WO2018031620A1 - Uplink grant-free noma (non-orthogonal multiple access) transmissions - Google Patents

Uplink grant-free noma (non-orthogonal multiple access) transmissions Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2018031620A1
WO2018031620A1 PCT/US2017/046033 US2017046033W WO2018031620A1 WO 2018031620 A1 WO2018031620 A1 WO 2018031620A1 US 2017046033 W US2017046033 W US 2017046033W WO 2018031620 A1 WO2018031620 A1 WO 2018031620A1
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WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
grant
data packet
free
circuitry
noma
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Application number
PCT/US2017/046033
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Debdeep CHATTERJEE
Gang Xiong
Hwan-Joon Kwon
Sergey Sosnin
Seunghee Han
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Intel IP Corporation
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Publication date
Priority to US201662374642P priority Critical
Priority to US62/374,642 priority
Priority to US201662402340P priority
Priority to US62/402,340 priority
Application filed by Intel IP Corporation filed Critical Intel IP Corporation
Publication of WO2018031620A1 publication Critical patent/WO2018031620A1/en

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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L5/00Arrangements affording multiple use of the transmission path
    • H04L5/003Arrangements for allocating sub-channels of the transmission path
    • H04L5/0048Allocation of pilot signals, i.e. of signals known to the receiver
    • H04L5/0051Allocation of pilot signals, i.e. of signals known to the receiver of dedicated pilots, i.e. pilots destined for a single user or terminal
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L5/00Arrangements affording multiple use of the transmission path
    • H04L5/003Arrangements for allocating sub-channels of the transmission path
    • H04L5/0053Allocation of signaling, i.e. of overhead other than pilot signals

Abstract

Techniques discussed herein can facilitate grant-free UL (Uplink) NOMA (Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access) transmission. One example embodiment can comprise an apparatus employable by a UE (User Equipment) that can be configured to generate an UL data packet; generate at least one of a preamble associated with the UL data packet or DM (Demodulation)-RS (Reference Signals) associated with the UL data packet; and map the UL data packet and at least of the preamble or DM-RS to time and frequency resources configured for grant-free UL transmission.

Description

UPLINK GRANT-FREE NOMA (NON-ORTHOGONAL MULTIPLE ACCESS)

TRANSMISSIONS

REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Applications No.

62/374,642 filed August 12, 2016, entitled "ENHANCEMENT ON UPLINK GRANT- FREE NOMA TRANSMISSIONS FOR NR" and No. 62/402,340 filed September 30, 2016, entitled "UPLINK GRANT-FREE NOMA TRANSMISSIONS FOR NR", the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in their entirety.

FIELD

[0002] The present disclosure relates to wireless technology, and more specifically to techniques that can facilitate uplink grant-free NOMA (Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access) Transmissions.

BACKGROUND

[0003] Mobile communication has evolved significantly from early voice systems to today's highly sophisticated integrated communication platform. The next generation wireless communication system, 5G (Fifth Generation), will provide access to information and sharing of data anywhere, anytime by various users and applications. 5G is expected to be a unified network/system that target to meet vastly different and sometime conflicting performance dimensions and services. Such diverse multidimensional requirements are driven by different services and applications. In general, 5G will evolve based on 3GPP (Third Generation Partnership Project) LTE (Long Term Evolution)-Advanced with additional potential new Radio Access Technologies (RATs) to enrich people lives with better, simple and seamless wireless connectivity solutions. 5G will enable everything connected by wireless and deliver fast, rich contents and services.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0004] FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating an example user equipment (UE) useable in connection with various aspects described herein.

[0005] FIG. 2 is a diagram illustrating example components of a device that can be employed in accordance with various aspects discussed herein. [0006] FIG. 3 is a diagram illustrating example interfaces of baseband circuitry that can be employed in accordance with various aspects discussed herein.

[0007] FIG. 4 is a block diagram illustrating a system employable at a UE (User

Equipment) that facilitates grant-free UL (Uplink) NOMA (Non-Orthogonal Multiple

Access) transmission, according to various aspects described herein.

[0008] FIG. 5 is a block diagram illustrating a system employable at a BS (Base

Station) that facilitates grant-free UL NOMA transmission from one or more UEs, according to various aspects described herein.

[0009] FIG. 6 is a diagram of an example design comprising a common preamble and DM-RS with optional gap, according to various aspects discussed herein.

[0010] FIG. 7 is a diagram of an example scenario of partial overlap of UL

transmissions based on two different numbers of repetitions, according to various aspects discussed herein.

[0011] FIG. 8 is a diagram showing examples of NOMA and OMA (Orthogonal

Multiple Access) regions along with example PRB (Physical Resource Block) allocations within a NOMA region, according to various aspects discussed herein.

[0012] FIG. 9 is a flow diagram of an example method employable at a UE that facilitates grant-free UL NOMA transmission, according to various aspects discussed herein.

[0013] FIG. 10 is a flow diagram of an example method employable at a BS that facilitates grant-free UL NOMA transmission from one or more UEs, according to various aspects discussed herein.

[0014] FIG. 11 is a flow diagram of an example method employable at a UE that facilitates communication based on sTTIs, according to various aspects discussed herein.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0015] The present disclosure will now be described with reference to the attached drawing figures, wherein like reference numerals are used to refer to like elements throughout, and wherein the illustrated structures and devices are not necessarily drawn to scale. As utilized herein, terms "component," "system," "interface," and the like are intended to refer to a computer-related entity, hardware, software (e.g., in execution), and/or firmware. For example, a component can be a processor (e.g., a microprocessor, a controller, or other processing device), a process running on a processor, a controller, an object, an executable, a program, a storage device, a computer, a tablet PC and/or a user equipment (e.g., mobile phone, etc.) with a processing device. By way of illustration, an application running on a server and the server can also be a component. One or more components can reside within a process, and a component can be localized on one computer and/or distributed between two or more computers. A set of elements or a set of other components can be described herein, in which the term "set" can be interpreted as "one or more."

[0016] Further, these components can execute from various computer readable storage media having various data structures stored thereon such as with a module, for example. The components can communicate via local and/or remote processes such as in accordance with a signal having one or more data packets (e.g., data from one component interacting with another component in a local system, distributed system, and/or across a network, such as, the Internet, a local area network, a wide area network, or similar network with other systems via the signal).

[0017] As another example, a component can be an apparatus with specific functionality provided by mechanical parts operated by electric or electronic circuitry, in which the electric or electronic circuitry can be operated by a software application or a firmware application executed by one or more processors. The one or more processors can be internal or external to the apparatus and can execute at least a part of the software or firmware application. As yet another example, a component can be an apparatus that provides specific functionality through electronic components without mechanical parts; the electronic components can include one or more processors therein to execute software and/or firmware that confer(s), at least in part, the functionality of the electronic components.

[0018] Use of the word exemplary is intended to present concepts in a concrete fashion. As used in this application, the term "or" is intended to mean an inclusive "or" rather than an exclusive "or". That is, unless specified otherwise, or clear from context, "X employs A or B" is intended to mean any of the natural inclusive permutations. That is, if X employs A; X employs B; or X employs both A and B, then "X employs A or B" is satisfied under any of the foregoing instances. In addition, the articles "a" and "an" as used in this application and the appended claims should generally be construed to mean "one or more" unless specified otherwise or clear from context to be directed to a singular form. Furthermore, to the extent that the terms "including", "includes", "having", "has", "with", or variants thereof are used in either the detailed description and the claims, such terms are intended to be inclusive in a manner similar to the term

"comprising." Additionally, in situations wherein one or more numbered items are discussed (e.g., a "first X", a "second X", etc.), in general the one or more numbered items may be distinct or they may be the same, although in some situations the context may indicate that they are distinct or that they are the same.

[0019] As used herein, the term "circuitry" may refer to, be part of, or include an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), an electronic circuit, a processor (shared, dedicated, or group), and/or memory (shared, dedicated, or group) that execute one or more software or firmware programs, a combinational logic circuit, and/or other suitable hardware components that provide the described functionality. In some embodiments, the circuitry may be implemented in, or functions associated with the circuitry may be implemented by, one or more software or firmware modules. In some embodiments, circuitry may include logic, at least partially operable in hardware.

[0020] Embodiments described herein may be implemented into a system using any suitably configured hardware and/or software. FIG. 1 illustrates an architecture of a system 1 00 of a network in accordance with some embodiments. The system 100 is shown to include a user equipment (UE) 101 and a UE 102. The UEs 101 and 102 are illustrated as smartphones (e.g., handheld touchscreen mobile computing devices connectable to one or more cellular networks), but may also comprise any mobile or non-mobile computing device, such as Personal Data Assistants (PDAs), pagers, laptop computers, desktop computers, wireless handsets, or any computing device including a wireless communications interface.

[0021] In some embodiments, any of the UEs 101 and 102 can comprise an Internet of Things (loT) UE, which can comprise a network access layer designed for low-power loT applications utilizing short-lived UE connections. An loT UE can utilize technologies such as machine-to-machine (M2M) or machine-type communications (MTC) for exchanging data with an MTC server or device via a public land mobile network (PLMN), Proximity-Based Service (ProSe) or device-to-device (D2D) communication, sensor networks, or loT networks. The M2M or MTC exchange of data may be a machine-initiated exchange of data. An loT network describes interconnecting loT UEs, which may include uniquely identifiable embedded computing devices (within the Internet infrastructure), with short-lived connections. The loT UEs may execute background applications (e.g., keep-alive messages, status updates, etc.) to facilitate the connections of the loT network.

[0022] The UEs 101 and 102 may be configured to connect, e.g., communicatively couple, with a radio access network (RAN) 1 10— the RAN 1 10 may be, for example, an Evolved Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN), a NextGen RAN (NG RAN), or some other type of RAN. The UEs 101 and 102 utilize connections 103 and 104, respectively, each of which comprises a physical communications interface or layer (discussed in further detail below); in this example, the connections 103 and 104 are illustrated as an air interface to enable communicative coupling, and can be consistent with cellular communications protocols, such as a Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) protocol, a code-division multiple access (CDMA) network protocol, a Push-to-Talk (PTT) protocol, a PTT over Cellular (POC) protocol, a Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) protocol, a 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) protocol, a fifth generation (5G) protocol, a New Radio (NR) protocol, and the like.

[0023] In this embodiment, the UEs 101 and 1 02 may further directly exchange communication data via a ProSe interface 105. The ProSe interface 105 may

alternatively be referred to as a sidelink interface comprising one or more logical channels, including but not limited to a Physical Sidelink Control Channel (PSCCH), a Physical Sidelink Shared Channel (PSSCH), a Physical Sidelink Discovery Channel (PSDCH), and a Physical Sidelink Broadcast Channel (PSBCH).

[0024] The UE 102 is shown to be configured to access an access point (AP) 106 via connection 107. The connection 107 can comprise a local wireless connection, such as a connection consistent with any IEEE 802.1 1 protocol, wherein the AP 106 would comprise a wireless fidelity (WiFi®) router. In this example, the AP 1 06 is shown to be connected to the Internet without connecting to the core network of the wireless system (described in further detail below).

[0025] The RAN 1 1 0 can include one or more access nodes that enable the connections 1 03 and 104. These access nodes (ANs) can be referred to as base stations (BSs), NodeBs, evolved NodeBs (eNBs), next Generation NodeBs (gNB), RAN nodes, and so forth, and can comprise ground stations (e.g., terrestrial access points) or satellite stations providing coverage within a geographic area (e.g., a cell). The RAN 1 1 0 may include one or more RAN nodes for providing macrocells, e.g., macro RAN node 1 1 1 , and one or more RAN nodes for providing femtocells or picocells (e.g., cells having smaller coverage areas, smaller user capacity, or higher bandwidth compared to macrocells), e.g., low power (LP) RAN node 1 12.

[0026] Any of the RAN nodes 1 1 1 and 1 12 can terminate the air interface protocol and can be the first point of contact for the UEs 101 and 102. In some embodiments, any of the RAN nodes 1 1 1 and 1 12 can fulfill various logical functions for the RAN 1 1 0 including, but not limited to, radio network controller (RNC) functions such as radio bearer management, uplink and downlink dynamic radio resource management and data packet scheduling, and mobility management.

[0027] In accordance with some embodiments, the UEs 101 and 102 can be configured to communicate using Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (OFDM) communication signals with each other or with any of the RAN nodes 1 1 1 and 1 1 2 over a multicarrier communication channel in accordance various communication techniques, such as, but not limited to, an Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) communication technique (e.g., for downlink communications) or a Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) communication technique (e.g., for uplink and ProSe or sidelink communications), although the scope of the embodiments is not limited in this respect. The OFDM signals can comprise a plurality of orthogonal subcarriers.

[0028] In some embodiments, a downlink resource grid can be used for downlink transmissions from any of the RAN nodes 1 1 1 and 1 12 to the UEs 101 and 1 02, while uplink transmissions can utilize similar techniques. The grid can be a time-frequency grid, called a resource grid or time-frequency resource grid, which is the physical resource in the downlink in each slot. Such a time-frequency plane representation is a common practice for OFDM systems, which makes it intuitive for radio resource allocation. Each column and each row of the resource grid corresponds to one OFDM symbol and one OFDM subcarrier, respectively. The duration of the resource grid in the time domain corresponds to one slot in a radio frame. The smallest time-frequency unit in a resource grid is denoted as a resource element. Each resource grid comprises a number of resource blocks, which describe the mapping of certain physical channels to resource elements. Each resource block comprises a collection of resource elements; in the frequency domain, this may represent the smallest quantity of resources that currently can be allocated. There are several different physical downlink channels that are conveyed using such resource blocks.

[0029] The physical downlink shared channel (PDSCH) may carry user data and higher-layer signaling to the UEs 101 and 102. The physical downlink control channel (PDCCH) may carry information about the transport format and resource allocations related to the PDSCH channel, among other things. It may also inform the UEs 101 and 102 about the transport format, resource allocation, and H-ARQ (Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request) information related to the uplink shared channel. Typically, downlink scheduling (assigning control and shared channel resource blocks to the UE 102 within a cell) may be performed at any of the RAN nodes 1 1 1 and 1 12 based on channel quality information fed back from any of the UEs 101 and 102. The downlink resource assignment information may be sent on the PDCCH used for (e.g., assigned to) each of the UEs 101 and 1 02.

[0030] The PDCCH may use control channel elements (CCEs) to convey the control information. Before being mapped to resource elements, the PDCCH complex-valued symbols may first be organized into quadruplets, which may then be permuted using a sub-block interleaver for rate matching. Each PDCCH may be transmitted using one or more of these CCEs, where each CCE may correspond to nine sets of four physical resource elements known as resource element groups (REGs). Four Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) symbols may be mapped to each REG. The PDCCH can be transmitted using one or more CCEs, depending on the size of the downlink control information (DCI) and the channel condition. There can be four or more different PDCCH formats defined in LTE with different numbers of CCEs (e.g., aggregation level, L=1 , 2, 4, or 8).

[0031] Some embodiments may use concepts for resource allocation for control channel information that are an extension of the above-described concepts. For example, some embodiments may utilize an enhanced physical downlink control channel (EPDCCH) that uses PDSCH resources for control information transmission. The EPDCCH may be transmitted using one or more enhanced the control channel elements (ECCEs). Similar to above, each ECCE may correspond to nine sets of four physical resource elements known as an enhanced resource element groups (EREGs). An ECCE may have other numbers of EREGs in some situations.

[0032] The RAN 1 1 0 is shown to be communicatively coupled to a core network (CN) 1 20— via an S1 interface 1 1 3. In embodiments, the CN 120 may be an evolved packet core (EPC) network, a NextGen Packet Core (NPC) network, or some other type of CN. In this embodiment the S1 interface 1 13 is split into two parts: the S1 -U interface 1 14, which carries traffic data between the RAN nodes 1 1 1 and 1 12 and the serving gateway (S-GW) 122, and the S1 -mobility management entity (MME) interface 1 15, which is a signaling interface between the RAN nodes 1 1 1 and 1 12 and MMEs 121 .

[0033] In this embodiment, the CN 1 20 comprises the MMEs 121 , the S-GW 122, the Packet Data Network (PDN) Gateway (P-GW) 123, and a home subscriber server (HSS) 124. The MMEs 121 may be similar in function to the control plane of legacy Serving General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) Support Nodes (SGSN). The MMEs 121 may manage mobility aspects in access such as gateway selection and tracking area list management. The HSS 124 may comprise a database for network users, including subscription-related information to support the network entities' handling of

communication sessions. The CN 120 may comprise one or several HSSs 124, depending on the number of mobile subscribers, on the capacity of the equipment, on the organization of the network, etc. For example, the HSS 124 can provide support for routing/roaming, authentication, authorization, naming/addressing resolution, location dependencies, etc.

[0034] The S-GW 122 may terminate the S1 interface 1 13 towards the RAN 1 10, and routes data packets between the RAN 1 10 and the CN 120. In addition, the S-GW 122 may be a local mobility anchor point for inter-RAN node handovers and also may provide an anchor for inter-3GPP mobility. Other responsibilities may include lawful intercept, charging, and some policy enforcement.

[0035] The P-GW 123 may terminate an SGi interface toward a PDN. The P-GW 123 may route data packets between the EPC network 123 and external networks such as a network including the application server 130 (alternatively referred to as application function (AF)) via an Internet Protocol (IP) interface 125. Generally, the application server 130 may be an element offering applications that use IP bearer resources with the core network (e.g., UMTS Packet Services (PS) domain, LTE PS data services, etc.). In this embodiment, the P-GW 123 is shown to be communicatively coupled to an application server 130 via an IP communications interface 125. The application server 130 can also be configured to support one or more communication services (e.g., Voice-over-Internet Protocol (VoIP) sessions, PTT sessions, group communication sessions, social networking services, etc.) for the UEs 101 and 102 via the CN 120.

[0036] The P-GW 123 may further be a node for policy enforcement and charging data collection. Policy and Charging Enforcement Function (PCRF) 126 is the policy and charging control element of the CN 120. In a non-roaming scenario, there may be a single PCRF in the Home Public Land Mobile Network (HPLMN) associated with a UE's Internet Protocol Connectivity Access Network (IP-CAN) session. In a roaming scenario with local breakout of traffic, there may be two PCRFs associated with a UE's IP-CAN session: a Home PCRF (H-PCRF) within a HPLMN and a Visited PCRF (V-PCRF) within a Visited Public Land Mobile Network (VPLMN). The PCRF 126 may be communicatively coupled to the application server 130 via the P-GW 123. The application server 130 may signal the PCRF 126 to indicate a new service flow and select the appropriate Quality of Service (QoS) and charging parameters. The PCRF 126 may provision this rule into a Policy and Charging Enforcement Function (PCEF) (not shown) with the appropriate traffic flow template (TFT) and QoS class of identifier (QCI), which commences the QoS and charging as specified by the application server 130.

[0037] FIG. 2 illustrates example components of a device 200 in accordance with some embodiments. In some embodiments, the device 200 may include application circuitry 202, baseband circuitry 204, Radio Frequency (RF) circuitry 206, front-end module (FEM) circuitry 208, one or more antennas 21 0, and power management circuitry (PMC) 21 2 coupled together at least as shown. The components of the illustrated device 200 may be included in a UE or a RAN node. In some embodiments, the device 200 may include less elements (e.g., a RAN node may not utilize application circuitry 202, and instead include a processor/controller to process IP data received from an EPC). In some embodiments, the device 200 may include additional elements such as, for example, memory/storage, display, camera, sensor, or input/output (I/O) interface. In other embodiments, the components described below may be included in more than one device (e.g., said circuitries may be separately included in more than one device for Cloud-RAN (C-RAN) implementations).

[0038] The application circuitry 202 may include one or more application processors. For example, the application circuitry 202 may include circuitry such as, but not limited to, one or more single-core or multi-core processors. The processor(s) may include any combination of general-purpose processors and dedicated processors (e.g., graphics processors, application processors, etc.). The processors may be coupled with or may include memory/storage and may be configured to execute instructions stored in the memory/storage to enable various applications or operating systems to run on the device 200. In some embodiments, processors of application circuitry 202 may process IP data packets received from an EPC.

[0039] The baseband circuitry 204 may include circuitry such as, but not limited to, one or more single-core or multi-core processors. The baseband circuitry 204 may include one or more baseband processors or control logic to process baseband signals received from a receive signal path of the RF circuitry 206 and to generate baseband signals for a transmit signal path of the RF circuitry 206. Baseband processing circuity 204 may interface with the application circuitry 202 for generation and processing of the baseband signals and for controlling operations of the RF circuitry 206. For example, in some embodiments, the baseband circuitry 204 may include a third generation (3G) baseband processor 204A, a fourth generation (4G) baseband processor 204B, a fifth generation (5G) baseband processor 204C, or other baseband processor(s) 204D for other existing generations, generations in development or to be developed in the future (e.g., second generation (2G), sixth generation (6G), etc.). The baseband circuitry 204 (e.g., one or more of baseband processors 204A-D) may handle various radio control functions that enable communication with one or more radio networks via the RF circuitry 206. In other embodiments, some or all of the functionality of baseband processors 204A-D may be included in modules stored in the memory 204G and executed via a Central Processing Unit (CPU) 204E. The radio control functions may include, but are not limited to, signal modulation/demodulation, encoding/decoding, radio frequency shifting, etc. In some embodiments, modulation/demodulation circuitry of the baseband circuitry 204 may include Fast-Fourier Transform (FFT), precoding, or constellation mapping/demapping functionality. In some embodiments,

encoding/decoding circuitry of the baseband circuitry 204 may include convolution, tail- biting convolution, turbo, Viterbi, or Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) encoder/decoder functionality. Embodiments of modulation/demodulation and encoder/decoder functionality are not limited to these examples and may include other suitable functionality in other embodiments.

[0040] In some embodiments, the baseband circuitry 204 may include one or more audio digital signal processor(s) (DSP) 204F. The audio DSP(s) 204F may be include elements for compression/decompression and echo cancellation and may include other suitable processing elements in other embodiments. Components of the baseband circuitry may be suitably combined in a single chip, a single chipset, or disposed on a same circuit board in some embodiments. In some embodiments, some or all of the constituent components of the baseband circuitry 204 and the application circuitry 202 may be implemented together such as, for example, on a system on a chip (SOC).

[0041] In some embodiments, the baseband circuitry 204 may provide for communication compatible with one or more radio technologies. For example, in some embodiments, the baseband circuitry 204 may support communication with an evolved universal terrestrial radio access network (EUTRAN) or other wireless metropolitan area networks (WMAN), a wireless local area network (WLAN), a wireless personal area network (WPAN). Embodiments in which the baseband circuitry 204 is configured to support radio communications of more than one wireless protocol may be referred to as multi-mode baseband circuitry.

[0042] RF circuitry 206 may enable communication with wireless networks using modulated electromagnetic radiation through a non-solid medium. In various embodiments, the RF circuitry 206 may include switches, filters, amplifiers, etc. to facilitate the communication with the wireless network. RF circuitry 206 may include a receive signal path which may include circuitry to down-convert RF signals received from the FEM circuitry 208 and provide baseband signals to the baseband circuitry 204. RF circuitry 206 may also include a transmit signal path which may include circuitry to up-convert baseband signals provided by the baseband circuitry 204 and provide RF output signals to the FEM circuitry 208 for transmission.

[0043] In some embodiments, the receive signal path of the RF circuitry 206 may include mixer circuitry 206a, amplifier circuitry 206b and filter circuitry 206c. In some embodiments, the transmit signal path of the RF circuitry 206 may include filter circuitry 206c and mixer circuitry 206a. RF circuitry 206 may also include synthesizer circuitry 206d for synthesizing a frequency for use by the mixer circuitry 206a of the receive signal path and the transmit signal path. In some embodiments, the mixer circuitry 206a of the receive signal path may be configured to down-convert RF signals received from the FEM circuitry 208 based on the synthesized frequency provided by synthesizer circuitry 206d. The amplifier circuitry 206b may be configured to amplify the down- converted signals and the filter circuitry 206c may be a low-pass filter (LPF) or bandpass filter (BPF) configured to remove unwanted signals from the down-converted signals to generate output baseband signals. Output baseband signals may be provided to the baseband circuitry 204 for further processing. In some embodiments, the output baseband signals may be zero-frequency baseband signals, although this is not a requirement. In some embodiments, mixer circuitry 206a of the receive signal path may comprise passive mixers, although the scope of the embodiments is not limited in this respect.

[0044] In some embodiments, the mixer circuitry 206a of the transmit signal path may be configured to up-convert input baseband signals based on the synthesized frequency provided by the synthesizer circuitry 206d to generate RF output signals for the FEM circuitry 208. The baseband signals may be provided by the baseband circuitry 204 and may be filtered by filter circuitry 206c.

[0045] In some embodiments, the mixer circuitry 206a of the receive signal path and the mixer circuitry 206a of the transmit signal path may include two or more mixers and may be arranged for quadrature downconversion and upconversion, respectively. In some embodiments, the mixer circuitry 206a of the receive signal path and the mixer circuitry 206a of the transmit signal path may include two or more mixers and may be arranged for image rejection (e.g., Hartley image rejection). In some embodiments, the mixer circuitry 206a of the receive signal path and the mixer circuitry 206a may be arranged for direct downconversion and direct upconversion, respectively. In some embodiments, the mixer circuitry 206a of the receive signal path and the mixer circuitry 206a of the transmit signal path may be configured for super-heterodyne operation.

[0046] In some embodiments, the output baseband signals and the input baseband signals may be analog baseband signals, although the scope of the embodiments is not limited in this respect. In some alternate embodiments, the output baseband signals and the input baseband signals may be digital baseband signals. In these alternate embodiments, the RF circuitry 206 may include analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and digital-to-analog converter (DAC) circuitry and the baseband circuitry 204 may include a digital baseband interface to communicate with the RF circuitry 206.

[0047] In some dual-mode embodiments, a separate radio IC circuitry may be provided for processing signals for each spectrum, although the scope of the

embodiments is not limited in this respect.

[0048] In some embodiments, the synthesizer circuitry 206d may be a fractional-N synthesizer or a fractional N/N+1 synthesizer, although the scope of the embodiments is not limited in this respect as other types of frequency synthesizers may be suitable. For example, synthesizer circuitry 206d may be a delta-sigma synthesizer, a frequency multiplier, or a synthesizer comprising a phase-locked loop with a frequency divider.

[0049] The synthesizer circuitry 206d may be configured to synthesize an output frequency for use by the mixer circuitry 206a of the RF circuitry 206 based on a frequency input and a divider control input. In some embodiments, the synthesizer circuitry 206d may be a fractional N/N+1 synthesizer.

[0050] In some embodiments, frequency input may be provided by a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO), although that is not a requirement. Divider control input may be provided by either the baseband circuitry 204 or the applications processor 202 depending on the desired output frequency. In some embodiments, a divider control input (e.g., N) may be determined from a look-up table based on a channel indicated by the applications processor 202.

[0051] Synthesizer circuitry 206d of the RF circuitry 206 may include a divider, a delay-locked loop (DLL), a multiplexer and a phase accumulator. In some embodiments, the divider may be a dual modulus divider (DMD) and the phase accumulator may be a digital phase accumulator (DPA). In some embodiments, the DMD may be configured to divide the input signal by either N or N+1 (e.g., based on a carry out) to provide a fractional division ratio. In some example embodiments, the DLL may include a set of cascaded, tunable, delay elements, a phase detector, a charge pump and a D-type flip- flop. In these embodiments, the delay elements may be configured to break a VCO period up into Nd equal packets of phase, where Nd is the number of delay elements in the delay line. In this way, the DLL provides negative feedback to help ensure that the total delay through the delay line is one VCO cycle.

[0052] In some embodiments, synthesizer circuitry 206d may be configured to generate a carrier frequency as the output frequency, while in other embodiments, the output frequency may be a multiple of the carrier frequency (e.g., twice the carrier frequency, four times the carrier frequency) and used in conjunction with quadrature generator and divider circuitry to generate multiple signals at the carrier frequency with multiple different phases with respect to each other. In some embodiments, the output frequency may be a LO frequency (fLO). In some embodiments, the RF circuitry 206 may include an IQ/polar converter.

[0053] FEM circuitry 208 may include a receive signal path which may include circuitry configured to operate on RF signals received from one or more antennas 210, amplify the received signals and provide the amplified versions of the received signals to the RF circuitry 206 for further processing. FEM circuitry 208 may also include a transmit signal path which may include circuitry configured to amplify signals for transmission provided by the RF circuitry 206 for transmission by one or more of the one or more antennas 21 0. In various embodiments, the amplification through the transmit or receive signal paths may be done solely in the RF circuitry 206, solely in the FEM 208, or in both the RF circuitry 206 and the FEM 208.

[0054] In some embodiments, the FEM circuitry 208 may include a TX/RX switch to switch between transmit mode and receive mode operation. The FEM circuitry may include a receive signal path and a transmit signal path. The receive signal path of the FEM circuitry may include an LNA to amplify received RF signals and provide the amplified received RF signals as an output (e.g., to the RF circuitry 206). The transmit signal path of the FEM circuitry 208 may include a power amplifier (PA) to amplify input RF signals (e.g., provided by RF circuitry 206), and one or more filters to generate RF signals for subsequent transmission (e.g., by one or more of the one or more antennas 210).

[0055] In some embodiments, the PMC 212 may manage power provided to the baseband circuitry 204. In particular, the PMC 21 2 may control power-source selection, voltage scaling, battery charging, or DC-to-DC conversion. The PMC 212 may often be included when the device 200 is capable of being powered by a battery, for example, when the device is included in a UE. The PMC 21 2 may increase the power conversion efficiency while providing desirable implementation size and heat dissipation

characteristics.

[0056] While FIG. 2 shows the PMC 212 coupled only with the baseband circuitry 204. However, in other embodiments, the PMC 2 12 may be additionally or alternatively coupled with, and perform similar power management operations for, other components such as, but not limited to, application circuitry 202, RF circuitry 206, or FEM 208.

[0057] In some embodiments, the PMC 212 may control, or otherwise be part of, various power saving mechanisms of the device 200. For example, if the device 200 is in an RRC_Connected state, where it is still connected to the RAN node as it expects to receive traffic shortly, then it may enter a state known as Discontinuous Reception Mode (DRX) after a period of inactivity. During this state, the device 200 may power down for brief intervals of time and thus save power.

[0058] If there is no data traffic activity for an extended period of time, then the device 200 may transition off to an RRCJdle state, where it disconnects from the network and does not perform operations such as channel quality feedback, handover, etc. The device 200 goes into a very low power state and it performs paging where again it periodically wakes up to listen to the network and then powers down again. The device 200 may not receive data in this state, in order to receive data, it must transition back to RRC_Connected state.

[0059] An additional power saving mode may allow a device to be unavailable to the network for periods longer than a paging interval (ranging from seconds to a few hours). During this time, the device is totally unreachable to the network and may power down completely. Any data sent during this time incurs a large delay and it is assumed the delay is acceptable.

[0060] Processors of the application circuitry 202 and processors of the baseband circuitry 204 may be used to execute elements of one or more instances of a protocol stack. For example, processors of the baseband circuitry 204, alone or in combination, may be used execute Layer 3, Layer 2, or Layer 1 functionality, while processors of the application circuitry 204 may utilize data (e.g., packet data) received from these layers and further execute Layer 4 functionality (e.g., transmission communication protocol (TCP) and user datagram protocol (UDP) layers). As referred to herein, Layer 3 may comprise a radio resource control (RRC) layer, described in further detail below. As referred to herein, Layer 2 may comprise a medium access control (MAC) layer, a radio link control (RLC) layer, and a packet data convergence protocol (PDCP) layer, described in further detail below. As referred to herein, Layer 1 may comprise a physical (PHY) layer of a UE/RAN node, described in further detail below.

[0061] FIG. 3 illustrates example interfaces of baseband circuitry in accordance with some embodiments. As discussed above, the baseband circuitry 204 of FIG. 2 may comprise processors 204A-204E and a memory 204G utilized by said processors. Each of the processors 204A-204E may include a memory interface, 304A-304E,

respectively, to send/receive data to/from the memory 204G.

[0062] The baseband circuitry 204 may further include one or more interfaces to communicatively couple to other circuitries/devices, such as a memory interface 312 (e.g., an interface to send/receive data to/from memory external to the baseband circuitry 204), an application circuitry interface 314 (e.g., an interface to send/receive data to/from the application circuitry 202 of FIG. 2), an RF circuitry interface 316 (e.g., an interface to send/receive data to/from RF circuitry 206 of FIG. 2), a wireless hardware connectivity interface 31 8 (e.g., an interface to send/receive data to/from Near Field Communication (NFC) components, Bluetooth® components (e.g., Bluetooth® Low Energy), Wi-Fi® components, and other communication components), and a power management interface 320 (e.g., an interface to send/receive power or control signals to/from the PMC 212).

[0063] During the 3GPP RAN #71 meeting, a new Study Item "Study on new radio access technology" was approved, in order to develop a new RAT which supports a broad range of use cases including enhanced mobile broadband, massive MTC

(Machine Type Communication), which can comprise critical MTC and can operate in frequency ranges up to 100 GHz. For massive MTC (mMTC) applications, grant-free NOMA (non-orthogonal multiple access) can be beneficial for supporting massive number of UEs requesting intermittent transmissions of small data packets.

[0064]

[0065] In the 3GPP RAN1 (RAN WG1 (Working Group 1 )) #85 meeting, the following agreements were made regarding grant-free transmission: (1 ) Autonomous/grant- free/contention based UL non-orthogonal multiple access can have the following characteristics: (a) A transmission from UE does not need the dynamic and explicit scheduling grant from eNB, (b) Multiple UEs can share the same time and frequency resources; and (2) For autonomous/grant-free/contention based UL non-orthogonal multiple access, the following should be studied: (a) Collision of time/frequency resources from different UEs, solutions potentially including (i) E.g., code, sequence, interleaver pattern, (b) UL synchronization (DL synchronization assumed): (i) Case 1 : Timing offsets between UEs are within a cyclic prefix and (ii) Case 2: Timing offsets between UEs can be greater than a cyclic prefix, FFS (for further study) the exact model of timing offsets , (c) cases for power control: (i) Case 1 : Perfect open-loop power control, i.e., equal average SNR (Signal-to-Noise Ratio) between UEs for potentially link level calibration, (ii) Case 2: Realistic open-loop power control with certain alpha and PO values, and (iii) Case 3: Close-loop power control; and (d) Receiver impact.

[0066] Referring to FIG. 4, illustrated is a block diagram of a system 400 employable at a UE (User Equipment) that facilitates uplink grant-free NOMA (Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access) transmissions, according to various aspects described herein. System 400 can include one or more processors 410 (e.g., one or more baseband processors such as one or more of the baseband processors discussed in connection with FIG. 2 and/or FIG. 3) comprising processing circuitry and associated memory interface(s) (e.g., memory interface(s) discussed in connection with FIG. 3), transceiver circuitry 420 (e.g., comprising one or more of transmitter circuitry or receiver circuitry, which can employ common circuit elements, distinct circuit elements, or a combination thereof), and a memory 430 (which can comprise any of a variety of storage mediums and can store instructions and/or data associated with one or more of processor(s) 410 or transceiver circuitry 420). In various aspects, system 400 can be included within a user equipment (UE), for example, a MTC UE. As described in greater detail below, system 400 can facilitate grant-free NOMA transmission of UL data.

[0067] Referring to FIG. 5, illustrated is a block diagram of a system 500 employable at a BS (Base Station) that facilitates uplink grant-free NOMA transmissions from one or more UEs, according to various aspects described herein. System 600 can include one or more processors 51 0 (e.g., one or more baseband processors such as one or more of the baseband processors discussed in connection with FIG. 2 and/or FIG. 3) comprising processing circuitry and associated memory interface(s) (e.g., memory interface(s) discussed in connection with FIG. 3), communication circuitry 520 (e.g., which can comprise circuitry for one or more wired (e.g., X2, etc.) connections and/or transceiver circuitry that can comprise one or more of transmitter circuitry (e.g., associated with one or more transmit chains) or receiver circuitry (e.g., associated with one or more receive chains), wherein the transmitter circuitry and receiver circuitry can employ common circuit elements, distinct circuit elements, or a combination thereof), and memory 530 (which can comprise any of a variety of storage mediums and can store instructions and/or data associated with one or more of processor(s) 510 or communication circuitry 520). In various aspects, system 500 can be included within an Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN) Node B (Evolved Node B, eNodeB, or eNB), next generation Node B (gNodeB or gNB) or other base station in a wireless communications network. In some aspects, the processor(s) 510,

communication circuitry 520, and the memory 530 can be included in a single device, while in other aspects, they can be included in different devices, such as part of a distributed architecture. As described in greater detail below, system 500 can facilitate grant-free NOMA transmission of UL data from a plurality of UEs.

[0068] In various aspects discussed herein, techniques can be employed to facilitate enhancements to grant-free UL (Uplink) transmission with non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA), for example, in mMTC type use cases. In various aspects, these enhancements can comprise one or more of: (a) Design options and characteristics for reference signals and preamble for efficient time/frequency tracking and channel estimation; (b) Options for data spreading for UL NOMA schemes; (c) Support of different MCS (Modulation and Coding Scheme), TBS (Transport Block Size), and/or coverage levels for grant-less UL NOMA; (d) Resource allocation and multi-user multiplexing based on a hybrid of orthogonal and non-orthogonal multiple access in a NOMA region, which can employ UE group identity (ID)- and transmission bandwidth- specific resource allocation; (e) Semi-static UE transmit power control with TBS-specific adjustment and interference-level adjustment; or (f) Support of retransmissions, repetitions, ACK/NACK feedback, and early termination.

[0069] While, for the purposes of illustration, various embodiments, aspects, and techniques discussed herein are primarily described considering mMTC UL use cases, in general, these embodiments, aspects, and techniques (e.g., aspects related to UE- identification, etc.) can be adapted for grant-free UL NOMA transmissions for other use cases, such as eMBB or URLLC.

Reference signals and preamble design options for UL NOMA

[0070] The design(s) of reference signals (RS) (e.g., generated by processor(s) 410, transmitted via transceiver circuitry 420, received via communication circuitry 520, and processed by processor(s) 510) discussed herein for the demodulation (e.g., via processor(s) 510) of the encoded packets (e.g., encoded by processor(s) 410 and transmitted by transceiver circuitry 420) can facilitate reliable channel estimation (e.g., by processor(s) 51 0) in the presence of non-orthogonal transmissions from multiple UEs (e.g., each of which can comprise a distinct system 400) on the same physical resources. Thus, in aspects, DM-RS design(s) discussed herein can facilitate realization of "SINR (Signal-to-lnterference-plus-Noise Ratio) gains," either based on processing gains of the sequences (e.g., based on long spreading and subsequent de-spreading operations via processor(s) 410 and/or processor(s) 510) or based on the combining gain from repetitions and subsequent cross-time-slot and/or cross-subframe filtering of the DM-RS symbols (e.g., via processor(s) 510) at the BS (Base Station, e.g., gNodeB, eNodeB, etc.) receiver.

[0071] In various aspects, the sequences used for DM-RS (e.g., generated by processor(s) 410, transmitted via transceiver circuitry 420, received via communication circuitry 520, and processed by processor(s) 510) can maintain low cross-correlation properties, with at least quasi-orthogonality between different sequences. For a particular sequence length, quasi-orthogonal sequences based on pseudo random sequences (e.g., computer generated QPSK (Quadrature Phase Shift Keying) sequences, M-sequences, Gold sequences, etc.) can help provide a larger total space of sequences compared to fully orthogonal sequence space. Thus, in various embodiments, a combination of quasi-orthogonal and orthogonal sequences can be used (e.g., by processor(s) 410 and/or processor(s) 510) to comprise the sequence space for DM-RS, and mapping rules can be defined (e.g., as described herein) to alleviate complexity of detection (e.g., by processor(s) 510) at the BS.

[0072] Reference signal transmissions (e.g., generated by processor(s) 41 0, transmitted via transceiver circuitry 420, received via communication circuitry 520, and processed by processor(s) 510) based on repetitive patterns in time can help facilitate simple algorithms for frequency offset estimation and correction (e.g., via processor(s) 51 0) at the BS receiver. Additionally, in various aspects, a repetitive burst of DM-RS at the beginning of a transmission (e.g., generated by processor(s) 410, transmitted via transceiver circuitry 420, received via communication circuitry 520, and processed by processor(s) 510) with an optional gap between the DM-RS burst and the subsequent data REs can be beneficial towards enabling a common preamble-cum-RS design that can be applied to both types of UL NOMA transmissions - those that are UL

synchronized (UL transmissions with application of timing advance) and those that are not (UL transmissions based on DL reference timing at the UE without application of any timing advance). Referring to FIG. 6, illustrated is a diagram of an example design comprising a common preamble and DM-RS with optional gap, according to various aspects discussed herein. In aspects, the presence of the optional gap at the end of the preamble/initial DM-RS burst can depend on whether or not the UL transmission (e.g., generated by processor(s) 410, transmitted via transceiver circuitry 420, received via communication circuitry 520, and processed by processor(s) 510) is done with application of TA (Timing Advance).

[0073] Most of the above characteristics of DM-RS sequences employable in various aspects discussed herein can be applied for a preamble design in scenarios supporting transmission of preambles in addition to the DM-RS (e.g., generated by processor(s) 41 0, transmitted via transceiver circuitry 420, received via communication circuitry 520, and processed by processor(s) 510).

[0074] Additionally, a design as discussed herein can facilitate accurate estimation (e.g., by processor(s) 510) at the BS receiver of the time of arrival based on

transmissions from UE(s) in poor coverage conditions. Thus, in various aspects, a preamble design can be employed that can be based on single-tone transmission with frequency hopping (e.g., which can be FDM (Frequency Division Multiplexing) based as defined in Rel-1 3 (3GPP (Third Generation Partnership Project) Release 13) NB

(NarrowBand)-loT (Internet of Things)), and can employ additional spreading with quasi- orthogonal sequences to increase the user capacity. Alternatively, such a design can be based on narrowband transmissions with repetitions to provide link-budget gains.

Data spreading for UL NOMA schemes

[0075] In general, data spreading for UL NOMA transmissions (e.g., by processor(s) 41 0) can be based on low code rate transmissions that can harvest the maximum coding gains possible. However, additionally, sequence-based spreading of data symbols can also be applied (e.g., by processor(s) 410) to achieve a better control over the trade-off between coding gain and repetition gain, or due to other motivations, for example, if a common UE-specific signature based spreading is applied (e.g., by processor(s) 410) to both data symbols and RS. However, to maximize the benefits from coding gains, in various aspects, orthogonal or quasi-orthogonal sequence-based spreading can be applied (e.g., by processor(s) 410) such that the code rate before spreading operation can be close to or lower than the mother code rate of the channel coding applied.

[0076] In various aspects, the data spreading sequence can be generated (e.g., by processor(s) 410) similar to the DM-RS sequence as defined for NB-loT. For example, the data spreading sequence ru (n) for > 1 can defined by a cyclic shift a of a base sequence according to equation (1 ): ru (n) = eJVW,l/4, 0 < n < - 1

[0077] Where <p(n) can be the phase offset taken from {-1 , 1 , 3, -3} for the base sequence, which can be generated based on computer search. is the spreading factor.

[0078] As one example, for a length-4 spreading code, (η) can be defined as [1 1 1 3] for one root index.

Support of different MCS, TBS, and coverage levels for grant-less UL NOMA

[0079] In various aspects, one or more of the alternatives discussed below can be employed to different MCS/TBS/coverage levels.

[0080] In a first alternative, MCS/spectral efficiency based resource partitioning can be employed (e.g., by processor(s) 410 and/or processor(s) 510). In a first set of aspects of the first alternative, indication can be accomplished by employing different resource pool partitioning (e.g., for different MCSs, etc.). In a second set of aspects of the first alternative, indication can be accomplished via one or more of signature sequence, preamble/DM-RS, etc.

[0081] In a second alternative, the same MCS, and different TBS can be employed based on resource mapping (e.g., by processor(s) 410 at various UEs) to a different number of PRBs or time-domain resource units (RUs) with partial overlaps.

[0082] In a first set of aspects of the second alternative, the same MCS/TBS but different number of repetitions can be employed (e.g., by processor(s) 41 0 at various UEs) with potentially partial overlaps between time-domain Resource Units (e.g., subframes (or slots, etc.) or sets of subframes (or slots, etc.)). In one example,

Hadamard code can be applied (e.g., by processor(s) 410) on each PRB (Physical Resource Block) for repeated transmission. A UE can select (e.g., via processor(s) 410) one Hadamard code with one spreading factor, which can be associated with a UE coverage enhancement level of that UE. According to this nest structure, the receiving BS (e.g., gNB, eNB, etc.) can decode (e.g., via processor(s) 510) the packets from multiple UEs with different number of repetition levels (or correspondingly, the coverage enhancement level).

[0083] As another example associated with the second alternative, the resources in the time domain can be supported with partial overlaps by specifying or configuring a nested structure between transmissions (e.g., by processor(s) 410 at various UEs) using different numbers of repetitions. This can be achieved by defining candidate starting subframes (or slots, etc.) corresponding to transmissions with different numbers of repetitions such that there exists a nested structure between a first transmission using a larger number of repetitions and a second transmission using a fewer number of repetitions (in various embodiments, this mechanism can be extended to the case when repetition is applied on the symbol level). As a specific example, assuming two numbers of repetitions with partial overlaps, R1 and R2 where R2 = 2*R1 , the starting subframes (or slots, etc.) for transmissions (e.g., via transceiver circuitry 420 of

signaling/message(s) generated by processor(s) 41 0) with R1 repetitions can coincide with those for transmissions with R2 repetitions, for example, starting subframes (or slots, etc.) every R2 subframes (or slots, etc.). However, additionally, UL transmissions (e.g., via transceiver circuitry 420 of signaling/message(s) generated by processor(s) 41 0) with R1 repetitions can also start at the mid-point between two consecutive starting subframes (or slots, etc.) that are R2 subframes (or slots, etc.) apart. Referring to FIG. 7, illustrated is a diagram of an example scenario of partial overlap of UL transmissions based on two different numbers of repetitions, according to various aspects discussed herein. FIG. 7 shows an example with partial overlap of UL transmissions using different number of repetitions following a nested structure. The vertical edges in FIG. 7 indicate the starting subframes (or slots, etc.) for the corresponding transmissions with R2 (upper rectangles) and R1 (lower rectangles) repetitions.

[0084] In such an example scenario, the BS can perform decoding attempts (e.g., via processor(s) 510) every R2 subframes (or slots, etc.) for UL transmissions with R2 repetitions and every R1 subframes (or slots, etc.) for UL transmissions with R1 repetitions, and, given a predefined structure between the transmissions with different number of repetitions, the interference from a transmission from a UE that is decoded can be subtracted out from the corresponding received symbols in the overlapped resources (e.g., via processor(s) 510) before attempting to decode the remaining UE(s). Similar techniques can be applied in other example scenarios.

[0085] In a third alternative, the same number of PRBs, but different TBS based on different MCS (e.g., different QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) modulation) can be employed. Such an alternative can benefit MMSE (Minimum Mean Square Error)- SIC (Successive Interference Cancellation) type of receiver, for example, with unequal received power at the BS receiver.

[0086] In various aspects implementing the second alternative or variations on the second alternative discussed herein, spread sequences can be employed for data (and optionally also for DM-RS) such that sequences of different lengths can still maintain low cross-correlation between themselves as long as they are aligned or maintain certain well-defined relationships in terms of their respective starting subcarrier or symbol indices.

[0087] In various embodiments, the network can configure (e.g., via messaging generated by processor(s) 510, transmitted via communication circuitry 520, received via transceiver circuitry 420, and processed by processor(s) 410) multiple NOMA transmission regions and multiple sets of TBS, where each TBS set can be associated with a transmission bandwidth supported within the configured NOMA region. Each TBS set can have TBS values within a certain range so that the SNR for successful decoding can vary only within a few dBs over the different TBS values in the set for a given NOMA transmission bandwidth.

[0088] In various embodiments, the network can configure (e.g., via messaging generated by processor(s) 510, transmitted via communication circuitry 520, received via transceiver circuitry 420, and processed by processor(s) 410) TBS values of multiple TBS sets such that modulation and coding schemes (MCS) may be the same or similar for different transmission bandwidths. For example, if transmission bandwidths of 1 , 4, and 12 PRB and QPSK modulation are configured in the NOMA region, TBS sets can be defined as follows: (a) TBS set 1 for 1 PRB: [20 38 56], assuming 16 bits CRC; (b) TBS set 2 for 4 PRB: [120 1 92 264], assuming 24 bits CRC; and (c) TBS set 3 for 12 PRB: [408 624 840], assuming 24 bits CRC. For these 3 example TBS sets, code rates can be the same, with [0.1250 0.1875 0.2500]. This can make the target SNR per resource element (RE) the same or similar for different TBS sets, and can effectively support a wide range of TBS values within the NOMA region without creating significant power difference for UEs.

[0089] Within a given NOMA region, resource elements which can be used for data transmission of a given UE (e.g., generated by processor(s) 410, transmitted via transceiver circuitry 420, received via communication circuitry 520, and processed by processor(s) 510) can be determined in a UE-specific (or UE group-specific) manner, and the resource allocation and symbol mapping rules can be known (e.g., stored in memory 430 and/or memory 530) to both UE and the TRP (Tx (Transmit)/Rx (Receive) Point, e.g., gNB, eNB, etc.). Resource elements assigned to different UEs (e.g., via processor(s) 510) can be overlapped, which can allow non-orthogonal multi-user multiplexing in the NOMA region.

[0090] UE grouping: The network can divide (e.g., via processor(s) 51 0) a given set of UEs to be multiplexed in a given NOMA region into a number of groups, and can indicate an assigned UE group to each UE (e.g., via messaging (e.g., higher layer signaling, etc.) generated by processor(s) 510, transmitted via communication circuitry 520, received via transceiver circuitry 420, and processed by processor(s) 410).

[0091] The network can indicate configurations for a NOMA region (e.g., via messaging (e.g., higher layer signaling, etc.) generated by processor(s) 510, transmitted via communication circuitry 520, received via transceiver circuitry 420, and processed by processor(s) 410), which can comprise an allocated bandwidth (e.g., in terms of the number of PRBs), an allocated time (e.g., in terms of the number of subframes, slots, symbols, etc.), allocated PRB locations within a system bandwidth, numerology such as a sub-carrier spacing and/or a transmission time interval (TTI), and/or a set of allowed transmission bandwidths within the NOMA region and corresponding TBS sets. In one example, the number of UE groups can be same as the number of PRB-pairs in the NOMA region.

[0092] A UE can determine (e.g., via processor(s) 410) a TBS and a corresponding transmission bandwidth within the NOMA region, by adjusting (e.g., via processor(s) 410) a TBS based on power headroom estimates for the assumed TBS.

[0093] Referring to FIG. 8, illustrated is a diagram showing examples of NOMA and OMA regions along with example PRB allocations within a NOMA region, according to various aspects discussed herein. In FIG. 8, 810, 820, and 830 illustrate example UE group ID- and transmission bandwidth-specific resource allocations for different PRB aggregation levels.

UE Transmit Power Control for Grant-less Uplink Transmission

[0094] In grant-free non-orthogonal transmission, closed-loop power control via a dynamic transmit power control command may not be suitable, given that the network does not know when the data arrives at the UE and when the UE transmits the data. With open-loop power control, a UE can determine (e.g., via processor(s) 410) the transmit power, similar to the determination of LTE (Long Term Evolution) PRACH (Physical Random Access Channel) preamble power, as in equation (2):

PNOMA (i) = min{PCMAXjC(i), TARGET RECEIVED POWER PER PRB +

PRB aggregation level +PLC +AInterference(0+ ^TBs(0 } [dBm], where PCMAX,C(0 's the configured maximum UE transmit power for transmit time interval /' of serving TRP (or cell) c, PLC is the downlink path loss estimate calculated (e.g., via processor(s) 410) in the UE for serving TRP (or cell) c, and

TARGET RECEIVED POWER PER PRB and AInter erence(i) are the target received power per PRB and the interference-level dependent power adjustment value, respectively, both of which can be indicated by the network node (e.g. a serving TRP) via higher-layer signaling semi-statically or downlink control information (DCI) signaling dynamically (e.g., generated by processor(s) 510, transmitted via communication circuitry 520, received via transceiver circuitry 420, and processed by processor(s) 410). The PRB aggregation level is a transmission bandwidth in terms of the number of PRBs.

[0095] The network can determine (e.g., via processor(s) 510) the

TARGET RECEIVED POWER PER PRB based on both the target SINR per PRB for a certain MCS and a nominal interference power level on a configured transmission resource of NOMA.

[0096] The network can transmit an interference-level dependent power adjustment value ΔΙηί8Γ¾Γ8η(:8(ί) per UE group, and/or per transmission bandwidth, either dynamically or semi-statically (e.g., via higher layer signaling or DCI messages generated by processor(s) 510, transmitted via communication circuitry 520, received via transceiver circuitry 420, and processed by processor(s) 410).

[0097] ΔΤΒ§(ί) is a power adjustment value for a given TBS within a TBS set. For example, the network can signal TBS-specific power adjustment values [-1 , 0, 1 ] dB for the TBS set [120 192 264] bits, and UE can apply a proper AXBS(i) value for the selected TBS.

Support of retransmissions, repetitions, ACK/NACK feedback, and early

termination

[0098] Support of retransmissions or multiple attempts can provide sufficient reliability for UL grant-free NOMA schemes, especially for mMTC use cases that involve additional coverage enhancements compared to regular broadband operation.

[0099] In various aspects, one or more of the following techniques can be employed to support retransmissions or multiple attempts.

[00100] Transmissions with repetitions of the encoded transport block (TB) - in this technique, the number of repetitions used can be configured (e.g., via messaging generated by processor(s) 510, transmitted via communication circuitry 520, received via transceiver circuitry 420, and processed by processor(s) 410) on a per-resource pool basis and the UE can select (e.g., via processor(s) 410) an adequate repetition level based on its estimate of its coverage condition based on DL measurements (e.g., RSRP, RSRQ, etc., performed by processor(s) 410). Additionally, during the repetitions, the redundancy version either can be maintained the same or can be cycled every set of subframes or slots (e.g., wherein the number of subframes or slots can be predefined or can be configured by the BS (e.g., via higher layer signaling generated by

processor(s) 510, transmitted via communication circuitry 520, received via transceiver circuitry 420, and processed by processor(s) 410) based on a target coverage enhancement level).

[00101 ] Transmissions with repetitions with early termination support - In this technique, the repetitions (e.g., generated by processor(s) 410) can be transmitted (e.g., via transceiver circuitry 420) with some predefined gaps in the time domain to allow the UE to monitor (e.g., via processor(s) 410 and transceiver circuitry 420) for a positive ACKnowledgment from the BS (e.g., gNB, eNB, etc.). In case such an ACK is received, the UE (e.g., via processor(s) 410) can terminate transmissions, thereby saving UE power and reducing the interference level in the system.

[00102] Support of multiple attempts or retransmissions - Until an ACK is received, the UE can continue to perform multiple attempts or retransmissions (e.g., via processor(s) 410 and transceiver circuitry 420). In this technique, for every set of K attempts, the transmission characteristics (e.g., one or more of MCS/RV (Redundancy Version)/repetition level) can be adjusted according to an adaptive retransmission scheme, where K can be a predefined or configured parameter (configured by the BS on a per coverage level or resource pool basis (e.g., via signaling/messages generated by processor(s) 51 0, transmitted via communication circuitry 520, received via transceiver circuitry 420, and processed by processor(s) 410)). In a first example, the repetition level can be increased (e.g., by processor(s) 410) every K attempts to improve the robustness and link-budget of the subsequent transmission attempts. In another example, the UE can choose (e.g., via processor(s) 41 0) a lower MCS or larger resource for retransmission to further improve the link budget.

[00103] UE-group-identity based ACK/NACK feedback - As discussed above, UE- group-identities can be defined as a function of one or more of: the resource pool used, the particular physical resource used within the resource pool, coverage level, etc. Accordingly, in this technique, instead of transmitting individual ACKs to the UEs that have been successfully detected, the BS can send (e.g., via communication circuitry 520) an ACK or NACK (e.g., generated by processor(s) 510) corresponding to a UE- group-identity. In contrast to the ACK-only mechanism (discussed above in connection with support of early termination), in this technique, a NACK (e.g., generated by processor(s) 510) can also be transmitted (e.g., via communication circuitry 520) without the BS knowing the identities of the individual transmitting UEs, and thus, can be seen as complementary to the per-UE ACK-only feedback mechanism described above. Consequently, the reliability of the feedback mechanism can be improved.

[00104] Thus, in a scenario implementing such a technique, a UE can consider its transmission as successful (e.g., as determined by processor(s) 410) if it receives (e.g., via transceiver circuitry 420) an individual ACK or receives (e.g., via transceiver circuitry 420) an ACK corresponding to the UE-group-identity. On the other hand, if it receives (e.g., via transceiver circuitry 420) a NACK corresponding to the UE-group-identity and no individual ACK, then it can assume (e.g., via a determination made by processor(s) 41 0) that the previous transmission attempt failed.

[00105] As another scenario involving such a technique, for a multi-stage grant-free NOMA transmission scheme (e.g., a Type 2A connection-less UL transmission, etc.) such UE-group-identity based ACK/NACK response can indicate to the UE whether a Scheduling Request (SR) transmission (e.g., generated by processor(s) 41 0 and transmitted via transceiver circuitry 420) was successfully received (e.g., via

communication circuitry 520) and acknowledged (e.g., via an ACK generated by processor(s) 510 and transmitted by communication circuitry 520) by the BS - and based on this feedback (e.g., received via transceiver circuitry 420 and processed via processor(s) 410), the UE can continue to transmit (e.g., via transceiver circuitry 420) the actual data (e.g., via processor(s) 410) according to the resource allocation and transmission scheme indicated in the SR if an ACK is indicated. Otherwise, the UE can retransmit or re-attempt transmission of the SR (e.g., via processor(s) 410 and transceiver circuitry 420) until acknowledged positively by the BS (e.g., via an ACK generated by processor(s) 510, transmitted via communication circuitry 520, received via transceiver circuitry 420, and processed by processor(s) 410)).

[00106] Referring to FIG. 9, illustrated is a flow diagram of an example method 900 employable at a UE that facilitates grant-free UL NOMA transmission, according to various aspects discussed herein. In other aspects, a machine readable medium can store instructions associated with method 900 that, when executed, can cause a UE to perform the acts of method 900. [00107] At 910, a preamble and/or DM-RS associated with the UL data packet can be transmitted.

[00108] At 920, a grant-free UL data packet can be transmitted.

[00109] At 930, optionally, HARQ ACK feedback associated with the UL data packet can be received. In scenarios wherein no HARQ ACK is received (e.g., a NACK or no feedback), retransmission can be performed via 910 and 920.

[00110] Additionally or alternatively, method 900 can include one or more other acts described herein in connection with system 400.

[00111 ] Referring to FIG. 10, illustrated is a flow diagram of an example method 1 000 employable at a BS that facilitates grant-free UL NOMA transmission from one or more

UEs, according to various aspects discussed herein. In other aspects, a machine readable medium can store instructions associated with method 1000 that, when executed, can cause a BS to perform the acts of method 1000.

[00112] At 1010, one or more UEs can be configured for grant-free UL NOMA transmission.

[00113] At 1020, one or more preambles and/or DM-RS can be received from the one or more UEs.

[00114] At 1030, one or more grant-free UL transmissions can be received from the one or more UEs and processed based on the one or more preambles and/or DM-RS.

[00115] At 1040, HARQ ACK feedback can be transmitted to the one or more UEs based on the one or more grant-free UL transmissions.

[00116] Additionally or alternatively, method 1000 can include one or more other acts described herein in connection with system 500.

[00117] A first example technique can be employed (e.g., by a system 500 and/or one or more system(s) 400) to facilitate wireless communications for a 5G (fifth generation) system, and can comprise: transmitting, by a UE (e.g., via transceiver circuitry 420), an uplink data packet (e.g., generated by processor(s) 410) on a time and frequency resource without a grant received from a BS (e.g., gNodeB, eNodeB, etc.) and transmitting, by the UE (e.g., via transceiver circuitry 420), a Demodulation reference signal (DM-RS) and/or preamble (e.g., generated by processor(s) 41 0) associated with the uplink data packet.

[00118] In various aspects of the first example technique, a combination of quasi- orthogonal and orthogonal sequences can be used to comprise the sequence space for DM-RS. [00119] In various aspects of the first example technique, a repetitive pattern in time can be specified (e.g., predefined, or via higher layer signaling generated by

processor(s) 510, transmitted by communication circuitry 520, received by transceiver circuitry 420, and processed by processor(s) 410) for the DM-RS and/or preamble.

[00120] In various aspects of the first example technique, orthogonal or quasi- orthogonal sequence-based spreading can be applied (e.g., by processor(s) 410) such that the code rate before the spreading operation is close to, if not lower than, the mother code rate of the channel coding applied.

[00121 ] In various aspects of the first example technique, the network can configure (e.g., via higher layer signaling generated by processor(s) 510, transmitted by communication circuitry 520, received by transceiver circuitry 420, and processed by processor(s) 410) multiple NOMA transmission bandwidths and multiple sets of modulation and coding scheme (MCS) or transport block size (TBS) or coverage enhancement levels or a combination thereof, where each TBS set is associated with a transmission bandwidth supported within the configured NOMA region. In various such aspects, the MCS, TBS, or coverage enhancement levels can be indicated by one of signature sequence, preamble or DM-RS (e.g., as generated by processor(s) 410).

[00122] In various aspects of the first example technique, the network can configure (e.g., via higher layer signaling/DCI generated by processor(s) 510, transmitted via communication circuitry 520, received via transceiver circuitry 420, and processed by processor(s) 410) TBS values of multiple TBS sets such that modulation and coding schemes (MCS) can be the same or similar for different transmission bandwidths.

[00123] In various aspects of the first example technique, multiple transmissions for the same MCS/TBS but different number of repetitions (e.g., data/signaling generated by respective processor(s) 410 of multiple UEs, transmitted via transceiver circuitry 420 of those UEs) can potentially partially overlap between time-domain Resource Units (e.g., subframes (or slots) or sets of subframes (or slots)). In various such aspects, the starting subframe(s) (or slot(s), etc.) of the transmissions with different numbers of repetitions can be configured or specified (e.g., predefined, or configured via higher layer signaling/DCI generated by processor(s) 510, transmitted via communication circuitry 520, received via transceiver circuitry 420, and processed by processor(s) 410) such that the partial overlaps between two transmissions with different numbers of repetitions result in a nested structure.

[00124] In various aspects of the first example technique, multiple transmissions (e.g., data/signaling generated by respective processor(s) 410 of multiple UEs, transmitted via transceiver circuitry 420 of those UEs) can use the same number of PRBs, but a different TBS, which can be based on a different (e.g., associated) MCS (different QAM modulation).

[00125] In various aspects of the first example technique, the network (e.g., via processor(s) 410) can divide a given set of UEs to be multiplexed in a given NOMA region into a number of UE groups, and can indicate (e.g., via higher layer signaling/DCI generated by processor(s) 510, transmitted via communication circuitry 520, received via transceiver circuitry 420, and processed by processor(s) 410) an assigned UE group to each UE.

[00126] In various aspects of the first example technique, TBS-specific adjustment and interference-level dependent power adjustment can be included in an open loop power control mechanism for grant-less uplink transmission (e.g., employed by processor(s) 410 and transceiver circuitry 420, wherein the network can transmit (e.g., via communication circuitry 520) an interference-level dependent power adjustment value ΔΙηί8Γ¾Γ8η(:8 (ί) per UE group, and/or per transmission bandwidth, either dynamically or semi-statically (e.g., via higher layer signaling/DCI generated by processor(s) 510, transmitted via communication circuitry 520, received via transceiver circuitry 420, and processed by processor(s) 410).

[00127] In various aspects of the first example technique, the number of repetitions used (e.g., by system 400) can be configured (e.g., generated by processor(s) 510, transmitted via communication circuitry 520, received via transceiver circuitry 420, and processed by processor(s) 410) on a per-resource pool basis and the UE can select (e.g., via processor(s) 410) an adequate repetition level based on its estimate of its coverage condition based on DL measurements (e.g., performed by processor(s) 410 on signaling received by transceiver circuitry 420), wherein the redundancy version can be maintained the same or can be cycled every set of subframes/slots (that can be predefined or configured by the BS based on a target coverage enhancement level).

[00128] In various aspects of the first set of techniques, repetitions can be transmitted (e.g., via transceiver circuitry 420) with some predefined gaps in the time domain to allow the UE to monitor (e.g., via processor(s) 410 and transceiver circuitry 420) for a positive ACKnowledgment from the BS (e.g., gNB, eNB, etc.); wherein the UE can terminate transmissions once it receives an ACK from the BS.

[00129] In various aspects of the first set of techniques, for every set of K

retransmission attempts, the transmission characteristics like MCS/RV/repetition level can be adjusted (e.g., via processor(s) 410) according to an adaptive retransmission scheme, where K can be a predefined or configured parameter (e.g., configured by the BS on a per coverage level or resource pool basis, such as via higher layer signaling generated by processor(s) 510, transmitted via communication circuitry 520, received via transceiver circuitry 420, and processed via processor(s) 410).

[00130] In various aspects of the first set of techniques, UE-group-identities can be defined as a function of one or more of: the resource pool used, the particular physical resource used within the resource pool, coverage level; wherein the BS can send (e.g., via communication circuitry 520) an ACK or NACK (e.g., generated by processor(s) 51 0) corresponding to a UE-group-identity.

[00131 ] Examples herein can include subject matter such as a method, means for performing acts or blocks of the method, at least one machine-readable medium including executable instructions that, when performed by a machine (e.g., a processor with memory, an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC), a field programmable gate array (FPGA), or the like) cause the machine to perform acts of the method or of an apparatus or system for concurrent communication using multiple communication technologies according to embodiments and examples described.

[00132] Example 1 is an apparatus configured to be employed in a UE (User

Equipment), comprising: a memory interface; and processing circuitry configured to: generate an UL (Uplink) data packet; generate at least one of a preamble associated with the UL data packet or DM (Demodulation)-RS (Reference Signals) associated with the UL data packet; map the UL data packet and at least one of the preamble or DM-RS to time and frequency resources configured for grant-free UL transmission; and send the UL data packet to a memory via the memory interface.

[00133] Example 2 comprises the subject matter of any variation of any of example(s) 1 , wherein the processing circuitry is configured to generate the DM-RS, wherein a sequence space for the DM-RS comprises a combination of quasi-orthogonal sequences and orthogonal sequences.

[00134] Example 3 comprises the subject matter of any variation of any of example(s) 1 , wherein the processing circuitry is further configured to map the at least one of the preamble or the DM-RS to a set of physical resources based on a repetitive pattern in time.

[00135] Example 4 comprises the subject matter of any variation of any of example(s) 1 , wherein the processing circuitry is further configured to apply sequence-based spreading based on one of an orthogonal sequence or a quasi-orthogonal sequence such that a code rate before spreading is less than or equal to a mother code rate of an applied channel coding.

[00136] Example 5 comprises the subject matter of any variation of any of example(s) 1 -4, wherein the processing circuitry is further configured to process configuration signaling that configures one or more NOMA (Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access) regions and a plurality of parameter sets, wherein each parameter set of the plurality of parameter sets comprises one or more of a MCS (Modulation and Coding Scheme), a TBS (Transport Block Size), or a coverage enhancement level, and wherein each parameter set of the plurality of parameter sets is associated with a single NOMA region of the one or more NOMA regions.

[00137] Example 6 comprises the subject matter of any variation of any of example(s) 5, wherein the UL data packet is associated with a selected parameter set of the plurality of parameter sets, wherein the processing circuitry is configured to indicate the selected parameter set via one of the preamble, the DM-RS, or a signature sequence.

[00138] Example 7 comprises the subject matter of any variation of any of example(s) 5, wherein each parameter set of the plurality of parameter sets comprise a common MCS for the plurality of parameter sets and a distinct TBS associated with that parameter set.

[00139] Example 8 comprises the subject matter of any variation of any of example(s) 5, wherein each parameter set of the plurality of parameter sets comprise a common number of PRBs (Physical Resource Blocks) for the plurality of parameter sets, a distinct MCS associated with that parameter set, and a distinct TBS based on the distinct MCS associated with that parameter set.

[00140] Example 9 comprises the subject matter of any variation of any of example(s) 5, wherein the configuration signaling further indicates a configured UE group of a plurality of UE groups, and wherein the configured UE group each distinct NOMA region of the one or more NOMA regions is associated with one or more UE groups of the plurality of UE groups.

[00141 ] Example 10 comprises the subject matter of any variation of any of example(s) 1 -4, wherein the processing circuitry is further configured to: process one of higher layer signaling or a DCI (Downlink Control Information) message that indicates an interference-level dependent power adjustment associated with at least one of a UE group or a transmission bandwidth; and employ an open loop power control mechanism based at least in part on a TBS (Transport Block Size)-specific adjustment and the interference-level dependent power adjustment. [00142] Example 1 1 comprises the subject matter of any variation of any of example(s) 1 -4, wherein the processing circuitry is further configured to process additional configuration signaling that indicates a plurality of numbers of repetitions, wherein each number of repetitions is associated with a distinct set of starting subframes, and wherein the processing circuitry is further configured to map the UL data packed based on a selected number of repetitions from the plurality of numbers of repetitions.

[00143] Example 12 comprises the subject matter of any variation of any of example(s) 1 1 , wherein each number of repetitions of the plurality of numbers of repetitions is associated with a distinct resource pool, and wherein the processing circuitry is further configured to: determine an estimate of a coverage condition of the UE; and select the selected number of repetitions based on the estimate of the coverage condition.

[00144] Example 13 comprises the subject matter of any variation of any of example(s) 1 1 , wherein the selected number of repetitions comprises a gap, and wherein the processing circuitry is configured to monitor the gap for HARQ (Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request) ACK (Acknowledgement) feedback associated with the UL data packet.

[00145] Example 14 comprises the subject matter of any variation of any of example(s) 1 -2, wherein the processing circuitry is further configured to map the at least one of the preamble or the DM-RS to a set of physical resources based on a repetitive pattern in time.

[00146] Example 15 comprises the subject matter of any variation of any of example(s) 1 -2 or 14, wherein the processing circuitry is further configured to apply sequence-based spreading based on one of an orthogonal sequence or a quasi- orthogonal sequence such that a code rate before spreading is less than or equal to a mother code rate of an applied channel coding.

[00147] Example 16 comprises the subject matter of any variation of any of example(s) 1 -2 or 14-15, wherein the processing circuitry is further configured to process configuration signaling that configures one or more NOMA (Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access) regions and a plurality of parameter sets, wherein each parameter set of the plurality of parameter sets comprises one or more of a MCS (Modulation and Coding Scheme), a TBS (Transport Block Size), or a coverage enhancement level, and wherein each parameter set of the plurality of parameter sets is associated with a single NOMA region of the one or more NOMA regions. [00148] Example 17 comprises the subject matter of any variation of any of example(s) 16, wherein the UL data packet is associated with a selected parameter set of the plurality of parameter sets, wherein the processing circuitry is configured to indicate the selected parameter set via one of the preamble, the DM-RS, or a signature sequence.

[00149] Example 18 comprises the subject matter of any variation of any of example(s) 16-17, wherein each parameter set of the plurality of parameter sets comprise a common MCS for the plurality of parameter sets and a distinct TBS associated with that parameter set.

[00150] Example 19 comprises the subject matter of any variation of any of example(s) 16-17, wherein each parameter set of the plurality of parameter sets comprise a common number of PRBs (Physical Resource Blocks) for the plurality of parameter sets, a distinct MCS associated with that parameter set, and a distinct TBS based on the distinct MCS associated with that parameter set.

[00151 ] Example 20 comprises the subject matter of any variation of any of example(s) 16-19, wherein the configuration signaling further indicates a configured UE group of a plurality of UE groups, and wherein the configured UE group each distinct NOMA region of the one or more NOMA regions is associated with one or more UE groups of the plurality of UE groups.

[00152] Example 21 comprises the subject matter of any variation of any of example(s) 1 -2 or 14-20, wherein the processing circuitry is further configured to:

process one of higher layer signaling or a DCI (Downlink Control Information) message that indicates an interference-level dependent power adjustment associated with at least one of a UE group or a transmission bandwidth; and employ an open loop power control mechanism based at least in part on a TBS (Transport Block Size)-specific adjustment and the interference-level dependent power adjustment.

[00153] Example 22 comprises the subject matter of any variation of any of example(s) 1 -2 or 14-21 , wherein the processing circuitry is further configured to process additional configuration signaling that indicates a plurality of numbers of repetitions, wherein each number of repetitions is associated with a distinct set of starting subframes, and wherein the processing circuitry is further configured to map the UL data packed based on a selected number of repetitions from the plurality of numbers of repetitions.

[00154] Example 23 comprises the subject matter of any variation of any of example(s) 22, wherein each number of repetitions of the plurality of numbers of repetitions is associated with a distinct resource pool, and wherein the processing circuitry is further configured to: determine an estimate of a coverage condition of the UE; and select the selected number of repetitions based on the estimate of the coverage condition.

[00155] Example 24 comprises the subject matter of any variation of any of example(s) 22-23, wherein the selected number of repetitions comprises a gap, and wherein the processing circuitry is configured to monitor the gap for HARQ (Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request) ACK (Acknowledgement) feedback associated with the UL data packet.

[00156] Example 25 is an apparatus configured to be employed in a gNB (next Generation Node B), comprising: a memory interface; and processing circuitry configured to: generate configuration signaling that configures grant-free UL NOMA (Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access) transmission for a plurality of UEs (User

Equipments); process at least one of one or more preambles or one or more distinct sets of DM (Demodulation)-RS (Reference Signals); process one or more grant-free UL (Uplink) data packets based at least in part on the one or more preambles or the one or more distinct sets of DM-RS; generate HARQ (Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request) ACK (Acknowledgement)/NACK (Negative Acknowledgement) feedback for the plurality of UEs based at least in part on the grant-free UL data packets from the one or more UEs; and send the one or more grant-free UL data packets to a memory via the memory interface.

[00157] Example 26 comprises the subject matter of any variation of any of example(s) 25, wherein the configuration signaling indicates a plurality of NOMA (Non- Orthogonal Multiple Access) regions and a plurality of parameter sets, wherein each parameter set of the plurality of parameter sets comprises one or more of a MCS (Modulation and Coding Scheme), a TBS (Transport Block Size), or a coverage enhancement level, and wherein each parameter set of the plurality of parameter sets is associated with a distinct NOMA regions of the plurality of NOMA regions.

[00158] Example 27 comprises the subject matter of any variation of any of example(s) 26, wherein each of the at least one of the one or more preambles or the one or more distinct sets of DM-RS indicates a parameter set of the plurality of parameter sets for an associated UL data packet.

[00159] Example 28 comprises the subject matter of any variation of any of example(s) 25-27, wherein a first grant-free UL data packet of the one or more grant- free UL data packets and a second grant-free UL data packet of the one or more grant- free UL data packets have a common MCS (Modulation and Coding Scheme) and a common TBS (Transport Block Size), wherein the first grant-free UL data packet is associated with a first number of repetitions, and wherein the second grant-free UL data packet is associated with a distinct second number of repetitions.

[00160] Example 29 comprises the subject matter of any variation of any of example(s) 28, wherein the first grant-free UL data packet and the second grant-free UL data packet overlap at least partially in the time domain.

[00161 ] Example 30 comprises the subject matter of any variation of any of example(s) 29, wherein the first grant-free UL data packet and the second grant-free UL data packet overlap in the time domain based on a nested structure.

[00162] Example 31 comprises the subject matter of any variation of any of example(s) 25-27, wherein a third grant-free UL data packet of the one or more grant- free UL data packets and a fourth grant-free UL data packet of the one or more grant- free UL data packets have a common number of PRBs (Physical Resource Blocks), wherein the third grant-free UL data packet has a third TBS (Transport Block Size) based on a third MCS (Modulation and Coding Scheme), and wherein the fourth grant- free UL data packet has a distinct fourth TBS based on a distinct fourth MCS.

[00163] Example 32 comprises the subject matter of any variation of any of example(s) 25-27, wherein the configuration signaling indicates an associated UE group of a plurality of UE groups for each UE of the plurality of UEs, wherein a NOMA region of a bandwidth is divided into one or more NOMA regions, and wherein each UE group of the plurality of UE groups is associated with a single NOMA region of the one or more NOMA regions.

[00164] Example 33 comprises the subject matter of any variation of any of example(s) 32, wherein the processing circuitry is further configured to generate HARQ (Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request) ACK (Acknowledgement) feedback that indicates an ACK or a NACK (Negative Acknowledgement) for a first UE group of the plurality of UE groups.

[00165] Example 34 is a machine readable medium comprising instructions that, when executed, cause a User Equipment (UE) to: transmit an UL (uplink) data packet via time and frequency resources configured for grant-free UL transmission; and transmit at least one of a preamble associated with the UL data packet or DM

(Demodulation)-RS (Reference Signals) associated with the UL data packet.

[00166] Example 35 comprises the subject matter of any variation of any of example(s) 34, wherein the instructions further cause the UE to receive HARQ (Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request) ACK (Acknowledgement) feedback or NACK (Negative

Acknowledgement) feedback associated with the UL data packet.

[00167] Example 36 comprises the subject matter of any variation of any of example(s) 35, wherein the UE is associated with a UE group, and wherein the HARQ

ACK feedback indicates an ACK or a NACK (Negative Acknowledgement) for the UE group.

[00168] Example 37 comprises the subject matter of any variation of any of example(s) 34-36, wherein the instructions further cause the UE to adjust one or more transmission characteristics based on an adaptive retransmission scheme after a predetermined number of retransmission attempts, wherein the predetermined number of retransmission attempts is one of predefined or configured via higher layer signaling.

[00169] Example 38 is an apparatus configured to be employed in a UE (User Equipment), comprising: means for transmitting an UL (uplink) data packet via time and frequency resources configured for grant-free UL transmission; and means for transmitting at least one of a preamble associated with the UL data packet or DM (Demodulation)-RS (Reference Signals) associated with the UL data packet.

[00170] Example 39 comprises the subject matter of any variation of any of example(s) 38, further comprising means for receiving HARQ (Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request) ACK (Acknowledgement) feedback or NACK (Negative Acknowledgement) feedback associated with the UL data packet.

[00171 ] Example 40 comprises the subject matter of any variation of any of example(s) 39, wherein the UE is associated with a UE group, and wherein the HARQ ACK feedback indicates an ACK or a NACK (Negative Acknowledgement) for the UE group.

[00172] Example 41 comprises the subject matter of any variation of any of example(s) 38-40, further comprising means for adjusting one or more transmission characteristics based on an adaptive retransmission scheme after a predetermined number of retransmission attempts, wherein the predetermined number of

retransmission attempts is one of predefined or configured via higher layer signaling.

[00173] Example 42 comprises an apparatus comprising means for executing any of the described operations of examples 1 -41 .

[00174] Example 43 comprises a machine readable medium that stores instructions for execution by a processor to perform any of the described operations of examples 1 - 41 . [00175] Example 44 comprises an apparatus comprising: a memory interface; and processing circuitry configured to: perform any of the described operations of examples 1 -41 .

[00176] The above description of illustrated embodiments of the subject disclosure, including what is described in the Abstract, is not intended to be exhaustive or to limit the disclosed embodiments to the precise forms disclosed. While specific embodiments and examples are described herein for illustrative purposes, various modifications are possible that are considered within the scope of such embodiments and examples, as those skilled in the relevant art can recognize.

[00177] In this regard, while the disclosed subject matter has been described in connection with various embodiments and corresponding Figures, where applicable, it is to be understood that other similar embodiments can be used or modifications and additions can be made to the described embodiments for performing the same, similar, alternative, or substitute function of the disclosed subject matter without deviating therefrom. Therefore, the disclosed subject matter should not be limited to any single embodiment described herein, but rather should be construed in breadth and scope in accordance with the appended claims below.

[00178] In particular regard to the various functions performed by the above described components or structures (assemblies, devices, circuits, systems, etc.), the terms (including a reference to a "means") used to describe such components are intended to correspond, unless otherwise indicated, to any component or structure which performs the specified function of the described component (e.g., that is functionally equivalent), even though not structurally equivalent to the disclosed structure which performs the function in the herein illustrated exemplary implementations. In addition, while a particular feature may have been disclosed with respect to only one of several implementations, such feature may be combined with one or more other features of the other implementations as may be desired and advantageous for any given or particular application.

Claims

CLAIMS What is claimed is:
1 . An apparatus configured to be employed in a UE (User Equipment), comprising: a memory interface; and
processing circuitry configured to:
generate an UL (Uplink) data packet;
generate at least one of a preamble associated with the UL data packet or DM (Demodulation)-RS (Reference Signals) associated with the UL data packet; map the UL data packet and at least one of the preamble or DM-RS to time and frequency resources configured for grant-free UL transmission; and send the UL data packet to a memory via the memory interface.
2. The apparatus of claim 1 , wherein the processing circuitry is configured to generate the DM-RS, wherein a sequence space for the DM-RS comprises a combination of quasi-orthogonal sequences and orthogonal sequences.
3. The apparatus of claim 1 , wherein the processing circuitry is further configured to map the at least one of the preamble or the DM-RS to a set of physical resources based on a repetitive pattern in time.
4. The apparatus of claim 1 , wherein the processing circuitry is further configured to apply sequence-based spreading based on one of an orthogonal sequence or a quasi- orthogonal sequence such that a code rate before spreading is less than or equal to a mother code rate of an applied channel coding.
5. The apparatus of any of claims 1 -4, wherein the processing circuitry is further configured to process configuration signaling that configures one or more NOMA (Non- Orthogonal Multiple Access) regions and a plurality of parameter sets, wherein each parameter set of the plurality of parameter sets comprises one or more of a MCS (Modulation and Coding Scheme), a TBS (Transport Block Size), or a coverage enhancement level, and wherein each parameter set of the plurality of parameter sets is associated with a single NOMA region of the one or more NOMA regions.
6. The apparatus of claim 5, wherein the UL data packet is associated with a selected parameter set of the plurality of parameter sets, wherein the processing circuitry is configured to indicate the selected parameter set via one of the preamble, the DM-RS, or a signature sequence.
7. The apparatus of claim 5, wherein each parameter set of the plurality of parameter sets comprise a common MCS for the plurality of parameter sets and a distinct TBS associated with that parameter set.
8. The apparatus of claim 5, wherein each parameter set of the plurality of parameter sets comprise a common number of PRBs (Physical Resource Blocks) for the plurality of parameter sets, a distinct MCS associated with that parameter set, and a distinct TBS based on the distinct MCS associated with that parameter set.
9. The apparatus of claim 5, wherein the configuration signaling further indicates a configured UE group of a plurality of UE groups, and wherein the configured UE group each distinct NOMA region of the one or more NOMA regions is associated with one or more UE groups of the plurality of UE groups.
10. The apparatus of any of claims 1 -4, wherein the processing circuitry is further configured to:
process one of higher layer signaling or a DCI (Downlink Control Information) message that indicates an interference-level dependent power adjustment associated with at least one of a UE group or a transmission bandwidth; and
employ an open loop power control mechanism based at least in part on a TBS (Transport Block Size)-specific adjustment and the interference-level dependent power adjustment.
1 1 . The apparatus of any of claims 1 -4, wherein the processing circuitry is further configured to process additional configuration signaling that indicates a plurality of numbers of repetitions, wherein each number of repetitions is associated with a distinct set of starting subframes, and wherein the processing circuitry is further configured to map the UL data packed based on a selected number of repetitions from the plurality of numbers of repetitions.
12. The apparatus of claim 1 1 , wherein each number of repetitions of the plurality of numbers of repetitions is associated with a distinct resource pool, and wherein the processing circuitry is further configured to:
determine an estimate of a coverage condition of the UE; and
select the selected number of repetitions based on the estimate of the coverage condition.
13. The apparatus of claim 1 1 , wherein the selected number of repetitions comprises a gap, and wherein the processing circuitry is configured to monitor the gap for HARQ (Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request) ACK (Acknowledgement) feedback associated with the UL data packet.
14. An apparatus configured to be employed in a gNB (next Generation Node B), comprising:
a memory interface; and
processing circuitry configured to:
generate configuration signaling that configures grant-free UL NOMA (Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access) transmission for a plurality of UEs (User Equipments);
process at least one of one or more preambles or one or more distinct sets of DM (Demodulation)-RS (Reference Signals);
process one or more grant-free UL (Uplink) data packets based at least in part on the one or more preambles or the one or more distinct sets of DM-RS; generate HARQ (Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request) ACK
(Acknowledgement)/NACK (Negative Acknowledgement) feedback for the plurality of UEs based at least in part on the grant-free UL data packets from the one or more UEs; and
send the one or more grant-free UL data packets to a memory via the memory interface.
15. The apparatus of claim 14, wherein the configuration signaling indicates a plurality of NOMA (Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access) regions and a plurality of parameter sets, wherein each parameter set of the plurality of parameter sets comprises one or more of a MCS (Modulation and Coding Scheme), a TBS (Transport Block Size), or a coverage enhancement level, and wherein each parameter set of the plurality of parameter sets is associated with a distinct NOMA regions of the plurality of NOMA regions.
16. The apparatus of claim 15, wherein each of the at least one of the one or more preambles or the one or more distinct sets of DM-RS indicates a parameter set of the plurality of parameter sets for an associated UL data packet.
17. The apparatus of any of claims 14-16, wherein a first grant-free UL data packet of the one or more grant-free UL data packets and a second grant-free UL data packet of the one or more grant-free UL data packets have a common MCS (Modulation and Coding Scheme) and a common TBS (Transport Block Size), wherein the first grant-free UL data packet is associated with a first number of repetitions, and wherein the second grant-free UL data packet is associated with a distinct second number of repetitions.
18. The apparatus of claim 17, wherein the first grant-free UL data packet and the second grant-free UL data packet overlap at least partially in the time domain.
19. The apparatus of claim 18, wherein the first grant-free UL data packet and the second grant-free UL data packet overlap in the time domain based on a nested structure.
20. The apparatus of any of claims 14-16, wherein a third grant-free UL data packet of the one or more grant-free UL data packets and a fourth grant-free UL data packet of the one or more grant-free UL data packets have a common number of PRBs (Physical Resource Blocks), wherein the third grant-free UL data packet has a third TBS
(Transport Block Size) based on a third MCS (Modulation and Coding Scheme), and wherein the fourth grant-free UL data packet has a distinct fourth TBS based on a distinct fourth MCS.
21 . The apparatus of any of claims 14-16, wherein the configuration signaling indicates an associated UE group of a plurality of UE groups for each UE of the plurality of UEs, wherein a NOMA region of a bandwidth is divided into one or more NOMA regions, and wherein each UE group of the plurality of UE groups is associated with a single NOMA region of the one or more NOMA regions.
22. The apparatus of claim 21 , wherein the processing circuitry is further configured to generate HARQ (Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request) ACK (Acknowledgement) feedback that indicates an ACK or a NACK (Negative Acknowledgement) for a first UE group of the plurality of UE groups.
23. A machine readable medium comprising instructions that, when executed, cause a User Equipment (UE) to:
transmit an UL (uplink) data packet via time and frequency resources configured for grant-free UL transmission; and
transmit at least one of a preamble associated with the UL data packet or DM (Demodulation)-RS (Reference Signals) associated with the UL data packet.
24. The machine readable medium of claim 23, wherein the instructions further cause the UE to receive HARQ (Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request) ACK
(Acknowledgement) feedback or NACK (Negative Acknowledgement) feedback associated with the UL data packet.
25. The machine readable medium of claim 24, wherein the UE is associated with a UE group, and wherein the HARQ ACK feedback indicates an ACK or a NACK
(Negative Acknowledgement) for the UE group.
26. The machine readable medium of any of claims 23-25, wherein the instructions further cause the UE to adjust one or more transmission characteristics based on an adaptive retransmission scheme after a predetermined number of retransmission attempts, wherein the predetermined number of retransmission attempts is one of predefined or configured via higher layer signaling.
PCT/US2017/046033 2016-08-12 2017-08-09 Uplink grant-free noma (non-orthogonal multiple access) transmissions WO2018031620A1 (en)

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