WO2017155945A1 - Methods and systems of cell-free enzyme discovery and optimization - Google Patents

Methods and systems of cell-free enzyme discovery and optimization Download PDF

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WO2017155945A1
WO2017155945A1 PCT/US2017/021087 US2017021087W WO2017155945A1 WO 2017155945 A1 WO2017155945 A1 WO 2017155945A1 US 2017021087 W US2017021087 W US 2017021087W WO 2017155945 A1 WO2017155945 A1 WO 2017155945A1
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system
method
reporter
enzyme
metabolite
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PCT/US2017/021087
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French (fr)
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George M. Church
Jameson K. Rogers
Marc Guell
Alexander GARRUSS
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President And Fellows Of Harvard College
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12NMICROORGANISMS OR ENZYMES; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF; PROPAGATING, PRESERVING OR MAINTAINING MICROORGANISMS; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING; CULTURE MEDIA
    • C12N15/00Mutation or genetic engineering; DNA or RNA concerning genetic engineering, vectors, e.g. plasmids, or their isolation, preparation or purification; Use of hosts therefor
    • C12N15/09Recombinant DNA-technology
    • C12N15/10Processes for the isolation, preparation or purification of DNA or RNA
    • C12N15/1034Isolating an individual clone by screening libraries
    • C12N15/1086Preparation or screening of expression libraries, e.g. reporter assays

Abstract

Methods and systems of cell-free enzyme discovery and optimization are provided.

Description

METHODS AND SYSTEMS OF CELL-FREE ENZYME DISCOVERY AND

OPTIMIZATION

RELATED APPLICATION DATA

This application claims priority to U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/305,586 filed on March 9, 2016 which is hereby incorporated herein by reference in its entirety for all purposes.

STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTERESTS

This invention was made with government support under DE-FG02-02ER63445 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The government has certain rights in the invention.

SEQUENCE LISTING

The instant application contains a Sequence Listing which has been submitted electronically in ASCII format and is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. Said ASCII copy, created on March 2, 2017, is named 010498_00665US_SL.txt and is 29,599 bytes in size.

FIELD

The present invention relates in general to methods and systems of cell-free enzyme discovery and optimization.

BACKGROUND

Discovery of new enzymatic systems for the production of valuable chemicals is a slow and expensive process. Enzymatic systems are used to turn readily available precursor compounds into products such as fuels, fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, agricultural products or even perfumes and fragrances. Enzymatic systems are composed of one or more enzymes that catalyze the necessary series of chemical reactions that take a precursor compound to a product compound. The market for enzyme-catalyzed products currently stands at S150 billion of sales each year and is growing rapidly.

Many times the enzyme necessary for a desired chemical reaction doesn't exist. Other times an enzyme exists but performs sub-optimally. In these situations, it is necessary to make mutations to the enzyme to change its behavior such that it performs at the necessary level. A small enzyme of 300 amino acids can have more variations than there are stars in the universe. If prior knowledge allows an engineer to identify just 5 locations where mutations may be beneficial then the number of possible mutants is reduced to just 100 trillion. Because the number of possible enzyme mutants is so vast and our knowledge of enzyme design so limited the amount of time it takes to find better enzyme variants can be the limiting factor in achieving reasonable product development periods. However, biotechnology firms are strongly motivated to discover new and better enzyme variants because enzyme productivity directly impacts firm profitability.

Because evaluation of enzyme productivity remains the major bottleneck in the discovery of novel and enhanced enzymes this is the most attractive area to innovate in. However, current methods for discovering better enzyme variants rely on low-throughput measurement techniques such as liquid or gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. These primary methods for evaluating enzyme quality require 5-20 minutes of analysis time per sample.

The overall process discovering better enzymes can be summarized as the following steps. First, several mutations are made to the desired enzyme. Next, the enzymes are produced and reacted with the precursor chemical. Further, each of the individual reactions is measured for product production with a low-throughput technique. Finally, the most successful mutant becomes the starting enzyme for the first step.

Using error prone PCR, degenerate oligonucleotide incorporation, large scale DNA synthesis or other mutation generation strategies allows millions or billions of mutations to be rapidly made to the starting enzyme. However, because the low-throughput measurement techniques require that each enzyme be physically separated from the other enzyme variants it is impossible to evaluate each of these enzymes. At most thousands of enzyme variants can be evaluated in this way per day. While this rate of enzyme evaluation has produced enzymes of astounding value, the possibilities would be staggering if it were feasible to evaluate each of the million to billion enzyme variants generated.

Enzyme evaluation can take place within cells or in cell-free systems. The choice of cellular or cell-free enzyme optimization may depend on enzyme stability, cofactor and precursor availability and product or precursor toxicity, solubility, or transport. When large numbers of cofactors are needed or the enzyme is unstable outside of a cell then the optimization process will be carried out intracellularly. When the product compound is toxic or the enzymes are destined for extracellular use then optimization in a cell-free system is ideal.

When optimization is carried out within the cell, biosensor-based methods exist to enable high-throughput evaluation of enzyme mutants. These biosensors enable millions or billions of cells to be evaluated in a single day. Biosensors are genetically encoded sensors that turn on or off protein production proportional to the amount of product molecule they observe. When the protein they turn on is a fluorescent protein then rapid fluorescence measurement techniques can be used to evaluate a cell for its capacity to produce the product. When the protein the biosensor turns on is an antidote protein, toxin exposure can be used to find the most productive cells. However no analogous method exists for rapid evaluation of enzyme outside of a cell. There is a great need for a cell-free biosensor-based method that enables high-throughput evaluation of enzyme mutants for enzyme discovery and optimization.

SUMMARY

The present disclosure addresses this need and is based on the discovery that a cell- free biosensor-based method can be used for high-throughput evaluation of enzyme mutants for enzyme discovery and optimization. The present disclosure provides a method of selecting a subset of enzyme variants for the production of a metabolite including providing a plurality of a first nucleotide sequence each encoding a different enzyme variant, providing a precursor molecule wherein the enzyme variants when expressed convert the precursor molecule to the metabolite, providing a second nucleotide sequence encoding a sensor biomolecule, providing a third nucleotide sequence encoding a reporter, wherein the sensor biomolecule when expressed interacts with the metabolite and induces the expression of the reporter in a manner dependent on the concentration of the produced metabolite, and screening the enzyme variants by detecting the reporter to identify a subset of enzyme variants. In one aspect, a method of selecting a candidate enzyme variant from a library of enzyme variants for the production of a metabolite is provided. In one embodiment, the method comprises providing a plurality of first nucleotide sequences each encoding a different enzyme variant of the library, providing a precursor molecule wherein the enzyme variant when expressed converts the precursor molecule to the metabolite, providing a second nucleotide sequence encoding a sensor biomolecule, providing a third nucleotide sequence encoding a reporter, wherein the sensor biomolecule when expressed interacts with the metabolite and induces the expression of the reporter in a manner dependent on the concentration of the produced metabolite, and screening the enzyme variants by detecting the reporter to identify the candidate enzyme variant.

The present disclosure provides a method wherein the enzyme variants convert the precursor molecule to the metabolite directly or through one or more intermediate steps. The present disclosure provides a method wherein one or more of the enzyme variants are completely or partially randomized. The present disclosure provides a method wherein the first, second or third nucleotide sequence is DNA or RNA. The present disclosure provides a method wherein the DNA and/or RNA is linear or included on a plasmid. The present disclosure provides a method wherein the nucleotide sequences can be physically separated or attached or any combination thereof. The present disclosure provides a method wherein cofactors are further provided. The present disclosure provides a method wherein the enzyme variants, the sensor biomolecule and the reporter are produced using a cell-free expression system. The present disclosure provides a method wherein the enzyme variants, the sensor biomolecule and the reporter can be produced directly in an evaluation vessel. The present disclosure provides a method wherein the evaluation vessel is in an emulsion or microtiter well format. The present disclosure provides a method wherein the enzyme variants, the sensor biomolecule and the reporter can be produced outside and then combined in an evaluation vessel. The present disclosure provides a method wherein the cell-free expression system comprising commercially available in vitro translation reagents and/or kits. The present disclosure provides a method wherein the subset of enzyme variants are validated by sequencing. The present disclosure provides a method wherein enzyme variants and/or sensor biomolecules are provided. The present disclosure provides a method wherein the selection process is repeated on the subset of identified enzyme variants for optimization. The present disclosure provides a method wherein the reporter is a fluorescent protein. The present disclosure provides a method wherein the fluorescent protein is GFP. The present disclosure provides a method wherein the reporter is a member selected from the group consisting of mPlum, mCherry, tdTomato, mStrawberry, J-Red, DsRed-monomer, mOrange, mKO, mCitrine, Venus, YPet, EYFP, Emerald, EGFP, CyPet, mCFPm, Cerulean, T- Sapphire, Firefly (FLuc), modified firefly (Ultra-Clo), Click beetle (CBLuc), Sea pansy (RLuc), Copepod crustacean (GLuc), and Ostracod crustacean (CLuc). The present disclosure provides a method wherein the reporter further comprises luciferase for detection by light, pigments for detection by color, surfactants for detection by emulsion breaking, and adhesives for detection by adhesion. The present disclosure provides a method wherein the screening is carried out by fluorescent microscopy, microtiter plate assay, emulsion assay, microfluidic assay, pull-down assay or luciferase high throughput screening. The present disclosure provides a method wherein the sensor biomolecule and the metabolite binding partner is a member pair selected from the group consisting of AcuR/acrylate, cdaR/glucaric acid, ttgR/naringennin, ttgR/phenol, btuB riboswitch/cobalamin, mphR/macrolides, tetR/tetracycline derivates, benM/muconic acid, alkS/medium chain n-alkanes, xylR/xylose, araC/Arabinose, gntR/Gluconate, galS/Galactose, trpR/tryptophan, qacR/Berberine, rmrR/Phytoalexin, cymR/Cumate, melR Melibiose, rafR/Raffinose, nahR/Salicylate, nocR/Nopaline, clcR/Chlorobenzoate, varR/Virginiamycin, rhaR/Rhamnose, PhoR/Phosphate, MalK/Malate, GlnK/Glutamine, Retinoic acid receptor/Retinoic acid, Estrogen receptor/Estrogen and Ecdysone receptor/Ecdysone. The present disclosure provides a method wherein the sensor biomolecule is a transcription factor, riboswitch, two- component signaling protein, a nuclear hormone receptor, a G-protein coupled receptor, a periplasmic binding protein, or an engineered protein switch. The present disclosure provides a method wherein the sensor biomolecule is cdaR and the metabolite is a diacid. The present disclosure provides a method wherein the biosensor is an engineered protein switch such as an engineered calmodulin. The present disclosure provides a method wherein the sensor is AcuR and the metabolite is acrylate. The present disclosure provides a method wherein the enzyme is PCS, MIOX, Udh, or INOl. The present disclosure provides a method wherein the precursor molecule is 3-hydroxypropionate. The present disclosure provides a method wherein the reporter protein is an emulsion-breaking protein. The present disclosure provides a method wherein the plurality of the first nucleotide sequences encoding the different enzyme variants are generated by methods comprising gene synthesis, error prone PCR, targeted mutagenesis, or oligonucleotide directed mutagenesis.

The present disclosure further provides a method of identifying a subset of sensor biomolecule variants for a metabolite including providing a plurality of a first nucleotide sequence each encoding a different sensor biomolecule variants, providing a metabolite, providing a second nucleotide sequence encoding a reporter, wherein the sensor biomolecule variant when expressed interacts with the metabolite and induces the expression of the reporter in a manner dependent on the concentration of the produced metabolite, and screening the sensor biomolecule variants by detecting the reporter to identify a subset of sensor biomolecule variants. In one aspect, a method of identifying a candidate sensor biomolecule variant from a library of sensor biomolecule variants for a metabolite is provided. The method comprises providing a plurality of first nucleotide sequences each encoding a different sensor biomolecule variant of the library of sensor biomolecule variants, providing a metabolite, providing a second nucleotide sequence encoding a reporter, wherein the sensor biomolecule variant when expressed interacts with the metabolite and induces the expression of the reporter in a manner dependent on the concentration of the produced metabolite, and screening the sensor biomolecule variants by detecting the reporter to identify the candidate sensor biomolecule variant.

The present disclosure provides a cell-free bio-sensing system for selecting a subset of enzyme variants for the production of a metabolite including a plurality of a first nucleotide sequence each encoding a different enzyme variant, a precursor molecule wherein the enzyme variant when expressed converts the precursor molecule to the metabolite, a second nucleotide sequence encoding a sensor biomolecule, a third nucleotide sequence encoding a reporter,

wherein the sensor biomolecule when expressed interacts with the metabolite and induces the expression of the reporter in a manner dependent on the concentration of the produced metabolite, and wherein the enzyme variants are screened by detecting the reporter to identify a subset of enzyme variants. In one aspect, a cell-free bio-sensing system for selecting a candidate enzyme variant from a library of enzyme variants for the production of a metabolite is provided. In one embodiment, the cell-free bio-sensing system comprises a plurality of first nucleotide sequences each encoding a different enzyme variant of the library of enzyme variants, a precursor molecule wherein the enzyme variant when expressed converts the precursor molecule to the metabolite, a second nucleotide sequence encoding a sensor biomolecule, a third nucleotide sequence encoding a reporter, wherein the sensor biomolecule when expressed interacts with the metabolite and induces the expression of the reporter in a manner dependent on the concentration of the produced metabolite, and wherein the enzyme variants are screened by detecting the reporter to identify the candidate enzyme variant.

The present disclosure also provides a cell-free bio-sensing system for identifying a subset of sensor biomolecule variants for a metabolite including a plurality of a first nucleotide sequence each encoding a different sensor biomolecule variant, a metabolite, a second nucleotide sequence encoding a reporter, wherein the sensor biomolecule variant when expressed interacts with the metabolite and induces the expression of the reporter in a manner dependent on the concentration of the produced metabolite, and wherein the sensor biomolecule variants are screened by detecting the reporter to identify a subset of sensor biomolecule variants. The present disclosure provides a system wherein the enzyme variants convert the precursor molecule to the metabolite directly or through one or more intermediate steps. The present disclosure provides a system wherein one or more of the enzyme variants are completely or partially randomized. The present disclosure provides a system wherein the first, second or third nucleotide sequence is DNA or RNA. The present disclosure provides a system wherein the DNA and/or RNA is linear or included on a plasmid. The present disclosure provides a system wherein the nucleotide sequences can be physically separated or attached or any combination thereof. The present disclosure provides a system further comprises cofactors. The present disclosure provides a system wherein the enzyme variants, the sensor biomolecule and the reporter are produced using a cell-free expression system. The present disclosure provides a system wherein the enzyme variants, the sensor biomolecule and the reporter can be produced directly in an evaluation vessel. The present disclosure provides a system wherein the evaluation vessel is in an emulsion or microtiter well format. The present disclosure provides a system wherein the enzyme variants, the sensor biomolecule and the reporter can be produced outside and then combined in an evaluation vessel. The present disclosure provides a system wherein the cell-free expression system comprising commercially available in vitro translation reagents and/or kits. The present disclosure provides a system wherein the subset of enzyme variants are validated by sequencing. The present disclosure provides a system wherein enzyme variants and/or sensor biomolecules are provided. The present disclosure provides a system wherein the selection process is repeated on the subset of identified enzyme variants for optimization. The present disclosure provides a system wherein the reporter is a fluorescent protein. The present disclosure provides a system wherein the fluorescent protein is GFP. The present disclosure provides a system wherein the reporter is a member selected from the group consisting of mPlum, mCherry, tdTomato, mStrawberry, J-Red, DsRed-monomer, mOrange, mKO, mCitrine, Venus, YPet, EYFP, Emerald, EGFP, CyPet, mCFPm, Cerulean, T-Sapphire, Firefly (FLuc), modified firefly (Ultra-Clo), Click beetle (CBLuc), Sea pansy (RLuc), Copepod crustacean (GLuc), and Ostracod crustacean (CLuc). The present disclosure provides a system wherein the reporter further comprises luciferase for detection by light, pigments for detection by color, surfactants for detection by emulsion breaking, and adhesives for detection by adhesion. The present disclosure provides a system wherein the screening is carried out by fluorescent microscopy, microtiter plate assay, emulsion assay, microfluidic assay, pull-down assay or luciferase high throughput screening. The present disclosure provides a system wherein the sensor biomolecule and the metabolite binding partner is a member pair selected from the group consisting of AcuR/acrylate, cdaR/glucaric acid, ttgR/naringennin, ttgR/phenol, btuB riboswitch/cobalamin, mphR/macrolides, tetR/tetracycline derivates, benM/muconic acid, alkS/medium chain n-alkanes, xylR/xylose, araC/Arabinose, gntR/Gluconate, galS/Galactose, trpR/tryptophan, qacR/Berberine, rmrR/Phytoalexin, cymR/Cumate, melR/Melibiose, rafR/Raffinose, nahR/Salicylate, nocR/Nopaline, clcR/Chlorobenzoate, varR/Virginiamycin, rhaR/Rhamnose, PhoR/Phosphate, MalRVMalate, GlnK/Glutamine, Retinoic acid receptor/Retinoic acid, Lacl/allolactose, Estrogen receptor/Estrogen and Ecdysone receptor/Ecdysone. The present disclosure provides a system wherein the sensor biomolecule is a transcription factor, riboswitch, two-component signaling protein, a nuclear hormone receptor, a G-protein coupled receptor, a periplasmic binding protein, or an engineered protein switch. The present disclosure provides a system wherein the sensor biomolecule is cdaR and the metabolite is a diacid. The present disclosure provides a system wherein the biosensor is an engineered protein switch such as an engineered calmodulin. The present disclosure provides a system wherein the sensor is AcuR and the metabolite is acrylate. The present disclosure provides a system wherein the enzyme is PCS, MIOX, Udh, or INOl. The present disclosure provides a system wherein the precursor molecule is 3-hydroxypropionate. The present disclosure provides a system wherein the reporter protein is an emulsion-breaking protein. The present disclosure provides a system wherein the plurality of the first nucleotide sequences encoding the different enzyme variants are generated by methods comprising gene synthesis, error prone PCR, targeted mutagenesis, or oligonucleotide directed mutagenesis.

In another aspect, a cell-free bio-sensing system for identifying a candidate sensor biomolecule variant from a library of sensor biomolecule variants for a metabolite is provided. In one embodiment, the cell-free bio-sensing system comprises a plurality of first nucleotide sequences each encoding a different sensor biomolecule variant of the library of sensor biomolecule variants, a metabolite, a second nucleotide sequence encoding a reporter, wherein the sensor biomolecule variant when expressed interacts with the metabolite and induces the expression of the reporter in a manner dependent on the concentration of the produced metabolite, and wherein the sensor biomolecule variants are screened by detecting the reporter to identify the candidate sensor biomolecule variant.

In some embodiments, the enzyme variants or the first nucleotide sequences encoding the enzyme variants are attached to a solid support for multiplex screening of candidate enzyme variants. In other embodiments, the solid support comprises multiple compartments in membrane, filter, paper, gel, plate, slide format and the like. In exemplary embodiments, an individual enzyme variant or an individual nucleotide sequence encoding the enzyme variant is trapped in an individual compartment of the multi-compartment solid support. In one embodiment, the enzyme variant is isolated with corresponding precursor molecules and reporter sequences inside an individual compartment. In some embodiments, each individual compartment is immobilized, or temporarily immobilized, within the multi-compartment solid support. In other embodiments, the individual compartment can be sorted by an automated sorting system. In certain embodiments, the individual compartment can be separated from the multi-compartment solid support by manual extraction. In other embodiments, the candidate enzyme variant can be identified based on the known content of each individual compartment, or by targeted sequencing, or in-situ imaging.

It is noted that in this disclosure and particularly in the claims and/or paragraphs, terms such as "comprises", "comprised", "comprising" and the like can have the meaning attributed to it in U.S. Patent law; e.g., they can mean "includes", "included", "including", and the like; and that terms such as "consisting essentially of and "consists essentially of have the meaning ascribed to them in U.S. Patent law, e.g., they allow for elements not explicitly recited, but exclude elements that are found in the prior art or that affect a basic or novel characteristic of the invention.

Further features and advantages of certain embodiments of the present invention will become more fully apparent in the following description of embodiments and drawings thereof, and from the claims.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The patent or application file contains at least one drawing executed in color. Copies of this patent or patent application publication with color drawing(s) will be provided by the Office upon request and payment of the necessary fee. The foregoing and other features and advantages of the present embodiments will be more fully understood from the following detailed description of illustrative embodiments taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which:

FIG. 1 shows fluorescence signal after addition of acrylate.

FIG. 2 shows the result of an in vitro reaction using the addition of purified protein sensor according to an embodiment of the disclosure.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

The present disclosure provides methods and systems that enable high-throughput enzyme evaluation and discovery to be carried out in cell-free systems. The present disclosure provides a method to make biosensors work without the need for living cells. The biosensors operate in in vitro cell-free systems producing a reporter protein, most commonly a fluorescent protein, in response to the presence of a product compound. The disclosure provides a method that enables enzyme evaluation rates from a thousand up to million enzymes per minute.

Because cells are not involved in the enzyme evaluation process several difficulties in using cell-based systems are obviated. First, problems regarding transport of the precursor molecules into a cell are avoided because there are no membranes in the cell-free system. Second, precursor and product molecule concentrations are not constrained to levels that would be non-toxic to a cell. Many products are highly toxic to cells at the desired production concentration and only by using a cell-free system are these high levels of production attainable. Third, the chemical environment in which the reaction is happening is completely defined allowing the chemical production process to approximate the field of chemistry more than biology. The process to enable high-throughput cell-free enzyme evaluation can be summarized in the following major steps:

1. Enzyme variants are produced in vitro from DNA or RNA using a mixture of dNTPs, polymerases, translation machinery, cofactors and energy sources.

2. Product precursor and necessary cofactors are introduced to the mixture and incubated for an appropriate period of time.

3. Biosensor protein is added to the mixture with the corresponding reporter

DNA.

4. The complete mixture is incubated while reporter is produced at a rate proportional to enzyme productivity.

5. The mixture is evaluated for reporter activity (generally the level fluorescence in the case where the reporter is a fluorescent protein).

At this point the best enzyme variant can be used to generate a series of mutants that can be evaluated in this manner again. The timing of Steps 1 through 3 can be varied to achieve different effects. In Step 3 the biosensor may be added as a purified or crude protein or as genetic material such as DNA or RNA that is then turned into protein by the protein producing system that is already present in the cell-free mixture. The DNA sequences encoding the enzymes, the biosensor and the reporter can be on linear or circular DNA, but must conform to specific design considerations. Cell-free protein expression reagents (polymerases, cofactors, energy sources, etc) can be purchased separately or from any of the commercially available kits.

The cell-free biosensors according to the present disclosure are used to rapidly identify better enzyme variants in micro-titer plates. Three standard 384-well micro-titer plates allow evaluation of more than 1,000 enzyme variants in less than a minute. Each well of the micro-titer plates contains a different enzyme mutant. The wells that contain enzyme mutants that produce higher amounts of product compound fluorescence more brightly. The micro-titer plate reader readily identifies these wells enabling the scientist to harvest these new and more powerful enzymes. Just one or multiple enzymes can be evolved simultaneously.

The cell-free biosensors according to the present disclosure are also deployed in conjunction with emulsion-based sorting technology to enable enzyme evaluation rates of more than a million enzymes per minute. A master mixture of cell-free translation components, the precursor molecule, reporter DNA and the biosensor is created. The DNA of the enzymes to be evaluated is added to a mixture at a very low concentration. This enzyme DNA is multiplexed such that the individual mutants are mixed together - multiplexing enables a several order magnitude increase in throughput when compared to singleplex analysis. The final evaluation mixture is mixed and allocated to droplet using standard emulsion protocols. Each droplet contains a single enzyme mutant because the concentration of the enzyme DNA is so low in the original mix. The emulsion is incubated for a short period of time resulting in a range of droplet fluorescence intensities. High fluorescence droplets indicate high biosensor activity in those individual droplets. This high biosensor activity is indicative of a high quality enzyme variant that is more productive than other enzyme variants. The droplets can be flowed through an apparatus that evaluates each droplet' s fluorescence and retains only those droplets with predetermined level of fluorescent intensity. These devices are common in the literature. The case above relies on a fluorescent protein as the reporter protein. In the case where the reporter protein is an emulsion-breaking protein the highest quality enzyme variants will be able to break out of the emulsions and can be retained without the need for any droplet sorting. The cell-free biosensing technique according to the present disclosure also enables the rapid discovery of new biosensors. Biosensor mutants are evaluated for new substrate specificity and response behavior when the variable component of the evaluation mixture is the biosensor itself. In these cases the product molecule is supplied rather than the precursor molecule.

The term "biosensor", as used herein, generally refers to genetically encoded devices that monitor the intracellular concentration of a specific compound. Biosensors produce fluorescence or another readout proportional to the concentration of that compound within the cell.

The term "multiplex", as used herein, generally refers to a process in biology that operates on many distinct elements (e.g., cells, DNA molecules or metabolites) that coexist in space and time. Multiplexing enables a single process to work on millions of elements with the same effort that would be required to carry out the process on a single element.

Sensor/Metabolite Pairs

According to certain aspects, known sensor/metabolite pairs can be used in the fluorescent monitoring methods described herein where the binding of the sensor to the metabolite results in production of fluorescent molecules by the cell-free system. Exemplary known sensor/metabolite pairs include those shown in Table 1 below. Others are known in the art.

Table 1.

Figure imgf000017_0001
tetR tetracycline derivates Transcriptional repressor benM muconic acid Transcriptional activator alkS medium chain n-alkanes Transcriptional activator xylR xylose Transcriptional activator araC Arabinose Transcriptional activator gntR Gluconate Transcriptional repressor galS Galactose Transcriptional repressor trpR tryptophan Transcriptional repressor qacR Berberine Transcriptional repressor rmiR Phytoalexin Transcriptional repressor cymR Cumate Transcriptional repressor melR Melibiose Transcriptional activator rafR Raffinose Transcriptional activator nahR Salicylate Transcriptional activator nocR Nopaline Transcriptional activator clcR Chlorobenzoate Transcriptional activator varR Virginiamycin Transcriptional repressor rhaR Rhamnose Transcriptional repressor

PhoR Phosphate Two-component system

MalK Malate Two-component system

GlnK Glutamine Two-component system

Retinoic acid receptor Retinoic acid Nuclear hormone receptor

Estrogen receptor Estrogen Nuclear hormone receptor

Ecdysone receptor Ecdysone Nuclear hormone receptor

According to certain aspects described herein, sensor/metabolite pairs can be selected based upon the following considerations: (1) the relationship between stimulus strength and circuit activation; (2) the response time of the biosensor to a stimulus; (3) the heterogeneity of biosensor activation between cells in an isogenic population and/or (4) the cross-reactivity with stimuli of other biosensors. Exemplary biosensors are useful DNA binding proteins having a cognate promoter/operator and that are induced by a target compound such as a metabolite that can be produced enzymatically through metabolic engineering.

It is to be understood that the examples of sensors and their corresponding metabolite binding partners are exemplary only and that one of skill in the art can readily identify additional sensors and their corresponding metabolite binding partners for use in the present disclosure. The transformed microorganism is intended to express the sensors and the metabolite under suitable conditions.

The biosynthetic pathways for production of any particular metabolite binding partner are known to those of skill in the art. The sensor sequence is known to those of skill in the art, such as being based on a published literature search. For example, nucleic acid and amino acid sequences for the above metabolite binding partners / sensors, or the nucleic acid and amino acid sequences for biosynthetic pathways that produce certain metabolites are fully described in the following: cdaR (Monterrubio et al. 2000 J. Bacteriol 182(9):2672-4), tetR (Lutz and Bujard Nucleic Acids Res. 1997 25(6): 1203-10), alkS (Canosa et al. Mol Micriobiol 2000 35(4):791-9), ttgR (Teran, et al. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 47(10):3067-72 (2003)), btuB riboswitch (Nahvi, et al. Nucleic Acids Res. 32:143-150 (2004)); glucaric acid (Moon, et al. Appl Env Microbiol. 75:589-595 (2009)), naringenin (Santos, et al. Metabolic Engineering. 13:392-400 (2011)), alkanes (Steen, et al. 463:559-562 (2009)), cobalamin (Raux, et al. Cell Mol Life Sci. 57:1880-1893. (2000)), muconic acid (Niu, et al. Biotechnol Prog. 18:201-211. (2002)) each of which are hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. Methods described herein can be used to insert the nucleic acids into the genome of the microorganism that are responsible for production of sensors, metabolite binding partners and biosynthetic pathways.

Standard recombinant DNA and molecular cloning techniques used herein are well known in the art and are described in Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E.F. and Maniatis, T., Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, 2nd ed.; Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory: Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y., (1989) and by Silhavy, T.J., Bennan, M.L. and Enquist, L.W., Experiments with Gene Fusions; Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory: Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y., (1984); and by Ausubel, F.M. et. al., Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, Greene Publishing and Wiley - Interscience (1987) each of which are hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

Additional useful methods are described in manuals including Advanced Bacterial Genetics (Davis, Roth and Botstein, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1980), Experiments with Gene Fusions (Silhavy, Berman and Enquist, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1984), Experiments in Molecular Genetics (Miller, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1972) Experimental Techniques in Bacterial Genetics (Maloy, in Jones and Bartlett, 1990), and A Short Course in Bacterial Genetics (Miller, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory 1992) each of which are hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

Microorganisms may be genetically modified to delete genes or incorporate genes by methods known to those of skill in the art. Vectors and plasmids useful for transformation of a variety of host cells are common and commercially available from companies such as Invitrogen Corp. (Carlsbad, CA), Stratagene (La Jolla, CA), New England Biolabs, Inc. (Beverly, MA) and Addgene (Cambridge, MA).

Typically, the vector or plasmid contains sequences directing transcription and translation of a relevant gene or genes, a selectable marker, and sequences allowing autonomous replication or chromosomal integration. Suitable vectors comprise a region 5' of the gene which harbors transcriptional initiation controls and a region 3' of the DNA fragment which controls transcription termination. Both control regions may be derived from genes homologous to the transformed host cell, although it is to be understood that such control regions may also be derived from genes that are not native to the species chosen as a production host.

Initiation control regions or promoters, which are useful to drive expression of the relevant pathway coding regions in the desired host cell are numerous and familiar to those skilled in the art. Virtually any promoter capable of driving these genetic elements is suitable for the present invention including, but not limited to, lac, ara, tet, trp, IPL, IPR, T7, tac, and trc (useful for expression in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas); the amy, apr, npr promoters and various phage promoters useful for expression in Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus licheniformis; nisA (useful for expression in Gram-positive bacteria, Eichenbaum et al. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64(8):2763-2769 (1998)); and the synthetic Pll promoter (useful for expression in Lactobacillus plantarum, Rud et al., Microbiology 152: 1011-1019 (2006)). Termination control regions may also be derived from various genes native to the preferred hosts.

Certain vectors are capable of replicating in a broad range of host bacteria and can be transferred by conjugation. The complete and annotated sequence of pRK404 and three related vectors-pRK437, pRK442, and pRK442(H) are available. These derivatives have proven to be valuable tools for genetic manipulation in Gram-negative bacteria (Scott et al., Plasmid 50(l):74-79 (2003)). Several plasmid derivatives of broad-host-range Inc P4 plasmid RSF1010 are also available with promoters that can function in a range of Gram-negative bacteria. Plasmid pAYC36 and pAYC37, have active promoters along with multiple cloning sites to allow for the heterologous gene expression in Gram-negative bacteria.

Chromosomal gene replacement tools are also widely available. For example, a thermosensitive variant of the broad-host-range replicon pWVlOl has been modified to construct a plasmid pVE6002 which can be used to create gene replacement in a range of Gram-positive bacteria (Maguin et al., J. Bacteriol. 174(17):5633-5638 (1992)). Additionally, in vitro transposomes are available to create random mutations in a variety of genomes from commercial sources such as EPICENTRE.RTM. (Madison, Wis.).

Vectors useful for the transformation of E. coli are common and commercially available. For example, the desired genes may be isolated from various sources, cloned onto a modified pUC19 vector and transformed into E. coli host cells. Alternatively, the genes encoding a desired biosynthetic pathway may be divided into multiple operons, cloned onto expression vectors, and transformed into various E. coli strains.

The Lactobacillus genus belongs to the Lactobacillales family and many plasmids and vectors used in the transformation of Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus may be used for Lactobacillus. Non-limiting examples of suitable vectors include pAM.beta.l and derivatives thereof (Renault et al., Gene 183: 175-182 (1996); and O'Sullivan et al., Gene 137:227-231 (1993)); pMBBl and pHW800, a derivative of pMBBl (Wyckoff et al. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62: 1481-1486 (1996)); pMGl, a conjugative plasmid (Tanimoto et al., J. Bacteriol. 184:5800-5804 (2002)); pNZ9520 (Kleerebezem et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:4581-4584 (1997)); pAM401 (Fujimoto et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67: 1262-1267 (2001)); and pAT392 (Arthur et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38:1899-1903 (1994)). Several plasmids from Lactobacillus plantarum have also been reported (van Kranenburg R, Golic N, Bongers R, Leer R J, de Vos W M, Siezen R J, Kleerebezem M. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2005 March; 71(3): 1223-1230), which may be used for transformation.

Initiation control regions or promoters, which are useful to drive expression of the relevant pathway coding regions in the desired Lactobacillus host cell, may be obtained from Lactobacillus or other lactic acid bacteria, or other Gram-positive organisms. A non-limiting example is the nisA promoter from Lactococcus. Termination control regions may also be derived from various genes native to the preferred hosts or related bacteria. The various genes for a desired biosynthetic or other desired pathway may be assembled into any suitable vector or vectors, such as those described above. A single vector need not include all of the genetic material encoding a complete pathway. One or more or a plurality of vectors may be used in any aspect of genetically modifying a cell as described herein. The codons can be optimized for expression based on the codon index deduced from the genome sequences of the host strain, such as for Lactobacillus plantarum or Lactobacillus arizonensis. The plasmids may be introduced into the host cell using methods known in the art, such as electroporation, as described in any one of the following references: Cruz-Rodz et al. (Molecular Genetics and Genomics 224: 1252-154 (1990)), Bringel and Hubert (Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 33: 664-670 (1990)), and Teresa Alegre, Rodriguez and Mesas (FEMS Microbiology Letters 241:73-77 (2004)). Plasmids can also be introduced to Lactobacillus plantatrum by conjugation (Shrago, Chassy and Dobrogosz Appl. Environ. Micro. 52: 574- 576 (1986)). The desired biosynthetic pathway genes can also be integrated into the chromosome of Lactobacillus using integration vectors (Hols et al. Appl. Environ. Micro. 60: 1401-1403 (1990); Jang et al. Micro. Lett. 24:191-195 (2003)).

Microorganisms which may serve as host cells and which may be genetically modified to produce recombinant microorganisms as described herein may include one or members of the genera Clostridium, Escherichia, Rhodococcus, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Lactobacillus Saccharomyces, and Enterococcus. Particularly suitable microorganisms include Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Methods for Screening Using a Reporter

Methods described herein utilize the detection and measurement of detectable reporters. Exemplary detectable reporters include fluorescent molecules or fluorescent proteins. Exemplary fluorescent reporters include those identified in Shaner et al., Nature methods, Vol. 2, No. 12, pp. 905-909 (2005) hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. An exemplary list of fluorescent reporters known to those of skill in the art includes mPlum, mCherry, tdTomato, mStrawberry, J-Red, DsRed-monomer, mOrange, mKO, mCitrine, Venus, YPet, EYFP, Emerald, EGFP, CyPet, mCFPm, Cerulean and T-Sapphire, and the like.

Exemplary non-fluorescent, but light emitting reporters include luciferase and its derivatives such as those disclosed in Thorne et al., Chemistry and Biology, vol. 17, issue 6, pp. 646-657 (2010) hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. An exemplary list of non-fluorescent reporter known to those of skill in the art include Firefly (FLuc), modified firefly (Ultra-Clo), Click beetle (CBLuc), Sea pansy (RLuc), Copepod crustacean (GLuc), Ostracod crustacean (CLuc) and the like.

The disclosure provides biosensors that link metabolite levels to fluorescent protein expression and enable fluorescence-based screens. The biosensor-based screens according to the present disclosure can provide evaluation rates of up to lxlO9 designs per day. Fluorescent screening can be evaluated with fluorescent plate readers in 96 or 384-well plates and is useful for prototyping the screening system. These cell-free fluorescent screening can be used for the next round of design or chosen for a commercial production system.

Further methods include micro titer plate assays, for example where screening by fluorescence is done robotically in microtiter plates, such as 1536-well plates or 9600 well plates. Such methods may be combined with robotic handling and advanced plate readers typical of high throughput screening. Further methods include emulsion assays, for example, where the reaction can be trapped within emulsions and assayed using microfluidics, such as described in Wang et al., Nature Biotechnology, Volume 32, pp. 473-478 (2014) hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. Other microfluidic assays can be used to evaluate screening such as those described in Guo et al., Lab Chip, 2012,12, 2146-2155 hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

Other methods and assays which do not rely on fluorescent or light emitting reporters can be used to detect reaction rates according to the methods described herein. Such methods include those that use transcription but not necessarily fluorescence or luminescence. Exemplary methods include pull-down assays that can measure high metabolite production capabilities. Further methods include luciferase high-throughput screening such as described in Fan et al, ASSAY and Drug Development Technologies, Volume 5, Number 1, pp. 127-136 (2007) hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

The above disclosure generally describes the present invention. All references disclosed herein are expressly incorporated by reference. The following examples are set forth as being representative of the present disclosure. These examples are not to be construed as limiting the scope of the present disclosure as these and other equivalent embodiments will be apparent in view of the present disclosure, figures and accompanying claims.

Solid Support

In certain embodiments, the enzyme variants or the nucleotide encoding the enzyme variants, or the sensor biomolecule variants and the like described herein can be immobilized on a support. The support can be simple square grids, checkerboard (e.g., offset) grids, hexagonal arrays and the like. Suitable supports include, but are not limited to, membranes, papers, filters, slides, beads, chips, particles, strands, gels, sheets, tubing, spheres, containers, capillaries, pads, slices, films, culture dishes, plates (e.g., 96-well, 48-well, 24-well, 12-well, eight-well, six-well, four-well, single-well and the like), and the like. In various embodiments, a solid support may be biological, nonbiological, organic, inorganic, or any combination thereof. The solid support can be made up of multiple individual compartments. In some embodiments, each of the individual compartment of the multi-compartment solid support can be immobilized or temporarily immobilized to the multi-compartment solid support. The immobilization facilitates sorting of the individual compartments. The immobilized individual compartment can be extracted or removed from the solid support, such as by manual extraction.

In certain embodiments, a support may have functional groups attached to its surface which can be used to bind one or more reagents described herein. One or more reagents can be attached to a support by hybridization, covalent attachment, magnetic attachment, affinity attachment and the like. Supports may also be functionalized using, for example, solid-phase chemistries known in the art (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,919,523).

As used herein, the term "attach" refers to both covalent interactions and noncovalent interactions. A covalent interaction is a chemical linkage between two atoms or radicals formed by the sharing of a pair of electrons (i.e., a single bond), two pairs of electrons (i.e., a double bond) or three pairs of electrons (i.e., a triple bond). Covalent interactions are also known in the art as electron pair interactions or electron pair bonds. Noncovalent interactions include, but are not limited to, van der Waals interactions, hydrogen bonds, weak chemical bonds (i.e., via short-range noncovalent forces), hydrophobic interactions, ionic bonds and the like. A review of noncovalent interactions can be found in Alberts et al., in Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d edition, Garland Publishing, 1994.

EXAMPLE I

Cell-free observation of acrylate

DNA encoded biological acrylate sensor was used to detect acrylate. AcuR is a transcription factor whose activity is dependent on the concentration of acrylate. A linear dsDNA encoding the acrylate sensor AcuR is combined with a reporter circular plasmid which contained a GFP protein controlled by a promoter regulated by AcuR. Thus, GFP fluorescence is related to the amount of acrylate in the sample.

In order to obtain an adequate signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), a T7 promoter was used to drive the expression of the sensor to achieve high expression of the sensor protein and ensure outnumbering of the number of reporter promoters, and well controlled expression. Additionally, an E.coli RNAP promoter was used to drive expression on the reporter, as it reduces the level of background signal, and provides with a more accurate control by AcuR. Methods

Linear DNA amplification: Linear dsDNA containing AcuR was prepared by PCR amplification using primers which contain a T7 promoter, and ribosome binding site (RBS).

Cell free preparation: In ice, a cell-free reaction was first prepared containing lOuL of component A (NEB, P/N E6800), 7.5 uL of component B (NEB, P/N E6800), 5 U of murine RNAse inhibitor (NEB, P/N M0314S), and 2.5U of E. coli RNA polymerase holoenzyme (NEB, P/N M0551S). A combined 250ng of linear dsDNA encoding AcuR, 250ng of circular plasmid containing the reporter GFP was added into the cell-free system reaction. Sequences of the DNA elements are attached below.

Finally, the sample was separated into two different aliquots, and different amounts of sodium acrylate solution was added to achieve concentrations of OmM, and O. lmM, respectively.

The samples were incubated at 37°C, and the fluorescence signal (395nm excitation, 470nm absorption) of the sample was measured every two minutes for 4 hours.

Results An increase of fluorescence to 750 arbitrary units in the sample containing acrylate was observed, and an increase of fluorescence to 260 arbitrary units in the sample that does not contain acrylate was observed (FIG. 1).

Reporter promoter:

GCTTCACAACCGCACTTGATTTAATAGACCATACCGTCTATTATTTCTGG (SEQ ID NO: 1)

Reporter RBS:

Tttaactttaagaaggagatatacat (SEQ ID NO: 2)

Reporter gene:

Atgcgtaaaggtgaagaactgttcaccggtgttgttccgatcctggttgaactggacggtgacgttaacggtcacaaattctctgttcgt ggtgaaggtgaaggtgacgctaccaacggtaaactgaccctgaaattcatctgcaccaccggtaaactgccggttccgtggccgacc ctggttaccaccctgacctacggtgttcagtgcttcgctcgttacccggaccacatgaaacagcacgacttcttcaaatctgctatgccg gaaggttacgttcaggaacgtaccatctctttcaaagacgacggtacctacaaaacccgtgctgaagttaaattcgaaggtgacaccct ggttaaccgtatcgaactgaaaggtatcgacttcaaagaagacggtaacatcctgggtcacaaactggaatacaacttcaactctcaca acgtttacatcaccgctgacaaacagaaaaacggtatcaaagctaacttcaaaatccgtcacaacgttgaagacggttctgttcagctgg ctgaccactaccagcagaacaccccgatcggtgacggtccggttctgctgccggacaaccactacctgtctacccagtctgttctgtct aaagacccgaacgaaaaacgtgaccacatggttctgctggaattcgttaccgctgctggtatcacccacggtatggacgaactgtaca aa (SEQ ID NO: 3)

Promoter and sequence sensor:

Promoter Sequence

Aattaatacgactcactatagggagaccacaac (SEQ ID NO: 4)

Protein Coding Sequence

ATGCCGCTGACCGACACCCCGCCGTCTGTTCCGCAGAAACCGCGTCGTGGTCGTC CGCGTGGTGCTCCGGACGCTTCTCTGGCTCACCAGTCTCTGATCCGTGCTGGTCT GGAACACCTGACCGAAAAAGGTTACTCTTCTGTTGGTGTTGACGAAATCCTGAAA

GCTGCTCGTGTTCCGAAAGGTTCTTTCTACCACTACTTCCGTAACAAAGCTGACTT

CGGTCTGGCTCTGATCGAAGCTTACGACACCTACTTCGCTCGTCTCCTCGACCAG

GCGTTCCTGGACGGTTCGCTGGCTCCGCTGGCTCGTCTGCGTCTGTTCACCCGTAT

GGCTGAAGAAGGTATGGCTCGTCACGGTTTCCGTCGTGGTTGCCTGGTTGGTAAC

CTGGGTCAGGAAATGGGTGCTCTGCCGGACGACTTCCGTGCTGCTCTGATCGGTG

TTCTGGAAACCTGGCAGCGTCGTACCGCTCAGCTGTTCCGTGAAGCTCAGGCTTG

CGGTGAACTGTCTGCTGACCACGACCCGGACGCTCTGGCTGAAGCTTTCTGGATC

GGTTGGGAAGGTGCTATCCTGCGTGCTAAACTGGAACTGCGTCCGGACCCGCTGC

ACTCTTTCACCCGTACCTTCGGTCGTCACTTCGTTACCCGTACCCAGGAATAA

(SEQ ID NO: 5)

Terminator Sequence

AAC CCC TTG GGG CCT CTA AAC GGG TCT TGA GGG GTT TTT TG (SEQ ID NO: 6)

Primers used for AcuR amplification:

PI: aattaatacgactcactatagggagaccacaacATG CCG CTG ACC GAC ACC C (SEQ ID NO: 7) P2: CAA AAA ACC CCT CAA GAC CCG TTT AGA GGC CCC AAG GGG TTT TAT TCC TGG GTA CGG GTA ACG (SEQ ID NO: 8)

EXAMPLE II

Real-time monitoring of acrylate production in a cell- free system

DNA encoded biological acrylate sensor was used to detect acrylate which has been synthesized in real time. A dsDNA linear template encoding the enzyme PCS downstream of a T7 promoter, and the precursor molecule 3-hydroxypropionate was added to the sensor system described in Example 1. Methods

Linear DNA amplification: Linear dsDNA containing AcuR and PCS was prepared by PCR amplification using primers which contain a T7 promoter, and ribosome binding site (RBS).

Cell free preparation: In ice, a cell-free reaction was first prepared containing ΙΟμΙ^ of component A (NEB, P/N E6800), 7.5 of component B (NEB, P/N E6800), 5 U of murine RNAse inhibitor (NEB, P/N M0314S), and 2.5U of E. coli RNA polymerase holoenzyme (NEB, P/N M0551S). A combined 250ng of linear dsDNA encoding AcuR, 250ng of linear dsDNA encoding PCS, and 250ng of circular plasmid containing the reporter GFP was added into the cell-free system reaction. Sequences of the DNA elements are attached below.

Finally, the sample was separated into two different aliquots, and different amounts of 3-hydroxypropionate were added to a solution to achieve concentrations of OmM, and O.lmM, respectively. The samples were incubated at 37°C, and the fluorescence signal (395nm excitation, 470nm absorption) of the sample was measured every two minutes for 4 hours.

Promoter and sequence PCS:

Promoter Sequence

Aattaatacgactcactatagggagaccacaac (SEQ DD NO: 4)

Protein Coding Sequence

ATGATCGATACCGCACCGCTGGCACCGCCGCGTGCTCCGCGCAGCAATCCGATTC GTGATCGCGTGGATTGGGAAGCGCAGCGTGCAGCAGCACTGGCCGATCCGGGTG CATTTCATGGTGCGATCGCCCGTACCGTTATTCACTGGTATGATCCGCAGCATCA CTGCTGGATTCGCTTCAACGAAAGCTCTCAGCGTTGGGAAGGTCTGGATGCAGCA ACGGGTGCTCCGGTTACAGTGGATTATCCTGCCGATTACCAGCCGTGGCAGCAGG CATTTGATGATAGTGAAGCGCCGTTTTATCGCTGGTTCAGCGGCGGTCTGACGAA

CGCATGTTTTAATGAAGTTGATCGTCACGTGACAATGGGTTACGGCGATGAAGTG

GCGTATTACTTCGAAGGTGATCGCTGGGATAATAGCCTGAACAATGGCCGTGGC

GGTCCGGTGGTTCAGGAAACGATTACCCGTCGCCGTCTGCTGGTTGAAGTGGTTA

AAGCAGCGCAGGTTCTGCGCGATCTGGGCCTGAAAAAAGGTGATCGTATCGCGC

TGAACATGCCGAATATCATGCCGCAGATTTATTACACCGAAGCCGCAAAACGCC

TGGGTATTCTGTATACGCCGGTGTTTGGCGGTTTCAGTGATAAAACCCTGAGCGA

TCGCATCCATAATGCAGGTGCGCGTGTGGTTATTACCTCTGATGGCGCGTATCGT

AACGCCCAGGTGGTTCCGTATAAAGAAGCCTACACGGATCAGGCACTGGATAAA

TACATCCCGGTGGAAACCGCCCAGGCAATTGTTGCACAGACGCTGGCAACCCTG

CCGCTGACCGAAAGTCAGCGCCAGACGATTATCACCGAAGTGGAAGCAGCACTG

GCAGGTGAAATTACGGTTGAACGTTCTGATGTTATGCGCGGTGTGGGCAGTGCGC

TGGCCAAACTGCGCGATCTGGATGCCAGTGTGCAGGCAAAAGTTCGTACCGTGC

TGGCACAGGCGCTGGTTGAAAGCCCGCCGCGCGTGGAAGCAGTGGTTGTGGTTC

GTCATACGGGTCAGGAAATCCTGTGGAATGAAGGCCGTGATCGCTGGAGCCACG

ATCTGCTGGATGCAGCACTGGCGAAAATTCTGGCTAACGCACGCGCCGCAGGTTT

TGATGTTCACTCTGAAAACGATCTGCTGAATCTGCCGGATGATCAGCTGATCCGT

GCTCTGTATGCGAGTATTCCGTGCGAACCAGTTGATGCCGAATATCCGATGTTTA

TTATCTACACGAGCGGTTCTACCGGCAAACCGAAAGGTGTTATTCATGTTCACGG

CGGTTACGTGGCGGGCGTGGTTCATACCCTGCGCGTTAGTTTCGATGCCGAACCG

GGCGATACGATTTATGTGATCGCAGATCCGGGCTGGATCACAGGTCAGAGCTAC

ATGCTGACGGCAACCATGGCAGGTCGTCTGACTGGTGTGATTGCCGAAGGTTCTC

CGCTGTTTCCGAGTGCGGGCCGCTATGCCTCTATTATCGAACGTTACGGTGTTCA GTTGAAGATGTGCGCCTGTATGATATGCACAGTCTGCGTGTGGCAACCTTTTGTG CAGAGCCGGTTAGCCCGGCAGTGCAGCAGTTCGGTATGCAGATCATGACGCCGC AGTATATTAATAGCTACTGGGCGACGGAACATGGCGGTATTGTGTGGACCCACTT TTATGGCAACCAGGATTTCCCGCTGCGTCCAGATGCACATACGTACCCGCTGCCG TGGGTTATGGGTGATGTTTGGGTGGCAGAAACCGATGAATCTGGCACCACGCGC TATCGCGTGGCGGATTTCGATGAAAAAGGTGAAATCGTTATCACCGCACCGTATC CGTACCTGACGCGAACCCTGTGGGGTGATGTGCCGGGTTTTGAAGCGTATCTGCG TGGTGAAATCCCGCTGCGTGCATGGAAAGGTGATGCAGAACGTTTCGTTAAAAC CTACTGGCGTCGTGGTCCGAATGGCGAATGGGGTTATATCCAGGGCGATTTTGCG ATTAAATACCCGGATGGTAGTTTCACGCTGCATGGCCGCAGCGATGATGTTATTA ATGTGTCCGGCCACCGTATGGGTACGGAAGAAATCGAAGGTGCCATTCTGCGTG ATCGCCAGATCACCCCGGATTCTCCGGTGGGTAACTGCATTGTGGTTGGCGCGCC GCATCGTGAAAAAGGCCTGACCCCGGTTGCATTTATCCAGCCAGCACCGGGTCGT CACCTGACGGGTGCAGATCGCCGTCGCCTGGATGAACTGGTGCGTACCGAAAAA GGTGCAGTTAGCGTGCCGGAAGATTATATTGAAGTTAGTGCGTTTCCGGAAACCC GCAGCGGTAAATACATGCGTCGCTTCCTGCGTAATATGATGCTGGATGAACCGCT GGGCGATACCACGACCCTGCGCAACCCGGAAGTGCTGGAAGAAATCGCGGCCAA AATTGCCGAATGGAAACGTCGCCAGCGCATGGCAGAAGAACAGCAGATTATCGA ACGTTATCGCTACTTTCGTATTGAATATCATCCGCCGACCGCAAGTGCAGGTAAA CTGGCAGTGGTTACGGTTACCAATCCGCCGGTGAACGCCCTGAATGAACGTGCTC TGGATGAACTGAACACCATCGTGGATCACCTGGCGCGTCGCCAGGATGTTGCAG CGATTGTGTTTACGGGTCAGGGTGCTCGCAGCTTCGTGGCCGGTGCGGATATCCG TCAGCTGCTGGAAGAAATTCATACCGTTGAAGAAGCCATGGCACTGCCGAACAA TGCGCACCTGGCCTTTCGCAAAATTGAACGTATGAACAAACCGTGCATTGCCGCA ATCAATGGTGTGGCACTGGGCGGTGGCCTGGAATTTGCGATGGCCTGTCATTATC

GCGTTGCCGATGTGTACGCAGAATTTGGTCAGCCGGAAATCAACCTGCGTCTGCT

GCCGGGTTATGGTGGTACGCAGCGTCTGCCGCGTCTGCTGTACAAACGCAACAAT

GGTACAGGCCTGCTGCGTGCGCTGGAAATGATTCTGGGTGGCCGCAGCGTGCCA

GCAGATGAAGCACTGGAACTGGGTCTGATTGATGCAATCGCGACCGGCGATCAG

GATAGTCTGAGCCTGGCCTGCGCACTGGCGCGTGCGGCAATCGGTGCAGATGGT

CAGCTGATTGAAAGCGCAGCGGTGACCCAGGCCTTTCGTCATCGCCACGAACAG

CTGGATGAATGGCGTAAACCGGACCCGCGCTTCGCGGATGATGAACTGCGCTCT

ATTATCGCCCATCCGCGTATCGAACGCATTATCCGTCAGGCGCATACCGTTGGTC

GTGATGCAGCAGTGCACCGTGCACTGGATGCAATTCGTTATGGCATTATCCATGG

TTTTGAAGCCGGCCTGGAACACGAAGCAAAACTGTTCGCCGAAGCAGTGGTTGA

TCCGAATGGTGGCAAACGCGGCATCCGTGAATTTCTGGATCGTCAGTCTGCACCG

CTGCCGACACGTCGCCCGCTGATTACCCCGGAACAGGAACAGCTGCTGCGTGAT

CAGAAAGAACTGCTGCCGGTGGGTAGTCCGTTTTTCCCTGGCGTTGATCGCATCC

CGAAATGGCAGTATGCGCAGGCCGTGATTCGTGATCCCGATACTGGTGCAGCAG

CACATGGCGATCCGATCGTTGCGGAAAAACAGATTATCGTTCCGGTGGAACGTC

CGCGTGCGAACCAGGCACTGATTTACGTTCTGGCGAGCGAAGTGAACTTTAATG

ATATTTGGGCCATCACAGGTATTCCGGTGAGCCGCTTCGATGAACATGATCGTGA

TTGGCACGTGACGGGTTCTGGTGGCATCGGCCTGATTGTTGCGCTGGGCGAAGAA

GCCCGTCGCGAAGGTCGTCTGAAAGTTGGCGATCTGGTGGCGATCTATAGCGGC

CAGTCTGATCTGCTGAGCCCGCTGATGGGTCTGGACCCGATGGCAGCCGATTTTG

TGATTCAGGGTAATGATACCCCGGATGGCTCTCATCAGCAGTTCATGCTGGCACA

GGCACCGCAGTGCCTGCCGATCCCGACGGATATGAGCATTGAAGCAGCGGGTTC TTATATCCTGAACCTGGGCACCATTTACCGCGCACTGTTTACGACCCTGCAA (SEQ ID NO: 9)

Terminator Sequence

AAC CCC TTG GGG CCT CTA AAC GGG TCT TGA GGG GTT TTT TG (SEQ ID NO: 6)

EXAMPLE III

Cell-free discovery of enhanced acrylate-producing enzymes

DNA encoded biological acrylate sensor was used to detect acrylate potential PCS mutants with higher activity of acrylate synthesis. A library of PCS enzymes was generated and the system described in Example 2 was used to detect mutants with higher production using the AcuR sensor activated GFP signal.

Methods

Linear DNA amplification of AcuR: Linear dsDNA containing AcuR was prepared by PCR amplification using primers which contain a T7 promoter, and ribosome binding site (RBS).

PCS library generation: We generated a library of PCS enzymes combining error prone PCR, and degenerate primers on the catalytic center. We topo cloned the library, and purified 384 individual clones.

Cell free preparation: In ice, 384 cell-free reactions were prepared in a 384-well plate with V shaped bottom. ΙΟμΙ^ of component A (NEB, P/N E6800), 7.5 of component B (NEB, P/N E6800), 5 U of murine RNAse inhibitor (NEB, P/N M0314S), 2.5U of E. coli RNA polymerase holoenzyme (NEB, P/N M0551S) were mixed with 3-hydroxypropionate to a concentration of 0. ImM. A combined 250ng of linear dsDNA encoding AcuR, 250ng of plasmid encoding one PCS mutant, and 250ng of circular plasmid containing the reporter GFP was added into the cell-free system reaction.

Finally, 3-hydroxypropionate was added to a solution to achieve concentrations of O.lmM. The samples were incubated at 37°C, and the fluorescence signal (395nm excitation, 470nm absorption) of the sample was measured every two minutes for 4 hours to each well. Wells showing higher fluorescence were analyzed.

Mutant identification: Wells with higher fluorescence are analyzed by PCR followed by sequence validation.

EXAMPLE IV

Cell-free discovery of enhanced acrylate-producing enzymes with emulsion sorting technology

A large scale DNA encoded biological acrylate sensor was used to detect acrylate potential PCS mutants with higher activity of acrylate synthesis. A library of PCS enzymes was generated and the system described in example 2 was used to detect mutants with higher production using the AcuR sensor activated GFP signal.

Methods

Linear DNA amplification of AcuR: Linear dsDNA containing AcuR was prepared by PCR amplification using primers which contain a T7 promoter, and ribosome binding site (RBS).

PCS library generation: A a library of PCS enzymes was generated combining error prone PCR, and degenerate primers on the catalytic center. Forward primer of PCS contains a 5' biotin.

PCS library was emulsified in mineral oil with presence of beads. Emulsion PCR with biotin primers was performed to amplify the individual members of the library in each of the beads. The beads with successful amplification were recovered (ie https://www3.appliedbiosystems om/cms/groups/mcb_support/documents/generaldocum /cms_081748.pdf ).

Cell free preparation: In ice, 384 cell-free reactions were prepared in a 384- well plate with V shaped bottom. 10 of component A (NEB, P/N E6800), 7.5 μΐ. of component B (NEB, P/N E6800), 5 U of murine RNAse inhibitor (NEB, P/N M0314S), 2.5U of E. coli RNA polymerase holoenzyme (NEB, P/N M0551S) were mixed with 3-hydroxypropionate to a concentration of O.lmM. A combined 250ng of linear dsDNA encoding AcuR, 250ng of circular plasmid containing the reporter GFP were added into the cell-free system reaction, and 3-hydroxypropionate was added to a solution to achieve concentrations of O.lmM. This mixture was emulsified with mineral oil, and the beads containing the PCS mutants.

The emulsion was incubated at 37°C for 4 hours.

Mutant identification: Droplet sorter was used to separate droplets with higher fluorescence. Phenol chloroform extraction was used to separate aqueous phase from mineral oil, and PCR followed by sequence was used to identify the PCS mutants with higher activity.

Table 2.

A list of natural and engineered biosensors by molecule sensed is provided.

Abbreviated sensor type names refer to the following: allosteric TF, allosteric transcription factor; two-component, two-component systems; FRET, fluorescence resonance energy transfer; GPCR, G-protein coupled receptor.

Figure imgf000036_0001
Adipate Dicarboxylic acid PcaR Allosteric TF [1]

B12 Vitamin BtuB Riboswitch [3]

Benzoate, naphthalene Aromatics NahR Allosteric TF [4]

Erythromycin Macrolide MphR Allosteric TF [5]

Fatty acids Fatty acid FadR Allosteric TF [6]

Fatty acids Fatty acid GPCR [7]

Glucarate Feedstock CdaR Allosteric TF [8]

Lysine Amino acid LysR Allosteric TF [9]

Muconate Dicarboxylic acid BenM Allosteric TF [10]

NADPH Redox SoxR Allosteric TF [11]

Naringenin Flavonoid TtgR Allosteric TF [12]

Octane Alkane AlkS Allosteric TF [13]

Succinate Dicarboxylic acid DcuR Two-component [1]

Tetracyclines Polyketides TetR Allosteric TF [14]

Engineered biosensors

3,4-dihydroxybenzoate Aromatic PobR Allosteric TF [15]

Biphenyl, nitrotoluenes Aromatics XylR Allosteric TF [16]

Mevalonate Isoprenoid AraC Allosteric TF [17] precursor

Pyruvate Alpha-keto acid De novo FRET [18]

Theophylline Alkaloid De novo Riboswitch [19]

Thiamine-pp Vitamin De novo Riboswitch [20, 21]

Trehalose-6-p Sugar De novo FRET [22]

Triacetic acid lactones Feedstock AraC Allosteric TF [23]

Vanillin Aromatic, flavoring QacR Allosteric TF [24]

Zn2+ Ion De novo FRET [25]

Table 3.

Examples of biosensor- mediated high-throughput metabolic engineering Molecule Biosensor Titer fold Throughput Year Reference mode improvement

naringenin selection 36 109 2014 [26] glucarate selection 22 109 2014 [26] lysine screen 37 108 2013 [27] histidine screen >40 108 2013 [27] arginine screen 87 108 2013 [27] triacetate lactone screen 20 104 2013 [28]

mevalonate screen 3.8 105 2011 [29]

butanol screen 1.4 103 2010 [30]

Dietrich, J. A., et al., Transcription factor-based screens and synthetic selections for microbial small-molecule biosynthesis. ACS Synth Biol, 2013. 2(1): p. 47-58.

Rogers, J.K., et al., Synthetic biosensors for precise gene control and real-time monitoring of metabolites. , Nucleic Acids Res. 2015. p. 7648-7660.

This study combines biosensors for four plastic precursors (acrylate, 3- hydroxypropionate, muconate and glucarate) with their respective metabolic pathways to demonstrate fluorescent biosensors can be used to track metabolite production in real-time. A small screen is used to demonstrate biosensor-based culture condition optimization for the production of 3-hydroxypropionate.

Fowler, C.C., E.D. Brown, and Y. Li, Using a riboswitch sensor to examine coenzyme B(12) metabolism and transport in E. coll. , in Chem. Biol. 2010. p. 756-765. van Sint Fiet, S., J.B. van Beilen, and B. Witholt, Selection of biocatalysts for chemical synthesis. , in Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2006. p. 1693-1698.

Zheng, J., et al., Structure and function of the macrolide biosensor protein, MphR(A), with and without erythromycin. , in /. Mol. Biol. 2009. p. 1250-1260.

Zhang, F.Z., J.M. Carothers, and J.D. Keasling, Design of a dynamic sensor-regulator system for production of chemicals and fuels derived from fatty acids. Nature Biotechnology, 2012. 30(4): p. 354-U166.

Mukherjee, K., S. Bhattacharyya, and P. Peralta-Yahya, GPCR-Based Chemical Biosensors for Medium-Chain Fatty Acids. ACS Synth Biol, 2015. 4(12): p. 1261-9.

Monterrubio, R., et al., A common regulator for the operons encoding the enzymes involved in D-galactarate, D-glucarate, and D-glycerate utilization in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol, 2000. 182(9): p. 2672-4.

Schell, M.A., Molecular biology of the LysR family of transcriptional regulators. , in Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 1993. p. 597-626. Craven, S.H., et al., Inducer responses ofBenM, a LysR-type transcriptional regulator from Acinetobacter baylyi ADPL , in Mol. Microbiol. 2009. p. 881-894.

Siedler, S., et al., SoxR as a single-cell biosensor for NADPH-consuming enzymes in Escherichia coli. ACS Synth Biol, 2014. 3(1): p. 41-7.

Teran, W., et al., Antibiotic-dependent induction of Pseudomonas putida DOT-TIE TtgABC efflux pump is mediated by the drug binding repressor TtgR. , in Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2003. p. 3067-3072.

Canosa, I., L. Yuste, and F. Rojo, Role of the alternative sigma factor sigmaS in expression of the AlkS regulator of the Pseudomonas oleovorans alkane degradation pathway. , in J. Bacteriol. 1999. p. 1748-1754.

Lutz, R. and H. Bujard, Independent and tight regulation of transcriptional units in Escherichia coli via the LacR/O, the TetR/O and AraC/Il-I2 regulatory elements. , in Nucleic Acids Res. 1997. p. 1203-1210.

Jha, R.K., et al., Rosetta comparative modeling for library design: Engineering alternative inducer specificity in a transcription factor. Proteins, 2015.

Garmendia, J., et al., A la carte transcriptional regulators: unlocking responses of the prokaryotic enhancer-binding protein XylR to non-natural effectors. , in Mol.

Microbiol. 2001. p. 47-59.

Tang, S.-Y. and P.C. Cirino, Design and application of a mevalonate-responsive regulatory protein. , in Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 2011. p. 1084-1086.

San Martin, A., et al., Imaging mitochondrial flux in single cells with a FRET sensor for pyruvate. PLoS One, 2014. 9(1): p. e85780.

Lynch, S.A. and J.P. Gallivan, A flow cytometry-based screen for synthetic riboswitches. , in Nucleic Acids Res. 2009. p. 184-192.

Muranaka, N., K. Abe, and Y. Yokobayashi, Mechanism-guided library design and dual genetic selection of synthetic OFF riboswitches. Chembiochem, 2009. 10(14): p. 2375-81.

Muranaka, N., et al., An efficient platform for genetic selection and screening of gene switches in Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res, 2009. 37(5): p. e39.

Peroza, E.A., et al., A genetically encoded Forster resonance energy transfer sensor for monitoring in vivo trehalose-6-phosphate dynamics. Anal Biochem, 2015. 474: p. 1-7. 23. Tang, S.-Y., et al., Screening for enhanced triacetic acid lactone production by recombinant Escherichia coli expressing a designed triacetic acid lactone reporter. , in J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013. p. 10099-10103.

24. de Los Santos, E.L., et al., Engineering Transcriptional Regulator Effector Specificity Using Computational Design and In Vitro Rapid Prototyping: Developing a Vanillin Sensor. ACS Synth Biol, 2015.

25. Vinkenborg, J.L., et al., Genetically encoded FRET sensors to monitor intracellular Zn2+ homeostasis. Nat Methods, 2009. 6(10): p. 737-40.

26. Raman, S., et al., Evolution- guided optimization of biosynthetic pathways. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2014. 111(50): p. 17803-8.

27. Schendzielorz, G., et al., Taking control over control: use of product sensing in single cells to remove flux control at key enzymes in biosynthesis pathways. ACS Synth Biol, 2014. 3(1): p. 21-9.

28. Tang, S.Y., et al., Screening for enhanced triacetic acid lactone production by

recombinant Escherichia coli expressing a designed triacetic acid lactone reporter. J Am Chem Soc, 2013. 135(27): p. 10099-103.

29. Tang, S.Y. and P.C. Cirino, Design and application of a mevalonate-responsive

regulatory protein. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl, 2011. 50(5): p. 1084-6.

30. Dietrich, J.A., A.E. McKee, and J.D. Keasling, High-Throughput Metabolic

Engineering: Advances in Small-Molecule Screening and Selection. Annual Review of Biochemistry, Vol 79, 2010. 79: p. 563-590.

TABLE 4: Sequence of regulator proteins and cognate promoter/operators.

Promoter / Operator

Regulator Sequence Regulator Sequence

ATGCCGCTGACCGACACCCCGCCGTCTGTTCCGCAGAAAC CGCGTCGTGGTCGTCCGCGTGGTGCTCCGGACGCTTCTCT G G CTCACCAGTCTCTG ATCCGTG CTG GTCTG G A ACACCTG A CCGAAAAAGGTTACTCTTCTGTTGGTGTTGACGAAATCCTG

ΑΑΑαατααααταπ^ΑΑΑθοπο^αΑ^ΑατΑατ

G CTTCACA ACCG CACT CCGTAACAAAGCTGACTTCGGTCTGGCTCTGATCGAAGCTT

acuR TG ATTTAATAG ACCAT ACG AC ACCTACTTCG CTCGTCTCCTCG ACCAG G CGTTCCTG ACCGTCTATTATTTCTG G ACG GTTCG CTG G CTCCG CTG G CTCGTCTG CGTCTGTTCAC

G (SEQ ID NO: 1) CCGTATG G CTG AAG A AG GTATG G CTCGTC ACG GTTTCCGT

CGTG GTTG CCTG GTTG GTAACCTG GGTCAGG AAATG GGTG CTCTGCCGGACGACTTCCGTGCTGCTCTGATCGGTGTTCTG G AAACCTG G CAG CGTCGTACCG CTCAG CTGTTCCGTG A AG CTCAG G CTTG CG GTG AACTGTCTG CTG ACC ACG ACCCG G A CG CTCTG G CTG A AG CTTTCTG GATCGGTTGGGAAGGTGCT

ATCCTG CGTG CTAAACTG GAACTG CGTCCGG ACCCG CTG C ACTCTTTCACCCGTACCTTCGGTCGTCACTTCGTTACCCGTA CCCAGGAATAA (SEQ ID NO: 5)

ATG G CTG A AG CG C AAAATG ATCCCCTG CTG CCG G G ATACT

AGAAACCAATTGTCCA CGTTTAACGCCCATCTGGTGGCGGGTTTAACGCCGATTGA TATTGCATCAGACATT G G CCA ACG GTTATCTCG A l I I I I I I ATCGACCG ACCG CTG G GCCGTCACTGCGTCTT G A ATG AA AG GTTATATTCTCA ATCTCACC ATTCG CG GTC AG TTACTGGCTCTTCTCGC GGGGTGGTGAAAAATCAGGGACGAGAATTTGTCTGCCGA TAACCCAACCGGTAAC CCG G GTG AT ATTTTG CTGTTCCCG CCAGGAGAG ATTC ATC A CCCG CTTATTA AA AG C CTACG GTCGTC ATCCG G AG G CTCG CG A ATG GTATCACC AG ATTCTGTAACAAAG CG TG G GTTTACTTTCGTCCG CG CG CCTACTG G CATG AATG G CT G G ACC AA AG CC ATG AC TAACTG G CCGTCA ATATTTG CCA AT ACG G GTTTCTTTCG CC AAAAACGCGTAACAAA CG G ATG AAG CG CACCAG CCG C ATTTCAG CG ACCTGTTTG G AGTGTCTATAATCACG G CA AATCATTAACG CCG G G C AAG GGGAAGGGCG CTATTC G CAG AA AAGTCC AC AT GGAGCTGCTGGCGATAAATCTGCTTGAGCAATTGTTACTG TG ATTATTTG C ACG G C CGGCGCATGGAAGCGATTAACGAGTCGCTCCATCCACCGA GTCACACTTTGCTATGC TG G ATA ATCG GGTACGCGAGG CTTGTC AGTAC ATC AG CG A CATAGCATTTTTATCCA TCACCTG G CAG ACAG C A ATTTTG ATATCG CC AG CGTCG CAC TAAGATTAGCGGATCC AG C ATGTTTG CTTGTCG CCGTCG CGTCTGTCAC ATCTTTTCC TACCTGACGCTTTTTAT GCCAGCAGTTAGGGATTAGCGTCTTAAGCTGGCGCGAGG CGCAACTCTCTACTGTT ACCA ACG CATTAGTCAG G CG AAG CTG CTTTTG AG C ACTAC TCTCCAT ACCCG CTTTC CCG G ATGCCTATCG CCACCGTCG GTCGCAATGTTG GTTTTG ATATCTTTCAC I I I I I I I ACG ATC AACTCT ATTTCTCG CG AGTATTTAAA AAATG CACC GGGCTAAC (SEQ I D GGGGCCAGCCCGAGCGAGTTTCGTGCCGGTTGTGAAGAA

NO: 10) AAAGTGAATGATGTAGCCGTCAAGTTGTCAtaa (SEQ I D

NO: 11)

ATG CTGTTG ATTG ACG ATG G CTG G CTG G CATCTTG ATACCA AAATG GCG CAG G ATA

CC AGTG AG A ACCCG G A TCGTG GCACGTACCATG CG CATCATCG ATACCAATATCAAC

ACCG G AA ACGG A ATCA GTAATGGATGCCCGTGGGCGAATTATCGGCAGCGGCGATC

AATCCGTGGGTCGAAC GTG AG CGTATTG GTG AATTG CACG AAG GTG CATTG CTG GT

AGTG G G G CACG CTGTT ACTTTC AC AG G G ACG AGTCG TCG ATATCG ATG ACG CG GTA

GTCCTGATATGTTCAG G CACGTCATCTG C ACG GTGTG CG G CAG G G G ATTAATCTAC

CGAGCGGTAAATGTCG CGTTACG G CTG G A AG GTG A AATTGTCG G CGTA ATTG GCCT

TTTTAGCGGTGCTGAA G AC AG GTG AACCAG AG AATCTG CGT AAATATG G CG A ACT

TCG AATCTTTTCAG G C G GTCTGCATG ACGG CTG AAATG ATG CTGG AACAGTCG CG

cdaR

AAATG CCAGTAAAAAC GTTG ATG CACTTGTTG GCG CAG G ATAG CCGTTTG CG G G AA

TG CTTCATAG CG CG G A G A ACTG GTG ATG A ACCTG ATTCAGG CAG AG G AG AATACTC

TTTTTACTGGCGTTTGC CCG CACTTACTG AATGG G CG CAACG G CTG GG G ATCG ATCT

CTGGAGTCAAGCGATC CA ATC A ACCG CG AGTG GTG G CTATTGTTG AG GTCG ACAG C

CATTTCATACTCTTCTT GGTCAG CTTG G CGTG G ACAG CG CA ATG G CG G AGTTAC AA

TATTTCTTCGTTTTAAC CA ACTG CA A A ACG CG CTG ACTACG CCCG AG CGTAATAATC

CCTTCCTTTCTTGTTCTT TG GTG G CG ATTGTCTCG CTAACCG AAATG GTG GTGTTG AA

GTTTTCATTTCCGTGAA ACCG G CGTTG AACTCTTTTG G G CG CTGG G ATG CAG AAG AT

GTGGATTCCACCGTCC CATCGTAAGCGAGTTGAACAACTGATTACCCGCATGAAAG AGGGCTAATGCCAAAA AGTACGGCCAGCTGCG 1 1 1 1 CGCGTTTCACTGGGCAACTAT TCG G G CCTCATTG AAC TTTACCG GTCCTG G C AGTATTG CCCG ATCCTATCGTACG G C GCATTAATGTTGTGTT G A AAACG ACG ATG GTG GTG G GTAA AC AG CG G ATG CCAG A GTTGCACGGTGAGCCG AAGTCGCTGCTA I 1 1 1 1 ATCAGGATCTGATGTTACCTGTGT CTATGGCGCGU U N A TACTCG AC AGTTTG CGTG G CG ACTG G C AG G CCA ACG AACT TACTGCTATTGCCAGA G G CG CG ACCG CTG GCGCGGCTGAAAACG ATG G AC AATAA TATA AACACG CG CCGT CGGCTTGCTGCGACGAACGCTGGCGGCGTGGTTTCGCCAC ATTCGGCGAACGACCT AATGTGCAACCG CTG G CAACGTCAAAG G CGTTGTTTATTC ATAAA A ACG G CAA A AA ATCGTAATACCCTG G AGTATCG G CTTA ATCGTATATCG G A A ACACCCTACGTCACCTC CTGACCGGGCTTGATTTGGGCAA 1 1 1 1 GATGACAGGTTGC TG ATTTCCTG G CG ATG TGCTGTATGTGGCGTTACAACTGGATGAAGAGCGGtag TCG CAGTCCAG AGTG A (SEQ I D NO: 13)

GCGTGGCTAACGCGAA

1 1 1 I CAGGAGTGCAAC

A (SEQ I D NO: 12)

ATGCCGCGTCCGAAACTGAAATCTGACGACGAAGTTCTGG AAGCGGCGACCGTTGTTCTGAAACGTTGCGGTCCGATCGA ATTCACCCTGTCTGGTGTTGCGAAAGAAGTTGGTCTGTCTC GTG CG G CG CTG ATCCAG CGTTTC ACCA ACCGTG ACACCCT G CTG GTTCGTATG ATG G AACGTG GTGTTG AAC AG GTTCGT CACTACCTGAACGCGATCCCGATCGGTGCGGGTCCGCAGG

G G ATTG A AT ATA ACCG GTCTGTGGGAATTCCTGCAGGTTCTGGTTCGTTCTATGAAC ACGTGACTGTTACATTT

mphR ACCCGTAACGACTTCTCTGTTAACTACCTGATCTCTTGGTAC AGGTGGCTAAACCCGT G A ACTG CAG GTTCCG G A ACTG CGTACCCTG G CG ATCCAG C CAA (SEQ ID NO: 14)

GTAACCGTGCGGTTGTTGAAGGTATCCGTAAACGTCTGCC GCCGGGTGCGCCGGCGGCGGCGG A ACTG CTG CTG CACTC TGTTATCGCG G GTG CG ACCATGC AGTG GG CG GTTG ACCCG GACGGTGAACTGGCGG ACCACGTTCTG G CG CAG ATCG CG G CG ATCCTGTG CCTG ATGTTCCCG G AACACG ACG ACTTCC A G CTG CTG CAG G CG CACG CGTA A (SEQ ID NO: 15)

ATGTCTCGTTTAGATAAAAGTAAAGTGATTAACAG CG CATT AG AG CTG CTTAATG AG GTCG G A ATCG AAGGTTTAAC AACC CGTAA ACTCG CCCAG A AG CTAG GTGTAG AG C AG CCTAC AT TGTATTG G CATGTAAA A AATAAG CG G G 1 1 I GCTCGACGC

TCGAGTCCCTATCAGT CTTAG CCATTG AG ATGTTAG ATAG G CACCATACTCAL 1 1 1 1 GATAGAGATTGACATC GCC I 1 1 AGAAGGGGAAAG 1 GCAAGA 1 1 1 1 1 l ACGTAA CCTATCAGTG ATAG AG TAACGCTAAAAG 1 1 1 I AGA I I C I 1 1 ACTAAGTCATCGCG tetR ATACTG AG C AC ATCAG ATG GAG CAA A AGTACATTTAG GTAC ACG G CCTACAG A AAA CAG G ACG CACTG ACCG ACAGTATGAAACTCTCGAAAATCAATTAGC 1 1 1 1 I ATGCC AATTCATTAAA (SEQ I D AACAAGG I 1 1 1 1 CACTAGAGAATGCATTATATGCACTCAGC NO: 16) GCAGTGGGGCA I 1 1 I AC I 1 1 AGGTTGCGTATTGGAAGATC

AAG AG C ATC AAGTCG CTAAAG AAG A AAG G G A AACACCTA CTACTGATAGTATGCCGCCATTATTACGACAAGCTATCGAA TTATTTG ATCACCA AG GTG CAG AG CCAG CCTTCTTATTCG G CCTTGAATTGATCATATGCGGATTAGAAAAACAACTTAAAT GTGAAAGTGGGTCTTAA (SEQ I D NO: 17)

ATGGTGCGTCGCACCAAAGAAGAAGCACAGGAAACGCGT G CG CAG ATTATCG A AG CGGCCGAACGCG CGTTTTATAA AC GTG GTGTG G C ACGTACC ACG CTG G CAG ATATTG C AG AACT G G CAG GTGTTACCCG CG GTG CA ATCTACTG G CATTTC AAC AATAA AG CCG AACTG GTTCAG G CACTG CTG G ATTCTCTG C ACG AAACG C ATG ATCACCTG G CCCGTG CAAG CG AATCTG A AG ATG AACTGG ACCCG CTG G G CTG CATG CG CA AACTG CTG

CACCCAGCAGTATTTA CTG CAG GTGTTTAACG AACTG GTTCTG G ATG CACGTACCC CAAACAACCATGAATG GTCGCATTAATGAAATCCTGCATCACAAATGCGAATTTACG TA AGTATATTCCTTAG C G ATG ATATGTGTG AAATTCGTCAG CAGCGCCAGAGCGCCG AA (SEQ I D NO: 18)

TG CTG G ATTGTC ATA AAG GTATC ACCCTG G CACTG G CAA A CG CAGTTCGTCG CG GTCAG CTG CCG G GTG AACTG G ATGTG G A ACG CG CAG CG GTTG CG ATGTTTG CCTATGTG G ATG G CC TG ATTG GTCGTTG G CTG CTG CTG CCG G ATAGTGTTG ATCT GCTGGGCGATGTGGAAAAATGGGTTGATACCGGTCTGGA TATG CTG CGTCTG AGCCCGGCG CTG CG CAA ATAA (SEQ I D NO: 19)

TABLE 5: Sequence of MIOX orthologs

Sequence

ATGGTAAACAAGGTCGGTAAATCTACTCTCGATAAGAGCACAAACCTAG ATAAATCCAAAGGGAATATATTAGAGAAACTAGATGATGATATACTTCAT GTCAATAGAATTCGAGGCTCTTTAACTAACAAAACTCCAATCACCAAAAC CC ATTCG ATAG ATG ATG AG CTTA A ACTAG AAG AAC A ATC AG AA ACTG CC G CCG ATG AAA ATTG G CAA ATAG C ATCG G AATATTATAAAA AC ATAG AC A CG A AG G CTTTCCG CCA ATATG AATTAG CTTGTG ATAG AGTC A AACAGTTT TATG AAG AACA ACATG A A AAAC A AACCGTG G CGTATA ATATTC AAG CAA G AATTAATTTCAA AACTAAA AC AAG AG CAAG A ATG AC AGTTTG G G AAG G ACTAG AG AAATTAA ACAA ATTGTTAG ATG ATTCTG ATCCCG ACACCG AAT

Candida

TGTCAC AA ATAG ATCATG CATTACAG ACG G CAG AAG CTATACG G CG AG A

albicans

TGGGAAACCACGATGGTTTCAATTAGTTGGGTTGATTCATGATTTAGGGA AATTACTATA I I I I I I I G ATTCTCGTG GTCA ATG G G ATGTAGTG G GTG ATA CTTTCCCTGTTGGTTGTAAATTCCrGAAACGGATTATTTTCCCTGATAGTTT TAAAAATAATCCAGATTTCCTAAATCCATTGTATAATACCAAATATGGCAT ATATTCA AA ACATTGTG G ATTAG ATAA AGTC ATGTTG AGTTGG G GTCATG ATG AGTATATGTATCATGTTG CG AAA AAG AATTCG ACATTACCACCG G A A G CATTG G CA ATG AT AAG GTATC ATTCATTTTATCCTTG G CATC AAG AATTG G CATATAGTTATTTAATG G ATG AG CATG ATA AAG AG ATGTTG A AAG CAG TC A AAG CTTTCAATTCCTATG ATTTATATTCCA AG ATAG ATC AACAGTATG ATGTTGAAGAGTTGAAACCATATTACCTAGAGTTGATTGATGAGTTTTTC CCAAATAAAGTAATTGA 1 1 1 1 1 AA (SEQ I D NO: 20)

ATGAGTCAGACCGTGGAAAACACGTTTGGCGAATTTCGTAACTACACCG ATAG CAA ATTCCAG G ATCGTGTG G A ACG C ACGTACA A AG ATATG CAC ATT AACCAG A ATCTG G A ATACGTTACCCAG ATG AA AG ATAA ATACTTCA AACT GGATCTGGGTAAAATGGATGTGTACGAAG 1 1 1 1 CAAACTGCTGGAAAAC GTTCATG ATG A AAG CGATCCGG ATA ATG ATCTG CCG CAG ATCG A AC ACG CATATC AG ACCG CG G A AG CCTG CCAG AAC AAATTCCTG A AATCTG ATACG GAACTGCGCGAAAATGCGCTGATTCGTAGTATL I 1 1 CGCGATCATGAATG GCAGAGCATTCCGAAAATCTGGCAGGATTTCTATACCAAAAAACAGAGTC TG G G CA ATCTGTAC AG CCATATTA AAG ATTG GTCTTG GTTTCCG CTG GTT

Fr ncisella sp. G G CTTCGTTCACG ATCTG G GTAAA ATCATG ACCCTG CCG G AATATG GTC A TX077308 G CTG CCGCAGTGG AG CACCGTG GGTG ATACGTACCCG ATTGCCTG CCCG

TTTGCAAGCGCGAACGTG 1 1 M C I CACCGTGAATTTGTTAAAGATTCTAAA G ATTACA ACA ATT AC AATACCG AA AGTG AA ACG CATTATG G CA AATACG A GAAAAAATGTGGTTTCGATAACGTGGATATGAGCTTCGGTCACGATGAA TACATCTACAAAG 1 1 1 1 CGAACAGGGCAGCGATATCCCGTATGAAGGTCT GTACCTGCTGCGCTATCA 1 I I 1 I C I ACCCGTGGCACACCCCGCAGACGG G CG GTCATG CGTATCAGG AACTG G CCAACG AAAAAG ATTG GCTG CTGCT G CCGCTG CTG AA AG CCTTTC AG AA AG CG G ATCTGTATTCTAA ACTG CCG G AACTG CCG CCG A AAG AAGTG CTG G AG A AAAA ATACAAA AGTCTG CTG G A TAAATGGGTTCCGAACAAGAAAATTAACTGGTAA (SEQ ID NO: 21)

ATGAAAAAGCATATAGACACAGACAATCCGTTGAAAAATTTAGATGAGT G G G A AG ATG ATTTGTTAATG CG ATATCCTG ACCCTTCTG AAGTAA ATG A A AGTTTA A AAG AAAAG CAG AA AG AAG AATTTAG AA ATTATGTCG ATTCTG AAAGAGTAGAAACGGTAAAAGAA 1 1 1 1 ACAGGATAAACCATACCTACCA AACTTATGA I 1 1 GTATG CAGTA AAG AACAAG AATTTCTG CAATTTAATA GAAAAGAAATGTCAATCTGGGAAGCTGTCGAG 1 1 1 1 1 AAACACGCTTGTA

Flavobacterium GACGACAGTGACCCAGATATTGACTTAGACCAGACACAGCACU 1 1 I ACA johnsoniae GACTTCAGAAGCCATTCGTGCTGATGGTCATCCGGATTGGTTTGTACTGA

CAGGTTTCATTCACGATTTGGGTAAAG 1 1 1 1 ATGCTTATTTGGAGAACCGC AATGGGCAGTCGTTGGCGATA 1 1 1 1 CCGGTTGGCTGTGCGTATTCGGAT AAAATTGTGTATTCAGAA 1 1 1 1 1 1 AAAGAAAATCCGGATTATACAGATGA G AG ATTC AAT ACT AAACTAG G AATCTAC ACTG AAA ACTG CG G ATTAG ATA ACGTA AA AATG AG CTG G G GTCATG ACG AAT ATTTGTATC AG ATTATG AA AG ATTATTTACCG G ATCCTG C 1 1 1 A 1 ACA 1 A 1 1 CG 1 1 A 1 CAC 1 1 1 1 1 1 AT TCG CAG C ATA A AG AAA ATG CGTATG CAC ATTTA ATG AATG A AAAAG ACA TCG AAATGTTTG ACTG G GTTCGAAAATTCAATCCGTACG ATTTGTATACA AAG G CTCCTGTAA A ACC AG ATGTTCAG G CATTACTTC TTATTATAA AG A ATTAGTTGCTAAATATTTGCCTGAAAAATTGAAG 1 1 1 I ' (SEQ I D NO: 22)

ATG AAAGTG G ATGTTG GCCCGGACCCGAG CCTG GTTTACCG CCCG G ATG TG G ACCCG G A A ATG G C AAA AAG C AAAG ATTCGTTTCGTAACTAC ACC AG TGGCCCGCTGCTGGATCGTG 1 1 1 1 1 ACCACGTATAAACTGATGCATACCC ACCAGACGGTTGAL 1 1 1 GTCAGCCGTAAACGCATTCAATATGGCGGTTTC TCTTAC AAG A AA ATG ACC ATC ATG GAAGCGGTGGG CATG CTG G ATG ACC TGGTTGATGAATCAGATCCGGACGTCGA 1 1 1 1 CCGAATTCGTTTCATGCG TTCCAGACGGCCGAAGGTATTCGCAAAGCCCACCCGGACAAAGATTGGT TCCATCTG GTCGG CCTGCTG CACG ATCTG G GTAA A ATC ATG G CACTGTG G G GTG AACCG CAGTGG GCTGTG GTTG GTG ATACL 1 1 1 CCGGTGGGTTGCC

Mus musculus

GTCCGCAAGCAAGTGTCGTG 1 1 1 1 GTGACTCCACCTTCCAGGACAACCCG G ATCTG C AAG ACCCG CG CTATTCA ACG G A ACTG G G C ATGTACC AG CCG C ATTGCGGTCTGGAAAACGTGCTGATGTCGTGGGGTCACGATGAATACCT GTACCAG ATG ATG A AATTCAACAA ATTC AG CCTG CCGTCTG AAG CCTTCT ACATG ATCCGTTTCCATAGTTTCTACCCGTG G CACACCGG CG GTG ATTATC GCCAGCTGTGCTCCCAGCAAGACCTGGATATGCTGCCGTGGGTGCAAGA ATTC AACAA ATTCG ATCTGTACACG A A ATGTCCG G ATCTG CCG G ACGTTG AATCTCTGCGTCCGTACTACCAAGGTCTGATTGATAAATACTGTCCGGGC ACCCTGTCGTGGTAA (SEQ I D NO: 23)

Example V

In vitro screening using addition of purified sensor protein

A plasmid containing a T7 promoter, lac operator/binding site, RBS, and GFP coding region was constructed (pET-minus_lacI) and prepared for in vitro transcription and translation reactions. The addition of purified Lad represses the constitutive plasmid production of GFP at

Figure imgf000045_0001
and lng/μΐ. levels. Fluorescent measurement of GFP production after induction of the sensor by the addition of IPTG (40 mM) shows increased

GFP production. The addition of purified sensor allows for fine-tuning of repression levels present in each reaction well and prevents cofounding effects of library variants impacting in vitro sensor production. (Fig. 2)

Methods:

A lOOng/ iL dilution of purified Lacl protein (Novoprotein Cat No. CG57) was created in a buffer containing 20mM Tris, 300mM NaCl, and 5mM DTT. Serial dilutions were performed to obtain concentrations of lng^tL and O.lng^L. The cell- free reactions used 4μ]_ of S30 Premix Plus (Promega kit Cat No. LI 110). Then, RNase inhibitor

(ThermoFisher Cat No. N8080119) was added to a final reaction concentration of 0.05% to each of the reaction tubes. Then, 3.6μί, of T7-S30 Circular Extract (Promega kit Cat No. LI 110) was added to all tubes, followed by

Figure imgf000046_0001
of purified pET-GFP plasmid DNA at 99.3 μg/μL and of water.

For induction and response measurement, of 400μΜ IPTG was added to half of the tubes, for a final IPTG concentration of 40μΜ. Finally, Ιμί of the Lacl dilutions at each of the indicated concentrations was added.

Reactions were assembled on ice, then vortexed briefly, spun down, and incubated at 37°C overnight. After incubation, ΙΟμί of each reaction was put into a well of a black, clear/flat-bottom, 384- well-plate, and fluorescence was measured on the Biotek Synergy Neo using 485nm excitation and 528nm emission wavelengths.

Mutant identification: Each well of a reaction plate contains a library member with genetic variation affecting biosynthesis of a target molecule. Exogenous addition of purified sensor allows for fine-tuning of repression levels present in each reaction well, permitting selection of library members showing exceptional sensor response across multiple, controlled sensor concentration levels.

LOCUS pET_minus_lacI 4813 bp ds-DNA linear 15-JUL-2016 DEFINITION .

FEATURES Location/Qualifiers misc_feature 856..858

/label="split2" protein_binding 412..432

/label="lacO" misc_feature 1024..1026

/label="split5" misc_feature 1184..1189

/label="PstI" miscjeature 478..1221

/label="stGFP" misc_feature 658..660

/label="splitl" miscjeature 1237..1242

/label="AvaI" CDS complement(4051..4242)

/label="ROP" protein Jinding 1249..1293

/label="S-Tag" misc_feature 736..741

/label="NdeI" miscjeature 3863.-3868

/label="ApaLI" misc_feature 925..927

/label="split3"

misc_feature 476..481

/label="NcoI"

misc_feature 1231..1236

/label="KpnI"

rep_origin 1430..1877

/label="fl ori"

misc_feature 976..978

/label="split4"

terminator 1345..1392

/label="T7 terminator" CDS complement(1999..2859)

/label="Amp"

misc_feature 1171..1176

/label="EcoRI"

misc_feature 3363..3368

/label="ApaLI" misc_feature 965..970

/label="EagI"

misc_feature 2739.-2744

/label="ApaLI"

misc_feature 391..407

/label="T7 promoter" misc_feature 1090..1092

/label="split6"

misc feature 369..374

/label="ClaI"

misc_feature 508..513

/label="NheI"

RBS 465..470

/label="RBS-l"

rep_origin 3620..3620

/label="ColEl, pBR322 ori"

misc_feature 1237..1242

/label="XhoI"

ORIGIN (SEQ ID NO: 24)

1 attcaccacc ctgaattgac tctcttccgg gcgctatcat gccataccgc gaaaggtttt 61 gcgccattcg atggtgtccg ggatctcgac gctctccctt atgcgactcc tgcattagga 121 agcagcccag tagtaggttg aggccgttga gcaccgccgc cgcaaggaat ggtgcatgca 181 aggagatggc gcccaacagt cccccggcca cggggcctgc caccataccc acgccgaaac 241 aagcgctcat gagcccgaag tggcgagccc gatcttcccc atcggtgatg tcggcgatat 301 aggcgccagc aaccgcacct gtggcgccgg tgatgccggc cacgatgcgt ccggcgtaga 361 ggatcgagat cgatetcgat cccgcgaaat taatacgact cactataggg gaattgtgag 421 cggataacaa ttcccctcta gaaataattt tgtttaactt taagaaggag atataccatg 481 ggtcatcacc accaccatca cggtggcgct agcaaaggtg aagagctgtt tacgggtgta 541 gtaccgatct tagtggaatt agacggcgac gtgaacggtc acaaatttag cgtgcgcggc 601 gaaggcgaag gtgacgctac caatggtaaa ttgaccctga agtttatttg cacaacaggc 661 aaattacccg ttccgtggcc caccttagtg accaccctga cctatggcgt tcagtgcttc 721 agtcgttacc cagatcatat gaaacaacac gattttttca aatcagccat gcctgaagga 781 tatgttcaag agcgtacaat cagcttcaag gacgatggca cctataaaac gcgtgcggaa 841 gtgaaatttg aaggcgacac attagtaaac cgtatcgaac tgaaaggtat cgacttcaaa 901 gaagacggca acattttagg ccataagctg gaatataact ttaattctca taacgtgtat 961 attacggccg ataaacagaa aaacggtatc aaggcaaatt tcaaaattcg ccataacgtg 1021 gaagacggca gcgttcaatt agcggatcat tatcaacaaa acacgccgat tggtgacggg 1081 cctgtactgt tacctgacaa ccactacctg agcacccagt cagcactgag caaagatccg 1141 aacgaaaaac gcgatcacat ggttctgtta gaattcgtga ccgctgcagg cattactcac 1201 ggaatggacg aactctacaa gtaataatga ggtaccctcg agtctggtaa agaaaccgct 1261 gctgcgaaat ttgaacgcca gcacatggac tcgtctacta gcgcagctta attaacctag 1321 gctgctgcca ccgctgagca ataactagca taaccccttg gggcctctaa acgggtcttg 1381 aggggttttt tgctgaaagg aggaactata tccggattgg cgaatgggac gcgccctgta 1441 gcggcgcatt aagcgcggcg ggtgtggtgg ttacgcgcag cgtgaccgct acacttgcca 1501 gcgccctagc gcccgctcct ttcgctttct tcccttcctt tctcgccacg ttcgccggct 1561 ttccccgtca agctctaaat cgggggctcc ctttagggtt ccgatttagt gctttacggc 1621 acctcgaccc caaaaaactt gattagggtg atggttcacg tagtgggcca tcgccctgat 1681 agacggtttt tcgccctttg acgttggagt ccacgttctt taatagtgga ctcttgttcc 1741 aaactggaac aacactcaac cctatctcgg tctattcttt tgatttataa gggattttgc 1801 cgatttcggc ctattggtta aaaaatgagc tgatttaaca aaaatttaac gcgaatttta 1861 acaaaatatt aacgtttaca atttctggcg gcacgatggc atgagattat caaaaaggat 1921 cttcacctag atccttttaa attaaaaatg aagttttaaa tcaatctaaa gtatatatga 1981 gtaaacttgg tctgacagtt accaatgctt aatcagtgag gcacctatct cagcgatctg 2041 tctatttcgt tcatccatag ttgcctgact ccccgtcgtg tagataacta cgatacggga 2101 gggcttacca tctggcccca gtgctgcaat gataccgcga gacccacgct caccggctcc 2161 agatttatca gcaataaacc agccagccgg aagggccgag cgcagaagtg gtcctgcaac 2221 tttatccgcc tccatccagt ctattaattg ttgccgggaa gctagagtaa gtagttcgcc 2281 agttaatagt ttgcgcaacg ttgttgccat tgctacaggc atcgtggtgt cacgctcgtc 2341 gtttggtatg gcttcattca gctccggttc ccaacgatca aggcgagtta catgatcccc 2401 catgttgtgc aaaaaagcgg ttagctcctt cggtcctccg atcgttgtca gaagtaagtt 2461 ggccgcagtg ttatcactca tggttatggc agcactgcat aattctctta ctgtcatgcc 2521 atccgtaaga tgcttttctg tgactggtga gtactcaacc aagtcattct gagaatagtg 2581 tatgcggcga ccgagttgct cttgcccggc gtcaatacgg gataataccg cgccacatag 2641 cagaacttta aaagtgctca tcattggaaa acgttcttcg gggcgaaaac tctcaaggat 2701 cttaccgctg ttgagatcca gttcgatgta acccactcgt gcacccaact gatcttcagc 2761 atcttttact ttcaccagcg tttctgggtg agcaaaaaca ggaaggcaaa atgccgcaaa 2821 aaagggaata agggcgacac ggaaatgttg aatactcata ctcttccttt ttcaatcatg 2881 attgaagcat ttatcagggt tattgtctca tgagcggata catatttgaa tgtatttaga 2941 aaaataaaca aataggtcat gaccaaaatc ccttaacgtg agttttcgtt ccactgagcg 3001 tcagaccccg tagaaaagat caaaggatct tcttgagatc ctttttttct gcgcgtaatc 3061 tgctgcttgc aaacaaaaaa accaccgcta ccagcggtgg tttgtttgcc ggatcaagag 3121 ctaccaactc tttttccgaa ggtaactggc ttcagcagag cgcagatacc aaatactgtc 3181 cttctagtgt agccgtagtt aggccaccac ttcaagaact ctgtagcacc gcctacatac 3241 ctcgctctgc taatcctgtt accagtggct gctgccagtg gcgataagtc gtgtcttacc 3301 gggttggact caagacgata gttaccggat aaggcgcagc ggtcgggctg aacggggggt 3361 tcgtgcacac agcccagctt ggagcgaacg acctacaccg aactgagata cctacagcgt 3421 gagctatgag aaagcgccac gcttcccgaa gggagaaagg cggacaggta tccggtaagc 3481 ggcagggtcg gaacaggaga gcgcacgagg gagcttccag ggggaaacgc ctggtatctt 3541 tatagtcctg tcgggtttcg ccacctctga cttgagcgtc gatttttgtg atgctcgtca 3601 ggggggcgga gcctatggaa aaacgccagc aacgcggcct ttttacggtt cctggccttt 3661 tgctggcctt ttgctcacat gttctttcct gcgttatccc ctgattctgt ggataaccgt 3721 attaccgcct ttgagtgagc tgataccgct cgccgcagcc gaacgaccga gcgcagcgag 3781 tcagtgagcg aggaagcgga agagcgcctg atgcggtatt ttctccttac gcatctgtgc 3841 ggtatttcac accgcatata tggtgcactc tcagtacaat ctgctctgat gccgcatagt 3901 taagccagta tacactccgc tatcgctacg tgactgggtc atggctgcgc cccgacaccc 3961 gccaacaccc gctgacgcgc cctgacgggc ttgtctgctc ccggcatccg cttacagaca 4021 agctgtgacc gtctccggga gctgcatgtg tcagaggttt tcaccgtcat caccgaaacg 4081 cgcgaggcag ctgcggtaaa gctcatcagc gtggtcgtga agcgattcac agatgtctgc 4141 ctgttcatcc gcgtccagct cgttgagttt ctccagaagc gttaatgtct ggcttctgat 4201 aaagcgggcc atgttaaggg cggttttttc ctgtttggtc actgatgcct ccgtgtaagg 4261 gggatttctg ttcatggggg taatgatacc gatgaaacga gagaggatgc tcacgatacg 4321 ggttactgat gatgaacatg cccggttact ggaacgttgt gagggtaaac aactggcggt 4381 atggatgcgg cgggaccaga gaaaaatcac tcagggtcaa tgccagcgct tcgttaatac 4441 agatgtaggt gttccacagg gtagccagca gcatcctgcg atgcagatcc ggaacataat 4501 ggtgcagggc gctgacttcc gcgtttccag actttacgaa acacggaaac cgaagaccat 4561 tcatgttgtt gctcaggtcg cagacgtttt gcagcagcag tcgcttcacg ttcgctcgcg 4621 tatcggtgat tcattctgct aaccagtaag gcaaccccgc cagcctagcc gggtcctcaa 4681 cgacaggagc acgatcatgc tagtcatgcc ccgcgcccac cggaaggagc tgactgggtt 4741 gaaggctctc aagggcatcg gtcgagatcc cggtgcctaa tgagtgagct aacttacatt 4801 aattgcgttg cgc

Claims

Claims:
1. A method of selecting a candidate enzyme variant from a library of enzyme variants for the production of a metabolite comprising
providing a plurality of first nucleotide sequences each encoding a different enzyme variant of the library,
providing a precursor molecule wherein the enzyme variant when expressed converts the precursor molecule to the metabolite,
providing a second nucleotide sequence encoding a sensor biomolecule,
providing a third nucleotide sequence encoding a reporter,
wherein the sensor biomolecule when expressed interacts with the metabolite and induces the expression of the reporter in a manner dependent on the concentration of the produced metabolite, and
screening the enzyme variants by detecting the reporter to identify the candidate enzyme variant.
2. The method of claim 1 wherein the enzyme variant converts the precursor molecule to the metabolite directly or through one or more intermediate steps.
3. The method of claim 2 wherein one or more of the intermediate steps are completely or partially randomized.
4. The method of claim 1 wherein the first, second or third nucleotide sequence is DNA or RNA.
5. The method of claim 4 wherein the DNA and/or RNA is linear or included on a plasmid.
6. The method of claim 1 wherein the nucleotide sequences can be physically separated or attached or any combination thereof.
7. The method of claim 1 wherein cof actors are further provided.
8. The method of claim 1 wherein the enzyme variants, the sensor biomolecule and the reporter are produced using a cell-free expression system.
9. The method of claim 1 wherein the enzyme variants, the sensor biomolecule and the reporter can be produced directly in an evaluation vessel.
10. The method of claim 9 wherein the evaluation vessel is in an emulsion or microliter well format.
11. The method of claim 1 wherein the enzyme variants, the sensor biomolecule and the reporter can be produced outside and then combined in an evaluation vessel.
12. The method of claim 8 wherein the cell-free expression system comprising commercially available in vitro translation reagents and/or kits.
13. The method of claim 1 wherein the candidate enzyme variant is validated by sequencing the nucleotide encoding the enzyme variant.
14. The method of claim 1 wherein enzyme variants and/or sensor biomolecules are provided.
15. The method of claim 1 wherein the selection process is repeated on a subset of identified candidate enzyme variants for optimization.
16. The method of claim 1 wherein the reporter is a fluorescent protein.
17. The method of claim 16 wherein the fluorescent protein is GFP.
18. The method of claim 1 wherein the reporter is a member selected from the group consisting of mPlum, mCherry, tdTomato, mStrawberry, J-Red, DsRed-monomer, mOrange, mKO, mCitrine, Venus, YPet, EYFP, Emerald, EGFP, CyPet, mCFPm, Cerulean, T- Sapphire, Firefly (FLuc), modified firefly (Ultra-Clo), Click beetle (CBLuc), Sea pansy (RLuc), Copepod crustacean (GLuc), and Ostracod crustacean (CLuc).
19. The method of claim 1 wherein the reporter further comprises luciferase for detection by light, pigments for detection by color, surfactants for detection by emulsion breaking, and adhesives for detection by adhesion.
20. The method of claim 1 wherein the screening is carried out by fluorescent microscopy, microtiter plate assay, emulsion assay, microfluidic assay, pull-down assay or luciferase high throughput screening.
21. The method of claim 1 wherein the sensor biomolecule and the metabolite binding partner is a member pair selected from the group consisting of AcuR/acrylate, cdaR/glucaric acid, ttgR/naringennin, ttgR/phenol, btuB riboswitch/cobalamin, mphR/macrolides, tetR tetracycline derivates, benM/muconic acid, alkS/medium chain n-alkanes, xylR/xylose, araC/Arabinose, gntR/Gluconate, galS/Galactose, trpR/tryptophan, qacR/Berberine, rmrR/Phytoalexin, cymR/Cumate, melR/Melibiose, rafR/Raffinose, nahR/Salicylate, nocR/Nopaline, clcR/Chlorobenzoate, varR/Virginiamycin, rhaR/Rhamnose, PhoR/Phosphate, MalK/Malate, GlnK/Glutamine, Retinoic acid receptor/Retinoic acid, Lacl/allolactose, Estrogen receptor/Estrogen and Ecdysone receptor/Ecdysone.
22. The method of claim 1 wherein the sensor biomolecule is a transcription factor, riboswitch, two-component signaling protein, a nuclear hormone receptor, a G-protein coupled receptor, a periplasmic binding protein, or an engineered protein switch.
23. The method of claim 1 wherein the sensor biomolecule is cdaR and the metabolite is a diacid.
24. The method of claim 22, wherein the biosensor is an engineered protein switch such as an engineered calmodulin.
25. The method of claim 1 wherein the sensor is AcuR and the metabolite is acrylate.
26. The method of claim 1 wherein the enzyme is PCS, MIOX, Udh, or INOl.
27. The method of claim 1 wherein the precursor molecule is 3-hydroxypropionate.
28. The method of claim 1 wherein the reporter protein is an emulsion-breaking protein.
29. The method of claim 1 wherein the plurality of first nucleotide sequences encoding the different enzyme variants are generated by methods comprising gene synthesis, error prone PCR, targeted mutagenesis, or oligonucleotide directed mutagenesis.
30. A method of identifying a candidate sensor biomolecule variant from a library of sensor biomolecule variants for a metabolite comprising
providing a plurality of first nucleotide sequences each encoding a different sensor biomolecule variant of the library of sensor biomolecule variants,
providing a metabolite,
providing a second nucleotide sequence encoding a reporter,
wherein the sensor biomolecule variant when expressed interacts with the metabolite and induces the expression of the reporter in a manner dependent on the concentration of the produced metabolite, and
screening the sensor biomolecule variants by detecting the reporter to identify the candidate sensor biomolecule variant.
31. A cell-free bio-sensing system for selecting a candidate enzyme variant from a library of enzyme variants for the production of a metabolite comprising:
a plurality of first nucleotide sequences each encoding a different enzyme variant of the library of enzyme variants,
a precursor molecule wherein the enzyme variant when expressed converts the precursor molecule to the metabolite,
a second nucleotide sequence encoding a sensor biomolecule,
a third nucleotide sequence encoding a reporter, wherein the sensor biomolecule when expressed interacts with the metabolite and induces the expression of the reporter in a manner dependent on the concentration of the produced metabolite, and
wherein the enzyme variants are screened by detecting the reporter to identify the candidate enzyme variant.
32. The system of claim 31 wherein the enzyme variants convert the precursor molecule to the metabolite directly or through one or more intermediate steps.
33. The system of claim 32 wherein one or more of the one or more intermediate steps are completely or partially randomized.
34. The system of claim 31 wherein the first, second or third nucleotide sequence is DNA or RNA.
35. The system of claim 34 wherein the DNA and/or RNA is linear or included on a plasmid.
36. The system of claim 31 wherein the nucleotide sequences can be physically separated or attached or any combination thereof.
37. The system of claim 31 further comprises cofactors.
38. The system of claim 31 wherein the enzyme variants, the sensor biomolecule and the reporter are produced using a cell-free expression system.
39. The system of claim 31 wherein the enzyme variants, the sensor biomolecule and the reporter can be produced directly in an evaluation vessel.
40. The system of claim 39 wherein the evaluation vessel is in an emulsion or microtiter well format.
41. The system of claim 31 wherein the enzyme variants, the sensor biomolecule and the reporter can be produced outside and then combined in an evaluation vessel.
42. The system of claim 38 wherein the cell-free expression system comprising commercially available in vitro translation reagents and/or kits.
43. The system of claim 31 wherein the candidate enzyme variant is validated by sequencing the nucleotide encoding the enzyme variant.
44. The system of claim 31 wherein enzyme variants and/or sensor biomolecules are provided.
45. The system of claim 31 wherein the selection process is repeated on a subset of identified candidate enzyme variants for optimization.
46. The system of claim 31 wherein the reporter is a fluorescent protein.
47. The system of claim 46 wherein the fluorescent protein is GFP.
48. The system of claim 31 wherein the reporter is a member selected from the group consisting of mPlum, mCherry, tdTomato, mStrawberry, J-Red, DsRed-monomer, mOrange, mKO, mCitrine, Venus, YPet, EYFP, Emerald, EGFP, CyPet, mCFPm, Cerulean, T- Sapphire, Firefly (FLuc), modified firefly (Ultra-Clo), Click beetle (CBLuc), Sea pansy (RLuc), Copepod crustacean (GLuc), and Ostracod crustacean (CLuc).
49. The system of claim 31 wherein the reporter further comprises luciferase for detection by light, pigments for detection by color, surfactants for detection by emulsion breaking, and adhesives for detection by adhesion.
50. The system of claim 31 wherein the screening is carried out by fluorescent microscopy, microtiter plate assay, emulsion assay, microfluidic assay, pull-down assay or luciferase high throughput screening.
51. The system of claim 31 wherein the sensor biomolecule and the metabolite binding partner is a member pair selected from the group consisting of AcuR/acrylate, cdaR/glucaric acid, ttgR/naringennin, ttgR/phenol, btuB riboswitch/cobalamin, mphR/macrolides, tetR/tetracycline derivates, benM/muconic acid, alkS/medium chain n-alkanes, xylR/xylose, araC/Arabinose, gntR/Gluconate, galS/Galactose, trpR/tryptophan, qacR/Berberine, rmrR/Phytoalexin, cymR/Cumate, melR/Melibiose, rafR/Raffinose, nahR/Salicylate, nocR/Nopaline, clcR/Chlorobenzoate, varR/Virginiamycin, rhaR/Rhamnose, PhoR/Phosphate, MalK/Malate, GlnK/Glutamine, Retinoic acid receptor/Retinoic acid, Lacl/allolactose, Estrogen receptor/Estrogen and Ecdysone receptor/Ecdysone.
52. The system of claim 31 wherein the sensor biomolecule is a transcription factor, riboswitch, two-component signaling protein, a nuclear hormone receptor, a G-protein coupled receptor, a periplasmic binding protein, or an engineered protein switch.
53. The system of claim 31 wherein the sensor biomolecule is cdaR and the metabolite is a diacid.
54. The system of claim 53, wherein the biosensor is an engineered protein switch such as an engineered calmodulin.
55. The system of claim 31 wherein the sensor is AcuR and the metabolite is acrylate.
56. The system of claim 31 wherein the enzyme is PCS, MIOX, Udh, or INOl.
57. The system of claim 31 wherein the precursor molecule is 3-hydroxypropionate.
58. The system of claim 31 wherein the reporter protein is an emulsion-breaking protein.
59. The system of claim 31 wherein the plurality of the first nucleotide sequences encoding the different enzyme variants are generated by methods comprising gene synthesis, error prone PCR, targeted mutagenesis, or oligonucleotide directed mutagenesis.
60. A cell-free bio-sensing system for identifying a candidate sensor biomolecule variant from a library of sensor biomolecule variants for a metabolite comprising
a plurality of first nucleotide sequences each encoding a different sensor biomolecule variant of the library of sensor biomolecule variants, a metabolite,
a second nucleotide sequence encoding a reporter,
wherein the sensor biomolecule variant when expressed interacts with the metabolite and induces the expression of the reporter in a manner dependent on the concentration of the produced metabolite, and
wherein the sensor biomolecule variants are screened by detecting the reporter to identify the candidate sensor biomolecule variant.
61. The method of claim 1 wherein the enzyme variants or the first nucleotide sequences encoding the enzyme variants are attached to a solid support for multiplex screening of candidate enzyme variants.
62. The method of claim 61 wherein the solid support comprises multiple compartments in membrane, filter, paper, gel, plate, slide format and the like.
63. The method of claim 62 wherein an individual enzyme variant or an individual nucleotide sequence encoding the enzyme variant is trapped in an individual compartment of the multi-compartment solid support.
64. The method of claim 63 wherein the enzyme variant is isolated with corresponding precursor molecules and reporter sequences inside an individual compartment.
65. The method of claim 63 wherein each individual compartment is immobilized, or temporarily immobilized, within the multi-compartment solid support.
66. The method of claim 63 wherein the individual compartment can be sorted by an automated sorting system.
67. The method of claim 63 wherein the individual compartment can be separated from the multi-compartment solid support by manual extraction.
68. The method of claim 63 wherein the candidate enzyme variant can be identified based on the known content of each individual compartment, or by targeted sequencing, or in- situ imaging.
PCT/US2017/021087 2016-03-09 2017-03-07 Methods and systems of cell-free enzyme discovery and optimization WO2017155945A1 (en)

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