WO2017114071A1 - Method for preparing breathable moulding shell - Google Patents

Method for preparing breathable moulding shell Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2017114071A1
WO2017114071A1 PCT/CN2016/107870 CN2016107870W WO2017114071A1 WO 2017114071 A1 WO2017114071 A1 WO 2017114071A1 CN 2016107870 W CN2016107870 W CN 2016107870W WO 2017114071 A1 WO2017114071 A1 WO 2017114071A1
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sand
powder
mesh
transition
straw fiber
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PCT/CN2016/107870
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French (fr)
Chinese (zh)
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张建勋
侯晓翠
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张建勋
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Priority to CN201511007799.8A priority Critical patent/CN105522111A/en
Priority to CN201511007799.8 priority
Application filed by 张建勋 filed Critical 张建勋
Publication of WO2017114071A1 publication Critical patent/WO2017114071A1/en

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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22CFOUNDRY MOULDING
    • B22C9/00Moulds or cores; Moulding processes
    • B22C9/02Sand moulds or like moulds for shaped castings
    • B22C9/04Use of lost patterns
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22CFOUNDRY MOULDING
    • B22C9/00Moulds or cores; Moulding processes
    • B22C9/20Stack moulds, i.e. arrangement of multiple moulds or flasks

Abstract

A method for preparing a breathable moulding shell, comprising the steps of preparing a mould, preparing a surface layer coating, surface sand suspension, preparing a transition layer coating, transition sand suspension, and baking; rice husk dust and crop straw fibre are used as shell-making materials, reducing the amount of fire-resistant materials used and being environmentally friendly, and a reasonable proportion being used; breathability is increased whilst ensuring moulding cast strength, and using porous diatomite is beneficial for ventilation, reducing casting pore defects, increasing the yield of finished products, and reducing the weight of the mould shell.

Description

一种透气型壳的制备方法Method for preparing gas permeable shell 技术领域Technical field
本发明属于铸造技术领域,尤其是涉及一种透气型壳的制备方法。The invention belongs to the technical field of casting, and in particular relates to a preparation method of a gas permeable shell.
背景技术Background technique
模精密铸造是一种先进的铸造成形工艺,多用于实现复杂、薄壁、精密铸件成形,在精密首饰、航空发动机以及其他精密成型件方面具有巨大的优势,传统的熔模精密铸造工艺是用易熔的材料(如蜡料)制成可熔性模型(简称熔模),在其上涂覆若干层特制的耐火涂料,经过干燥和硬化形成一个整体模组,再从模组中熔失熔模从而获得中空的模壳,然后将模壳进行高温烧结,最后在其中浇注熔融的金属而得到的铸件的方法。目前在熔模精密铸造的生产过程中,多用陶瓷砂,铸造结束后打碎的模壳存在着型砂回收困难,对环境污染大的问题,同时蜡模的生产成本高,因此,寻找一种低价格、高性能、环保的模壳制备方法非常有必要。Mold precision casting is an advanced casting forming process, which is used to realize complex, thin-walled and precision casting. It has great advantages in precision jewellery, aero-engines and other precision molded parts. The traditional investment casting process is used. Fusible materials (such as wax) are made into a fusible model (abbreviated as investment), which is coated with several layers of special refractory coatings, dried and hardened to form a monolithic module, and then melted from the module. A method of melting a mold to obtain a hollow mold shell, then subjecting the mold shell to high temperature sintering, and finally casting a molten metal therein. At present, in the production process of investment casting, ceramic sand is often used. The mold shell broken after casting is difficult to recover the sand, which has great environmental pollution, and the production cost of the wax mold is high. Therefore, looking for a low Price, high performance, and environmentally friendly mold preparation methods are necessary.
发明内容Summary of the invention
基于以上技术问题,本发明公开了一种透气型壳的制备方法,可以高效的得到铸造模壳,并且采用环保材料,保护了环境与资源。Based on the above technical problems, the present invention discloses a preparation method of a gas permeable shell, which can efficiently obtain a casting mold shell, and adopts environmentally friendly materials to protect the environment and resources.
本发明完整的技术方案包括:The complete technical solution of the present invention includes:
一种透气型壳的制备方法,其特征在于,包括如下步骤:A method for preparing a gas permeable shell, comprising the steps of:
(1)制备模样组,采用聚苯乙烯经过发泡制得与铸件形状相同的白模、浇注系统、冒口,随后采用一件六至八模(即一套浇注系统配六至八个铸件)的方式粘结成模样组;(1) Preparing a pattern set, using a polystyrene foamed to obtain a white mold, a casting system, a riser having the same shape as the casting, and then adopting a six to eight mold (ie, one set of casting system with six to eight castings) ) to bond into a pattern group;
(2)面层涂料制备,将320目细刚玉粉、水玻璃、240目稻谷壳屑、消泡剂、铝酸钴混合搅拌制得面层涂料,面层涂料组分的重量配比为:细刚玉粉:水玻璃:稻谷壳屑:消泡剂:铝酸钴=(1800-2000):(140-160):(100-200):(1-2):(2-5),所述的消泡剂为正丁醇;(2) Preparation of surface coating, 320-mesh fine corundum powder, water glass, 240 mesh rice crumb, defoaming agent, cobalt aluminate mixed to obtain a surface coating, the weight ratio of the surface coating components is: Fine corundum powder: water glass: rice crust: defoamer: cobalt aluminate = (1800-2000): (140-160): (100-200): (1-2): (2-5), The antifoaming agent is n-butanol;
(3)挂面砂:将所述模样组浸入面层涂料池中,随后取出,在旋转条件下向其表面吹风使其涂覆均匀,所述的吹风时间为30s-60s;随后在多轴转动条件下通过雨 林式撒砂方式向其表面洒面砂,所述的面砂组分为氧化铝砂和稻谷壳屑,重量配比为氧化铝砂:稻谷壳屑=(10-15):1,氧化铝砂的粒度为80-100目,稻谷壳屑粒度为160-200目;将涂挂好面砂的模样组干燥;(3) Noodle sand: The pattern group is immersed in the surface coating tank, then taken out, and blown to the surface under rotation to make it evenly coated, the blowing time is 30s-60s; then multi-axis rotation Passing rain under conditions The forest type sanding method sprinkles the surface sand to the surface, and the surface sand component is alumina sand and rice shell crumb, and the weight ratio is alumina sand: rice shell crumb = (10-15): 1, alumina The grain size of the sand is 80-100 mesh, and the grain size of the rice crust is 160-200 mesh; the pattern group of the coated sand is dried;
(4)过渡层涂料制备,将硅藻土粉、锆砂粉、农作物秸秆纤维、硅酸乙酯水解液混合搅拌制得过渡层涂料,所述的硅藻土粉粒度为240目,锆砂粒度为240目,农作物秸秆纤维直径为2-3mm,硅酸乙酯水解液二氧化硅含量为20%,过渡层涂料组分的重量配比为:硅藻土粉:锆砂粉:农作物秸秆纤维:硅酸乙酯水解液=(350-500):(1800-2000):(50-120):(2-4);(4) Preparation of transition layer coating, mixing diatomite powder, zircon sand powder, crop straw fiber and ethyl silicate hydrolyzate to obtain a transition layer coating, the diatomite powder has a particle size of 240 mesh, zircon sand The degree is 240 mesh, the diameter of the crop straw fiber is 2-3 mm, the silica content of the ethyl silicate hydrolyzate is 20%, and the weight ratio of the transition layer coating component is: diatomaceous earth powder: zircon sand powder: crop straw Fiber: ethyl silicate hydrolyzate = (350-500): (1800-2000): (50-120): (2-4);
(5)挂过渡砂,将步骤(3)中干燥后的模样组浸入过渡层涂料池中,随后取出,在旋转条件下向其表面吹风使其涂覆均匀,所述的吹风时间为40s-80s,随后在多轴转动条件下通过雨林式撒砂方式向其表面洒过渡砂,所述的过渡砂组分为锆砂粗粉和农作物秸秆纤维,重量配比为锆砂粗粉:农作物秸秆纤维=(10-15):1,锆砂粗粉的粒度为40-60目,农作物秸秆纤维直径为4-6mm;将涂挂好过渡砂的模样组干燥12-18h;(5) Hanging transition sand, immersing the dried pattern group in step (3) into the transition layer coating tank, and then taking it out, blowing it to the surface under rotation to make it evenly coated, the blowing time is 40s- 80s, then the transition sand is sprayed on the surface by rainforest sanding under multi-axis rotation conditions. The transition sand component is zircon sand coarse powder and crop straw fiber, and the weight ratio is zircon sand coarse powder: crop straw Fiber = (10-15): 1, the grain size of the zircon sand coarse powder is 40-60 mesh, the diameter of the straw fiber of the crop is 4-6 mm; the pattern group coated with the transition sand is dried for 12-18 h;
(6)重复步骤(4)和步骤(5),直到模壳厚度达到8-10mm,封浆后干燥。(6) Repeat steps (4) and (5) until the thickness of the mold shell reaches 8-10 mm, and then dry after sealing.
(7)将步骤(6)封浆干燥后的模壳进行焙烧,得到透气型壳。(7) The mold shell after the step (6) is dried by sealing to obtain a gas permeable shell.
本发明相对现有技术,采用聚苯乙烯作为模样,降低了成本,采用稻谷壳屑、农作物秸秆纤维作为制壳材料,降低了耐火材料的使用量,既有利于环保,并采用合理的配比,在保证型壳强度的前提下增加了透气性,过渡层涂料中的硅藻土为多孔材料,有利于排气,降低了铸件气孔缺陷,增加了成品率,同时使模壳降低了重量,并且原料易得。Compared with the prior art, the invention adopts polystyrene as a pattern to reduce the cost, and adopts rice crumb and crop straw fiber as a shell material, thereby reducing the use amount of the refractory material, which is beneficial to environmental protection and adopts a reasonable ratio. The gas permeability is increased under the premise of ensuring the strength of the shell, and the diatomaceous earth in the transition layer coating is a porous material, which is favorable for exhausting, reduces the porosity defects of the casting, increases the yield, and reduces the weight of the shell. And raw materials are readily available.
具体实施方式detailed description
下面结合具体实施方式对本发明做进一步说明。The present invention will be further described below in conjunction with specific embodiments.
实施例1:Example 1:
一种透气型壳的制备方法,其特征在于,包括如下步骤:A method for preparing a gas permeable shell, comprising the steps of:
(1)制备模样,制备模样组,采用聚苯乙烯经过发泡制得与铸件形状相同的模样、浇注系统、冒口,并粘结成模样组,采用一件六模; (1) preparing a pattern, preparing a pattern group, using a polystyrene to obtain a shape, a casting system, a riser having the same shape as the casting, and bonding into a pattern group, using a six-die;
(2)面层涂料制备,采用水玻璃作为粘结剂,将细刚玉粉、水玻璃、稻谷壳屑、消泡剂、铝酸钴混合搅拌制得面层涂料,所述的细刚玉粉粒度为300目,稻谷壳屑粒度为240目,上述涂料组分的重量配比为:细刚玉粉:水玻璃:稻谷壳屑:消泡剂:铝酸钴=1800:140:100:1:2;(2) Preparation of surface coating, using water glass as a binder, mixing fine corundum powder, water glass, rice crumb, defoaming agent and cobalt aluminate to obtain a surface coating, the fine corundum particle size For 300 mesh, the grain size of rice crust is 240 mesh, and the weight ratio of the above coating components is: fine corundum powder: water glass: rice crust: defoaming agent: cobalt aluminate=1800:140:100:1:2 ;
(3)挂面砂:将所述模样组浸入面层涂料池中,随后取出,在旋转条件下向其表面吹风使其涂覆均匀,所述的吹风时间为30s;随后在旋转条件下向其表面洒面砂,所述的面砂为面砂组分为氧化铝砂和稻谷壳屑,重量配比为氧化铝砂:稻谷壳屑=10:1,氧化铝砂的粒度为80目,稻谷壳屑粒度为160目;将涂挂好面砂的模样组干燥12h;(3) Noodle sand: The pattern group is immersed in the surface coating tank, then taken out, and blown to the surface under rotation to make it evenly coated, the blowing time is 30 s; then it is rotated under the condition of rotation The surface is sprinkled with sand, the surface sand is composed of alumina sand and rice crumb, and the weight ratio is alumina sand: rice crust = 10:1, alumina sand has a grain size of 80 mesh, rice paddy The chip size of the chip is 160 mesh; the pattern group coated with the surface sand is dried for 12 hours;
(4)过渡层涂料制备,将硅藻土粉、锆砂粉、农作物秸秆纤维、硅酸乙酯水解液混合搅拌制得过渡层涂料,所述的硅藻土粉粒度为240目,锆砂粒度为240目,农作物秸秆纤维直径为2-3mm,硅酸乙酯水解液二氧化硅含量为20%,上述涂料组分的重量配比为:硅藻土粉:锆砂粉:农作物秸秆纤维:硅酸乙酯水解液=350:1800:50:2;(4) Preparation of transition layer coating, mixing diatomite powder, zircon sand powder, crop straw fiber and ethyl silicate hydrolyzate to obtain a transition layer coating, the diatomite powder has a particle size of 240 mesh, zircon sand The degree is 240 mesh, the diameter of the straw fiber of the crop is 2-3 mm, the silica content of the ethyl silicate hydrolyzate is 20%, and the weight ratio of the above coating components is: diatomaceous earth powder: zircon sand powder: crop straw fiber : ethyl silicate hydrolyzate = 350: 1800: 50: 2;
(5)挂过渡砂,将步骤(3)中干燥后的模样组浸入过渡层涂料池中,随后取出,在旋转条件下向其表面吹风使其涂覆均匀,所述的吹风时间为40s-80s;随后在旋转条件下向其表面洒过渡砂,所述的过渡砂组分为锆砂粗粉和农作物秸秆纤维,重量配比为锆砂粗粉:农作物秸秆纤维=10:1,锆砂粗粉的粒度为40目,农作物秸秆纤维直径为4mm;将涂挂好过渡砂的模样组干燥12h;(5) Hanging transition sand, immersing the dried pattern group in step (3) into the transition layer coating tank, and then taking it out, blowing it to the surface under rotation to make it evenly coated, the blowing time is 40s- 80s; then sprinkle transition sand to the surface under rotating conditions, the transition sand component is zircon sand coarse powder and crop straw fiber, the weight ratio is zircon sand coarse powder: crop straw fiber = 10:1, zircon sand The particle size of the coarse powder is 40 mesh, and the diameter of the straw fiber of the crop is 4 mm; the pattern group coated with the transition sand is dried for 12 hours;
(6)重复步骤(4)和步骤(5)2-4次,直到模壳厚度达到6mm,封浆后干燥;(6) repeating step (4) and step (5) 2-4 times until the thickness of the mold shell reaches 6 mm, and drying after sealing;
(7)将步骤(6)封浆干燥后的模壳进行焙烧,得到透气型壳。(7) The mold shell after the step (6) is dried by sealing to obtain a gas permeable shell.
实施例2:Example 2:
一种透气型壳的制备方法,其特征在于,包括如下步骤:A method for preparing a gas permeable shell, comprising the steps of:
(1)制备模样,制备模样组,采用聚苯乙烯经过发泡制得与铸件形状相同的模样、浇注系统、冒口,并粘结成模样组,采用一件八模;(1) Preparing a pattern, preparing a pattern group, using a polystyrene to obtain a mold having the same shape as the casting, a pouring system, a riser, and bonding into a pattern group, using an eight-mode;
(2)面层涂料制备,采用水玻璃作为粘结剂,将细刚玉粉、水玻璃、稻谷壳屑、消泡剂、铝酸钴混合搅拌制得面层涂料,所述的细刚玉粉粒度为300目,稻谷壳屑粒度为240目,上述涂料组分的重量配比为:细刚玉粉:水玻璃:稻谷壳屑:消泡剂:铝酸钴=2000:160:200:2:5; (2) Preparation of surface coating, using water glass as a binder, mixing fine corundum powder, water glass, rice crumb, defoaming agent and cobalt aluminate to obtain a surface coating, the fine corundum particle size For 300 mesh, the grain size of rice crust is 240 mesh, and the weight ratio of the above coating components is: fine corundum powder: water glass: rice crust: defoaming agent: cobalt aluminate = 2000:160:200:2:5 ;
(3)挂面砂:将所述模样组浸入面层涂料池中,随后取出,在旋转条件下向其表面吹风使其涂覆均匀,所述的吹风时间为60s;随后在旋转条件下向其表面洒面砂,所述的面砂为面砂组分为氧化铝砂和稻谷壳屑,重量配比为氧化铝砂:稻谷壳屑=15:1,氧化铝砂的粒度为100目,稻谷壳屑粒度为200目;将涂挂好面砂的模样组干燥18h;(3) Noodle sand: The pattern group is immersed in the surface coating tank, then taken out, and blown to the surface under rotation to make it evenly coated, the blowing time is 60 s; then it is rotated under the condition of rotation The surface is sprinkled with sand, the surface sand is made of alumina sand and rice crumb, and the weight ratio is alumina sand: rice crumb = 15:1, alumina sand has a particle size of 100 mesh, rice The chip size of the chip is 200 mesh; the pattern group coated with the surface sand is dried for 18 hours;
(4)过渡层涂料制备,将硅藻土粉、锆砂粉、农作物秸秆纤维、硅酸乙酯水解液混合搅拌制得过渡层涂料,所述的硅藻土粉粒度为240目,锆砂粒度为240目,农作物秸秆纤维直径为3mm,硅酸乙酯水解液二氧化硅含量为20%,上述涂料组分的重量配比为:硅藻土粉:锆砂粉:农作物秸秆纤维:硅酸乙酯水解液=500:2000:120:4;(4) Preparation of transition layer coating, mixing diatomite powder, zircon sand powder, crop straw fiber and ethyl silicate hydrolyzate to obtain a transition layer coating, the diatomite powder has a particle size of 240 mesh, zircon sand The degree is 240 mesh, the diameter of the straw fiber of the crop is 3 mm, the silica content of the ethyl silicate hydrolyzate is 20%, and the weight ratio of the above coating components is: diatomaceous earth powder: zircon sand powder: crop straw fiber: silicon Acid ethyl ester hydrolyzate = 500:2000:120:4;
(5)挂过渡砂,将步骤(3)中干燥后的模样组浸入过渡层涂料池中,随后取出,在旋转条件下向其表面吹风使其涂覆均匀,所述的吹风时间为80s;随后在旋转条件下向其表面洒过渡砂,所述的过渡砂组分为锆砂粗粉和农作物秸秆纤维,重量配比为锆砂粗粉:农作物秸秆纤维=15:1,锆砂粗粉的粒度为60目,农作物秸秆纤维直径为6mm;将涂挂好过渡砂的模样组干燥18h;(5) hang the transition sand, immerse the dried sample group in step (3) into the transition layer coating pool, and then take it out, and blow it to the surface under rotation to make it evenly coated, the blowing time is 80 s; Subsequently, the transition sand is sprinkled on the surface under rotating conditions. The transition sand component is zircon sand coarse powder and crop straw fiber, and the weight ratio is zircon sand coarse powder: crop straw fiber = 15:1, zircon sand coarse powder The particle size of the mesh is 60 mesh, and the diameter of the straw fiber of the crop is 6 mm; the pattern group coated with the transition sand is dried for 18 hours;
(6)重复步骤(4)和步骤(5)2-4次,直到模壳厚度达到10mm,封浆后干燥;(6) repeating step (4) and step (5) 2-4 times until the thickness of the mold shell reaches 10 mm, and drying after sealing;
(7)将步骤(6)封浆干燥后的模壳进行焙烧,得到透气型壳。 (7) The mold shell after the step (6) is dried by sealing to obtain a gas permeable shell.

Claims (1)

  1. 一种透气型壳的制备方法,其特征在于,包括如下步骤:A method for preparing a gas permeable shell, comprising the steps of:
    (1)制备模样组,采用聚苯乙烯经过发泡制得与铸件形状相同的白模、浇注系统、冒口,随后采用一件六至八模(即一套浇注系统配六至八个铸件)的方式粘结成模样组;(1) Preparing a pattern set, using a polystyrene foamed to obtain a white mold, a casting system, a riser having the same shape as the casting, and then adopting a six to eight mold (ie, one set of casting system with six to eight castings) ) to bond into a pattern group;
    (2)面层涂料制备,将320目细刚玉粉、水玻璃、240目稻谷壳屑、消泡剂、铝酸钴混合搅拌制得面层涂料,面层涂料组分的重量配比为:细刚玉粉:水玻璃:稻谷壳屑:消泡剂:铝酸钴=(1800-2000):(140-160):(100-200):(1-2):(2-5),所述的消泡剂为正丁醇;(2) Preparation of surface coating, 320-mesh fine corundum powder, water glass, 240 mesh rice crumb, defoaming agent, cobalt aluminate mixed to obtain a surface coating, the weight ratio of the surface coating components is: Fine corundum powder: water glass: rice crust: defoamer: cobalt aluminate = (1800-2000): (140-160): (100-200): (1-2): (2-5), The antifoaming agent is n-butanol;
    (3)挂面砂:将所述模样组浸入面层涂料池中,随后取出,在旋转条件下向其表面吹风使其涂覆均匀,所述的吹风时间为30s-60s;随后在多轴转动条件下通过雨林式撒砂方式向其表面洒面砂,所述的面砂组分为氧化铝砂和稻谷壳屑,重量配比为氧化铝砂:稻谷壳屑=(10-15):1,氧化铝砂的粒度为80-100目,稻谷壳屑粒度为160-200目;将涂挂好面砂的模样组干燥;(3) Noodle sand: The pattern group is immersed in the surface coating tank, then taken out, and blown to the surface under rotation to make it evenly coated, the blowing time is 30s-60s; then multi-axis rotation Under the condition, the sand is sprinkled on the surface by the rainforest sanding method. The surface sand component is alumina sand and rice crumb, and the weight ratio is alumina sand: rice crust = (10-15): 1 The particle size of the alumina sand is 80-100 mesh, and the grain size of the rice crust is 160-200 mesh; the pattern group of the coated sand is dried;
    (4)过渡层涂料制备,将硅藻土粉、锆砂粉、农作物秸秆纤维、硅酸乙酯水解液混合搅拌制得过渡层涂料,所述的硅藻土粉粒度为240目,锆砂粒度为240目,农作物秸秆纤维直径为2-3mm,硅酸乙酯水解液二氧化硅含量为20%,过渡层涂料组分的重量配比为:硅藻土粉:锆砂粉:农作物秸秆纤维:硅酸乙酯水解液=(350-500):(1800-2000):(50-120):(2-4);(4) Preparation of transition layer coating, mixing diatomite powder, zircon sand powder, crop straw fiber and ethyl silicate hydrolyzate to obtain a transition layer coating, the diatomite powder has a particle size of 240 mesh, zircon sand The degree is 240 mesh, the diameter of the crop straw fiber is 2-3 mm, the silica content of the ethyl silicate hydrolyzate is 20%, and the weight ratio of the transition layer coating component is: diatomaceous earth powder: zircon sand powder: crop straw Fiber: ethyl silicate hydrolyzate = (350-500): (1800-2000): (50-120): (2-4);
    (5)挂过渡砂,将步骤(3)中干燥后的模样组浸入过渡层涂料池中,随后取出,在旋转条件下向其表面吹风使其涂覆均匀,所述的吹风时间为40s-80s,随后在多轴转动条件下通过雨林式撒砂方式向其表面洒过渡砂,所述的过渡砂组分为锆砂粗粉和农作物秸秆纤维,重量配比为锆砂粗粉:农作物秸秆纤维=(10-15):1,锆砂粗粉的粒度为40-60目,农作物秸秆纤维直径为4-6mm;将涂挂好过渡砂的模样组干燥12-18h;(5) Hanging transition sand, immersing the dried pattern group in step (3) into the transition layer coating tank, and then taking it out, blowing it to the surface under rotation to make it evenly coated, the blowing time is 40s- 80s, then the transition sand is sprayed on the surface by rainforest sanding under multi-axis rotation conditions. The transition sand component is zircon sand coarse powder and crop straw fiber, and the weight ratio is zircon sand coarse powder: crop straw Fiber = (10-15): 1, the grain size of the zircon sand coarse powder is 40-60 mesh, the diameter of the straw fiber of the crop is 4-6 mm; the pattern group coated with the transition sand is dried for 12-18 h;
    (6)重复步骤(4)和步骤(5),直到模壳厚度达到8-10mm,封浆后干燥。(6) Repeat steps (4) and (5) until the thickness of the mold shell reaches 8-10 mm, and then dry after sealing.
    (7)将步骤(6)封浆干燥后的模壳进行焙烧,得到透气型壳。 (7) The mold shell after the step (6) is dried by sealing to obtain a gas permeable shell.
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