for a surgical robot according to claim 9, wherein the first end surface is provided with a first groove that penetrates in a radial direction; and the second end surface is provided with a second concave portion that is radially penetrated. groove.
  11. 如权利要求1所述的手术机器人用蛇形关节,其特征在于,当所述手术机器人用蛇形关节具有n个自由度时,所述柔性结构至少为2n个,其中n为大于等于1的自然数。The serpentine joint for a surgical robot according to claim 1, wherein when the serpentine joint of the surgical robot has n degrees of freedom, the flexible structure is at least 2n, wherein n is greater than or equal to 1. Natural number.
  12. 如权利要求1~11中任一项所述的手术机器人用蛇形关节,其特征在于,所述蛇形关节包括多个所述关节接头对,多个所述关节接头对之间依次邻接。The serpentine joint for a surgical robot according to any one of claims 1 to 11, wherein the serpentine joint includes a plurality of the joint joint pairs, and the plurality of joint joint pairs are sequentially adjacent to each other.
  13. 如权利要求12所述的手术机器人用蛇形关节,其特征在于,相邻的两个关节接头对中,相邻并且分属于两个不同关节接头对的第一关节接头和第二关节接头固定连接或可拆卸连接。A serpentine joint for a surgical robot according to claim 12, wherein the adjacent two joint joints are adjacent to each other and are fixed to the first joint joint and the second joint joint of the two different joint joint pairs. Connected or detachable connection.
  14. 如权利要求12所述的手术机器人用蛇形关节,其特征在于,在相邻并且分属于两个关节接头对的第一关节接头和第二关节接头中,所述第一关节接头的所述第一啮齿的延伸方向和所述第二关节接头的所述第二啮齿的延伸方向平行或异面。A serpentine joint for a surgical robot according to claim 12, wherein said first joint joint and said second joint joint are adjacent and belong to two joint joint pairs, said first joint joint The direction in which the first rod extends is parallel or out-of-plane with the direction in which the second rod of the second joint joint extends.
  15. 如权利要求14所述的手术机器人用蛇形关节,其特征在于,在相邻并且分属于两个不同关节接头对的第一关节接头和第二关节接头中,所述第一关节接头的所述第一啮齿的延伸方向和所述第二关节接头的所述第二啮齿的延伸方向之间的夹角为45°或者90°。A serpentine joint for a surgical robot according to claim 14, wherein in the first joint joint and the second joint joint adjacent to and belonging to two different joint joint pairs, the first joint joint is An angle between the extending direction of the first rod and the extending direction of the second rod of the second joint joint is 45° or 90°.
  16. 如权利要求12所述的手术机器人用蛇形关节,其特征在于,至少两个所述柔性结构的远端与所述手术机器人用蛇形关节中位于最远端的一个关节接头对中的第二关节接头固定。A serpentine joint for a surgical robot according to claim 12, wherein a distal end of at least two of said flexible structures is the same as a distal end of an articulated joint of said surgical robot The two joint joints are fixed.
  17. 如权利要求16所述的手术机器人用蛇形关节,其特征在于,所有所述柔性结构的远端与所述手术机器人用蛇形关节中位于最远端的一个关节接头对 中的第二关节接头固定。A serpentine joint for a surgical robot according to claim 16, wherein a distal end of all of said flexible structures and a second joint of a distalmost one of said serpentine joints of said surgical robot The joint is fixed.
  18. 一种手术器械,其特征在于,所述手术器械包括器械末端、如权利要求1~17中任一项所述的手术机器人用蛇形关节、管状物、柔性件以及控制器;其中,所述器械末端、所述手术机器人用蛇形关节、所述管状物和所述控制器依次连接;所述柔性件一端连接所述控制器,另一端经过所述管状物、所述手术机器人用蛇形关节与所述器械末端连接;所述手术机器人用蛇形关节的柔性结构的近端经过所述管状物与控制器连接;所述控制器通过所述柔性件控制所述器械末端运动,通过所述手术机器人用蛇形关节的柔性结构控制所述蛇形关节摆动。A surgical instrument, comprising: a device end, a serpentine joint for a surgical robot according to any one of claims 1 to 17, a tubular member, a flexible member, and a controller; wherein The end of the instrument, the surgical robot with a serpentine joint, the tubular and the controller are sequentially connected; the flexible member is connected to the controller at one end, and the other end passes through the tubular object, and the surgical robot uses a serpentine shape a joint is coupled to the distal end of the instrument; the surgical robot is coupled to the controller via the tubular proximal end of the flexible structure of the serpentine joint; the controller controls movement of the distal end of the instrument through the flexible member The surgical robot controls the swing of the serpentine joint with a flexible structure of a serpentine joint.
  19. 一种内窥镜,其特征在于,所述内窥镜包括成像系统、如权利要求1~17中任一项所述的手术机器人用蛇形关节、管状物以及控制器;其中,所述成像系统、所述手术机器人用蛇形关节、所述管状物和所述控制器依次连接;所述手术机器人用蛇形关节的柔性结构的近端经过所述管状物与所述控制器连接;所述控制器通过所述手术机器人用蛇形关节的柔性结构控制所述蛇形关节摆动,进而调整所述成像系统的位姿。An endoscope, comprising: an imaging system, a serpentine joint for a surgical robot according to any one of claims 1 to 17, a tube, and a controller; wherein the imaging a system, the surgical robot is sequentially connected with a serpentine joint, the tubular body, and the controller; the proximal end of the surgical robot with a flexible structure of a serpentine joint is connected to the controller via the tubular; The controller controls the swing of the serpentine joint by the flexible structure of the serpentine joint of the surgical robot, thereby adjusting the posture of the imaging system.
PCT/CN2018/076310 2017-03-30 2018-02-11 Serpentine joint for surgical robot, surgical instrument and endoscope WO2018177038A1 (en)

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CN110269693A (en) * 2018-03-14 2019-09-24 深圳市精锋医疗科技有限公司 Drive connection component, motion arm and the operating robot of silk driving
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