WO2018095514A1 - Apparatus and method for layer deposition on a substrate - Google Patents

Apparatus and method for layer deposition on a substrate Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2018095514A1
WO2018095514A1 PCT/EP2016/078440 EP2016078440W WO2018095514A1 WO 2018095514 A1 WO2018095514 A1 WO 2018095514A1 EP 2016078440 W EP2016078440 W EP 2016078440W WO 2018095514 A1 WO2018095514 A1 WO 2018095514A1
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WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
substrate
magnet assembly
apparatus
sputter source
layer deposition
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/EP2016/078440
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
John D. Busch
Frank Schnappenberger
Original Assignee
Applied Materials, Inc.
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Applied Materials, Inc. filed Critical Applied Materials, Inc.
Priority to PCT/EP2016/078440 priority Critical patent/WO2018095514A1/en
Publication of WO2018095514A1 publication Critical patent/WO2018095514A1/en

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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C14/00Coating by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantation of the coating forming material
    • C23C14/22Coating by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantation of the coating forming material characterised by the process of coating
    • C23C14/56Apparatus specially adapted for continuous coating; Arrangements for maintaining the vacuum, e.g. vacuum locks
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C14/00Coating by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantation of the coating forming material
    • C23C14/22Coating by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantation of the coating forming material characterised by the process of coating
    • C23C14/34Sputtering
    • C23C14/35Sputtering by application of a magnetic field, e.g. magnetron sputtering
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C14/00Coating by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantation of the coating forming material
    • C23C14/22Coating by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantation of the coating forming material characterised by the process of coating
    • C23C14/34Sputtering
    • C23C14/35Sputtering by application of a magnetic field, e.g. magnetron sputtering
    • C23C14/352Sputtering by application of a magnetic field, e.g. magnetron sputtering using more than one target
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J37/00Discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge, e.g. for the purpose of examination or processing thereof
    • H01J37/32Gas-filled discharge tubes, e.g. for surface treatment of objects such as coating, plating, etching, sterilising or bringing about chemical reactions
    • H01J37/34Gas-filled discharge tubes, e.g. for surface treatment of objects such as coating, plating, etching, sterilising or bringing about chemical reactions operating with cathodic sputtering
    • H01J37/3402Gas-filled discharge tubes, e.g. for surface treatment of objects such as coating, plating, etching, sterilising or bringing about chemical reactions operating with cathodic sputtering using supplementary magnetic fields
    • H01J37/3405Magnetron sputtering
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J37/00Discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge, e.g. for the purpose of examination or processing thereof
    • H01J37/32Gas-filled discharge tubes, e.g. for surface treatment of objects such as coating, plating, etching, sterilising or bringing about chemical reactions
    • H01J37/34Gas-filled discharge tubes, e.g. for surface treatment of objects such as coating, plating, etching, sterilising or bringing about chemical reactions operating with cathodic sputtering
    • H01J37/3411Constructional aspects of the reactor
    • H01J37/3414Targets
    • H01J37/3417Arrangements
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J37/00Discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge, e.g. for the purpose of examination or processing thereof
    • H01J37/32Gas-filled discharge tubes, e.g. for surface treatment of objects such as coating, plating, etching, sterilising or bringing about chemical reactions
    • H01J37/34Gas-filled discharge tubes, e.g. for surface treatment of objects such as coating, plating, etching, sterilising or bringing about chemical reactions operating with cathodic sputtering
    • H01J37/3411Constructional aspects of the reactor
    • H01J37/345Magnet arrangements in particular for cathodic sputtering apparatus
    • H01J37/3455Movable magnets

Abstract

The present disclosure provides an apparatus (100) for layer deposition on a substrate (10). The apparatus (100) includes a vacuum chamber (101), at least one sputter source (110) in the vacuum chamber (101), wherein the at least one sputter source (110) includes a rotatable cylindrical cathode (112) and a magnet assembly (114) in the rotatable cylindrical cathode (112), and wherein the magnet assembly (114) is rotatable around a first rotational axis (115), a controller (120) configured to adjust an angle of the magnet assembly (114) with respect to a plane perpendicular to the substrate (10) by a rotation of the magnet assembly (114) around the first rotational axis (115), and a drive arrangement (130) configured for an essentially continuous linear movement of at least one of the substrate (10) and the at least one sputter source (110) during a layer deposition process.

Description

APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR LAYER DEPOSITION ON A SUBSTRATE

FIELD

[0001] Embodiments of the present disclosure relate to an apparatus and method for layer deposition on a substrate, and particularly relate to layer deposition on a substrate in an in - line deposition apparatus providing an essentially continuous substrate flow.

BACKGROUND

[0002] Several methods are known for depositing a material on a substrate. For instance, substrates may be coated by a physical vapor deposition (PVD) process, a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process, or a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process, and the like. The process can be performed in an apparatus or processing chamber in which the substrate to be coated is located. A deposition material is provided in the apparatus. A plurality of materials such as metals, also including oxides, nitrides or carbides thereof, may be used for deposition on a substrate. Coated materials may be used in several applications and in several technical fields. For instance, substrates for displays can be coated by a physical vapor deposition (PVD) process such as a sputtering process, e.g., to form thin film transistors (TFTs) on the substrate.

[0003] With development of new display technologies and a tendency towards larger display sizes, there is an ongoing demand for layers or film used in displays that provide an improved performance, e.g., with respect to electrical characteristics and/or optical characteristics. For example, a uniformity of the deposited layers, such as a uniform thickness and a uniform material component distribution, is beneficial. This particularly applies to thin layers, which can, for example, be used to form thin film transistors (TFTs). In view of the above, it is beneficial to deposit layers with improved uniformity. [0004] In view of the above, new apparatuses and methods for layer deposition on a substrate that overcome at least some of the problems in the art are beneficial. The present disclosure particularly aims at providing an apparatus and method that can improve and/or adjust characteristics of the deposited layer.

SUMMARY [0005] In light of the above, an apparatus and a method for layer deposition on a substrate are provided. Further aspects, benefits, and features of the present disclosure are apparent from the claims, the description, and the accompanying drawings.

[0006] According to an aspect of the present disclosure, an apparatus for layer deposition on a substrate is provided. The apparatus includes a vacuum chamber, at least one sputter source in the vacuum chamber, wherein the at least one sputter source includes a rotatable cylindrical cathode and a magnet assembly in the rotatable cylindrical cathode, and wherein the magnet assembly is rotatable around a first rotational axis, a controller configured to adjust an angle of the magnet assembly with respect to a plane perpendicular to the substrate by a rotation of the magnet assembly around the first rotational axis, and a drive arrangement configured for an essentially continuous linear movement of the substrate and/or the at least one sputter source during a layer deposition process.

[0007] According to another aspect of the present disclosure, a method for layer deposition on a substrate is provided. The method includes adjusting an angle of a magnet assembly of a sputter source with respect to a plane perpendicular to the substrate by a rotation of the magnet assembly around a first rotational axis, and moving the substrate and/or the at least one sputter source during a layer deposition process, wherein the movement of the substrate and/or the at least one sputter source is an essentially continuous linear movement.

[0008] Embodiments are also directed at apparatuses for carrying out the disclosed methods and include apparatus parts for performing each described method aspect. These method aspects may be performed by way of hardware components, a computer programmed by appropriate software, by any combination of the two or in any other manner. Furthermore, embodiments according to the disclosure are also directed at methods for operating the described apparatus. The methods for operating the described apparatus include method aspects for carrying out every function of the apparatus.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS [0009] So that the manner in which the above recited features of the present disclosure can be understood in detail, a more particular description of the disclosure, briefly summarized above, may be had by reference to embodiments. The accompanying drawings relate to embodiments of the disclosure and are described in the following:

FIG. 1 shows a schematic view of an apparatus for layer deposition on a substrate according to embodiments described herein;

FIG. 2 shows a schematic view of an apparatus for layer deposition on a substrate according to further embodiments described herein; FIG. 3 shows a schematic view of a sputter source and a substrate according to embodiments described herein;

FIG. 4 shows a schematic view of a sputter source and a substrate according to further embodiments described herein;

FIG. 5 shows a schematic view of sputter sources and a substrate according to yet further embodiments described herein;

FIG. 6A shows a schematic view of an in-line deposition apparatus according to embodiments described herein;

FIG. 6B shows a schematic view of an arrangement of sputter sources according to embodiments described herein; and FIG. 7 shows a flow chart of a method for layer deposition on a substrate according to embodiments described herein. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENTS

[0010] Reference will now be made in detail to the various embodiments of the disclosure, one or more examples of which are illustrated in the figures. Within the following description of the drawings, the same reference numbers refer to same components. Generally, only the differences with respect to individual embodiments are described. Each example is provided by way of explanation of the disclosure and is not meant as a limitation of the disclosure. Further, features illustrated or described as part of one embodiment can be used on or in conjunction with other embodiments to yield yet a further embodiment. It is intended that the description includes such modifications and variations.

[0011] With the development of new display technologies and a tendency towards larger display sizes, there is an ongoing demand for layers or film used in displays that provide an improved performance, e.g., with respect to electrical characteristics and/or optical characteristics. For example, a uniformity of the deposited layers, such as a uniform thickness and a uniform material component distribution, is beneficial.

[0012] The present disclosure integrates a movable magnet assembly within a rotatable cylindrical cathode in a deposition apparatus in which the substrate and/or the sputter source performs an essentially continuous linear movement. An angle of the magnet assembly with respect to the substrate is adjusted such that properties or characteristics of the deposited layer and/or characteristics of the layer deposition process can be adjusted.

[0013] The embodiments described herein can be utilized for evaporation on large area substrates, e.g., for display manufacturing. Specifically, the substrates or carriers, for which the structures and methods according to embodiments described herein are provided, are large area substrates. For instance, a large area substrate or carrier can be GEN 4.5, which corresponds to about 0.67 m2 substrates (0.73x0.92m), GEN 5, which corresponds to about 1.4 m2 substrates (1.1 m x 1.3 m), GEN 7.5, which corresponds to about 4.29 m2 substrates (1.95 m x 2.2 m), GEN 8.5, which corresponds to about 5.7m2 substrates (2.2 m x 2.5 m), or even GEN 10, which corresponds to about 8.7 m2 substrates (2.85 m x 3.05 m). Even larger generations such as GEN 11 and GEN 12 and corresponding substrate areas can similarly be implemented.

[0014] FIG. 1 shows a schematic view of an apparatus 100 for layer deposition on a substrate 10 according to embodiments described herein. [0015] The apparatus 100 includes a vacuum chamber 101, at least one sputter source 110 in the vacuum chamber 101, and a drive arrangement 130 configured for an essentially continuous linear movement of the substrate 10 and/or the at least one sputter source 110 during at least a part of a duration of a layer deposition process. The layer deposition process can be defined as a process during which the layer is deposited on the substrate 10. The at least one sputter source 110 includes a rotatable cylindrical cathode 112 and a magnet assembly 114 in the rotatable cylindrical cathode 112. The magnet assembly 114, which can also be referred to as "magnet yoke", is rotatable around a first rotational axis 115. The apparatus 100 further includes a controller 120 configured to adjust an angle of the magnet assembly 114 with respect to a plane perpendicular to the substrate 10 by a rotation of the magnet assembly 114 around the first rotational axis 115. In the example of FIG. 1, the angle is about 0°. The first rotational axis 115 can be essentially parallel to the substrate 10.

[0016] The apparatus 100 can include a drive or motor for rotating the magnet assembly 114 around the first rotational axis 115. The drive or motor can be included in the rotatable cylindrical cathode 112 or an end block associated in the rotatable cylindrical cathode 112. According to some implementations, the end block may be considered a portion of the rotatable cylindrical cathode 112.

[0017] The rotatable cylindrical cathode 112 can be rotatable around a second rotational axis. The second rotational axis can coincide with, or be identical to, the first rotational axis 115 around which the magnet assembly 114 is rotated. The rotatable cylindrical cathode 112 can be rotated around the second rotational axis during the layer deposition process. The rotatable cylindrical cathode 112 and the magnet assembly 114 are rotatable around the respective rotational axis independently from each other. According to some embodiments, which can be combined with other embodiments described herein, the first rotational axis 115 of the magnet assembly 114 can be an essentially vertical rotational axis and/or the second rotational axis of the rotatable cylindrical cathode 112 can be an essentially vertical rotational axis.

[0018] The rotatable cylindrical cathode 112 can include a target. The rotatable cylindrical cathode 112 can also be referred to as "rotatable target". A material of the target can include a material selected from the group consisting of: aluminum, silicon, tantalum, molybdenum, niobium, titanium, copper silver, zinc, MoW, ΓΓΟ, IZO, and IGZO. In some implementations, the material is present in a solid phase in the target. By bombarding the rotatable cylindrical cathode 112 or rotatable target with energetic particles, atoms of the target material, i.e., the deposition material, are ejected from the rotatable cylindrical cathode 112 or rotatable target and are supplied into a plasma zone 2. In a reactive sputtering process, one or more process gases can be supplied to the plasma zone 2, e.g., at least one of oxygen and nitrogen. Reactive sputtering processes are deposition processes during which a material is sputtered under a process atmosphere. As an example, the process atmosphere can include the one or more process gases such as at least one of oxygen and nitrogen in order to deposit a material or layer containing an oxide or nitride of the deposition material.

[0019] According to some embodiments, which can be combined with other embodiments described herein, the plasma zone 2 can be rotated around a rotational axis, such as the first rotational axis 115, by a rotation of the magnet assembly 114. In some embodiments, rotating of the plasma zone 2 around the rotational axes includes a rotating of the magnet assembly 114 around the first rotational axis 115. In particular, a rotating of the magnet assembly 114 provides a rotation of the plasma zone 2 around the first rotational axis 115. The rotational speed of the plasma zone 2 can be adjusted by adjusting a rotational speed of the magnet assembly 114. [0020] The magnet assembly 114 is provided in the rotatable cylindrical cathode 112. The rotatable cylindrical cathode 112 having the magnet assembly 114 can provide for magnetron sputtering for deposition of the layers. As used herein, "magnetron sputtering" refers to sputtering performed using a magnetron, i.e. the magnet assembly 114, that is, a unit capable of generating a magnetic field. Such a magnet assembly can consist of one or more permanent magnets. These permanent magnets can be arranged behind the target material of the target, e.g. within the rotatable cylindrical cathode 112 or rotatable target in a manner such that the free electrons are trapped within the generated magnetic field generated below a surface of the rotatable cylindrical cathode 112. The permanent magnets being arranged behind the target material of the target is understood as an arrangement where the target material is provided between the permanent magnets and a processing zone or the substrate 10 when the plasma zone 2 is directed towards the processing zone or substrate 10. In other words, the processing zone or the substrate 10 is not directly exposed to the permanent magnets when the plasma zone 2 is directed towards the processing zone or substrate 10, but the target is interposed therebetween.

[0021] The deposition material is provided in the plasma zone 2. As an example, the magnet assembly 114 of the rotatable cylindrical cathode 112 can be utilized to confine the plasma for improved sputtering conditions. In some implementations, the plasma zone 2 can be understood as the sputtering plasma or a sputtering plasma region provided by the rotatable cylindrical cathode 112. The plasma confinement can also be utilized for adjusting a particle distribution of the material to be deposited on the substrate 10. In some embodiments, the plasma zone 2 corresponds to a zone that includes the atoms of the target material (the deposition material) that are ejected or released from the target.

[0022] In some implementations, the plasma zone 2 extends in a circumferential direction of the rotatable cylindrical cathode 112. As an example, the plasma zone 2 does not extend over a full circumference of the rotatable cylindrical cathode 112 in the circumferential direction. According to some embodiments, the plasma zone 2 extends over less than a third, and specifically less than a fourth of the full circumference of the rotatable cylindrical cathode 112. Based on a rotational position of the plasma zone 2, which is provided or defined by a rotational position of the magnet assembly 114, the plasma zone 2 can either face the processing zone or the plasma zone 2 faces away from (is not directed to) the processing zone.

[0023] According to some embodiments, which can be combined with other embodiments described herein, the rotatable cylindrical cathode 112 can be connected to a DC power supply 118 such that sputtering can be conducted as DC sputtering using one or more anodes 116. According to some embodiments, which can be combined with other embodiments described herein, the rotatable cylindrical cathode can be connected to an AC power supply (not shown) such that the rotatable cylindrical cathode can be biased in an alternating manner, e.g. for MF (middle frequency) sputtering, RF (radio frequency) sputtering or the like.

[0024] According to some embodiments, the drive arrangement 130 is configured for an essentially continuous linear movement of the substrate 10 during at least a part of the duration of the layer deposition process. Particularly, the drive arrangement 130 can be configured for an essentially continuous linear movement of the substrate 10 past the at least one sputter source 110 during the layer deposition process. As an example, the drive arrangement 130 can be configured for moving the substrate 10 in a transport direction 1 past the at least one sputter source 110. The apparatus 100 can be an in-line deposition apparatus or system configured to provide an essentially continuous substrate flow past the at least one sputter source 110. In other words, a plurality of consecutive substrates can essentially continuously move past the at least one sputter source 110 to provide the continuous substrate flow.

[0025] As understood throughout the present disclosure, the term "essentially continuous movement" refers to a non-stationary case, in which the substrate 10 is moved during at least a part of the duration of the layer deposition process. In other words, the substrate 10 travels or proceeds along the transport direction 1 while the layer is deposited on the substrate 10. The word "essentially" shall account for cases in which a substrate speed is not constant. As an example, the speed could vary, and might even be zero for a short time. Yet, there is a net movement of the substrate 10 in the transport direction 1.

[0026] According to some embodiments, which can be combined with other embodiments described herein, the essentially continuous linear movement of the substrate 10 is provided during at least 50% of the duration of the layer deposition process, specifically during at least 75% of the duration, and more specifically during at least 90% of the duration. As an example, the essentially continuous linear movement of the substrate 10 is provided during essentially the entire duration of the layer deposition process. The duration of the layer deposition process can be defined as a time that it takes to deposit a layer on an individual substrate. According to some embodiments, which can be combined with other embodiments described herein, the substrate speed can be at least 0.005 m/min, specifically at least 0.01 m/min, and more specifically at least 1 m/min. As an example, the substrate speed can be in a range between 0.005 m/min and 15 m/min, specifically in a range between 0.01 m/min and 10 m/min, and more specifically in a range between 1 m/min and 3 m/min. In some embodiments, the substrate speed is essentially constant during the layer deposition process.

[0027] According to some embodiments, which can be combined with other embodiments described herein, the apparatus 100 includes one or more linear transport paths or transportation tracks extending through the vacuum chamber 101. As used throughout the present disclosure, the term "track" can be defined as a space or device that accommodates or supports the substrate 10 or carrier 20 having the substrate 10 positioned thereon. As an example, the track can accommodate or support the carrier 20 mechanically (using, for example, rollers) or contactlessly (using, for example, magnetic fields and respective magnetic forces).

[0028] The drive arrangement 130 can be configured for transportation of the substrate 10 or carrier 20 along the one or more linear transport paths or transportation tracks in the transport direction 1. As an example, the drive arrangement 130 can be configured to convey the carrier 20 in the transport direction 1. In some implementations, the drive arrangement 130 can be a magnetic drive system configured to contactlessly move the carrier 20 along the one or more linear transport paths or transportation tracks.

[0029] The carrier 20 is configured to support the substrate 10, for example, during the layer deposition process. The carrier 20 can include a plate or a frame configured for supporting the substrate 10, for example, using a support surface provided by the plate or frame. Optionally, the carrier 20 can include one or more holding devices (not shown) configured for holding the substrate at the plate or frame. The one or more holding devices can include at least one of mechanical, electrostatic, electrodynamic (van der Waals), electromagnetic devices. As an example, the one or more holding devices can be mechanical and/or magnetic clamps.

[0030] In some implementations, the carrier 20 includes, or is, an electrostatic chuck (E- chuck). The E-chuck can have a supporting surface for supporting the substrate 10 thereon. In one embodiment, the E-chuck includes a dielectric body having electrodes embedded therein. The dielectric body can be fabricated from a dielectric material, preferably a high thermal conductivity dielectric material such as pyrolytic boron nitride, aluminum nitride, silicon nitride, alumina or an equivalent material. The electrodes may be coupled to a power source, which provides power to the electrodes to control a chucking force. The chucking force is an electrostatic force acting on the substrate 10 to fix the substrate 10 on the supporting surface. [0031] According to some embodiments, which can be combined with other embodiments described herein, the substrate 10 is in a substantially vertical orientation, for example, during the layer deposition process and/or during the transportation of the substrate 10 through the vacuum chamber 101. As used throughout the present disclosure, "substantially vertical" is understood particularly when referring e.g. to the substrate orientation, to allow for a deviation from the vertical direction or orientation of ±20° or below, e.g. of ±10° or below. This deviation can be provided for example because a substrate support or carrier with some deviation from the vertical orientation might result in a more stable substrate position or a facing down substrate orientation might even better reduce particles on the substrate during deposition. Yet, the substrate orientation, e.g., during a layer deposition process is considered substantially vertical, which is considered different from the horizontal substrate orientation, which may be considered as horizontal ±20° or below.

[0032] Specifically, as used throughout the present disclosure, terms such as "vertical direction" or "vertical orientation" are understood to distinguish over "horizontal direction" or "horizontal orientation". The vertical direction can be substantially parallel to the force of gravity.

[0033] According to some embodiments, which can be combined with other embodiments described herein, the apparatus 100 is an in-line deposition apparatus configured for dynamic sputter deposition, particularly for dynamic vertical sputter deposition, on the substrate(s). The layer deposition process can be a dynamic layer deposition process. A dynamic sputter deposition process can be understood as a sputter deposition process in which the substrate 10 is moved through the processing area along the transport direction 1 while the layer deposition process is conducted. In other words, the substrate 10 is not stationary during the layer deposition process. [0034] The in-line deposition apparatus or dynamic deposition apparatus according to embodiments described herein provides for a uniform processing of the substrate 10, for example, a large area substrate such as a rectangular glass plate. The processing tools, such as the at least one sputter source 110, extend mainly in one direction (e.g., the vertical direction) and the substrate 10 is moved in a second, different direction (e.g., the transport direction 1, which can be a horizontal direction).

[0035] The in-line deposition apparatus or dynamic deposition apparatus have the advantage that processing uniformity, for example, layer uniformity, in one direction is limited by the ability to move the substrate 10 at a constant speed and to keep the at least one sputter sources stable. The layer deposition process can be determined by the movement of the substrate 10 past the at least one sputter source 110. For an in-line deposition apparatus, the deposition area or processing area can be an essentially linear area for processing, for example, a large area rectangular substrate. The processing area can be an area into which the deposition material is ejected from the at least one sputter source for being deposited on the substrate 10. In contrast thereto, for a stationary deposition apparatus, the deposition area or processing area would basically correspond to the area of the substrate 10.

[0036] In some implementations, a further difference of an in-line deposition apparatus for dynamic deposition, as compared to a stationary deposition apparatus can be formulated by the fact that the apparatus can have one single vacuum chamber with different areas, wherein the vacuum chamber does not include devices for vacuum tight sealing of one area of the vacuum chamber with respect to another area of the vacuum chamber. Contrary thereto, a stationary deposition apparatus may have a first vacuum chamber and a second vacuum chamber which can be vacuum tight sealed with respect to each other using, for example, valves.

[0037] FIG. 2 shows a schematic view of an apparatus 200 for layer deposition on a substrate 10 according to further embodiments described herein. The apparatus 200 is similar to the apparatus described with respect to FIG. 1, and an explanation of similar or identical aspects is not repeated. [0038] The apparatus 200 includes the vacuum chamber 101, at least one sputter source 210 in the vacuum chamber 101, and a drive arrangement 230 configured for an essentially continuous linear movement of the at least one sputter source 210 during at least a part of the duration of the layer deposition process. The drive arrangement 230 can be configured for an essentially continuous linear movement of the at least one sputter source 210 past the substrate 10 during at least a part of the duration of the layer deposition process. In particular, the drive arrangement 230 can be configured for moving the at least one sputter source 210, and particularly the rotatable cylindrical cathode 112 having the magnet assembly 114 positioned therein, and optionally the anode 116, in the transport direction 1 past the substrate 10. As an example, the drive arrangement 230 can be configured to synchronously move the rotatable cylindrical cathode 112, the magnet assembly 114, and optionally the anode 116 in the transport direction 1.

[0039] According to some embodiments, which can be combined with other embodiments described herein, the essentially continuous linear movement of the at least one sputter source 210 is provided during at least 50% of the duration of the layer deposition process, specifically during at least 75% of the duration, and more specifically during at least 90% of the duration. As an example, the essentially continuous linear movement of the at least one sputter source 210 is provided during essentially the entire duration of the layer deposition process. According to some embodiments, which can be combined with other embodiments described herein, a speed of the at least one sputter source 210 can be at least 0.005 m/min, specifically at least 0.01 m/min, and more specifically at least 1 m/min. As an example, the speed of the at least one sputter source 210 can be in a range between 0.005 m/min and 15 m/min, specifically in a range between 0.01 m/min and 10 m/min, specifically in a range between 1 m/min and 3 m/min, and more specifically in a range between 0.01 m/min and 1 m/min. In some embodiments, the speed of the at least one sputter source 210 is essentially constant during the layer deposition process.

[0040] Although the example of FIG. 1 illustrates a movement of the substrate 10 while the at least one sputter source 110 is stationary, and the example of FIG. 2 illustrates a movement of the at least one sputter source 110 while the substrate 10 is stationary, the present disclosure is not limited thereto. In particular, both the at least one sputter source 110 and the substrate 10 can be moved with respect to each other in respective linear movements in order to provide the essentially continuous linear movement, which can be a relative movement.

[0041] FIG. 3 shows a schematic view of a sputter source and a substrate 10 according to embodiments described herein. FIG. 4 shows a schematic view of a sputter source and a substrate 10 according to further embodiments described herein.

[0042] The apparatus includes the controller configured to adjust the angle of the magnet assembly 114 with respect to the plane 301 perpendicular to the substrate 10 by a rotation of the magnet assembly 114 around the first rotational axis 115. The plane 301 is parallel to the first rotational axis 115 and is perpendicular with respect to the substrate 10, and is particularly perpendicular with respect to a substrate surface on which the layer is deposited during the layer deposition process. The first rotational axis 115 can lie in the plane 301.

[0043] According to some embodiments, which can be combined with other embodiments described herein, the controller is configured to rotate the magnet assembly 114 in a first direction 3 and/or a second direction 4 opposite the first direction 3 around the first rotational axis 115. The first direction 3 can be a clockwise direction and the second direction 4 can be a counterclockwise direction, or vice versa.

[0044] In the example of FIG. 3, the angle of the magnet assembly 114 with respect to the plane 301 is 0°. In other words, the magnet assembly 114 and/or the plasma zone 2 are substantially symmetrical with respect to the plane 301. In the example of FIG. 4, the angle of the magnet assembly 114 with respect to the plane 301 is larger than 0°. The angle can be defined between the plane 301 and a symmetry plane 302 of the magnet assembly 114 and/or the plasma zone 2. The angle can be in a range between 0° and 80°, specifically in a range between 10° and 45°, and more specifically in a range between 10° and 20°.

[0045] According to some embodiments, which can be combined with other embodiments described herein, the controller is configured to adjust the angle of the magnet assembly 114 with respect to the plane 301 perpendicular to the substrate 10 based on one or more layer characteristics of the layer to be deposited on the substrate 10 and/or one or more sputter characteristics of the layer deposition process and/or process control parameters of the layer deposition process.

[0046] The one or more layer characteristics can be selected from the group consisting of a layer thickness, a layer homogeneity, a layer structure, and any combination thereof. The one or more sputter characteristics can be selected from the group consisting of ion bombardment properties, target erosion, a substrate temperature, and any combination thereof. The one or more process control parameters can be selected from the group consisting of a sputter power, a process pressure, a partial pressure of reactive gases, and any combination thereof. As an example, the one or process control parameters could be varied as a function of the magnet angle to optimize layer properties.

[0047] According to some embodiments, which can be combined with other embodiments described herein, the magnet assembly 114 can be stationary or moving (i.e., rotating) during the layer deposition process. As an example, in the stationary case, the controller can be configured to keep the magnet assembly 114 stationary during at least a part of the duration of the layer deposition process. The magnet assembly 114 can be set to an essentially fixed angle during deposition, wherein the angle can be selected to optimize e.g. a specific layer property and/or sputter characteristic. For example, an angle of 0° (normal to substrate 10) as illustrated in FIG. 3 may maximize the ion bombardment and/or another sputter characteristic to deposit layers with specific desired properties. A wider angle, either in negative or positive direction (i.e. pointing against the transport direction 1 as illustrated in FIG. 4 or pointing with the transport direction 1) may reduce ion bombardment and/or other sputter characteristics to produce films with different desired properties. The angle can be adjusted before the layer deposition process starts. The magnet assembly 114 can be kept at the essentially fixed angle, which can be greater than 0 with respect to the plane perpendicular to the substrate, to sputter onto the substrate 10 at an essentially constant angle across said substrate 10.

[0048] In another example, the controller can be configured to move the magnet assembly 114 in the first direction 3 and/or the second direction 4 during at least a part of the duration of the layer deposition process. In some implementations, the magnet assembly 114 can be wobbled or rotated back and forth in an oscillating rotational motion through a selected range of angles to obtain layer properties of yet a different type. The oscillating rotational motion is further explained with respect to FIG. 5. This may provide homogenizing effects or other properties that cannot be achieved with a fixed magnet assembly. In the case of a moving magnet assembly during deposition, the process control parameters can be adjusted or varied together with the angle of the magnet assembly 114. For example, sputter power, process pressure, partial pressure of reactive gases, or other parameters could be varied as a function of the angle of the magnet assembly 114 to further optimize desired film properties.

[0049] According to some embodiments, which can be combined with other embodiments described herein, the angle of the magnet assembly 114 can be adjusted, such as gradually adjusted, over time e.g. to compensate for target erosion.

[0050] In some implementations, the apparatus includes one or more anodes 116. The apparatus can be configured to change a position of the one or more anodes 116 with respect to the plane 301 perpendicular to the substrate 10. As an example, the one or more anodes 116 can be rotatable around a third rotational axis, which can coincide with, or be identical to, the first rotational axis 115. According to some embodiments, the controller can be configured to rotate the one or more anodes 116 and the magnet assembly 114 synchronously or asynchronously around the respective rotational axes during the deposition process. As an example, a relative orientation or position of the one or more anodes 116 with respect to the magnet assembly 114 can remain substantially unchanged even if the magnet assembly 114 is rotated. In other words, when the magnet assembly 114 is rotated by a certain angle around the first rotational axis 115, the one or more anodes 116 are also rotated by the same or a similar angle around the third rotational axis. An electron bombardment and a temperature of the substrate 10 can be reduced using the one or more anodes 116. [0051] According to further embodiments, the one or more anodes 116 can be rotatable around the third rotational axis and can be stationary during the deposition process. As an example, a relative orientation of the one or more anodes 116 with respect to the magnet assembly 114 can change when the magnet assembly 114 is rotated. In some implementations, a rotational position of the one or more anodes 116 with respect to the third rotational axis and/or a position of the one or more anodes 116 with respect to the plane 301 can be stationary during the deposition process. [0052] As illustrated in FIG. 4, in some embodiments, the one or more anodes 116 can include a first anode and a second anode. The first anode and the second anode can be located on opposite sides of the rotatable cylindrical cathode 112. As an example, the first anode and the second anode can be positioned substantially symmetrically with respect to the plane 301, the symmetry plane 302, the magnet assembly 114 and/or the first rotational axis 115.

[0053] In some implementations, an angle can be provided between the plane 301 and a line connecting the first anode and the second anode, such as centers or center points of the first anode and the second anode. The line can pass through the first rotational axis 115. The angle can be adjustable before, during and/or after the deposition process e.g. by a rotation of the first anode and the second anode around the third rotational axis and/or by a displacement of the first anode and the second anode e.g. parallel to the plane 301. The angle can be in a range between 0° and 90°, specifically in a range between 10° and 80°, and more specifically in a range between 10° and 45°. An angle of 0° refers to a case in which the line connecting the first anode and the second anode is parallel to the plane 301, i.e., perpendicular to the substrate 10 or substrate surface. An angle of 90° refers to a case in which the line connecting the first anode and the second anode is perpendicular to the plane 301, i.e., parallel to the substrate 10 or substrate surface.

[0054] FIG. 5 shows a schematic view of sputter sources and a substrate 10 according to yet further embodiments described herein.

[0055] According to some embodiments, which can be combined with other embodiments described herein, the at least one sputter source includes a first sputter source 510 and a second sputter source 520. The controller can be configured to adjust the angle of the magnet assembly 114 of the first sputter source 510 to be different from the angle of the magnet assembly 114 of the second sputter source 520. As an example, in the case of two or more rotatable cylindrical cathodes 112 adjacent to each other, the angles of the magnet assemblies can be set to the same or to different angles e.g. to further optimize layer properties.

[0056] An adjusting of the rotational positions of the assemblies in adjacent rotatable cylindrical cathodes could be used for at least one of: (i) to offset the effect of one rotatable cylindrical cathodes upon another; (ii) to reinforce the positive effects of both rotatable cylindrical cathodes (e.g. concentrating deposition from both onto one area of the deposition zone); (iii) to create a layered structure of the same material with different crystal orientations or other layer property; (iv) to minimize cross contamination of two different target materials adjacent to each other.

[0057] The magnet assembly 114 of the first sputter source 510 and the magnet assembly 114 of the second sputter source 520 can be fixed/stationary, or can be moving/rotating during the layer deposition process. As an example, the magnet assembly 114 of the first sputter source 510 can be moved in a first oscillating rotational motion around the first rotational axis 115 between a first rotational position 502 and a second rotational position 503. The magnet assembly 114 of the second sputter source 520 can be moved in a second oscillating rotational motion around the first rotational axis 115 between a third rotational position 504 and a fourth rotational position 505. The magnet assembly 114 of the first sputter source 510 and the magnet assembly 114 of the second sputter source 520 can be rotated simultaneously. As an example, the magnet assembly 114 of the first sputter source 510 and the magnet assembly 114 of the second sputter source 520 are simultaneously rotated in opposite or the same rotational directions, such as the first direction and/or the second direction.

[0058] According to some embodiments, which can be combined with other embodiments described herein, a first angle between the first rotational position 502 and the second rotational position 503 with respect to the first rotational axis 115 of the first sputter source 510 is in the range between 1° to 180°. A second angle between the third rotational position 504 and the fourth rotational position 505 with respect to the first rotational axis 115 of the second sputter source 520 can be in the range between 1° to 180°. As an example, at least one of the first angle and the second angle is about 10 degrees or less ("narrow angle") or about 45 degrees ("wide angle"). In some implementations, the first angle and the second angle can be substantially the same or can be different.

[0059] The term "oscillating rotational motion" can be understood as a repetitive variation, e.g., in time, of a rotational position of the magnet assemblies between the two rotational positions, such as between the first rotational position 502 and the second rotational position 503 and between the third rotational position 504 and the fourth rotational position 505. The term "oscillating rotational motion" can also be understood as a repetitive variation, e.g., in time, of a rotational position of the magnet assemblies about a center, such as a line or plane that is perpendicular to a surface of the substrate 10 and that crosses a respective first rotational axis (e.g., the plane 301). The term "oscillating rotational motion" as used throughout the present disclosure can also be referred to as "wobbling".

[0060] In some embodiments, the first oscillating rotational motion and the second oscillating rotational motion have a frequency of at least 1/60 Hz, specifically at least 1/10 Hz, and more specifically at least 1 Hz. In some implementations, the first oscillating rotational motion and the second oscillating rotational motion have a frequency of less than 5 Hz. As an example, the first oscillating rotational motion has a first frequency and the second oscillating rotational motion has a second frequency. The first frequency and the second frequency can be substantially the same or can be different.

[0061] During the oscillating rotational motions, the plasma zones 2 move or sweep in an oscillating motion over the processing zone in which the substrate 10 is located. As an example, a deposition material is deposited on the substrate 10 during the first oscillating rotational motion and the oscillating second rotational motion.

[0062] FIG. 6A shows a schematic view of an in-line deposition apparatus 600 according to embodiments described herein. [0063] The in-line deposition apparatus 600 includes a vacuum chamber 601 having a processing zone for processing of a substrate 10. The substrate 10 is moved into the processing zone having an array of one or more rotatable cylindrical cathodes 612. Each of the one or more rotatable cylindrical cathodes 612 provides a respective plasma zone in which a deposition material is supplied during operation of the one or more rotatable cylindrical cathodes 612. The controller is configured for rotating the magnet assemblies of the one or more rotatable cylindrical cathodes 612 around the respective first rotational axes e.g. before and/or during the layer deposition process. The vacuum chamber 601 can also be referred to as "processing chamber". [0064] Exemplarily, one vacuum chamber 601 for deposition of layers therein is shown. Further vacuum chambers 603 can be provided adjacent to the vacuum chamber 601. The atmosphere in the vacuum chamber 601, such as a process atmosphere for a reactive sputtering process, can be controlled by generating a technical vacuum, for example, with vacuum pumps connected to the vacuum chamber 601, and/or by inserting one or more process gases in the processing zone in the vacuum chamber 601. The one or more process gases can include gases for creating a process atmosphere for a reactive sputtering process. Within the vacuum chamber 601, the drive arrangement can be provided in order to transport the carrier 20, having the substrate 10 thereon, into and out of the vacuum chamber 601.

[0065] The one or more rotatable cylindrical cathodes 612 and the anodes 616 can be electrically connected to a DC power supply 628. Sputtering for forming the layer on the substrate 10 can be conducted as DC sputtering. The one or more rotatable cylindrical cathodes 612 are connected to the DC power supply 628 together with the anodes 616 for collecting electrons during sputtering. According to yet further embodiments, which can be combined with other embodiments described herein, at least one of the one or more rotatable cathodes can have a corresponding, individual DC power supply.

[0066] FIG. 6A shows a plurality of rotatable cylindrical cathodes. Particularly for applications for large area deposition, an array of rotatable cylindrical cathodes can be provided within the vacuum chamber 601. In some examples, two or more rotatable cylindrical cathodes are provided. As an example, 4, 5, 6, 12 or even more rotatable cylindrical cathodes can be provided.

[0067] FIG. 6A shows an arrangement of sputter sources according to embodiments described herein. The arrangement could be employed in the in-line deposition apparatus described with respect to FIG. 6A.

[0068] According to some embodiments, which can be combined with other embodiments described herein, the at least one sputter source is two or more sputter sources. The controller can be configured to adjust the angles of the magnet assemblies of at least some sputter sources of the two or more sputter sources to be different. In particular, the arrangement is not symmetric and/or not balanced. As an example, the two or more sputter sources can include one or more first sputter sources with magnet assemblies having essentially the same angle, e.g., a first angle, with respect to the plane perpendicular to the substrate 10. The two or more sputter sources can include one or more second sputter sources with magnet assemblies having essentially the same angle, e.g., a second angle, with respect to the plane perpendicular to the substrate. The first angle and the second angle can be different.

[0069] In the example of FIG. 6B, the angles of the magnet assemblies of the upper 4 sputter sources (the first 4 sputter sources with respect to the transport direction 1 ; "one or more first sputter sources") are essentially the same. The angle of the magnet assembly of the lowest sputter source (the last sputter source with respect to the transport direction 1; "one or more second sputter sources") is different.

[0070] In some implementations, a first material layer can be deposited on the substrate using the one or more first sputter sources having the first angle and a second material layer can be deposited on the substrate using the one or more second sputter sources having the second angle. In particular, the first material layer can be deposited with the plasma zones of the one or more first sputter sources facing in a first direction and the second material layer can be deposited with the plasma zones of the one or more second sputter sources facing in a second direction different from the first direction. The selected angles can influence layer properties. In other words, the layer properties can be adjusting or providing the angles, such as the first angle and the second angle, of the magnet assemblies of the sputter sources.

[0071] FIG. 7 shows a flow chart of a method 700 for layer deposition on a substrate according to embodiments described herein. The method 700 can be implemented using the apparatus for layer deposition according to the embodiments described herein. [0072] The method 700 includes in block 710 an adjusting of an angle of a magnet assembly of a sputter source with respect to a plane perpendicular to the substrate by a rotation of a magnet assembly around a first rotational axis, and in block 720 a moving of the substrate and/or the at least one sputter source during a layer deposition process, wherein the movement of the substrate and/or the at least one sputter source is an essentially continuous linear movement. [0073] According to some embodiments, the substrate is moved past the sputter source during at least a part of a duration of the layer deposition process. In further embodiments, the sputter source is moved past the substrate during at least a part of a duration of the layer deposition process. In yet further embodiments, both the substrate and the sputter source are moved with respect to each other during at least a part of a duration of the layer deposition process.

[0074] According to some embodiments, which can be combined with other embodiments described herein, the angle of the magnet assembly is kept essentially constant during the layer deposition process. In other words, the magnet assembly is stationary or fixed in position. The angle can be adjusted before the deposition process begins. In other embodiments, the angle of the magnet assembly changes during the layer deposition process. In other words, the magnet assembly is rotated around the first rotational axis during the layer deposition process.

[0075] In some implementations, the adjusting of the angle of the magnet assembly includes rotating the magnet assembly around the first rotational axis in a first direction, and/or rotating the magnet assembly around the first rotational axis in a second direction opposite the first direction. As an example, the magnet assembly can perform a wobbling motion or oscillating motion around the first rotational axis during the layer deposition process. In other examples, the angle of the magnet assembly is set before the layer deposition process starts. The angle of the magnet assembly can be kept essentially constant or fixed during the layer deposition process.

[0076] According to some embodiments, which can be combined with other embodiments described herein, the angle of the magnet assembly is adjusted based on one or more layer characteristics of the layer to be deposited on the substrate and/or one or more sputter characteristics of the layer deposition process and/or process control parameters of the layer deposition process.

[0077] The one or more layer characteristics can be selected from the group consisting of a layer thickness, a layer homogeneity, a layer structure, and any combination thereof. The one or more sputter characteristics can be selected from the group consisting of ion bombardment properties, target erosion, a substrate temperature, and any combination thereof. The one or more process control parameters can be selected from the group consisting of a sputter power, a process pressure, a partial pressure of reactive gases, and any combination thereof. As an example, the one or process control parameters could be varied as a function of magnet angle to optimize layer properties. [0078] According to embodiments described herein, the method for layer deposition on a substrate can be conducted using computer programs, software, computer software products and the interrelated controllers, which can have a CPU, a memory, a user interface, and input and output devices being in communication with the corresponding components of the apparatus for processing a large area substrate. [0079] The present disclosure integrates a movable magnet assembly within a rotatable cylindrical cathode in a deposition apparatus in which the substrate and/or the sputter source performs an essentially continuous linear movement. An angle of the magnet assembly with respect to the substrate is adjusted such that properties or characteristics of the deposited layer and/or characteristics of the layer deposition process can be adjusted. [0080] While the foregoing is directed to embodiments of the disclosure, other and further embodiments of the disclosure may be devised without departing from the basic scope thereof, and the scope thereof is determined by the claims that follow.

Claims

1. An apparatus for layer deposition on a substrate, comprising: a vacuum chamber, at least one sputter source in the vacuum chamber, wherein the at least one sputter source includes a rotatable cylindrical cathode and a magnet assembly in the rotatable cylindrical cathode, and wherein the magnet assembly is rotatable around a first rotational axis; a controller configured to adjust an angle of the magnet assembly with respect to a plane perpendicular to the substrate by a rotation of the magnet assembly around the first rotational axis; and a drive arrangement configured for an essentially continuous linear movement of at least one of the substrate and the at least one sputter source during a layer deposition process.
2. The apparatus of claim 1 , wherein the drive arrangement is configured for an essentially continuous linear movement of the substrate past the at least one sputter source during the layer deposition process.
3. The apparatus of claim 1 or 2, wherein the apparatus is an in-line deposition apparatus configured to provide an essentially continuous substrate flow.
4. The apparatus of any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the drive arrangement is configured for an essentially continuous linear movement of the at least one sputter source past the substrate during the layer deposition process.
5. The apparatus of any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the controller is configured to rotate the magnet assembly in a first direction and a second direction opposite the first direction around the first rotational axis.
6. The apparatus of any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein the controller is configured to rotate the magnet assembly around the first rotational axis during at least a part of a duration of the layer deposition process.
7. The apparatus of any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein the controller is configured to keep the magnet assembly stationary during at least a part of a duration of the layer deposition process.
8. The apparatus of any one of claims 1 to 7, wherein the controller is configured to adjust the angle of the magnet assembly with respect to the plane perpendicular to the substrate based on one or more layer characteristics of a layer to be deposited on the substrate.
9. The apparatus of any one of claims 1 to 8, wherein the at least one sputter source includes a first sputter source and a second sputter source, and wherein the controller is configured to adjust the angle of the magnet assembly of the first sputter source to be different from the angle of the magnet assembly of the second sputter source.
10. The apparatus of any one of claims 1 to 9, further including one or more anodes, wherein the apparatus is configured to change a position of the one or more anodes with respect to the plane perpendicular to the substrate.
11. A method for layer deposition on a substrate, comprising: adjusting an angle of a magnet assembly of a sputter source with respect to a plane perpendicular to the substrate by a rotation of the magnet assembly around a first rotational axis; and moving at least one of the substrate and the at least one sputter source during a layer deposition process, wherein the movement is an essentially continuous linear movement.
12. The method of claim 11, wherein the substrate is moved past the sputter source during the layer deposition process.
13. The method of claim 11 or 12, wherein the adjusting of the angle of the magnet assembly includes at least one of: rotating the magnet assembly around the first rotational axis in a first direction; and rotating the magnet assembly around the first rotational axis in a second direction opposite the first direction.
14. The method of any one of claims 11 to 13, wherein the angle of the magnet assembly is kept essentially constant during the layer deposition process.
15. The method of any one of claims 11 to 14, wherein the angle of the magnet assembly is adjusted based on one or more layer characteristics of a layer to be deposited on the substrate, particularly wherein the one or more layer characteristics are selected from the group consisting of a layer thickness, a layer homogeneity, a layer structure, and any combination thereof.
PCT/EP2016/078440 2016-11-22 2016-11-22 Apparatus and method for layer deposition on a substrate WO2018095514A1 (en)

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