WO2018095304A1 - Movable ballast leveling control device for use in floating wind turbine - Google Patents

Movable ballast leveling control device for use in floating wind turbine Download PDF

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WO2018095304A1
WO2018095304A1 PCT/CN2017/111985 CN2017111985W WO2018095304A1 WO 2018095304 A1 WO2018095304 A1 WO 2018095304A1 CN 2017111985 W CN2017111985 W CN 2017111985W WO 2018095304 A1 WO2018095304 A1 WO 2018095304A1
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ballast
leveling control
fan
floating
wind
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PCT/CN2017/111985
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French (fr)
Chinese (zh)
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李朝
肖仪清
周盛涛
韩喜双
刘海涛
王晓璐
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哈尔滨工业大学深圳研究生院
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Priority to CN201611056252.1A priority Critical patent/CN107472474A/en
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Application filed by 哈尔滨工业大学深圳研究生院 filed Critical 哈尔滨工业大学深圳研究生院
Publication of WO2018095304A1 publication Critical patent/WO2018095304A1/en

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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B63SHIPS OR OTHER WATERBORNE VESSELS; RELATED EQUIPMENT
    • B63BSHIPS OR OTHER WATERBORNE VESSELS; EQUIPMENT FOR SHIPPING 
    • B63B39/00Equipment to decrease pitch, roll, or like unwanted vessel movements; Apparatus for indicating vessel attitude
    • B63B39/02Equipment to decrease pitch, roll, or like unwanted vessel movements; Apparatus for indicating vessel attitude to decrease vessel movements by displacement of masses
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B63SHIPS OR OTHER WATERBORNE VESSELS; RELATED EQUIPMENT
    • B63BSHIPS OR OTHER WATERBORNE VESSELS; EQUIPMENT FOR SHIPPING 
    • B63B35/00Vessels or similar floating structures specially adapted for specific purposes and not otherwise provided for
    • B63B35/44Floating buildings, stores, drilling platforms, or workshops, e.g. carrying water-oil separating devices
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B63SHIPS OR OTHER WATERBORNE VESSELS; RELATED EQUIPMENT
    • B63BSHIPS OR OTHER WATERBORNE VESSELS; EQUIPMENT FOR SHIPPING 
    • B63B35/00Vessels or similar floating structures specially adapted for specific purposes and not otherwise provided for
    • B63B35/44Floating buildings, stores, drilling platforms, or workshops, e.g. carrying water-oil separating devices
    • B63B2035/4433Floating structures carrying electric power plants
    • B63B2035/446Floating structures carrying electric power plants for converting wind energy into electric energy

Abstract

A movable ballast leveling control device for use in a floating wind turbine, comprising: a movable ballast (2), a sliding rail (1), a limiting support seat (3), a leveling control server and so on; the movable ballast (2) is provided with power, brake and locking systems, and may receive signals in real time in order to slide, brake and lock on the sliding rail (1). The sliding rail (1) is configured according to the basic layout and available space of a floating wind turbine, and is disposed with rails, hinges, lead screws and so on, which are required for the ballast to move. The limiting support seat (3) is provided at an end portion of the sliding rail (1), which is used for preventing the movable ballast (2) from sliding out of the rail, and for placing auxiliary equipment for the power of the ballast. The leveling control server may be installed in a foundation deck or a wind turbine tower drum, monitor data according to the speed and direction of wind, wave, and flow, and send real-time active control commands to a movable ballast device, thus suppressing the tilt and motion responses of a floating wind turbine.

Description

一种浮式风机的移动压载调平控制装置Mobile ballast leveling control device for floating fan 技术领域Technical field
本发明属于风力发电领域,涉及一种海上漂浮式风机基础。The invention belongs to the field of wind power generation and relates to a foundation of a floating fan at sea.
背景技术Background technique
陆地风资源的逐步枯竭将人类的视线转移到了清洁能源的新方向——海上风电。海上风电具有风速高、电量大、运行稳定、适合大规模开发等优势,且海上风能资源最丰富的东南沿海地区,毗邻用电需求大的经济发达地区,可以实现用电就近消化,降低输送成本,发展潜力巨大。据估算,海上风能资源的能量效益比陆上风电要高20%至40%。The gradual depletion of terrestrial wind resources has shifted the human eye to a new direction of clean energy – offshore wind power. Offshore wind power has the advantages of high wind speed, large power, stable operation, suitable for large-scale development, and the southeast coastal area with the most abundant offshore wind energy resources. It can be adjacent to economically developed areas with large demand for electricity, which can realize near-digestion of electricity and reduce transportation costs. The development potential is huge. It is estimated that the energy efficiency of offshore wind energy resources is 20% to 40% higher than that of onshore wind power.
对于水深大于40米的深水海洋环境,漂浮式的风机基础经济性更好。与海上风机的固定基础相比,漂浮式风机基础的优势包括:For deep-water marine environments with a water depth greater than 40 meters, floating wind turbines are more economical. The advantages of a floating wind turbine foundation compared to a fixed foundation for offshore wind turbines include:
(a)受水深限制小,风场地址选取更灵活;(a) Limited by water depth, the wind field address selection is more flexible;
(b)远海上风资源量更足、质更高;(b) The offshore wind resources are more abundant and of higher quality;
(c)风机、浮式基础及系泊锚的海上安装工艺简单,大部分施工可在港口完成;(c) The offshore installation process of wind turbines, floating foundations and mooring anchors is simple and most of the construction can be done at the port;
(d)受海床地基条件的影响小,成型方案可移植性高;(d) The impact of the seabed foundation conditions is small, and the molding scheme is highly portable;
(e)可安装在远海消除对近海景观的视觉污染。(e) Can be installed in the open sea to eliminate visual pollution of the offshore landscape.
目前,依托于石油工业的海洋平台技术,主要存在三种浮式风机基础:单柱型(Spar)、张力腿型(Tension-Leg Platform,TLP)、半潜型(Semi-Submersible)。At present, relying on the offshore platform technology of the petroleum industry, there are mainly three types of floating wind turbines: single-column (Spar), Tension-Leg Platform (TLP), and semi-submersible (Semi-Submersible).
张力腿型的浮式基础具有非常好的垂荡和转动稳性,但张力腿造价高、安装复杂,潮汐变化也会影响系泊腿中张力大小,且上部结构与张力腿系统的同频耦合振动都使得此类系统难于设计与施工。The floating foundation of the tension leg type has very good heave and rotation stability, but the tension leg is expensive and the installation is complicated. The tidal change also affects the tension in the mooring leg, and the same frequency coupling of the upper structure and the tension leg system Vibration makes such systems difficult to design and construct.
单柱型基础结构简单,通过降低重心及较大的吃水深度,可提供足够回复力矩和稳性,其在竖向波浪外激力较小,具有较好的垂荡稳性。但较小的水线面面积无法贡献横摇及纵摇两个方向的稳性,风机的倾覆力矩将降低基础稳定和风机效率。本发明利用固体压载提供的回复力矩,能够克服立柱式基础大倾角稳性不足的问题。The single-column basic structure is simple, and by reducing the center of gravity and the large draft, it can provide sufficient recovery torque and stability. It has less excitation force outside the vertical wave and has better stability. However, the smaller waterline area does not contribute to the stability of both the roll and pitch directions, and the overturning moment of the fan will reduce the base stability and fan efficiency. The invention utilizes the recovery torque provided by solid ballast, and can overcome the problem of insufficient stability of the large inclination angle of the column foundation.
此外,依靠分散柱体稳定的半潜式多柱平台水线面积较小(材料省)却能提供较大的回复力矩,在保证经济性的前提下,平台稳定性最好。此外,该基础和风机的施工安装均可在港口完成,拖航至海上风场下锚固定。 In addition, the semi-submersible multi-column platform, which relies on the stability of the dispersion cylinder, has a small waterline area (material province) but can provide a large recovery torque, and the platform stability is best under the premise of ensuring economy. In addition, the foundation and the construction and installation of the wind turbine can be completed at the port and towed to the offshore wind farm for anchoring.
基于以上分析,国际上提出的浮式风机概念设计很多,但目前已建造运营的浮式海上风机多数采用了柱稳式半潜基础,包括由Principle Power公司的Windfloat及日本Fukushima Forward项目中2MW Mirai及7MW Shimpuu。Based on the above analysis, there are many design concepts for floating fans in the world. However, most of the floating offshore wind turbines that have been built and operated have adopted the column-stable semi-submersible foundation, including Windfloat by Principle Power and 2MW Mirai in Japan's Fukushima Forward project. And 7MW Shimpuu.
如图1所示,Windfloat是由Principle Power公司设计海上浮式风机基础产品。在2011年建造了全尺寸原型机安装在离海岸5km的葡萄牙海域,其上安装了一台2MW风机,试运行一年后的发电量为3GWh。该平台由对称的三个圆立柱及连接的杆件组成,三个圆立柱底部设置了压水板,与桁架式立柱平台类似。风机安装在一个立柱上,每个圆立柱底部设置了恒定的压水舱用来降低浮体中心,提高稳性。当来流风向改变时,通过主动控制的闭环水泵调节三个浮筒的压舱水重也可提高系统的稳性,抑制振动。As shown in Figure 1, Windfloat is a basic product for offshore floating wind turbines designed by Principle Power. In 2011, a full-scale prototype was built in the Portuguese waters 5km from the coast, and a 2MW wind turbine was installed on it. After one year of trial operation, the power generation was 3GWh. The platform consists of three symmetrical cylindrical columns and connected rods. The bottom of the three round columns is equipped with a water pressure plate, similar to the truss column platform. The fan is mounted on a column, and a constant pressurized water tank is placed at the bottom of each round column to reduce the center of the floating body and improve stability. When the incoming wind direction changes, adjusting the ballast water weight of the three buoys through the actively controlled closed-loop water pump can also improve the stability of the system and suppress the vibration.
Fukushima Forward项目第一阶段(2011-2013)包括建造一台2MW的半潜式四柱漂浮风机。Fukushima Mirai(见图2)采用全钢结构设计,采用了高品质钢材以提高平台防腐蚀和抗疲劳特性,其上安装的2MW风机转子直径80m,轮毂高度离水面65m,基础平台高度为32m,吃水约16m,采用6根悬链式的钢制系泊索。改基础结构中四根立柱均为圆柱,外围圆柱底部向外扩展,起到了垂荡板的作用,底部浮筒截面较大,提供浮力并降低重心。The first phase of the Fukushima Forward project (2011-2013) included the construction of a 2MW semi-submersible four-column floating fan. Fukushima Mirai (see Figure 2) adopts all-steel structure design and adopts high-quality steel to improve the anti-corrosion and anti-fatigue properties of the platform. The 2MW fan installed on it has a rotor diameter of 80m, the hub height is 65m from the water surface, and the base platform height is 32m. The draught is about 16m and uses 6 catenary steel mooring lines. In the basic structure, the four columns are all cylindrical, and the bottom of the outer cylinder expands outward, which acts as a heave plate. The bottom buoy has a large cross section, providing buoyancy and lowering the center of gravity.
Fukushima Forward项目第二阶段(2014-2015)包括建造一台7MW的漂浮式风机Fukushima Shimpuu(见图3),采用钢材制造,V型三柱式平台,立柱截面为矩形。The second phase of the Fukushima Forward project (2014-2015) consisted of the construction of a 7MW floating fan Fukushima Shimpuu (see Figure 3), made of steel, a V-shaped three-column platform with a rectangular cross section.
此外,已建造运营的浮式海上风机还有部分采用了立柱式半潜基础,包括有挪威的SWAY及Hywind 2.3MW,以及日本Fukushima Forward项目中的Hamakaze 5MW。In addition, some of the floating offshore wind turbines that have been built and operated have adopted a column-type semi-submersible foundation, including Norway's SWAY and Hywind 2.3MW, and Hamakaze 5MW in Japan's Fukushima Forward project.
如图4所示,SWAY是一台1:6的测试风机,2011年3月安装于挪威卑尔根沿海,基础由一根立柱组成,全尺寸SWAY风机能够承受26米高巨浪,而该缩尺风机仅可经受4米高海浪。当年11月,一次超过6米的波浪导致风机沉没。As shown in Figure 4, SWAY is a 1:6 test fan. It was installed on the coast of Bergen, Norway in March 2011. The foundation consists of a column. The full-size SWAY fan can withstand 26 meters of high waves. The scale fan can only withstand 4 meters of high waves. In November of that year, a wave of more than 6 meters caused the fan to sink.
如图5所示,Statoil公司的Hywind立柱式风机2009年9月安装于挪威离岸10公里的西南沿海,基础的立柱由钢材制造,底部填入了压舱水和石块,水下长度为100米,通过三点悬链系泊保持风机不发生漂移。自2010年以来,已发电32,5GWh。基于该测试风机的设计,英国苏格兰海域正在 筹划建立5台6MW的30MW的浮式风机风场。As shown in Figure 5, Statoil's Hywind column fan was installed in the southwest coast of Norway 10 km offshore in September 2009. The foundation column is made of steel and the bottom is filled with ballast water and stones. The underwater length is 100 meters, the wind turbine does not drift through the three-point catenary mooring. Since 2010, it has generated 32,5GWh. Based on the design of the test fan, the Scottish waters of the UK are Plan to build five 6MW 30MW floating wind farms.
如图6所示,日本Fukushima Forward项目第二阶段(2014-2015)包括建造一台5MW的漂浮式风机Fukushima Hamakaze,采用钢材制造,吃水33米,立柱底部有一边长为30米的正六边形截面柱体。为了提高稳性,在水线面附近也设置了相同截面的舱室。As shown in Figure 6, the second phase of the Fukushima Forward project in Japan (2014-2015) includes the construction of a 5MW floating fan Fukushima Hamakaze, made of steel, with a draft of 33 meters and a regular hexagon with a side of 30 meters at the bottom of the column. Section cylinder. In order to improve the stability, a cabin of the same cross section is also arranged near the waterline.
海上浮式风机基础的设计并不能完全按照成熟的油气海洋平台设计方法进行。一方面,一部5MW风机的重量(700 ton)约为一般海洋平台上部结构重量的十分之一甚至更小,因此浮式风机基础在波浪力作用下的动力响应将更大。另一方面,海洋平台的钻井及输油升管无法承受较大的竖向变形,因此对垂荡运动的抑制至关重要,而摇摆对平台的安全运营影响较小。海上风机对浮式基础平台的水动力特性要求恰恰相反,垂荡运动对于风机采能影响不大,只有足够小的纵摇及横摇自由度动态响应才能保证风机的高效运转。The design of the offshore floating wind turbine foundation cannot be fully implemented in accordance with the mature oil and gas offshore platform design method. On the one hand, the weight of a 5 MW wind turbine (700 ton) is about one tenth or less of the weight of the upper structure of a general offshore platform, so the dynamic response of the floating wind turbine foundation under the action of wave force will be greater. On the other hand, the drilling and oil pipelines of offshore platforms cannot withstand large vertical deformation, so the suppression of heave motion is crucial, and the impact of swing on the safe operation of the platform is small. The hydrodynamic characteristics of the offshore wind turbines on the floating foundation platform are exactly the opposite. The heave motion has little effect on the wind turbine energy harvesting. Only a small enough dynamic response of the pitch and roll degrees of freedom can ensure the efficient operation of the wind turbine.
发明内容Summary of the invention
为了解决50米以上水深的海上风能利用问题,本发明提供了一种浮式风机的移动压载调平控制装置,安装于浮式风机基础内部,可抑制漂浮式风机的运动响应,适用于各级别风机,保证正常作业、极限自存下的结构强度,提高风能转化效率。In order to solve the problem of offshore wind energy utilization of water depth of 50 meters or more, the present invention provides a mobile ballast leveling control device for a floating fan, which is installed inside the floating fan base and can suppress the motion response of the floating fan, and is suitable for each The level fan ensures the structural strength under normal operation and limit self-existence, and improves the conversion efficiency of wind energy.
本发明中的移动压载调平控制装置包括可移动压载,滑动轨道,限位支座及调平控制服务器等。The mobile ballast leveling control device of the present invention comprises a movable ballast, a sliding track, a limit bearing and a leveling control server, and the like.
作为本发明的进一步改进,移动压载可以为一个或多个,可由钢材、混凝土等廉价高密度材料构成,其带有动力、刹车及锁定系统,能够实时接收信号在轨道上滑动,制动及锁死。As a further improvement of the present invention, the mobile ballast may be one or more, and may be composed of inexpensive high-density materials such as steel and concrete. It has a power, brake and locking system, and can receive signals in real time to slide on the track, brake and Locked up.
作为本发明的进一步改进,滑动轨道依据半潜式基础的布局及可利用空间设置,并布设压载移动所需的滑轨、铰链、丝杠等。As a further improvement of the present invention, the sliding track is arranged according to the layout of the semi-submersible foundation and the available space, and the slide rails, hinges, screw bars, and the like required for ballast movement are disposed.
作为本发明的进一步改进,限位支座设置在滑动轨道(1)的端部,防止压载装置(2)滑出轨道,并放置压载动力的辅助设备。As a further improvement of the present invention, the limit support is disposed at the end of the slide rail (1) to prevent the ballast device (2) from slipping out of the track and to place an auxiliary device for ballast power.
作为本发明的进一步改进,固体压载的动力可通过自身携带电动机实现,也可通过在轨道上铺设螺杆,利用滚珠丝杠实现,还可通过曳引机和钢丝绳拖拽实现,但不局限于以上动力系统。As a further improvement of the present invention, the solid ballast power can be realized by carrying the electric motor by itself, or by laying the screw on the rail, using the ball screw, and by dragging the traction machine and the wire rope, but not limited thereto. Above power system.
作为本发明的进一步改进,调平控制服务器依据风、浪、流的速度大 小及方向监测数据,向移动压载装置发送实时控制指令。As a further improvement of the present invention, the leveling control server has a large speed according to wind, waves, and flow. Small and direction monitoring data, sending real-time control commands to the mobile ballast device.
作为本发明的进一步改进,通过实测来流风速及风向,波浪及海流的速度和大小,调平控制服务器实时发送最优主动控制信号,调整可移动压载在轨道上位置,基础的质量分布、重心及浮心位置,以达到抑制系统整体运动和动力响应的目的,包括倾斜角度,机舱加速度及结构疲劳荷载。As a further improvement of the present invention, through the actual measurement of the wind speed and wind direction, the speed and magnitude of the waves and the current, the leveling control server transmits the optimal active control signal in real time, adjusts the position of the movable ballast on the track, and the quality distribution of the foundation, Center of gravity and center of buoyancy to achieve the purpose of suppressing the overall motion and dynamic response of the system, including tilt angle, cabin acceleration and structural fatigue loads.
作为本发明的进一步改进,可移动压载的质量大小以及滑动轨道的空间位置及尺寸需结合风机的功率及基础的尺寸确定。As a further improvement of the present invention, the mass of the movable ballast and the spatial position and size of the sliding track need to be determined in conjunction with the power of the fan and the size of the foundation.
作为本发明的进一步改进,主动控制策略包括各种工况下移动压载在轨道上的位置坐标,移动速度等,可通过遗传算法等多目标全局优化算法获得。As a further improvement of the present invention, the active control strategy includes position coordinates, moving speed, etc. of moving ballast on the orbit under various working conditions, and can be obtained by a multi-objective global optimization algorithm such as a genetic algorithm.
由上可见,本发明的浮式风机的移动压载调平控制装置能够实现WindFloat的液体压载调平的基础功能,如:It can be seen from the above that the mobile ballast leveling control device of the floating fan of the present invention can realize the basic functions of WindFloat liquid ballast leveling, such as:
a)结构的非对称性将使不同方向下的稳性差别较大,但合理的调节基础重心,依靠风气象资料选择安装角度,可使基础提供更大的抗倾覆力矩;a) The asymmetry of the structure will make the stability difference in different directions larger, but the basic center of gravity can be adjusted reasonably, and the installation angle can be selected by wind weather data to make the foundation provide greater anti-overturning moment;
b)在风向改变时及时连续的调整结构重心,控制风机的倾斜角度,保证发电效率。b) Continuously adjust the center of gravity of the structure in time when the wind direction changes, control the tilt angle of the fan to ensure power generation efficiency.
除此之外,本发明与WindFloat相比的优势和原创性包括:In addition, the advantages and originality of the present invention compared to WindFloat include:
a)固体压载的调节响应速度远大于液体压载泵送速度,能够使风机更快地调节至最优工作状态,提高发电效率;a) The adjustment response speed of the solid ballast is much larger than the liquid ballast pumping speed, which enables the fan to adjust to the optimal working state more quickly and improve the power generation efficiency;
b)固体压载在轨道上滑动的能量消耗低于液体泵送的能量消耗,即调平的控制系统工作时更节能;b) the energy consumption of the solid ballast sliding on the track is lower than the energy consumption of the liquid pumping, that is, the leveling control system is more energy efficient when working;
c)固体压载装置密度更高,可放置于基础较低的位置,使基础重心更低,降低基础的摇摆及荡动。c) The solid ballast device has a higher density and can be placed at a lower base position, which lowers the base center of gravity and reduces the basic rocking and swaying.
附图说明DRAWINGS
结合以下附图及实施例的描述,可使本发明的优点及原创性更加清晰和易于理解,其中:The advantages and originality of the present invention can be made clearer and easier to understand in conjunction with the following drawings and description of the embodiments, wherein:
图1是葡萄牙海域的WindFloat 2MW半潜式漂浮风机在海上作业的照片;Figure 1 is a photograph of the operation of the WindFloat 2MW semi-submersible floating fan in the Portuguese waters at sea;
图2是日本福岛的Mirai 2MW半潜式漂浮风机在海上作业的照片;Figure 2 is a photograph of the Mirai 2MW semi-submersible floating fan in Fukushima, Japan;
图3是日本福岛的Shimpuu 7MW半潜式漂浮风机在海上作业的照片;Figure 3 is a photograph of a Shimpuu 7MW semi-submersible floating fan operating at sea in Fukushima, Japan;
图4是挪威卑尔根沿海的SWAY立柱式漂浮风机设计图及在海上作业 的照片;Figure 4 is a design diagram of the SWAY column-type floating fan along the coast of Bergen, Norway, and working at sea. Photo;
图5是挪威Statoil的Hywind 2.3MW立柱式漂浮风机设计图及在海上作业的照片;Figure 5 is a design diagram of the Hywind 2.3MW column-type floating fan of Statoil in Norway and a photograph of the work at sea;
图6是日本福岛的Hamakaze 5MW立柱式漂浮风机设计图及在海上作业的照片;Figure 6 is a design diagram of a Hamakaze 5MW column type floating fan in Fukushima, Japan, and a photograph of the work at sea;
图7是本发明的实施例1——“V”型半潜式基础的等轴视图;Figure 7 is an isometric view of a "V" type semi-submersible foundation of Embodiment 1 of the present invention;
图8是本发明的实施例1——“V”型半潜式基础中的移动压载调平控制装置等轴视图;Figure 8 is an isometric view of the mobile ballast leveling control device in the "V" type semi-submersible embodiment of Embodiment 1 of the present invention;
图9是本发明的实施例1在东北风作用下的压载控制示意图;Figure 9 is a schematic view showing the ballast control of the first embodiment of the present invention under the action of northeast wind;
图10是本发明的实施例1在西风作用下的压载控制示意图;Figure 10 is a schematic view showing ballast control of Embodiment 1 of the present invention under the action of westerly;
图11是本发明的实施例1在西南风作用下的压载控制示意图;Figure 11 is a schematic view showing ballast control of Embodiment 1 of the present invention under the action of southwest wind;
图12是本发明的实施例2——“人”型半潜式基础的等轴视图;Figure 12 is an isometric view of a second embodiment of the present invention - a "human" type semi-submersible foundation;
图13是本发明的实施例2——“人”型半潜式基础中的移动压载调平控制装置等轴视图;Figure 13 is an isometric view of the mobile ballast leveling control device in the "human" type semi-submersible embodiment of the second embodiment of the present invention;
图14是本发明的实施例2在西南风作用下的压载控制示意图;Figure 14 is a schematic view showing ballast control of Embodiment 2 of the present invention under the action of southwest wind;
图15是本发明的实施例2在东北风作用下的压载控制示意图;Figure 15 is a schematic view showing ballast control of Embodiment 2 of the present invention under the action of northeast wind;
图16是本发明的实施例2在西风作用下的压载控制示意图。Figure 16 is a schematic view showing ballast control of Embodiment 2 of the present invention under the action of westerly wind.
图17是本发明的实施例3——饼状浮筒立柱式风机系统的等轴视图;Figure 17 is an isometric view of a third embodiment of the present invention - a pie-shaped float column type fan system;
图18是本发明的实施例3——饼状浮筒立柱式基础中的移动调平控制装置等轴视图;Figure 18 is an isometric view of the moving leveling control device in the embodiment 3 of the present invention;
图19是本发明的实施例4——圆环状浮筒立柱式风机系统的等轴视图;Figure 19 is an isometric view of a fourth embodiment of the present invention - an annular pontoon column fan system;
图20是本发明的实施例4——圆环状浮筒立柱式基础中的移动调平控制装置等轴视图;Figure 20 is an isometric view of the moving leveling control device in the embodiment 4 of the annular buoy column type according to the present invention;
图21是本发明的实施例3、4中在西南风作用下的压载控制示意图;Figure 21 is a schematic view showing ballast control under the action of southwest wind in Embodiments 3 and 4 of the present invention;
图22是本发明的实施例3、4中在西风作用下的压载控制示意图。Fig. 22 is a schematic view showing ballast control under the action of westerly in the third and fourth embodiments of the present invention.
具体实施方式detailed description
下面结合附图说明,以5MW水平轴风机为例,详述本发明的四个实施例。The four embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail below with reference to the accompanying drawings, taking a 5 MW horizontal axis fan as an example.
图7是本发明实施例1——“V”型半潜式基础的等轴视图,图8是本发明的实施例1——“V”型半潜式基础中的移动压载调平控制装置等轴视 图。该实施例1的三立柱半潜式海上风机基础包括三个不共线排列的垂向立柱(4)和(5),立柱总高度约为30米-40米。Figure 7 is an isometric view of a "V" type semi-submersible foundation according to Embodiment 1 of the present invention, and Figure 8 is a mobile ballast leveling control in the "V" type semi-submersible base of Embodiment 1 of the present invention. Device isometric Figure. The three-column semi-submersible offshore wind turbine foundation of the first embodiment comprises three vertical columns (4) and (5) which are not arranged in a line, and the total height of the columns is about 30-40 mm.
在主立柱(4)顶部与风力发电机的塔筒(8)相连,风机还包括机舱(9)及叶片(10)等关键部件。主立柱(4)水下底端通过浮筒(6)分别与外围两个次立柱(5)相连,而两立柱并不直接相连。Connected to the tower (8) of the wind turbine at the top of the main column (4), the fan also includes key components such as the nacelle (9) and the blades (10). The bottom end of the main column (4) is connected to the outer two secondary columns (5) through the pontoon (6), and the two columns are not directly connected.
立柱(4)和(5)及浮筒(6)截面为圆形或者带圆倒角的矩形或正多边形,截面的选取需在水动力荷载及结构抗力间取得平衡。其中立柱采用圆形截面水动力荷载较小,但可能会引起涡激共振破坏。采用圆柱壁面开设竖向凹槽,可避免规则旋涡脱落现象的发生。浮筒(6)设置为带圆倒角的矩形截面,提高截面的抗弯性能,表面设置水平向凹槽,可起到消波消能,抑制涡激振动,增加阻尼,减小基础的荡动和摇摆。The columns (4) and (5) and the pontoon (6) have a circular or rounded chamfered rectangular or regular polygon. The section is selected to balance the hydrodynamic load and structural resistance. Among them, the column has a circular cross-section hydrodynamic load, but may cause vortex-induced resonance damage. The vertical groove is formed by the cylindrical wall surface to avoid the occurrence of regular vortex shedding. The pontoon (6) is set to have a rectangular cross section with round chamfering to improve the bending resistance of the section. The surface is provided with a horizontal groove, which can eliminate the wave energy, suppress the vortex-induced vibration, increase the damping, and reduce the basic turbulence. And swinging.
立柱(4)和(5)及浮筒(6)内部中空且设置加劲肋,避免结构发生局部失稳。设置压载物舱室,用于存放内部固/液体压载物,保证舱室间的水密性,确保意外事故导致破舱时的整体稳性。通过调节内部固定压载物的初始质量及初始位置,使风机-基础的整体倾角在风速气象统计的大概率值附近为零,使在不调用外部压载平衡控制系统的情况下,风机依然能最大效率工作。The columns (4) and (5) and the pontoon (6) are hollow inside and are provided with stiffeners to avoid local instability of the structure. A ballast compartment is provided for storing internal solid/liquid ballasts to ensure watertightness between compartments and to ensure overall stability during accidental damage. By adjusting the initial mass and initial position of the internal fixed ballast, the overall inclination of the fan-base is zero near the large probability of wind speed meteorological statistics, so that the fan can still be activated without calling the external ballast balance control system. Work with maximum efficiency.
可移动压载(2)可以为一个或多个,可由钢材、混凝土等廉价高密度材料构成,其带有动力、刹车及锁定系统,能够实时接收信号在轨道上滑动,制动及锁死。滑动轨道(1)依据基础的布局设计成“V”型,并布设压载移动所需的滑轨、铰链、丝杠等。限位支座(3)设置在滑动轨道(1)的端部,防止压载装置(2)滑出轨道,并放置压载动力的辅助设备。固体压载(2)的动力可通过自身携带电动机实现,也可通过在轨道上铺设螺杆,利用滚珠丝杠实现,还可通过曳引机和钢丝绳拖拽实现,但不局限于以上动力系统。调平控制服务器依据风、浪、流的速度大小及方向监测数据,向移动压载装置发送实时控制指令。The movable ballast (2) can be one or more. It can be made of inexpensive high-density materials such as steel and concrete. It has a power, brake and locking system that can receive signals in real time to slide, brake and lock on the track. The sliding track (1) is designed in a "V" shape according to the basic layout, and the slide rails, hinges, screw bars, and the like required for ballast movement are arranged. The limit support (3) is disposed at the end of the slide rail (1) to prevent the ballast device (2) from sliding out of the track and placing an auxiliary device for ballast power. The power of the solid ballast (2) can be realized by carrying the motor by itself, or by laying the screw on the rail, using the ball screw, and by dragging the traction machine and the wire rope, but it is not limited to the above power system. The leveling control server transmits real-time control commands to the mobile ballast device based on the speed, direction, and direction of the wind, waves, and flow.
图9、图10和图11分别是该实施例在东北风、西风、西南风作用下的压载控制示意图。当风向为东北风时,风机转子平面与东北风方向垂直,而风机所受到的推力指向西南方向,此时,将两个移动压载分别移动到离风机立柱最远端的位置,为限制基础倾覆的重力提供最大力臂。同理,当风向为西风时,基础向东面倾斜,将有移动压载滑动至离开水面趋势的西边两个立柱中。本实施例中只是初步的给出了简单工况下的压载控制策略, 但实际的海况更加复杂,应在该装置设计时,通过遗传算法等多目标全局优化算法获得可移动压载的质量大小,轨道上的位置坐标。9 , 10 and 11 are schematic views of ballast control of the embodiment under the action of northeast wind, west wind and southwest wind, respectively. When the wind direction is northeast wind, the rotor plane of the fan is perpendicular to the northeast wind direction, and the thrust of the wind turbine is directed to the southwest direction. At this time, the two moving ballasts are respectively moved to the farthest position from the fan column, which is the limit basis. The overturned gravity provides the largest force arm. Similarly, when the wind direction is west wind, the foundation is inclined to the east, and there will be moving ballast sliding to the two pillars on the west side of the trend away from the water surface. In this embodiment, only the ballast control strategy under simple working conditions is given. However, the actual sea state is more complicated. When the device is designed, the mass of the movable ballast and the position coordinates on the track should be obtained by a multi-objective global optimization algorithm such as genetic algorithm.
图12是本发明实施例2——“人”型半潜式基础的等轴视图。该实施例2的四立柱半潜式海上风机基础包括四垂向立柱(4)和(5),为了降低垂荡影响,在立柱底部增加了垂荡板(12)。图13该实施例2的移动压载调平控制装置等轴视图,滑动轨道(1)的布置与基础的平面形状一致,放置于主立柱(4)、垂荡舱(12)及浮筒(6)中,其他设置与实施例1中相同。Figure 12 is an isometric view of a "human" type semi-submersible base of embodiment 2 of the present invention. The four-column semi-submersible offshore wind turbine foundation of the second embodiment includes four vertical vertical columns (4) and (5). In order to reduce the heave effect, a heave plate (12) is added at the bottom of the column. Figure 13 is an isometric view of the mobile ballast leveling control device of the second embodiment, the arrangement of the sliding track (1) is consistent with the planar shape of the foundation, and is placed on the main column (4), the heave chamber (12) and the pontoon (6). Among other settings, the same as in the first embodiment.
图14、图15和图16分别是该实施例在西南风、东北风、西风作用下的压载控制示意图。与实施例1类似,按照在具有浮出水面趋势的立柱中增加质量的方式,移动质量压载在轨道上的位置,实现抑制风机偏斜的目的。14 , 15 and 16 are schematic views of ballast control of the embodiment under the action of southwest wind, northeast wind and westerly wind, respectively. Similar to the embodiment 1, the mass mass is loaded on the rail in a manner of increasing the mass in the column having the tendency to rise in the surface, thereby achieving the purpose of suppressing the deflection of the fan.
图17是本发明实施例3——饼状浮筒立柱式基础的等轴视图,图18是本发明的实施例3——饼状浮筒立柱式基础中的移动调平控制装置等轴视图。该实施例3的立柱式海上风机基础包括一根垂向立柱(4)顶部与风力发电机的塔筒(8)相连,风机还包括机舱(9)及叶片(10)等关键部件。主立柱(4)水下底端与浮筒(6)连接。Figure 17 is an isometric view of a third embodiment of the present invention, a pie-shaped float column foundation, and Figure 18 is an isometric view of the movable leveling control device of the embodiment 3 of the present invention. The column-type offshore wind turbine foundation of the third embodiment includes a vertical column (4) whose top is connected to the tower (8) of the wind power generator, and the fan further includes key components such as the nacelle (9) and the blade (10). The bottom end of the main column (4) is connected to the pontoon (6).
立柱(4)截面为圆形或者带圆倒角的正多边形,截面的选取需在水动力荷载及结构抗力间取得平衡。其中立柱采用圆形截面水动力荷载较小,外表面可设置螺旋线状肋防止涡激共振。The column (4) has a circular or rounded chamfered regular polygon, and the section is selected to balance the hydrodynamic load and structural resistance. Among them, the column has a circular cross section with a small hydrodynamic load, and the outer surface can be provided with a spiral rib to prevent vortex resonance.
立柱(4)及浮筒(6)内部中空且设置加劲肋,避免结构发生局部失稳。设置压载物舱室,用于存放内部固/液体压载物,保证舱室间的水密性,确保意外事故导致破舱时的整体稳性。通过调节内部固定压载物的初始质量及初始位置,使风机-基础的整体倾角在风速气象统计的大概率值附近为零,使在不调用外部压载平衡控制系统的情况下,风机依然能最大效率工作。The column (4) and the pontoon (6) are hollow inside and are provided with stiffeners to avoid local instability of the structure. A ballast compartment is provided for storing internal solid/liquid ballasts to ensure watertightness between compartments and to ensure overall stability during accidental damage. By adjusting the initial mass and initial position of the internal fixed ballast, the overall inclination of the fan-base is zero near the large probability of wind speed meteorological statistics, so that the fan can still be activated without calling the external ballast balance control system. Work with maximum efficiency.
可移动固体压载装置(2)可以为一个或多个,可由钢材、混凝土等廉价高密度材料构成,其带有动力、刹车及锁定系统,能够实时接收信号在轨道上滑动,制动及锁死。滑动轨道(1)依据基础的布局设计成O型,并布设压载移动所需的滑轨、铰链、丝杠等。固体压载(2)的动力可通过自身携带电动机实现,也可通过在轨道上铺设螺杆,利用滚珠丝杠实现,还可通过曳引机和钢丝绳拖拽实现,但不局限于以上动力系统。调平控制 服务器依据风、浪、流的速度大小及方向监测数据,向移动压载装置发送实时控制指令。The movable solid ballast device (2) can be one or more, and can be made of inexpensive high-density materials such as steel and concrete. It has a power, brake and locking system, and can receive signals in real time to slide, brake and lock on the track. dead. The sliding track (1) is designed in an O-shape according to the basic layout, and lays out the slide rails, hinges, screw bars, and the like required for ballast movement. The power of the solid ballast (2) can be realized by carrying the motor by itself, or by laying the screw on the rail, using the ball screw, and by dragging the traction machine and the wire rope, but it is not limited to the above power system. Leveling control The server monitors the data according to the speed and direction of the wind, wave, and flow, and sends real-time control commands to the mobile ballast device.
图19是本发明实施例4——圆环状浮筒立柱式基础的等轴视图。该实施例4的立柱式海上风机基础包括立柱(4)和浮筒(6)。图20为该实施例4的移动调平控制装置等轴视图,滑动轨道(1)布置于浮筒(6)中,可移动固体压载装置(2)的截面调整至与浮筒截面相同,其他设置与实施例3中相同。Figure 19 is an isometric view of a fourth embodiment of the present invention - a ring-shaped float column foundation. The column type offshore wind turbine foundation of this embodiment 4 includes a column (4) and a pontoon (6). Figure 20 is an isometric view of the moving leveling control device of the embodiment 4, the sliding rail (1) is arranged in the pontoon (6), the section of the movable solid ballast device (2) is adjusted to be the same as the pontoon section, and other settings The same as in Example 3.
图21和图22分别是该实施例在西南风和西风作用下的压载控制示意图。当风向为西南风时,风机转子平面与西南风方向垂直,而风机所受到的推力指向东北方向,此时,将移动压载分别移动到浮筒的西南位置,为限制基础倾覆的重力提供最大力臂。同理,当风向为西风时,基础向东面倾斜,将有移动压载滑动至离开水面趋势的西边位置。本实施例中只是初步的给出了简单工况下的压载控制策略,但实际的海况更加复杂,应在该装置设计时,通过遗传算法等多目标全局优化算法获得可移动固体压载装置的质量大小,轨道上的位置坐标。21 and 22 are schematic views of ballast control of the embodiment under the action of southwest wind and westerly wind, respectively. When the wind direction is southwest wind, the rotor plane of the fan is perpendicular to the southwest wind direction, and the thrust of the wind turbine is directed to the northeast direction. At this time, the moving ballast is moved to the southwest position of the pontoon respectively to provide maximum force for limiting the gravity of the foundation overturning. arm. Similarly, when the wind direction is west wind, the foundation is inclined to the east, and there will be a moving ballast sliding to the west side of the trend away from the water surface. In this embodiment, the ballast control strategy under simple working conditions is only given initially, but the actual sea state is more complicated. When the device is designed, the movable solid ballast device can be obtained by multi-objective global optimization algorithm such as genetic algorithm. The size of the mass, the position coordinates on the track.
此外,主次立柱(4)和(5)上分别设置了维护船舶停靠点及上甲板扶梯(11),便于风机和基础运营设备的维修和保养。水上高度约占总高1/3~1/4,一般大于10米,避免上浪造成风机设备浸水破坏。In addition, the maintenance of the ship's stop and the upper deck escalator (11) are provided on the main and secondary columns (4) and (5) to facilitate the maintenance and maintenance of the wind turbine and basic operating equipment. The height of the water is about 1/3 to 1/4 of the total height, generally more than 10 meters, to avoid the water damage of the fan equipment caused by the waves.
基础一般采用悬链系泊(7),其海底端与固定在海床上的拖曳式锚连接,保证系统的位置保持,不发生漂移。The foundation generally adopts catenary mooring (7), and the bottom of the sea is connected with the towed anchor fixed on the seabed to ensure the position of the system is maintained without drift.
以上实施例的基础结构均可因地制宜的采用高强度钢材或者现浇高强混凝土建造,采用混凝土材料时,预留孔道,通过后张法为结构提供预应力。在干船坞中施工养护完毕后,拼装风机,放水并拖航至目标场地。The basic structure of the above embodiment can be constructed by using high-strength steel or cast-in-place high-strength concrete according to local conditions. When using concrete material, the hole is reserved, and the structure is prestressed by the post-tension method. After the construction and maintenance in the dry dock is completed, the fan is assembled, drained and towed to the target site.
以上内容是结合具体的优选实施方式对本发明所作的进一步详细说明,不能认定本发明的具体实施只局限于这些说明。对于本发明所属技术领域的普通技术人员来说,在不脱离本发明构思的前提下,还可以做出若干简单推演或替换,都应当视为属于本发明的保护范围。 The above is a further detailed description of the present invention in connection with the specific preferred embodiments, and the specific embodiments of the present invention are not limited to the description. It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that the present invention may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.

Claims (9)

  1. 一种浮式风机的移动压载调平控制装置,安装于浮式风机基础的内部空间,其特征在于所述装置包括:A mobile ballast leveling control device for a floating fan installed in an internal space of a floating fan foundation, characterized in that the device comprises:
    滑动轨道(1),Sliding track (1),
    可移动压载(2),Movable ballast (2),
    限位支座(3),Limit support (3),
    调平控制服务器安装于基础的甲板上或塔筒(8)内。The leveling control server is mounted on the foundation deck or tower (8).
  2. 根据权利要求1所述的浮式风机的移动压载调平控制装置,其特征在于:可移动压载(2)可以为一个或多个,可由钢材、混凝土、石材等廉价高密度材料或者充满的密封水箱构成,其带有动力、刹车及锁定系统,能够实时接收信号在轨道上滑动,制动及锁死。The mobile ballast leveling control device for a floating fan according to claim 1, characterized in that the movable ballast (2) can be one or more, and can be filled with inexpensive high-density materials such as steel, concrete, stone, or the like. The sealed water tank is equipped with a power, brake and locking system that can receive signals in real time to slide, brake and lock on the track.
  3. 根据权利要求1所述的浮式风机的移动压载调平控制装置,其特征在于:滑动轨道(1)依据半潜式基础的布局及可利用空间设置,并布设压载移动所需的滑轨、铰链、丝杠等。The mobile ballast leveling control device for a floating fan according to claim 1, characterized in that the sliding track (1) is arranged according to the layout of the semi-submersible foundation and the available space, and the slip required for the ballast movement is arranged. Rails, hinges, lead screws, etc.
  4. 根据权利要求1所述的浮式风机的移动压载调平控制装置,其特征在于:限位支座(3)设置在滑动轨道(1)的端部,防止压载装置(2)滑出轨道,并放置压载动力的辅助设备。The mobile ballast leveling control device for a floating fan according to claim 1, wherein the limiting support (3) is disposed at an end of the sliding rail (1) to prevent the ballast device (2) from slipping out Orbital and auxiliary equipment for ballast power.
  5. 根据权利要求1所述的浮式风机的移动压载调平控制装置,其特征在于:固体压载的动力可通过自身携带电动机实现,也可通过在轨道上铺设螺杆,利用滚珠丝杠实现,还可通过曳引机和钢丝绳拖拽实现,但不局限于以上动力系统。The mobile ballast leveling control device for a floating fan according to claim 1, wherein the solid ballast power can be realized by carrying the motor by itself, or by laying a screw on the rail and using a ball screw. It can also be realized by dragging the wire rope and wire rope, but it is not limited to the above power system.
  6. 根据权利要求1所述的浮式风机的移动压载调平控制装置,其特征在于:调平控制服务器依据风、浪、流的速度大小及方向监测数据,向移动压载装置发送实时控制指令。The mobile ballast leveling control device for a floating fan according to claim 1, wherein the leveling control server transmits real-time control commands to the mobile ballast device according to the speed, direction and direction monitoring data of the wind, the waves, and the flow. .
  7. 根据权利要求1所述的浮式风机的移动压载调平控制装置,其特征在于:通过实测来流风速及风向,波浪及海流的速度和大小,调平控制服务器实时发送最优主动控制信号,调整可移动压载在轨道上位置,基础的质量分布、重心及浮心位置,以达到抑制系统整体运动和动力响应的目的,包括倾斜角度,机舱加速度及结构疲劳荷载。The mobile ballast leveling control device for a floating fan according to claim 1, characterized in that: by measuring the wind speed and wind direction, the speed and magnitude of the waves and the current, the leveling control server transmits the optimal active control signal in real time. Adjust the position of the movable ballast on the track, the mass distribution of the foundation, the center of gravity and the position of the floating center to achieve the purpose of suppressing the overall motion and dynamic response of the system, including the tilt angle, the cabin acceleration and the structural fatigue load.
  8. 根据权利要求1所述的浮式风机的移动压载调平控制装置,其特征在于:可移动压载的质量大小以及滑动轨道的空间位置及尺寸需结合风机的功率及基础的尺寸确定。The mobile ballast leveling control device for a floating fan according to claim 1, wherein the mass of the movable ballast and the spatial position and size of the sliding track are determined in accordance with the power of the fan and the size of the foundation.
  9. 根据权利要求1所述的浮式风机的移动压载调平控制装置,其特征在 于:主动控制策略包括各种工况下移动压载在轨道上的位置坐标,移动速度等,可通过遗传算法等多目标全局优化算法获得。 A mobile ballast leveling control device for a floating fan according to claim 1, wherein Yu: The active control strategy includes the position coordinates and moving speed of the moving ballast on the orbit under various working conditions, which can be obtained by a multi-objective global optimization algorithm such as genetic algorithm.
PCT/CN2017/111985 2016-11-22 2017-11-21 Movable ballast leveling control device for use in floating wind turbine WO2018095304A1 (en)

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CN108316336A (en) * 2018-04-10 2018-07-24 重庆大学 A kind of novel lattice offshore wind turbine buoyant foundation composite structure
CN109263824B (en) * 2018-10-09 2020-12-11 深圳市海斯比海洋科技股份有限公司 Automatic posture balancing device for fast rescue unmanned boat
CN110015387B (en) * 2019-04-28 2021-08-20 哈尔滨工程大学 Anti-rolling device suitable for low-speed ship
CN110185585B (en) * 2019-05-29 2020-05-29 中国石油大学(华东) Semi-submersible vertical axis wind turbine platform stabilization balancing device
CN110080952B (en) * 2019-06-05 2020-07-07 重庆大学 Offshore wind turbine foundation device

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