WO2017130744A1 - Organic thin-film optical integrated circuit - Google Patents

Organic thin-film optical integrated circuit Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2017130744A1
WO2017130744A1 PCT/JP2017/001076 JP2017001076W WO2017130744A1 WO 2017130744 A1 WO2017130744 A1 WO 2017130744A1 JP 2017001076 W JP2017001076 W JP 2017001076W WO 2017130744 A1 WO2017130744 A1 WO 2017130744A1
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Prior art keywords
thin film
organic thin
core layer
integrated circuit
optical
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PCT/JP2017/001076
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French (fr)
Japanese (ja)
Inventor
智宏 雨宮
徹 金澤
滋久 荒井
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国立大学法人東京工業大学
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Priority to JP2016-012136 priority
Application filed by 国立大学法人東京工業大学 filed Critical 国立大学法人東京工業大学
Publication of WO2017130744A1 publication Critical patent/WO2017130744A1/en

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    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/10Light guides of the optical waveguide type
    • G02B6/12Light guides of the optical waveguide type of the integrated circuit kind
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02FDEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS, THE OPTICAL OPERATION OF WHICH IS MODIFIED BY CHANGING THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE MEDIUM OF THE DEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF THE INTENSITY, COLOUR, PHASE, POLARISATION OR DIRECTION OF LIGHT, e.g. SWITCHING, GATING, MODULATING OR DEMODULATING; TECHNIQUES OR PROCEDURES FOR THE OPERATION THEREOF; FREQUENCY-CHANGING; NON-LINEAR OPTICS; OPTICAL LOGIC ELEMENTS; OPTICAL ANALOGUE/DIGITAL CONVERTERS
    • G02F1/00Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics
    • G02F1/01Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour 
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02FDEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS, THE OPTICAL OPERATION OF WHICH IS MODIFIED BY CHANGING THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE MEDIUM OF THE DEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF THE INTENSITY, COLOUR, PHASE, POLARISATION OR DIRECTION OF LIGHT, e.g. SWITCHING, GATING, MODULATING OR DEMODULATING; TECHNIQUES OR PROCEDURES FOR THE OPERATION THEREOF; FREQUENCY-CHANGING; NON-LINEAR OPTICS; OPTICAL LOGIC ELEMENTS; OPTICAL ANALOGUE/DIGITAL CONVERTERS
    • G02F1/00Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics
    • G02F1/29Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the position or the direction of light beams, i.e. deflection
    • G02F1/31Digital deflection, i.e. optical switching
    • G02F1/313Digital deflection, i.e. optical switching in an optical waveguide structure
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L31/00Semiconductor devices sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof
    • H01L31/08Semiconductor devices sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof in which radiation controls flow of current through the device, e.g. photoresistors

Abstract

Provided is an organic thin-film optical integrated circuit which is flexible and is capable of supporting visible light as well. An organic thin film optical integrated circuit (1) comprises an optical waveguide (10), a light receiver (20), a modulator (30), an optical switch (40), and a metal grating coupler (50) formed by a monolithic integration technique on an organic thin film (2). The light receiver (20) has: a lower cladding layer (21) made of a polymer; a two-dimensional material (22) two-dimensionally arranged in a functional region (60) on the lower cladding layer (21); a core layer (23) made of a polymer and laminated in the two-dimensional plane of the two-dimensional material (22); an upper cladding layer (24) made of a polymer and laminated with the core layer (23) embedded; and a first electrode (25) and a second electrode (26) sandwiching the core layer (23).

Description

Organic thin film optical integrated circuit

The present invention relates to an organic thin film optical integrated circuit.

Various optical elements used in an optical network include an optical integrated circuit in which a multiplexing element, a modulator, a laser, a modulator, an optical switch, a light receiver, and the like are integrated. The optical integrated circuit is obtained by integrating various modules such as a laser, a modulator, and a multiplexer / demultiplexer on one chip without using an optical fiber. The advantage of the optical integrated device is that various functions in optical communication can be realized by a single-chip small module. In addition, both power consumption and manufacturing cost can be reduced.

As a material for the multiplexing element, there is SiO 2 . The material of the modulator, large EO (Electro-optic, electro-optic) lithium niobate (LiNbO 3) showing the effect, lead zirconate titanate lanthanum-added ((Pb, La) (Zr , Ti) Inorganic optical crystals such as O 3 ) are widely used. Examples of the material for the optical integrated circuit include indium phosphide (InP) and Si.

For example, an InP-based optical integrated circuit is formed by a functional integration technique including a light source, and multi-functionalization utilizing crystal growth can be realized (for example, Patent Document 1). InP-based optical integrated circuits are characterized by good propagation characteristics. In addition, a Si-based optical integrated circuit can realize a high-density technology utilizing Si confinement and is compatible with a CMOS (Complementary MOS) process. However, only the light source cannot be monolithically integrated.
Flexibility has not been realized in any of the InP-based and Si-based optical integrated circuits.
Note that organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) using organic semiconductors have been made flexible and lightweight (for example, Patent Document 2).
Non-Patent Document 1 discloses a flexible electronic device using an organic transistor.

Japanese Patent Laying-Open No. 2015-179183 JP2015-176919A

"High-performance flexible organic transistors" [online], July 01, 2014, [Searched on December 1, 2015], Internet <URL: http://www.sanken.osaka-u.ac.jp/labs /aed/japanese/result.html>

Such a conventional optical integrated circuit is based on InP or Si, so there is no problem in optical communication, but other applications are difficult because the transmission wavelength is limited to the infrared region and lacks flexibility. There was a problem.

This invention is made in view of such a situation, and makes it a subject to provide the organic thin film optical integrated circuit which is flexible and can respond also to visible light.

In order to solve the above problems, an organic thin film optical integrated circuit according to claim 1 of the present invention includes a flexible organic thin film and a two-dimensional material two-dimensionally arranged in a predetermined region of the organic thin film. And one or a plurality of optical functional elements made of an organic material formed on a two-dimensional plane of the two-dimensional material.

According to this configuration, the optical functions can be integrated on the organic thin film, and an organic thin film optical integrated circuit that is flexible and compatible with visible light can be realized.

When the organic thin film optical integrated circuit according to claim 2 includes a plurality of the optical functional elements on the organic thin film, each of the optical functional elements is manufactured by a common process using the same organic material. It is manufactured by optical integration technology.

According to this configuration, the optical functional elements can be integrated on the organic thin film by monolithic optical integration technology.

The organic thin film optical integrated circuit according to claim 3, wherein the optical functional element is a light receiver including a core layer, a cladding layer that embeds the core layer, and a pair of electrodes that sandwich the core layer. The two-dimensional material is provided immediately below the layer, and the two-dimensional material has a structure in which a photocarrier is generated and the generated photocarrier is extracted from the pair of electrodes.

According to this configuration, the optical functional element including the light receiver can be integrated on the organic thin film.

5. The organic thin film optical integrated circuit according to claim 4, wherein the optical functional element includes a core layer, a cladding layer that embeds the core layer, a pair of electrodes that sandwich the core layer, and a lower portion that is disposed below the core layer. A modulator having an electrode, comprising the two-dimensional material immediately below the core layer, the lower electrode below the two-dimensional material, and applying a voltage to the lower electrode, The structure is characterized by controlling the position of the chemical potential of the system material.

According to this configuration, the optical functional element including the modulator can be integrated on the organic thin film.

In the organic thin film optical integrated circuit according to claim 5, when the two-dimensional material is graphene, the modulator controls the position of the chemical potential to control the band from the dielectric characteristics due to the interband absorption. It is characterized in that intensity modulation is performed by changing to a metallic characteristic due to internal absorption.

According to this configuration, the position of the chemical potential can be controlled using graphene.

The organic thin film optical integrated circuit according to claim 6, wherein the optical functional element includes a first core layer, a second core layer, a cladding layer that embeds the first core layer and the second core layer, and the first core layer. And a heater that covers each of the core layer and the second core layer, wherein one of the heaters is energized and heated to change the refractive index of the one core layer and the clad layer to perform switching. To do.

According to this configuration, the optical functional element including the optical switch can be integrated on the organic thin film.

The organic thin film optical integrated circuit according to claim 7 is characterized in that the optical functional element includes an optical waveguide including a core layer and a cladding layer that embeds the core layer.

According to this configuration, an optical waveguide serving as an optical transmission path connecting each optical functional element can be integrated on the organic thin film.

The organic thin film optical integrated circuit according to claim 8 is characterized in that the two-dimensional material is graphene, phosphorene, or a transition metal dichalcogenide containing MoS 2 , WS 2 , and WSe 2 .

According to this configuration, various two-dimensional functional atom / molecule thin films can be selectively used as the two-dimensional material.

According to the present invention, it is possible to provide an organic thin film optical integrated circuit that is flexible and capable of handling visible light.

It is a figure which shows the structure of the organic thin film optical integrated circuit which concerns on embodiment of this invention. It is sectional drawing which shows the structure of the optical waveguide formed in the organic thin film of the organic thin film optical integrated circuit which concerns on this embodiment by the monolithic integration technique. It is sectional drawing which shows the structure of the light receiver formed in the organic thin film film of the organic thin film optical integrated circuit which concerns on this embodiment by the monolithic integration technique. It is sectional drawing which shows the structure of the modulator formed in the organic thin film of the organic thin film optical integrated circuit which concerns on this embodiment by the monolithic integration technique. It is sectional drawing which shows the structure of the optical switch formed in the organic thin film of the organic thin film optical integrated circuit which concerns on this embodiment by the monolithic integration technique. It is a figure which shows the structure of the metal grating coupler formed in the organic thin film of the organic thin film optical integrated circuit which concerns on this embodiment by the monolithic integration technique. It is a figure explaining the manufacturing method of the organic thin film optical integrated circuit which concerns on this embodiment. It is a figure explaining the manufacturing method of the organic thin film optical integrated circuit which concerns on this embodiment. It is a figure explaining the manufacturing method of the organic thin film optical integrated circuit which concerns on this embodiment. It is a figure which shows the light intensity by simulation of the light receiver of FIG. It is a figure which shows the light intensity by simulation of the modulator of FIG. It is a figure which shows the analysis result of the metal grating coupler of FIG. It is a figure which shows the result of having transmitted 1.55 micrometer TE mode light to the optical waveguide in an organic thin film optical integrated circuit through an input / output coupler.

Hereinafter, embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail with reference to the drawings.
FIG. 1 is a diagram showing a configuration of an organic thin film optical integrated circuit according to an embodiment of the present invention. The organic thin film optical integrated circuit of this embodiment uses an organic thin film as a new platform after conventional InP and Si. The present embodiment is an example in which an organic thin film is formed by monolithic integration technology.
As shown in FIG. 1, an organic thin film photonic integrated circuit 1 is formed on a flexible organic thin film 2 and an organic thin film 2 by monolithic integration technology. The optical waveguide (Waveguide) 10 formed, the light detector (Detector) 20, the modulator (Modulator) 30, the optical switch (Optical Switch) 40, and the metal grating coupler (Metal Grating coupler) 50 are provided.
The organic thin film optical integrated circuit 1 integrates all optical functional elements (here, the optical waveguide 10, the light receiver 20, the modulator 30 and the optical switch 40) other than the light source on the organic thin film 2 having a thickness of several μm. To do.

The organic thin film optical integrated circuit 1 is manufactured by monolithic integration technology in which optical functional elements such as an optical waveguide 10, a light receiver 20, a modulator 30, and an optical switch 40 are combined on a single organic thin film 2. . The monolithic integration technique in the organic thin film optical integrated circuit 1 is to produce the same organic material by a common process. In other words, it is a monolithic integration technique that can be produced entirely from the first wafer by mask exposure. A plurality of mask patterns for stepper exposure and contact exposure may be prepared.

The organic thin film 2 is a flexible thin film made of an organic material. The organic thin film 2 has a film thickness of, for example, several μm, and is about 1/100 or less the thickness of a food wrap film.

Examples of the polymer material of the organic thin film 2 include polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA, polymethylmethacrylate), Cytop (registered trademark, the same applies hereinafter), Ormocer (registered trademark, the same applies hereinafter), polycarbonate (PC), polyimide, and the like. More specific organic materials include PMMA, Cytop, Ormocer, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl acetate, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, polyvinyl butyral, polymethacrylate, poly-L-lysine, sulfonated polystyrene, glycidyl modified polyester, polyester, sulfonic acid Examples thereof include a polymer compound or copolymer having at least one selected from the group consisting of modified polyester, carboxylic acid-modified polyester, carboxymethylcellulose, epoxy resin, saccharose, and derivatives thereof.

The polymer material is preferably transparent. Since graphene (described later) has transparency, the organic thin film 2 of the present embodiment is transparent when the polymer material is transparent. As a result, it can be applied to general purposes.

[Optical waveguide]
FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view showing the structure of the optical waveguide 10 formed on the organic thin film 2 of the organic thin film optical integrated circuit 1 by monolithic integration technology.
As shown in FIG. 2, the optical waveguide 10 includes a clad layer (refractive index n1: to 1.34) 11 made of a polymer (polymer film) as an organic material, and a core layer made of a polymer embedded in the clad layer 21 ( Refractive index n2: ˜1.49 where n2> n1 and the like) 12). FIG. 2 shows an example in which the peeling polyimide material 101 (see FIG. 7) is left on the back surface of the organic thin film 2.

For the clad layer 11, an organic material made of Cytop (refractive index n1: to 1.34) is used.
The core layer 12 is made of PMMA (refractive index n2: ˜1.49), which is an organic material made for a low-loss polymer waveguide or plastic fiber.
In the present embodiment, two polymers having different refractive indexes are used as the organic material of the organic thin film 2. That is, as the polymer of the organic thin film 2, the core layer 12 is combined with PMMA having a refractive index (refractive index n2: ˜1.49) and the cladding layer 11 is combined with Cytop having a refractive index (refractive index n1: ˜1.34). Yes. Incidentally, Cytop has been used as a protective layer that covers the entire silicon substrate and as a protective film that is spin-coated as a fluorine-based polymer solution for spin coating.

In this embodiment, the optical waveguide 10 includes a cladding layer 11 made of PMMA (refractive index n2: ˜1.49), which is an organic material made for a low-loss polymer waveguide and plastic fiber, and a Cytop (refractive index n1). : 1.34) is combined with the core layer 12 to form an optical transmission line in the organic thin film optical integrated circuit 1.
The optical waveguide 10 has a buried structure in which a core layer 12 having a high refractive index is surrounded by a cladding layer 11 having a low refractive index, and incident light is reflected at the interface between the core layer 12 and the cladding layer 11 while being reflected. Propagate through.
Since the transmission path in the organic thin film optical integrated circuit 1 has a smaller refractive index difference than the Si-based optical waveguide, the minimum curvature radius of the optical waveguide 10 is about 200 μm.

[Receiver]
FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view showing the structure of the light receiver 20 formed on the organic thin film 2 of the organic thin film optical integrated circuit 1 by monolithic integration technology.
As shown in FIG. 3, the light receiver 20 includes a lower cladding layer (refractive index n1: ˜1.34) 21 made of a polymer (polymer film) as an organic material, and a functional region 60 (predetermined on the lower cladding layer 21). The two-dimensional material 22 arranged two-dimensionally in the region), the core layer (refractive index n2: ˜1.49) 23 laminated on the two-dimensional plane of the two-dimensional material 22, and the core layer 23 are embedded. It has an upper clad layer (refractive index n1: to 1.34) 24 made of laminated polymer, and a first electrode 25 and a second electrode 26 (a pair of electrodes) sandwiching the core layer 23. FIG. 2 shows an example in which the peeling polyimide material 101 (see FIG. 7) is left on the back surface of the organic thin film 2.

The lower cladding layer 21 and the upper cladding layer 24 are both organic materials made of Cytop (refractive index n1: to 1.34). The lower clad layer 21 and the upper clad layer 24 are integrally formed by Cytop.
The core layer 23 is a polymer material made of PMMA.

The two-dimensional material 22 is disposed to give a predetermined functionality to an organic material (here, Cytop and PMMA). In the case of the light receiver 20, the two-dimensional material 22 generates a photo carrier. Graphene is used for the two-dimensional material 22. Graphene is suitable for the two-dimensional material 22 of the organic thin film optical integrated circuit 1 for the reason described later.

The first electrode 25 and the second electrode 26 are electrodes for extracting photocarriers generated from the two-dimensional material 22.
The first electrode 25 is made of Ti metal, and the second electrode 26 is made of Pd metal. Alternatively, both the first electrode 25 and the second electrode 26 are made of Au metal or Au alloy. If the metal materials of the first electrode 25 and the second electrode 26 are different, the Fermi level between the two electrodes is different, so that low voltage driving is possible.

In this embodiment, two organic materials having different refractive indexes are used as the organic material of the organic thin film 2. That is, as the organic material, PMMA having a refractive index (refractive index n2: to 1.49) is formed in the core layer 23, and Cytop having a refractive index (refractive index n1: to 1.34) is formed in the lower cladding layer 21 and the upper cladding layer 22. Combined.

The two-dimensional material 22 is arranged to give a predetermined functionality (described later) to an organic material (here, Cytop and PMMA) when an optical functional element is formed on the organic thin film 2 by monolithic integration technology. . The two-dimensional material 22 is two-dimensionally arranged in the functional region 60 where the optical functional element is to be formed, and has a function (photocarrier generation in the light receiver 20) using the two-dimensional material 22.
In this specification, for convenience of explanation, the two-dimensional material 22 is used, but it may be called a two-dimensional functional atomic / molecular thin film, two-dimensional crystal, two-dimensional substance, or the like.

The receiver is required to have two points of sensitivity and high speed. The factors that determine these are the light absorption efficiency of the material constituting the element, the movement time of the photocarrier generated by light absorption, and the light absorption layer. Examples include capacity.
In the present embodiment, graphene (described later in detail) which is the two-dimensional material 22 is used as the light absorption layer of the light receiver 20. Graphene is expected to be applied to transistors and the like because of its excellent electrical conduction characteristics. From the viewpoint of the light receiver 20, graphene is a material that can realize high sensitivity and low dark current.
In addition, graphene has a characteristic that other two-dimensional materials do not have, such that the visible to infrared region is transparent.

As shown in FIG. 3, in the photoreceiver 20, the two-dimensional material 22 made of graphene is transferred to the functional region 60 immediately below the core layer 23, and the photocarriers generated by the two-dimensional material 22 are left and right. A structure is employed in which the electrodes (first electrode 25 and second electrode 26) are pulled out in the lateral direction.

<Two-dimensional materials>
The two-dimensional material 22 will be described.
In the case where an optical functional element is formed on the organic thin film 2 by monolithic integration technology, it is difficult to impart optical functionality to the organic material using only the organic material. Therefore, the present inventors have provided the functionality to the organic thin film 2 by arranging the two-dimensional material 22 in the functional region 60 of the organic thin film 2 so that the two-dimensional plane of the two-dimensional material 22 is provided. The inventors have found that an optical functional device can be produced by monolithic integration technology.

The two-dimensional material 22 is required to be capable of imparting functionality to an organic material, and to be malleable and resistant to bending. Furthermore, since it is used as the organic thin film optical integrated circuit 1 (optical device), the wavelength band is also considered.

Graphene is suitable for the two-dimensional material 22 of the organic thin film optical integrated circuit 1.
Graphene is a sheet structure of one layer of a honeycomb-like atomic layer formed by sp 2 bonds of carbon atoms. Graphene has unique advantages such as high carrier mobility, optical wavelength independence (high transparency), and high optical nonlinearity. Graphene is not limited to a hexagonal cell structure composed only of carbon atoms, but a certain substituent / functional group may be bonded to the hexagonal cell, or, as in graphene oxide, A precursor may also be present. In the present embodiment, graphene is two-dimensionally arranged in the functional region 60 of the organic thin film 2 in the length direction and the width direction. Further, the graphene may be not only single-layer graphene but also two or more layers of graphene.

Graphene has a cone-shaped band structure, no band gap, high carrier mobility, high transparency, and functions in any wavelength band. Since any wavelength band may be used for the organic thin film optical integrated circuit 1 of the present embodiment, graphene is preferable from the viewpoint of this wavelength band.

The two-dimensional material 22 is not limited to graphene as long as the organic material can have functionality.
Examples of the two-dimensional material 22 other than graphene include phosphorene (atomic layer black phosphorus) and transition metal dichalcogenide (MoS 2 , WS 2 , WSe 2, etc.). However, phosphorene and molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) have a semiconductor property with a band gap and high carrier mobility. Here, the organic thin film optical integrated circuit 1 (optical device) does not need a semiconductor property.

As for the wavelength band, graphene is used for the entire wavelength range, and MoS 2 (molybdenum sulfide) and WS 2 (tungsten sulfide) are used for the wavelength band in the visible range. Considering the ease of production, it is actually graphene, MoS 2 , WS 2 .
Incidentally, graphene, MoS 2 , and WS 2 are reported to utilize high mobility as reported examples of optical devices. Although graphene has the highest mobility among these, but has no band gap (cannot be turned off), MoS 2 and WS 2 having a band gap but smaller mobility than graphene were used. For this reason, the report example as an optical device is only about high mobility, and there was no report example which paid its attention to the wavelength band.

[Modulator]
FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view showing the structure of the modulator 30 formed on the organic thin film 2 of the organic thin film optical integrated circuit 1 by the monolithic integration technique.
As shown in FIG. 4, the modulator 30 includes a lower cladding layer (refractive index n1: to 1.34) 21 made of Cytop (refractive index n1: to 1.34) and Au embedded in the lower cladding layer 21. A lower electrode 31 made of metal or Au alloy, a two-dimensional material 22 made of graphene disposed in a functional region 60 on the lower cladding layer 21, and a core layer made of PMMA laminated on the two-dimensional material 22 (Refractive index n2: ˜1.49) 23 and an upper cladding layer (refractive index n1: ˜1.34) 24 made of Cytop (refractive index n1: ˜1.34) embedded in the core layer 23, and , A first electrode 25 made of Ti / Au metal and a second electrode 26 made of Ti / Au metal. 4 shows an example in which the peeling polyimide material 101 (see FIG. 7) is left on the back surface of the organic thin film 2.

The two-dimensional material 22 is disposed in order to give the organic material (Cytop and PMMA) predetermined functions. In the case of the modulator 30, the two-dimensional material 22 controls the position of the chemical potential.

The lower electrode 31 is applied with a voltage to control the position of the chemical potential of the two-dimensional material 22 (graphene).

Also for the modulator 30, the functionality is realized by using graphene as the two-dimensional material 22, similarly to the light receiver 20. Graphene can be changed from a dielectric property due to interband absorption to a metallic property due to intraband absorption by controlling the position of the chemical potential. A modulator using such a property has already been realized in a Si system, and has a high speed and a high extinction ratio (see, for example, ACS Nano 6,3577,2012).

In the present embodiment, surface plasmons are used in combination with the organic thin film optical integrated circuit 1 so that appropriate modulation characteristics can be obtained. The modulator 30 has a lower electrode 31 made of Au metal, and controls the chemical potential of graphene by applying a voltage to the lower electrode 31.
Cytop (registered trademark) is an organic material (1-3 MV / cm) excellent in pressure resistance, and in addition to the effect as a cladding layer of an optical transmission line (for example, the cladding layer 11 of the optical waveguide 10 in FIG. 2), Also plays a role as an effective insulating film.

In the modulator 30, when there is no applied voltage, graphene has metallic characteristics, plasmon excitation to the lower electrode 31 becomes strong, and loss of propagating light becomes severe (up to 2400 / cm in theoretical analysis). On the other hand, when a voltage is applied, a band gap is generated in graphene and exhibits dielectric characteristics, and the plasmon excitation of the lower electrode 31 is suppressed and the loss is suppressed (˜1100 / cm in theoretical analysis). As a result, intensity modulation can be performed.

[Optical switch]
FIG. 5 is a cross-sectional view showing the structure of an optical switch 40 formed on the organic thin film 2 of the organic thin film optical integrated circuit 1 by monolithic integration technology.
As shown in FIG. 5, the optical switch 40 is made of a cladding layer (refractive index n1: to 1.34) 11 made of Cytop (refractive index n1: to 1.34) and PMMA embedded in the cladding layer 11. A first core layer (refractive index n2: ˜1.49) 41 and a second core layer (refractive index n2: ˜1.49) 42 made of PMMA embedded in the cladding layer 11 in parallel with the first core layer 41. And a metal thin film heater 43a made of Ti / Au metal covering the upper part of the first core layer 41 and its first electrode pad 43, and a metal thin film heater 44a made of Ti / Au metal covering the upper part of the second core layer 42, The second electrode pad 44. FIG. 5 shows an example in which the peeling polyimide material 101 (see FIG. 7) is left on the back surface of the organic thin film 2.

The first core layer 41 and the second core layer 42 are polymer films made of PMMA. Another material of the core layers 41 and 42 is Ormocer (registered trademark).
The clad layer 11 of the optical switch 40 is the same as the clad layer (refractive index n1: to 1.34) 11 of the optical waveguide 10 of FIG. 2, and the lower clad layer 21 and the upper clad layer 24 of FIGS. Formed by monolithic integration technology.

The optical switch 40 is not required to be as fast as the modulator 30 and requires a switching operation with low loss and reduced crosstalk. In this embodiment, a polymer thermo-optic effect type PLC (Planar Lightwave Circuit) switch using the most standard thermo-optic effect is used. Metal thin film heaters 43a and 44a, electrode pads 43 and 44, and wiring therebetween are formed on the upper part of the arm of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer. By energizing and heating one of the metal thin film heaters 43a and 44a, the refractive index of the polymer decreases as the ambient temperature increases. Thereby, switching is performed by controlling the phase between both arms of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer.
The optical switch 40 is a splitter that splits light in half when the metal thin film heaters 43a and 44a are not energized. Here, when one of the metal thin film heaters 43a and 44a is energized and heated, the polyimide around it decreases in refractive index as the temperature rises and does not guide light, and the light concentrates on the other output waveguide. .

[Metal grating coupler]
FIG. 6 is a diagram showing the structure of a metal grating coupler formed on the organic thin film 2 of the organic thin film optical integrated circuit 1 by monolithic integration technology. FIG. 6 is a side view as seen from the side, unlike the cross-sectional views of the optical waveguide 10 (FIG. 2), the light receiver (FIG. 3), the modulator (FIG. 4), and the optical switch (FIG. 5). For convenience of explanation, the same material formed by monolithic integration technology is indicated by the same hatching.
Since the refractive index difference of the polymer waveguide is small, it is very difficult to obtain appropriate coupling only by forming a groove in the surface layer of the optical waveguide 10 on the organic thin film 2.
Therefore, the present inventors have found that a metal grating structure is used for the input / output coupler.

As shown in FIG. 6, the metal grating coupler 50 periodically forms slits of a metal 51 having a width W in the surface layer of the optical waveguide 10 on the organic thin film 2. The metal grating coupler 50 is connected to the optical waveguide 10 on the organic thin film 2 and serves as an optical interface.
The metal grating coupler 50 uses the same material (Ti / Au) as that used for other functional elements for the metal 51, so that the monolithic integration conditions are not lost.
The input / output portion of the transmission line in the organic thin film optical integrated circuit 1 adopts a metal grating coupler structure so that an external signal input / output from the vertical direction of the organic thin film 2 is possible.
As described above, various optical functions (light receiver 20, modulator 30, optical switch 30 and the like) are monolithically integrated in the organic thin film 2, and an optical transmission line which is the most basic component in the circuit is inserted. An output coupler is integrated.

Next, a method for manufacturing the organic thin film optical integrated circuit 1 will be described.
7 to 9 are views for explaining a method of manufacturing the organic thin film optical integrated circuit 1. As an example, the optical receiver 20 (see FIG. 3) is manufactured as an optical functional element using monolithic integration technology. In FIG. 3, the corresponding member manufactured by this manufacturing method is shown in parentheses.

<Initial board>
As shown in FIG. 7, a release polyimide material 101 is applied to a supporting substrate 100, various polymers 102 are applied thereon, and graphene 103 is transferred onto the entire surface of the various polymers 102 to form an initial substrate.
The support substrate 100 is, for example, an InP or Si substrate, but may be any substrate.
As the peeling polyimide material 101, for example, ECRIOS (registered trademark) that can be easily peeled off from an InP or Si substrate is used.
The various polymers 102 constitute the organic thin film 2 and use, for example, Cytop. The organic material made of Cytop forms the cladding layer 21 of the optical functional element (here, the light receiver 20) of the organic thin film optical integrated circuit 1 (see FIG. 1).

Graphene 103 is used as a two-dimensional material 22 (see FIGS. 3 and 4). As described above, the graphene 103 may be not only single-layer graphene but also two or more layers of graphene. The graphene 103 is transferred to the organic thin film 2 (see FIG. 1) (here, the surface of the polymer 102) by transfer (graphene transfer).

As a method for producing graphene, a CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) method, a chemical exfoliation method from graphite, a mechanical exfoliation method from graphite, or the like is used. The CVD method is a method of mainly forming single-layer graphene on a substrate such as copper by bringing a gas such as methane into contact with the substrate such as copper under a predetermined condition. Single-layer graphene formed using the CVD method is transferred to the organic thin film 2 together with the adhered copper or the like, and after transfer, the copper or the like is removed by etching, whereby the graphene is laminated. A thin film 2 is obtained.

<Graphene patterning>
As shown in <first step> of FIG. 8A, the graphene 103 transferred to the polymer 102 is patterned to leave the graphene 103 in the necessary functional region 60. The functional region 60 is an active region where the optical function is formed when the light receiver 20 and the modulator 30 (see FIGS. 3 and 4) are formed monolithically on the organic thin film 2. More specifically, when another polymer (not shown) is applied, a window is opened at a necessary portion using a mask (not shown), and ashing is performed, the graphene other than the necessary portion is decomposed and removed.

<Electrode formation by EB drawing / deposition lift-off>
As shown in <second step> of FIG. 8B, an electrode 104 is formed by EB (electron beam) drawing / evaporation lift-off on the surface of the polymer 102 on which the patterned graphene 103 is formed. .

<Core layer coating and patterning exposure>
As shown in <Third Step> of FIG. 8C, PMMA to be the core layer 105 is manufactured by spin coating on the substrate on which the electrode 104 is formed. Then, patterning with a resist is performed using a photolithography method, and dry etching is performed using a reactive ion etching method (RIE, Reactive Ion Etching), leaving only the core layer 105, thereby removing unnecessary PMMA.

<Clad coating>
As shown in <Fourth Step> of FIG. 9A, Cytop to be the cladding layer 106 is applied on this substrate by spin coating.

<Window opening / electrode formation>
As shown in <fifth step> in FIG. 9B, patterning is performed on the organic thin film 2 (the surface of the clad layer 106) on which Cytop is formed by a photolithography method, and a window is opened on the electrode 104, An electrode 107 (for example, Au metal) is grown on the window portion again using photolithography.

<Peeling by substrate cleavage>
As shown in <Sixth Step> of FIG. 9C, the substrate on which the electrode 107 is formed is cleaved to peel off the organic thin film 2 (see FIG. 1) on which the organic thin film integrated circuit 1 is formed. Peel off at the polyimide material 101 portion. When a support substrate 100 (see FIG. 7) made of InP or Si having a cleavage plane is used, it is easy to peel off using a knife or the like.

Thus, in the manufacturing process of the organic thin film optical integrated circuit 1, a release polyimide material is applied to a support substrate, and various polymer coatings and graphene transfer are performed thereon to form an initial substrate (see FIG. 7). Thereafter, various elements are collectively manufactured through a series of processes such as polymer coating, lithography, etching, and electrode patterning on the substrate, and finally the film is thinned by performing a peeling process from the support substrate (FIGS. 8 and 9). reference).

7 to 9, the light receiving device 20 (see FIG. 3) is used as an example of manufacturing. However, other optical functional elements can be manufactured by a similar method using a monolithic integration technique.
For example, in the case of the optical waveguide 10, there is no patterning process of the graphene 103 or a manufacturing process of the electrode 104 (using a corresponding mask pattern). In the case of the modulator 30, the lower electrode 31 (see FIG. 4) is produced and the lower electrode 31 embedded in the lower clad layer 21 is formed in the process of producing the lower clad layer 21 (see FIG. 4). To do. That is, a metal thin film is formed by a sputtering apparatus, and the lower electrode 31 is patterned by a photolithography process / reactive ion etching process. Thereafter, the manufacturing method is the same as that of the light receiver 20 shown in FIG.
In the case of the optical switch 40, the cladding layer 11 (see FIG. 5) is formed, and the cladding layer 11 (see FIG. 5) in which the first core layer 41 and the second core layer 42 (see FIG. 5) are embedded is formed. The metal thin film heaters 43a and 44a, the electrode pads 43 and 44, and the wiring therebetween are formed on the surfaces of the first core layer 41 and the second core layer 42, respectively. For example, a metal thin film is formed by a sputtering apparatus, and a pattern is formed by a photolithography process / RIE process in the same manner as the core layers 41 and 42.

A method for manufacturing the metal grating coupler 50 (see FIG. 6) will be described.
First, for example, on a support substrate 100 made of InP (see FIG. 7), a polyimide 101 for peeling made of ECRIOS and Cytop for lower clad are applied and cured. On top of that, a metal grating is fabricated using electron beam writing and lift-off. Thereafter, PMMA is applied, a waveguide structure (width 2.0 μm) is formed by electron beam drawing, and then a metal grating coupler 50 is manufactured by applying and curing Cytop for the upper clad. The film peeling from the support substrate 100 is performed by cleaving InP from the back surface.

As described above, the organic thin film optical integrated circuit 1 according to the present embodiment uses a monolithic integration technique on the organic thin film 2 other than the light source such as the optical waveguide 10, the light receiver 20, the modulator 30, and the optical switch 40. One or more optical functional elements are built in. All elements can be monolithically integrated from the initial substrate (see FIG. 7) in a batch process.

FIG. 10 is a diagram showing the light intensity of the TM mode by simulation of the light receiver 20 of FIG. When the length of the thick solid line in the upper left part of FIG. 10 is expressed by 1 μm, the width and height of the core layer 23 are approximately illustrated dimensions. The lower cladding layer 21 and the upper cladding layer 24 are Cytop (refractive index n1: to 1.34), the core layer 23 is PMMA, and the two-dimensional material 22 is graphene. The first electrode 25 is Ti metal, and the second electrode 26 is Pd metal. The light was TM mode 940 / cm.
As shown in FIG. 10, the light receiver 20 pulls out photocarriers generated from graphene from the left and right first electrodes 25 and second electrodes 26 in the lateral direction. At this time, it is simulated from theoretical analysis that photocarrier generation into graphene can be generated relatively efficiently due to the characteristics of the low refractive index polymer transmission line. As shown in FIG. 10, it was possible to analyze that the light was concentrated on the core layer 23.

FIG. 11 is a diagram showing light intensity in the TM mode by simulation of the modulator 30 in FIG. When the length of the thick solid line in the upper left part of FIG. 11 is expressed by 1 μm, the width and height of the core layer 23 are dimensions shown in the drawing. The lower cladding layer 21 and the upper cladding layer 24 are Cytop (refractive index n1: to 1.34), the core layer 23 is PMMA, and the two-dimensional material 22 is graphene. The first electrode 25 and the second electrode 26 are Ti metal. The light was applied with a bias of 2400 / cm in TM mode.

In the modulator 30, when there is no applied voltage, graphene has metallic characteristics, plasmon excitation to the lower electrode 31 becomes strong, and loss of propagating light becomes severe. As shown in FIG. 11, it is ˜2400 / cm in the theoretical analysis. When a voltage is applied to the modulator 30, a band gap is generated in the graphene and exhibits a dielectric characteristic, and the plasmon excitation of the lower electrode 31 is suppressed and the loss is suppressed. As shown in FIG. 11, it is ˜1100 / cm in the theoretical analysis. As a result, intensity modulation can be performed.

Next, an experiment in which an optical transmission line that is the most basic component in the circuit and an input / output coupler are integrated will be described.
FIG. 6 shows the structure of an element in which an optical transmission line and input / output couplers are integrated on the organic thin film 2. FIG. 12 is a diagram showing an analysis result of the metal grating coupler 50 of FIG.
As shown in FIG. 12, an optical waveguide 10 having a core layer of PMMA and a cladding layer of Cytop as an optical transmission line is employed as an optical transmission line, and a taper 55 (see FIG. 13) having a metal grating structure is used as an input / output coupler. From the analysis results by the FDTD method, it was confirmed that the maximum coupling efficiency was obtained in a metal grating (Ti 10 nm / Au 30 nm) with Λ = 1500 nm and a duty ratio of 50%.
FIG. 13 is a diagram showing a result of transmitting 1.55 μm TE mode light to the optical waveguide 10 in the organic thin film optical integrated circuit 1 through the input / output coupler (metal grating coupler 50). As a result, the propagation loss of the optical waveguide 10 was estimated to be 0.14 dB / mm, and the coupling loss of the metal grating coupler 50 was estimated to be about 27 dB / coupler.

As described above, the organic thin film optical integrated circuit 1 according to this embodiment includes the optical waveguide 10, the light receiver 20, the modulator 30, and the optical switch formed on the organic thin film 2 by monolithic integration technology. 40 and a metal grating coupler 50. The light receiver 20 includes a lower clad layer 21 made of a polymer (for example, PMMA), a two-dimensional material 22 arranged two-dimensionally in a functional region 60 on the lower clad layer 21, and a two-dimensional plane of the two-dimensional material 22. A core layer 23 made of a polymer (eg, Cytop) laminated thereon, an upper clad layer 24 made of a polymer (eg, PMMA) laminated with the core layer 23 embedded therein, a first electrode 25 and a first electrode 25 sandwiching the core layer 23 Two electrodes 26. The modulator 30 includes a lower cladding layer 21, a lower electrode 31 embedded in the lower cladding layer 21, a two-dimensional material 22 made of graphene formed in a functional region 60 on the lower cladding layer 21, and a two-dimensional A core layer 23 laminated on the system material 22, an upper clad layer 24 buried in the core layer 23, and a first electrode 25 and a second electrode 26 are included.

Conventionally, there is one that improves the transistor characteristics by placing graphene at a necessary place on an InP or Si substrate. However, such an optical integrated circuit uses the high carrier mobility of graphene, and does not give the organic material functionality as in this embodiment. Moreover, there is no example which applied to the organic thin film optical integrated circuit paying attention to the optical wavelength independence (high transparency) of a graphene.

In the organic thin film optical integrated circuit 1 according to the present embodiment, the organic thin film 2 is provided with functionality by two-dimensionally arranging the two-dimensional material 22 in the functional region 60 of the organic thin film 2. An optical functional element is produced on the two-dimensional plane of the material 22 by monolithic integration technology. In other words, the organic thin film optical integrated circuit 1 uses an organic thin film 2 with a two-dimensional material 22 sandwiched therebetween, thereby providing functionality to an optical functional device manufactured by monolithic integration technology. Monolithic optical integration is a configuration unique to optical integrated circuits that is performed in the same process using the same material system. This embodiment is realized by preparing a substrate having graphene formed monolithically and leaving the graphene of a necessary functional part.

With this configuration, it is possible to realize the organic thin film optical integrated circuit 1 in which optical functions are collectively integrated in the flexible organic thin film 2. The organic thin film optical integrated circuit 1 can integrate all optical functions other than the light source on the organic thin film 2 having a thickness of several μm, and realizes an organic thin film optical integrated circuit 1 that is flexible and can support visible light. can do.

Further, since the organic thin film optical integrated circuit 1 can be formed on a very thin organic thin film, there is an advantage that the cost is extremely low compared with InP and Si.

In addition, the optical device including the organic thin film optical integrated circuit 1 is not substantially affected by stress, and the refractive index (refractive index of the clad layer and the core layer) changes due to bending loss when the optical device is bent. For example, it was confirmed that when the radius of curvature of the optical waveguide was bent within 100 μm, transmission was performed without loss (99% or more).

In this embodiment, Cytop is used as the organic material of the cladding layer. In general, it is known that organic materials are weak against moisture, and their characteristics are greatly deteriorated when moisture is absorbed. Cytop is preferable because it has environmental resistance such as moisture absorption and voltage withstand voltage so as to be used as a protective film. In particular, when a modulator is fabricated as an optical functional element by monolithic integration technology, the voltage withstand voltage of the organic material with respect to the lower electrode becomes a problem. Cytop having a voltage withstand voltage is preferable from the viewpoint of manufacturing by the same process by monolithic integration technology. When Cytop is used for the cladding layer, PMMA is selected as a polymer having a low loss and a high refractive index for the core layer.

The organic thin film optical integrated circuit 1 can be applied to sensing and medical applications such as a biosensor using super flexible characteristics and affixing to a human body. Also, a wearable and high-speed optical signal processing device is possible. Further, various applications other than optical communication utilizing flexible characteristics, such as matrix type tactile sensors for health care and monitoring, thin film heaters, temperature / infrared sensors and the like can be considered.

The present invention is not limited to the above-described embodiments, and includes other modifications and application examples without departing from the gist of the present invention described in the claims.
Further, the above-described exemplary embodiments have been described in detail for easy understanding of the present invention, and are not necessarily limited to those having all the configurations described. Further, a part of the configuration of an embodiment can be replaced with the configuration of another embodiment, and the configuration of another embodiment can be added to the configuration of an embodiment. . Further, it is possible to add, delete, and replace other configurations for a part of the configuration of each exemplary embodiment.
Moreover, in the said embodiment, although the name organic thin film optical integrated circuit was used, this is for convenience of explanation and an organic thin film optical integrated circuit device, a flexible optical integrated circuit, etc. may be sufficient as a name.

DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 Organic thin film optical integrated circuit 2 Organic thin film 10 Optical waveguide (optical functional element)
11 Clad layer (organic material)
12, 23, 105 Core layer (organic material)
20 Light receiver (optical functional element)
21 Lower cladding layer (organic material)
22 Two-dimensional material 24 Upper cladding layer (organic material)
25 1st electrode (a pair of electrodes)
26 Second electrode (a pair of electrodes)
30 Modulator (optical functional element)
31 Lower electrode 40 Optical switch (optical functional element)
41 First core layer (organic material)
42 Second core layer (organic material)
43 1st electrode pad 44 2nd electrode pad 43a, 44a Metal thin film heater 50 Metal grating coupler (input / output coupler)
60 Functional region 100 Support substrate 101 Peeling polyimide material 102 Various polymers (organic materials)
103 Graphene (two-dimensional material)
104,107 electrodes

Claims (8)

  1. An organic thin film having flexibility;
    A two-dimensional material arranged two-dimensionally in a predetermined region of the organic thin film;
    One or more optical functional elements made of an organic material formed on a two-dimensional plane of the two-dimensional material;
    An organic thin film optical integrated circuit comprising:
  2. When comprising a plurality of the optical functional elements on the organic thin film,
    2. The organic thin film optical integrated circuit according to claim 1, wherein each of the optical functional elements is manufactured by a monolithic optical integrated technology manufactured by a common process using the same organic material.
  3. The optical functional element is a light receiver that includes a core layer, a cladding layer that embeds the core layer, and a pair of electrodes that sandwich the core layer,
    The two-dimensional material is provided directly under the core layer,
    3. The organic thin film optical integrated circuit according to claim 1, wherein the two-dimensional material has a structure in which a photo carrier is generated and the generated photo carrier is extracted from the pair of electrodes.
  4. The optical functional element is a modulator having a core layer, a cladding layer that embeds the core layer, a pair of electrodes that sandwich the core layer, and a lower electrode that is disposed below the core layer,
    The two-dimensional material is provided directly under the core layer,
    The lower electrode is provided below the two-dimensional material,
    3. The organic thin film optical integrated circuit according to claim 1, wherein a voltage is applied to the lower electrode to control a position of a chemical potential of the two-dimensional material.
  5. When the two-dimensional material is graphene, the modulator changes the dielectric property due to interband absorption to the metallic property due to intraband absorption by controlling the position of chemical potential. 4. The organic thin film optical integrated circuit according to claim 3, wherein intensity modulation is performed.
  6. The optical functional element includes a first core layer, a second core layer, a clad layer that embeds the first core layer and the second core layer, and a heater that covers the first core layer and the second core layer, respectively. The organic switch according to claim 1, wherein one of the heaters is energized and heated to perform switching by changing a refractive index of the one core layer and the clad layer. Thin film optical integrated circuit.
  7. 3. The organic thin film optical integrated circuit according to claim 1, wherein the optical functional element includes an optical waveguide including a core layer and a cladding layer that embeds the core layer. 4.
  8. 3. The organic thin film optical integrated circuit according to claim 1, wherein the two-dimensional material is a transition metal dichalcogenide containing graphene, phosphorene, or MoS 2 , WS 2 , and WSe 2 .
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