一种二级串联摆线钢球减速器Two-stage series cycloidal steel ball reducer
本发明涉及一种精密减速传动装置，可应用于机器人、数控机床、航空、医疗器械、仪器仪表等精密机械传动领域。The invention relates to a precision reduction transmission device, which can be applied to the field of precision mechanical transmissions such as robots, numerical control machine tools, aviation, medical instruments, instruments and meters.
为了提高机器人等精密机械的传动精度与控制精度，要求使用的减速传动装置具有结构紧凑、体积小、传动比大、齿隙小、响应快、效率高等特点，同时要求减速传动装置具有较高的往复定位精度。In order to improve the transmission precision and control precision of precision machinery such as robots, the required reduction gear transmission has the characteristics of compact structure, small volume, large transmission ratio, small backlash, fast response, high efficiency, etc., and requires a high reduction gear transmission. Reciprocating positioning accuracy.
现有常用的精密减速传动装置多采用单级K-H-V型或二级NN型少齿差传动的机构形式。其中，单级K-H-V型少齿差传动可实现的传动比较小，尤其是单级摆线钢球传动，由于其采用二齿差的齿数组合，因此可实现的传动比更小，难以适应机器人装备低速运转的需求。二级NN型少齿差传动虽然可以实现较高的传动比，但该传动属于正号机构，传动效率很低，尤其是NN型摆线钢球传动，两行星轮安装于同一偏心轴段，相关零件的制造精度与装配精度要求很高，传动运行时惯性力大，转臂轴承负载很大、寿命较低，因此难以具备优良的传动性能。The existing conventional precision reduction transmission devices mostly adopt the single-stage K-H-V type or the two-stage NN type small-tooth difference transmission mechanism. Among them, the single-stage KHV type small-tooth difference transmission can achieve a relatively small transmission, especially the single-stage cycloidal steel ball transmission. Because of the two-tooth difference gear combination, the transmission ratio can be smaller and it is difficult to adapt to the robot equipment. The need for low speed operation. Although the two-stage NN type small tooth difference drive can achieve a higher transmission ratio, the transmission belongs to the positive number mechanism, and the transmission efficiency is very low, especially the NN type cycloidal steel ball transmission, and the two planetary wheels are installed on the same eccentric shaft section. The manufacturing precision and assembly precision of the related parts are very high, the inertia force is large during the transmission operation, the load of the jib bearing is large, and the life is low, so it is difficult to have excellent transmission performance.
中国专利200720311321.9，公开日2008年10月8日，公开了一份名称为一种摆线钢球减速器，由输入部分和输出部分相啮合组成，其主要技术特点是在输入轴一端设有偏心轴，偏心轴上通过轴承设有动摆线盘，动摆线盘一端设有环形摆线槽轨道，摆线槽中心设有截面为凹形的贮油槽，动摆线盘的另一端面设有圆形钢球窝，钢球窝在动摆线盘上同一半径上均匀分布设置，输入轴和输出轴通过定摆线盘、动摆线盘和钢球相滚动链接。该实用新型结构简单，体积小，运转灵活，动力传递效率高，但由于该实用新型采用了单级K-H-V型少齿差传动的机构形式，其可实现的传动比较小，难以适用在机器人等装备低速运转的需求。Chinese Patent 200720311321.9, published on October 8, 2008, discloses a name for a cycloidal ball reducer consisting of an input part and an output part. The main technical feature is that there is an eccentricity at one end of the input shaft. The shaft and the eccentric shaft are provided with a oscillating disc through a bearing, and one end of the oscillating disc is provided with an annular cycloidal groove track, and a center of the cycloid groove is provided with a concave oil reservoir, and the other end of the oscillating disc is provided. There are round steel ball sockets, and the steel ball sockets are evenly distributed on the same radius on the oscillating disc. The input shaft and the output shaft are scrolled through the yaw, the oscillating disc and the steel ball. The utility model has the advantages of simple structure, small volume, flexible operation and high power transmission efficiency. However, since the utility model adopts a single-stage KHV type gearless transmission mechanism, the achievable transmission is relatively small, and it is difficult to be applied to equipment such as robots. The need for low speed operation.
中国专利200820076990.7，公开日2009年1月28日，公开了一份名称为时时无回差传动二级精度钢球行星减速器，其包括输入偏心轴、端面有摆线封闭槽的中心盘、组合式行星盘、端面有摆线封闭槽的输出盘及机架，组合式行星盘端面有摆线封闭槽的行星盘、蝶形弹簧、销轴和端面有摆线封闭槽的行星盘组成。该实用新型解决了精密钢球行星减速器因啮合副磨损出现间隙，导致传动回差及啮合副热膨胀导致卡死等问题，可实现减速器的时时自动无回差传动，但由于该实用新型采用了NN型少齿差传动的机构形式，存在较大的封闭功率，传动效率较低，且组合式行星盘的加工精度与装配精度要求很高，传动运行时惯性力大，转臂轴承寿命低。China Patent 200820076990.7, published on January 28, 2009, published a second-precision steel ball planetary reducer with no backlash drive, including a center plate with input eccentric shaft and a cycloidal closed groove on the end face, combination The planetary disk and the output disk and the frame have a cycloidal closed groove on the end face, and the planetary disk end of the combined planetary disk has a cycloidal closed groove planet disk, a butterfly spring, a pin shaft and a planet disk having a cycloid closed groove at the end face. The utility model solves the problem that the precision steel ball planetary reducer has a gap due to the wear of the meshing pair, causing the transmission hysteresis and the thermal expansion of the meshing pair to cause jamming, etc., and the automatic non-return drive of the reducer can be realized at present, but the utility model adopts The mechanism type of NN type small tooth difference transmission has large enclosed power, low transmission efficiency, high processing precision and assembly precision of combined planetary disk, large inertia force during transmission operation, and low life of jib bearing .
发明内容Summary of the invention
The present invention overcomes the above-mentioned drawbacks and provides a two-stage series cycloidal steel ball reducer, which belongs to the field of precision mechanical transmission. The reducer adopts the basic structure of the two-stage series KHV type small-tooth difference planetary transmission. The inner and outer cycloid grooves on the end faces of the center disk and the planet disk are used as the tooth profile, and the steel ball is used as the intermediate body for meshing transmission. The four-point contact between the ball and the cycloidal groove eliminates the backlash, and is equipped with a non-backlash cross-ball constant velocity mechanism, which has the advantages of simple structure, small volume, zero backlash, high transmission precision, low impact and large transmission ratio. .
本发明采用如下技术方案：一种二级串联摆线钢球减速器，包括第一级输入轴、机壳I、十字盘I、行星盘I、钢球组、端盖I；第二级输入轴、端盖盘、行星盘II、十字盘II、中心盘、钢球组、第二级输出轴、机壳II、端盖II、预紧螺母。其特征是：第一级输入轴的偏心轴段上安装转臂轴承，转臂轴承与行星盘I连接；第二级输入轴既是第一级传动的输出轴，又是第二级传动的输入轴；第二级输入轴的偏心轴段上安装转臂轴承，转臂轴承与行星盘II连接；中心盘与第二级输出轴通过螺钉组连接；十字盘I在机壳I和行星盘I之间浮动，十字盘II在行星盘II与中心盘之间浮动；机壳I、端盖盘通过螺钉组与机壳II固连，且保证机壳I、端盖盘、机壳II同轴。The invention adopts the following technical scheme: a two-stage series cycloidal steel ball reducer, comprising a first stage input shaft, a casing I, a swashplate I, a planet disk I, a steel ball set, an end cover I; a second stage input Shaft, end cap plate, planet disk II, swash plate II, center plate, steel ball set, second stage output shaft, casing II, end cover II, pre-tightening nut. The utility model is characterized in that: the eccentric shaft segment of the first input shaft is mounted with a slewing bearing, and the slewing bearing is connected with the planetary disk I; the second input shaft is both the output shaft of the first stage transmission and the input of the second stage transmission Axle; a slewing shaft of the second input shaft is mounted with a slewing bearing, the slewing bearing is coupled to the planet disk II; the central disk is connected to the second output shaft by a screw set; the swash plate I is in the casing I and the planet disk I Between the floating, the swashplate II floats between the planet disk II and the center disk; the casing I and the end cover disk are fixedly connected to the casing II through the screw set, and the casing I, the end cover disk and the casing II are coaxial. .
进一步地，所述的二级串联摆线钢球减速器行星盘I左端面上加工有锥形截面外摆线封闭槽，第二级输入轴右侧盘面上加工有锥形截面内摆线封闭槽，内、外摆线封闭槽之间安装有活动的钢球组；行星盘I右端面加工有一组锥形截面的水平槽，十字盘I左端面也加工有一组锥形截面的水平槽，两组水平槽之间安装有活动的钢球组，机壳I左端面加工有一组锥形截面的垂直槽，十字盘I右端面也加工有一组锥形截面的垂直槽，两组垂直槽之间安装有活动的钢球组；行星盘II右端面上加工有锥形截面外摆线封闭槽，端盖盘左侧盘面上加工有锥形截面内摆线封闭槽，内、外摆线封闭槽之间安装有活动的钢球组；行星盘II左端面加工有一组锥形截面的水平槽，十字盘II右端面也加工有一组锥形截面的水平槽，两组水平槽之间安装有活动的钢球组，中心盘右端面加工有一组锥形截面的垂直槽，十字盘II左端面也加工有一组锥形截面的垂直槽，两组垂直槽之间安装有活动的钢球组。Further, the second end of the second-stage series cycloidal steel ball reducer is processed with a tapered cross-section outer cycloidal closed groove on the left end surface of the planetary disk I, and the second-stage input shaft is processed on the right side of the disk with a conical section and a cycloidal line closed. a movable steel ball group is installed between the inner and outer cycloidal closing grooves; a horizontal groove of a tapered cross section is processed on the right end surface of the planetary disk I, and a horizontal groove of a tapered cross section is also processed on the left end surface of the swash plate I. There are movable steel ball sets between the two sets of horizontal grooves. The left end of the casing I is machined with a set of vertical grooves with a tapered cross section, and the right end face of the swash plate I is also machined with a set of vertical grooves of a tapered cross section. There is a movable steel ball group installed; the right end surface of the planetary disk II is processed with a conical section outer cycloidal closing groove, and the left side disk surface of the end cover disk is machined with a conical section inner cycloidal closing groove, and the inner and outer cycloidal lines are closed. A movable steel ball set is installed between the slots; a left horizontal end surface of the planetary disk II is processed with a set of horizontal grooves of a tapered cross section, and a right horizontal end surface of the swash plate II is also processed with a horizontal groove of a tapered cross section, and two sets of horizontal grooves are installed between Active steel ball set, center plate right end processing A plurality of vertical grooves of the conic section, a left end surface of the swashplate II also machined with a plurality of vertical grooves of the conic section, is mounted between the two active groups of vertical slots ball.
还包括，所述的二级减速器第一级输入轴右支承轴承采用内外圈轴向固定方式，输入轴左支承轴承采用内圈轴向固定、外圈轴向游动方式。二级减速器第二级输入轴右支承轴承采用内外圈轴向固定方式，输入轴左支承轴承采用内圈轴向固定、外圈轴向游动方式。机壳的左端内孔加工有螺纹，拧入预紧螺母固定输出轴左支承轴承，预紧螺母与机壳之间安装有止动垫圈。The utility model further comprises: the first-stage input shaft of the two-stage reducer adopts an inner and outer ring axial fixed manner, and the left-side support bearing of the input shaft adopts an inner ring axial fixed and an outer ring axial swimming manner. The second-stage input shaft of the second-stage reducer is supported by the inner and outer rings in the axial direction. The left-hand bearing of the input shaft is axially fixed in the inner ring and axially in the outer ring. The inner hole of the left end of the casing is machined with a thread, and the pre-tightening nut is screwed to fix the left bearing of the output shaft, and a retaining washer is installed between the pre-tightening nut and the casing.
采用以上技术方案后，本发明达到的有益效果是：After adopting the above technical solutions, the beneficial effects achieved by the present invention are:
(1)二级串联摆线钢球减速器的啮合副为内、外摆线槽与钢球的四点啮合接触，当减速器正反转运行时，均可保证无齿隙传动，传动精度高，传动回差小于±4arc·min，且二级串联的传动形式易于实现较大的传动比，传动比可达100以上。(1) The meshing pair of the two-stage series cycloidal ball reducer is the four-point meshing contact between the inner and outer cycloidal grooves and the steel ball. When the reducer is running in reverse rotation, no backlash transmission can be ensured. High, the transmission hysteresis is less than ±4arc·min, and the transmission mode of the two-stage series is easy to achieve a larger transmission ratio, and the transmission ratio can reach more than 100.
(2)二级串联摆线钢球减速器由于采用了二级串联的K-H-V型少齿差行星传动的机构形式，无封闭功率，因此传动效率较NN型传动要高，传动效率可达到80％以上。另外，行星盘、十字盘、端盖盘等之间通过水平槽、垂直槽、钢球构成了无齿隙的十字钢球等速机构，该机构中水平槽与竖直槽加工有一定的长度，可使钢球在槽中任意浮动以适应加工精度要求，因此减速器的零件加工精度与装配精度要求低；该机构中的钢球尺寸还不受偏心距大小的影响，承载能力较强。(2) The two-stage series cycloidal ball reducer adopts the two-stage series KHV type small-tooth difference planetary transmission mechanism form, without closed power, so the transmission efficiency is higher than that of the NN type transmission, and the transmission efficiency can reach 80%. the above. In addition, the horizontal groove, the vertical groove and the steel ball between the planetary disk, the swash plate and the end plate constitute a cross-shaped ball constant velocity mechanism without backlash, and the horizontal groove and the vertical groove are processed to have a certain length in the mechanism. The steel ball can be arbitrarily floated in the groove to meet the processing precision requirement, so the machining precision and assembly precision of the reducer are low; the size of the steel ball in the mechanism is not affected by the eccentricity, and the bearing capacity is strong.
(3)相比NN型传动，二级串联摆线钢球减速器采用二级串联结构，将质量较大的行星盘放置于二级传动的低速级，转速低、惯性力小；第一级、第二级的行星盘各自独立安装在不同的输入轴上，传动中对各自转臂轴承施加的载荷小，转臂轴承寿命高、不易失效。(3) Compared with the NN type transmission, the two-stage series cycloidal ball reducer adopts a two-stage series structure, and places the larger-quality planetary disk on the low-speed stage of the secondary transmission, with low rotation speed and small inertia force; The second stage planetary discs are independently mounted on different input shafts, and the load applied to the respective arm bearings is small in the transmission, and the boom bearing has a high life and is not easy to fail.
图1为本发明的结构示意图；Figure 1 is a schematic view of the structure of the present invention;
图2为图1的A-A剖面图；Figure 2 is a cross-sectional view taken along line A-A of Figure 1;
图3为图1的B-B剖面图；Figure 3 is a cross-sectional view taken along line B-B of Figure 1;
图4为图1的C-C剖面图；Figure 4 is a cross-sectional view taken along line C-C of Figure 1;
图5为图1的D-D剖面图；Figure 5 is a cross-sectional view taken along line D-D of Figure 1;
图6为图1的E-E剖面图；Figure 6 is a cross-sectional view taken along line E-E of Figure 1;
图7为图1的F-F剖面图；Figure 7 is a cross-sectional view taken along line F-F of Figure 1;
图8为图1的G-G剖面图；Figure 8 is a cross-sectional view taken along line G-G of Figure 1;
图9为图1的H-H剖面图；Figure 9 is a cross-sectional view taken along line H-H of Figure 1;
图10为图1的I-I剖面图；Figure 10 is a cross-sectional view taken along line I-I of Figure 1;
图1～图10中：In Figures 1 to 10:
1—端盖II； 2—唇型密封圈； 3—第二级输出轴； 4—螺钉组；1—end cap II; 2—lip seal ring; 3—second stage output shaft; 4—screw set;
5—第二级输出轴右支承轴承； 6—轴用弹性挡圈； 7—第二级输入轴左支承轴承；5—Second stage output shaft right support bearing; 6—shaft circlip; 7—second stage input shaft left support bearing;
8—螺钉组； 9—弹簧垫圈； 10—中心盘； 11—行星盘II；8—screw set; 9—spring washer; 10—center plate; 11—planetary disk II;
12—螺钉组； 13—弹簧垫圈； 14—端盖盘； 15—第二级输入轴；12—screw set; 13—spring washer; 14—end cover disc; 15—second stage input shaft;
16—行星盘I； 17—十字盘I； 18—机壳I； 19—端盖I；16—planetary disk I; 17—swashplate I; 18—chassis I; 19—end cap I;
20—螺钉组； 21—第一级输入轴； 22—唇型密封圈； 23—轴用弹性挡圈；20—screw group; 21—first stage input shaft; 22—lip seal ring; 23—shaft circlip with circlip;
24—第一级输入轴右支承轴承； 25—转臂轴承； 26—轴用弹性挡圈；24—first stage input shaft right support bearing; 25—rotary arm bearing; 26—shaft circlip with retaining ring;
27—第一级输入轴左支承轴承； 28—轴用弹性挡圈； 29—第二级输入轴右支承轴承；27—first stage input shaft left support bearing; 28—shaft circlip; 29—second stage input shaft right support bearing;
30—轴用弹性挡圈； 31—转臂轴承； 32—平衡块； 33—十字盘II；30-axis with circlip; 31-rotor bearing; 32-balance block; 33-swashplate II;
34—螺钉组； 35—弹簧垫圈； 36—第二级输入轴； 37—轴用弹性挡圈；34—screw set; 35—spring washer; 36—second stage input shaft; 37—shaft circlip;
38—第二级输出轴左支承轴承； 39—预紧螺母； 40—止动垫圈；38—second stage output shaft left support bearing; 39—pretension nut; 40—stop washer;
41—垫圈； 42—钢球组； 43—钢球组； 44—钢球组；41—washer; 42—steel ball set; 43—steel ball set; 44—steel ball set;
45—钢球组； 46—钢球组； 47—钢球组； 48—机壳。45—steel ball set; 46—steel ball set; 47—steel ball set; 48—chassis.
附图非限制性地公开了本发明一种实施例的具体结构，下面结合附图对本发明作进一步的描述。The drawings illustrate, without limitation, the specific structure of an embodiment of the invention, which is further described below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
级传动。第二级输入轴既是第一级传动的输出轴，又是第二级传动的输入轴。第二级输入轴将动力传入第二级传动，并通过第二级输入轴上的转臂轴承(31)带动行星盘II(11)作公转运动，行星盘II右端面上的外摆线封闭槽通过钢球组(47)与端盖盘(14)左端面上的内摆线封闭槽啮合传动，反推行星盘II(11)作低速自转运动。十字盘II(33)左、右端面上的水平槽、垂直槽通过钢球组(45、46)与行星盘II(11)左端面水平槽、输出轴(1)右端面竖直槽构成啮合副，使十字盘通过钢球与水平槽、竖直槽的啮合左右、上下滑动，从而组成十字钢球等速机构，行星盘II(11)通过十字钢球等速机构与中心盘(10)连接，行星盘II(11)的低速自转通过十字钢球等速机构等速传递给中心盘(10)，并由输出轴(3)输出，从而实现第二级传动。The two-stage series cycloidal ball reducer shown in Figs. 1 to 9 . The working principle is that the power is input by the first-stage input shaft (21), the first-stage input shaft rotates at a constant speed, and the planetary disk I (16) is driven by the arm bearing (25) on the first-stage input shaft. The horizontal groove and the vertical groove on the left and right end faces of the swashplate I (17) pass through the steel ball set (43, 44) and the horizontal groove of the right end face of the planetary disk I (16) and the vertical groove of the left end face of the casing I constitute a meshing pair. The swash plate is meshed with the horizontal groove and the vertical groove by the steel ball, and is slid up and down to form a cross-ball constant velocity mechanism. The planetary disk I (16) is connected to the casing I (18) by a cross-ball constant velocity mechanism. Therefore, the rotation motion of the planetary disk I is restrained by the cross-ball constant velocity mechanism, and the planetary disk I only translates with the rotation of the input shaft. At the same time, the outer cycloidal closing groove on the left end surface of the planetary disk I is meshed with the inner cycloidal closing groove on the right end surface of the second-stage input shaft (15) through the steel ball group (42) to push the second-stage input shaft. Doing a low speed rotation to achieve the first
Stage drive. The second stage input shaft is both the output shaft of the first stage drive and the input shaft of the second stage drive. The second-stage input shaft transmits power to the second-stage transmission, and drives the planet disk II (11) to revolve through the arm bearing (31) on the second-stage input shaft, and the epicycloid on the right end surface of the planet disk II The closed groove is meshed and driven by the inner pendulum closed groove on the left end surface of the end cover disk (14) through the steel ball set (47), and the planetary disk II (11) is reversely rotated for low speed rotation. The horizontal groove and the vertical groove on the left and right end faces of the swash plate II (33) are meshed with the left end horizontal groove of the planetary disk II (11) and the vertical groove of the right end surface of the output shaft (1) through the steel ball group (45, 46). Vice, the swash plate is meshed with the horizontal groove and the vertical groove by the steel ball to the left and right, and slides up and down to form a cross-ball constant velocity mechanism. The planet disk II (11) passes the cross-ball constant velocity mechanism and the center plate (10). Connection, the low-speed rotation of the planet disk II (11) is transmitted to the center plate (10) at a constant speed by a cross-ball constant velocity mechanism, and is output from the output shaft (3), thereby realizing the second-stage transmission.
In the present example, the left end inner hole of the casing II (48) is machined with a thread, and the pre-tightening nut (39) is screwed to push the shaft part to move axially, thereby eliminating the backlash between the respective cycloid grooves and the steel ball set. And the backlash between the horizontal groove, the vertical groove and the steel ball group, ensuring no backlash meshing and transmission precision. At the same time, a retaining washer (40) is installed between the pre-tightening nut (39) and the casing II (48) to prevent loosening of the pre-tightening nut (39). The first input shaft and the second input shaft are both fixed in two directions by right support bearings (24, 29), and the support structure of the left support bearing (27, 7) can ensure the positioning requirements of the shaft parts, and Meet the axial movement requirements of the shafting parts during the process of eliminating backlash.