WO2017059477A1 - Blood preparation and profiling - Google Patents

Blood preparation and profiling Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2017059477A1
WO2017059477A1 PCT/AU2016/000341 AU2016000341W WO2017059477A1 WO 2017059477 A1 WO2017059477 A1 WO 2017059477A1 AU 2016000341 W AU2016000341 W AU 2016000341W WO 2017059477 A1 WO2017059477 A1 WO 2017059477A1
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WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
proteins
blood
protein
sample
red blood
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/AU2016/000341
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Elisabeth KARSTEN
Ben Herbert
Alan Liddle
Cameron Hill
Original Assignee
Sangui Bio Pty. Ltd
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority claimed from AU2015904075A external-priority patent/AU2015904075A0/en
Priority to KR1020187012951A priority Critical patent/KR102632490B1/en
Priority to AU2016334875A priority patent/AU2016334875B2/en
Priority to US15/765,963 priority patent/US11243218B2/en
Priority to CA3001154A priority patent/CA3001154C/en
Priority to SG11201802754XA priority patent/SG11201802754XA/en
Application filed by Sangui Bio Pty. Ltd filed Critical Sangui Bio Pty. Ltd
Priority to EP21207712.7A priority patent/EP4009047A1/en
Priority to JP2018537693A priority patent/JP6824994B2/en
Priority to CN201680071446.0A priority patent/CN108700565B/en
Priority to EP16852887.5A priority patent/EP3359962B1/en
Publication of WO2017059477A1 publication Critical patent/WO2017059477A1/en
Priority to HK19100786.7A priority patent/HK1258470A1/en
Priority to US17/845,451 priority patent/US20240060997A1/en

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Definitions

  • the present disclosure relates generally to the field of haematology.
  • the present disclosure also relates to protein profiling in the blood and, in particular, methods for producing or generating blood protein profiles, including cytokine and/or chemokine profiles, in red blood cell-enriched blood samples.
  • Protein profiling of blood is used for a variety of purposes. For example, the profiling of indicative proteins in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and serum/plasma is commonly used in disease diagnosis. Additionally, monitoring protein profiles within the blood may assist in directing more effective therapeutic interventions by providing a means of monitoring responsiveness to treatment and an indication of remission or regression.
  • PBMC peripheral blood mononuclear cells
  • serum/plasma is commonly used in disease diagnosis.
  • monitoring protein profiles within the blood may assist in directing more effective therapeutic interventions by providing a means of monitoring responsiveness to treatment and an indication of remission or regression.
  • Biological markers in blood compartments such as cytokines, chemokines and growth factors may provide insight into inflammation, immune responses, and repair.
  • cytokines, chemokines and growth factors may provide insight into inflammation, immune responses, and repair.
  • the detection and quantification of pro- and/or anti-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels in blood is widely employed to gauge immune status.
  • cytokines and chemokines are commonly used to diagnose certain disease states, determine a predisposition to developing disease, and/or to predict prognostic outcomes.
  • erythrocytes/red blood cells which are the most abundant cellular component of blood and account for 40%-50% of its volume.
  • RBCs erythrocytes/red blood cells
  • plasma/serum and/or white blood cells leukocytes
  • current analyses are inadequate in the case where RBCs make a substantial contribution and/or otherwise influence the protein profile of blood.
  • RBCs a major component of the blood that is routinely excluded from blood protein profile analyses seeking to determine blood protein profiles
  • proteins e.g., cytokines, chemokines, growth factors
  • the present inventors have found that the levels of various proteins detected within individual blood compartments (e.g., red blood cells, plasma, leukocytes) may differ significantly depending on the manner in which the blood and/or the components are collected and processed.
  • the present inventors have created a new and useful laboratory technique for producing a protein profile of an enriched red blood cell sample by evaluating the presence or level of proteins newly-identified in RBCs.
  • the new and useful laboratory technique is a significant improvement over current techniques for producing a protein profile from blood, increasing the ability to detect proteins (e.g., increasing the level of detection). Proteins are more easily detected in an enriched RBC sample due to their higher concentration in RBCs, a unique process to further increase their detectable levels in RBCs, and RBC isolation methods requiring less cell processing. Moreover, the high concentration of proteins in RBCs allows them to be detected in a small volume of blood. Without being bound to theory, it is postulated that RBCs may act as a reservoir for various proteins (e.g., cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors), and the manner in which blood is processed may influence the release and/or sequestration of these proteins by RBCs. This in turn may alter and/or enhance the protein profile of blood and/or other blood compartment(s).
  • proteins e.g., cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors
  • the present disclosure provides improved methods, kits, and/or systems for producing or generating protein profiles in a small volume red blood cell- enriched sample or fraction, thereby reducing or eliminating blood processing effects on protein profiles.
  • a protein profile in a red blood cell-enriched blood sample comprising obtaining a blood sample; leukodepleting at least a portion of the blood sample to produce a red blood cell-enriched sample; and detecting the presence of one or more proteins in a small volume of the red blood cell-enriched sample, wherein the small volume is 5 ⁇ ⁇ to 100 ⁇ ⁇ , and wherein the protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins detected in the red blood cell- enriched sample.
  • the method further comprises measuring the level of the one or more proteins detected in the red blood cell-enriched sample, wherein the protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins measured in the red blood cell- enriched sample.
  • the method further comprises contacting the red blood cell-enriched sample with at least one cationic salt prior to detecting the presence or measuring the level of the one or more proteins, wherein the cationic salt increases the detectable level of one or more proteins in the red blood cell-enriched sample.
  • a protein profile comprising obtaining a blood sample; leukodepleting at least a portion of the blood sample to produce a red blood cell-enriched sample; contacting the red blood cell-enriched sample with at least one cationic salt, wherein the at least one cationic salt increases the detectable level of one or more proteins in the red blood cell-enriched sample; and detecting the presence of one or more proteins in a small volume of the red blood cell-enriched sample, wherein the small volume is 5 ⁇ ⁇ to 100 ⁇ ⁇ , wherein the protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins detected in the red blood cell- enriched sample.
  • the method further comprises measurin the level of the one or more proteins detected in the red blood cell-enriched sample, wherein the protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins measured in the red blood cell- enriched sample.
  • a cation of the at least one cationic salt is a metal ion or an ammonium ion.
  • the at least one cationic salt is selected from the group consisting of a sodium salt, a potassium salt, a magnesium salt, a lithium salt, a rubidium salt, a cesium salt, an iron salt, a franc ium salt, a pyridinium salt, and combinations thereof.
  • the at least one cationic salt is a chloride salt selected from the group consisting of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, rubidium chloride, cesium chloride, lithium chloride, and combinations thereof.
  • the at least one cationic salt is a carbonate salt selected from the group consisting of sodium carbonate, potassium carbonate, rubidium carbonate, cesium carbonate, lithium carbonate, and combinations thereof.
  • the at least one cationic salt is an ammonium salt.
  • the ammonium salt is selected from the group consisting of ammonium carbonate, ammonium chloride, ammonium nitrate, and combinations thereof.
  • a protein profile in a red blood cell-enriched blood sample comprising obtaining a blood sample; leukodepleting at least a portion of the blood sample to produce a red blood cell- enriched sample; isolating the red blood cells and the plasma in the red blood cell- enriched sample; measuring the level of one or more proteins in the red blood cells and the level of the one or more proteins in the plasma; and calculating a protein ratio comprising the level of the one or more proteins in red blood cells to the level of the one or more proteins in the plasma, wherein the protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins that have a protein ratio of at least 2: 1.
  • a protein profile in a red blood cell-enriched blood sample comprising obtaining a blood sample; leukodepleting at least a portion of the blood sample to produce a red blood cell- enriched sample; incubating the red blood cells in the red blood cell-enriched sample in a medium; and detecting one or more proteins in the medium, wherein the protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins detected in the medium.
  • the method further comprises measuring the level of the one or more proteins detected in the medium, wherein the protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins measured in the red blood cell-enriched sample.
  • the medium is one or more selected from the group consisting of isotonic salt solution, balanced salt solution, saline, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), and/or Earles' balanced salt solution (EBSS), Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium (RPMI), minimum essential medium (MEM), Improved Minimum Essential Medium (IMEM), Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM), Dubelco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM), and/or Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Media (IMDM).
  • isotonic salt solution balanced salt solution
  • saline phosphate buffered saline
  • PBS phosphate buffered saline
  • HBSS hank's balanced salt solution
  • EBSS Earles' balanced salt solution
  • RPMI Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium
  • MEM minimum essential medium
  • IMEM Improved Minimum Essential Medium
  • EMEM Eagle's minimal essential medium
  • DMEM Dubelco
  • a protein profile in a red blood cell-enriched blood sample comprising: obtaining a small volume blood sample; leukodepleting at least a portion of the small volume blood sample to produce a red blood cell-enriched sample; and detecting one or more proteins in the red blood cell-enriched sample, wherein the protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins detected in the red blood cell-enriched sample.
  • the method further comprises measuring the level of the one or more proteins detected in the red blood cell-enriched sample, wherein the protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins measured in the red blood cell-enriched sample.
  • the small volume blood sample is obtained from a subject.
  • the small volume blood sample is between 5 ⁇ ⁇ and 100 ⁇ .
  • the small volume blood sample is between 5 ⁇ ⁇ and 20 ⁇
  • the small volume blood sample is obtained from a finger, heel, ear, or tail.
  • the small volume blood sample is obtained by finger prick, heel prick, ear prick, or tail prick.
  • the small volume blood sample is obtained a number of times selected from the group consisting of one or more times per day, two or more times per day, three or more times per day, four or more times per day, and five or more times per day.
  • the small volume blood sample is obtained a number of times selected from the group consisting of one or more times per week, two or more times per week, three or more times per week, four or more times per week, five or more times per week, six or more times per week, and seven or more times per week.
  • the small volume blood sample is obtained daily.
  • the small volume blood sample is obtained a number of times selected from the group consisting of once a week, once every two weeks, once every three weeks, and once every four weeks. In other embodiments, the small volume blood sample is obtained once a month.
  • the blood sample is obtained from a subject.
  • the blood sample is obtained from the capillary of the subject or the vein of the subject.
  • the subject is a human or a non-human animal.
  • the subject is a human.
  • the subject is a non-human animal selected from the group consisting of a mouse, rat, hamster, ferret, gerbil, rabbit, monkey, chimpanzee, horse, pony, donkey, sheep, pig, chicken, goat, cat, and dog.
  • the subject has a disease or disorder.
  • the blood sample is leukodepleted by one or more methods selected from the group consisting of flow cytometry, magnetic bead separation, centrifugation, cellulose column, and dextran sedimentation.
  • the red blood cells are leukodepleted by dextran sedimentation.
  • the small volume of the red blood cell-enriched sample is between 5 ⁇ ⁇ and 20 ⁇ ⁇ . In yet another embodiment, the small volume of the red blood cell-enriched sample is 5 ⁇ .
  • the one of more proteins are detected or measured from one or more places selected from the group consisting of the one of more proteins are detected or measured from one or more places selected from the group consisting of the surface of the red blood cells, the interior of red blood cells, the lysate of red blood cells, the supernatant of the red blood cells, medium containing the red blood cells, and medium that previously contained the red blood cells.
  • the presence of two or more proteins is detected or the level of two or more proteins is measured in the red blood cell- enriched sample.
  • the presence of three or more proteins is detected or the level of three or more proteins is measured in the red blood cell-enriched sample.
  • the presence of four or more proteins is detected or the level of four or more proteins is measured in the red blood cell-enriched sample.
  • the presence of five or more proteins is detected or the level of five or more proteins is measured in the red blood cell-enriched sample.
  • the presence of ten or more proteins is detected or the level of ten or more proteins is measured in the red blood cell-enriched sample.
  • the presence of thirty or more proteins is detected or the level of thirty or more proteins is measured in the red blood cell-enriched sample.
  • the presence of one or more proteins is detected or the level of one or more proteins is measured using one or more antibodies.
  • the one or more proteins are selected from the group consisting of chemokines, cytokines, growth factors, receptors, intracellular signal transmitters, hormones, nuclear transcription factors, neurotransmitters, and extracellular matrix components, and enzymes.
  • the one or more proteins are selected from the group consisting of the proteins listed in Table 1 or a combination of proteins listed in Table 2.
  • the one or more proteins are selected from the group consisting of basic FGF, CTACK, Eotaxin, G-CSF, GM-CSF, HGF, IFN-a2, IFN- ⁇ , IL- 10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-12p40, IL- 15, IL-16, IL-17A, IL-18, IL-la, IL- ⁇ , IL-2, IL-2ra, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-9, IP- 10, LIF, M-CSF, MIG, MlP- l a, ⁇ - ⁇ , PDGF-BB, SDF-l a, TNF-a, TNF- ⁇ , TRAIL, VEGF, CRP, and DDT.
  • a disease protein profile in a red blood cell-enriched blood sample comprising obtaining at least one protein profile produced according to the methods provided herein from a subject having a disease or disorder, and a subject not having the disease or disorder; and comparing the protein profile of the subject having the disease or disorder to the protein profile of the subject not having the disease or disorder, wherein the disease protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins that have a different presence or level in the protein profile from a subject having the disease or disorder compared to the protein profile of the subject not having the disease or disorder.
  • the disease or disorder is cancer.
  • the disease protein profile is a cancer protein profile comprising one or more proteins selected from the group consisting of 1L- 1 , TL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL- 10, IL- 12, IL- 15, IL-17, TNF-a, TGF- ⁇ , and lFN-y.
  • the disease or disorder is preeclampsia.
  • the disease profile is a preeclampsia protein profile comprising one or more proteins selected from the group consisting of TNF-a, IFN- ⁇ , IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL- ⁇ , IL-6, IL-8, and IL-12.
  • the preeclampsia protein profile comprises one or more proteins selected from the group consisting of IL-6, IL-8, and IFN- ⁇ .
  • a subject has a disease or disorder
  • methods for determining whether a subject has a disease or disorder comprising obtaining a protein profile of the subject produced according to the methods provided herein; and comparing the protein profile of the subject to a disease protem profile, wherem similarities in the presence or level of one or more proteins in the protein profile of the subject compared to the presence or level of the one or more proteins in the disease protein profile indicate the subject has the disease or disorder.
  • the disease or disorder is selected from the group consisting of cancer, preeclampsia, autoimmune disease, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disease, diabetes, metabolic disorders, musculoskeletal disease, infectious disease, genetic disorders, renal disorders, and gastrointestinal disorders.
  • provided herein are methods of monitoring treatment in a subject comprising obtaining a protein profile produced according the methods provided herein from a subject before treatment and after treatment; and comparing the protein profile of the subject before treatment to the protein profile of the subject after treatment, wherein a difference in the presence or level of one or more proteins in the protein profile of the subject before treatment compared to the protein profile of the subject after treatment indicates an effect of the treatment on the subject.
  • the protein profile of a subject who has received no treatment is compared to the protein profile of the subject after receiving treatment.
  • at least one protein profile of a subject after treatment at one point in time is compared to at least one protein profile of the subject after treatment at a different point in time.
  • the subject has received the same treatment. In still other embodiments, the subject has received a different treatment.
  • the blood sample is a small volume blood sample.
  • the subject is monitored a number of times selected from the group consisting of one or more times per day, two or more times per day, three or more times per day, four or more times per day, and five or more times per day. In further embodiments, the subject is monitored a number of times selected from the group consisting of one or more times per week, two or more times per week, three or more times per week, four or more times per week, five or more times per week, six or more times per week, and seven or more times per week. In another embodiment, the subject is monitored daily. In yet another embodiment, the subject is monitored a number of times selected from the group consisting of once a week, once every two weeks, once every three weeks, and once every four weeks. In yet another embodiment, the subject is monitored once a month.
  • methods of determining the effectiveness of a treatment comprising obtaining at least one protein profile produced according to the methods provided herein from a subject that has undergone the treatment, and a subject that has not undergone the treatment; and comparing the protein profile of the subject who has undergone the treatment to the protein profile of the subject who has not undergone the treatment, wherein similarities in the presence or level of one or more proteins in the protein profile of the subject that has undergone the treatment compared to the protein profile of the subject that has not undergone the treatment indicate the effectiveness of the treatment.
  • a blood sample comprising contacting the blood sample with dextran; allowing the blood sample to form a leukocyte-containing layer and a red blood cell dense layer; isolating the red blood cells in the red blood cell dense layer to create a red blood cell-enriched blood sample; and detecting the presence or measuring the level of one or more proteins in the red blood cell-enriched blood sample.
  • the blood sample is a small volume blood sample. In a further embodiment, the small volume blood sample is between 5 and 100 ⁇ .
  • the ratio of blood to dextran in the blood sample is selected from the group consisting of 1 : 1, 2: 1 , 3: 1, 4: 1 , 5: 1, 6: 1 , 7: 1, 8: 1, 9: 1, and 10: 1.
  • the average depletion of white blood cells and platelets from the blood sample is 85% to 99%.
  • kits for measuring the protein profile of a blood sample comprising at least one reagent to leukodeplete a blood sample and produce a red blood cell-enriched sample; and at least one reagent to detect the presence or measure the level of one or more proteins in a small volume red blood cell-enriched sample.
  • the kit further comprises at least one reagent to obtain a blood sample from a subject.
  • the reagent to detect the presence or measure the level of one or more proteins is one or more antibodies.
  • the reagent to detect the presence or measure the level of one or more proteins is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) apparatus.
  • ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
  • a method for generating a protein profile from a blood sample obtained from a subject or a component of the blood sample comprising: determining levels of one or more proteins in the blood sample or the blood sample component, wherein the blood sample and the blood sample component each comprise red blood cells (RBCs).
  • RBCs red blood cells
  • the protein profile is generated from the blood sample component.
  • the number of RBCs constitute more than: 0.5%,, 1%, 5%, 10%, 20%,,, 30%, 40%,, 50%, 60%, 70%,, 80%,, 90%, 95%, 97.5%, 98%,, 99%,, 99.5%, 99.75%, 99.9%, or 99.95%; of total blood cells present in the blood sample component.
  • the blood sample component is a RBCs-enriched fraction produced by leukodepletion of the blood sample.
  • the leukodepletion removes more than: 90%, 92.5%,, 95%,, 97.5%, 99%, 99.5%,, 99.75%,, 99.9%, or 99.95%, of the original number of leukocytes from the blood sample or portion thereof.
  • the leukodepletion provides a RBCs-enriched fraction in which more than: 99%,, 99.5%, 99.75%, 99.9%, or 99.95% of the total number of blood cells in the fraction are RBCs.
  • the blood sample or portion thereof is subjected to platelet depletion.
  • the platelet depletion removes more than: 90%, 92.5%, 95%,, 97.5%, 99%, 99.5%, 99.75%, 99.9%, or 99.95% of the original number of platelets from the blood sample or portion thereof.
  • the one or more proteins are selected from the group consisting of: basic FGF, CTACK, Eotaxin, G-CSF, GM-CSF, HGF, IFN-a2, IFN- ⁇ , IL-10, 1L- I2p70, 1L-13, IL- 12p40, IL-15, lL- 16, IL-17A, IL-18, IL- la, IL- ⁇ , 1L- 2, IL-2ra, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-9, IP- 10, LIF, M-CSF, MIG, MlP-l a, ⁇ - ⁇ ⁇ , PDGF-BB, SDF- l a, TNF- , TNF- ⁇ , TRAIL, VEGF, CRP, DDT, and combinations thereof.
  • the one or more proteins comprise or consist of a protein listed in Table 1 or a combination of proteins listed in Table 2.
  • the levels of one or more proteins on the surface of the RBCs are determined. In still other embodiments, the levels of one or more proteins within the RBCs are determined. In another embodiment, the levels of one or more proteins released by the RBCs are determined. In yet another embodiment, the blood sample is a dried blood spot sample (DBS).
  • DBS dried blood spot sample
  • generation the protein profile comprises: producing a cell lysate, a cell wash, or a cell supernatant from a cell population comprising the RBCs; and determining levels of one or more proteins in the cell lysate, the cell wash, or the cell supernatant.
  • determination of the levels of one or more proteins is conducted using the cell lysate.
  • determination of the levels of one or more proteins is conducted by snap freezing the RBCs; thawing the RBCs to produce the cell lysate; and determining levels of the one or more proteins in the cell lysate.
  • determination of the levels of one or more proteins is conducted using a cell wash.
  • the cell wash is produced by combining two or more cell washes.
  • the cell wash is produced using wash liquid comprising one or more of: isotonic salt solution, balanced salt solution, saline, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), and/or Earles' balanced salt solution (EBSS).
  • determination of the levels of one or more proteins is conducted using the cell supernatant.
  • the cell supernatant is produced by culturing cells used to produce the cell supernatant in cell culture media comprising one or more of: Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium (RPMI), minimum essential medium (MEM), Improved Minimum Essential Medium (IMEM), Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM), Dubelco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM), and/or Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Media (IMDM).
  • RPMI Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium
  • MEM Minimum essential medium
  • IMEM Improved Minimum Essential Medium
  • EMEM Eagle's minimal essential medium
  • DMEM Dubelco's modified Eagle's medium
  • IMDM Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Media
  • methods comprise: contacting the blood sample with an anticoagulant; and determining levels of one or more proteins in leukocytes separated from the RBCs.
  • the method comprises: snap freezing the leukocytes; thawing the leukocytes to produce a leukocyte lysate; and determining levels of one or more proteins in the thawed leukocytes.
  • the method comprises: determining levels of one or more proteins in a cell wash and/or a cell supernatant generated by washing and/or culturing the leukocytes.
  • the methods comprise: contacting the blood sample with an anticoagulant; and determining levels of one or more proteins in platelets separated from the RBCs.
  • the method comprises snap freezing the platelets; thawing the platelets to produce a platelet lysate; and determining levels of one or more proteins in the thawed platelets. In another embodiment, the method comprises determining levels of one or more proteins in a cell wash and/or a cell supernatant generated by washing and/or culturing the platelets.
  • the methods comprise contacting the blood sample with an anticoagulant; and determining levels of one or more proteins in plasma separated from the RBCs.
  • snap freezing is at a temperature of below or at: -5°C, -] ()°C, -20°C, -30°C, -40°C, -50°C, -60°C, -7()°C, -75°C, -80°C, 100°C, -120°C, -140°C, -160°C, -180°C, -190°C, -195°C, or - 196°C.
  • the snap freezing and thawing comprises multiple freeze-thaw cycles.
  • leukocytes are separated from the RBCs by flow cytometry and/or dextran sedimentation.
  • platelets are separated from the RBCs by centrifugation.
  • the blood sample has been mixed with a blood stabilising agent during collection.
  • the blood sample obtained from the subject is contacted with a blood stabilising agent prior to determining the levels of one or more proteins.
  • the blood stabilising agent is one or more of: a protease inhibitor, a surfactant, a protein denaturation agent, an RNA stabiliser, an anticoagulant, and/or an anticoagulant in combination with another stabilising agent that is not an anticoagulant.
  • the blood stabilising agent is not an anticoagulant.
  • the blood stabilising agent is a protease inhibitor selected from the group consisting of: aprotinin, leupeptin, a2-macroglobulin, antipain dihydrochloride, calpain inhibitor I, calpain inhibitor II, chymostatin, TLCK (CAS 131918-97-3), trypsin- lnhibitor, Pefabloc SC (Roche), PMSF (C6H5CH2S02F - Thermo Fisher Scientific), complete protease inhibitor cocktail (Roche), and combinations thereof.
  • the anticoagulant is selected from the group consisting of: heparin, heparin sulfate, perlecan, agrin, syndecan, betaglycan, glypican, sergiycin, citrate, acid citrate dextrose, EDTA, and combinations thereof.
  • the step of contacting the blood sample with the blood stabilising agent is performed within: 5 seconds, 10 seconds, 20 seconds, 30 seconds, 1 minute, 2 minutes, 3 minutes, 4 minutes, 5 minutes, 10 minutes, 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 45 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours, 4 hours, 5 hours, 7.5 hours or 10 hours of the blood sample being obtained from the subject.
  • the blood sample is obtained from a capillary of the subject. In other embodiments of the methods, the blood sample is obtained from a vein of the subject.
  • the step of determining the levels of one or more proteins is conducted within: 2 minutes, 5 minutes, 10 minutes, 15 minutes, 20 minutes, 25 minutes, 30 minutes, 40 minutes, 50 minutes, 1 hour, 1.5 hours, 2 hours, 3 hours, 4 hours, 5 hours, 6 hours, 7 hours, 8 hours, 9 hours, 10 hours, 1 1 hours, 12 hours, 18, hours, 24 hours, 36 hours, or 48 hours of when the blood sample is obtained.
  • the methods further comprise a first step of obtaining the blood sample from the subject.
  • a method for generating a protein profile from a blood sample obtained from a subject comprising the steps of: producing a cell lysate, a cell wash, or a cell supernatant from the blood sample or a component of the blood sample; and determining levels of one or more proteins in the cell lysate, the cell wash, or the cell supernatant, wherein the blood sample or the blood sample component comprises red blood cells.
  • the red blood cells constitute more than: 0.5%, 1 %, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 95%, 97.5%, 98%, 99%, 99.5%, 99.75%, 99.9%, or 99.95% of total number of blood cells present in the blood sample or the blood sample component.
  • the methods comprise leukodepletion of the blood sample and/or the blood sample component prior to producing the cell lysate, the cell wash, or the cell supernatant.
  • Still other embodiments of the method comprise a step of: contacting the blood sample or the blood sample component with a blood stabilising agent; and/or snap freezing the blood sample or the blood sample component.
  • a method comprises generating a protein profile from a blood sample obtained from a subject, the method comprising the steps of: producing a red blood cell (RBCs)-enriched fraction by leukodepletion of the blood sample or a component of the blood sample; producing a cell lysate, a cell wash, or a cell supernatant from the RBCs-enriched fraction; and determining levels of one or more proteins in the cell lysate, the cell wash, or the cell supernatant.
  • RBCs red blood cell
  • the leukodepletion provides an RBCs-enriched fraction in which more than: 90%, 92.5%, 95%, 97.5%,, 99%,, 99.5%, 99.75%, 99.9%, or 99.95%, of the number of leukocytes present in the blood sample are removed.
  • the leukodepletion provides an RBC-enriched fraction comprising more than: 99%, 99.5%,, 99.75%, 99.9%, or 99.95% of the number of RBCs in total blood cells.
  • the methods comprise: contacting the RBCs-enriched fraction with a blood stabilising agent; and/or snap freezing the blood sample or the blood sample component prior to producing the cell lysate, the cell wash, or the cell supernatant.
  • the step of producing the RBC-enriched fraction is performed prior to said snap freezing.
  • the step of producing the RBC- enriched fraction is performed after said snap freezing.
  • said one or more proteins in the cell lysate, the cell wash, or the cell supernatant are selected from the group consisting of: basic FGF, CTAC , Eotaxin, G-CSF, GM-CSF, HGF, IFN-a2, IFN- ⁇ , IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL- 12p4(), IL- 15, IL-16, IL- 17A, IL-18, IL- l a, IL- ⁇ ⁇ , IL-2, IL-2ra, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-9, IP- 10, LIF, M-CSF, MIG, ⁇ - ⁇ ⁇ , ⁇ - ⁇ ⁇ , PDGF-BB, SDF-l a, TNF-a, TNF- ⁇ , TRAIL, VEGF, and combinations thereof.
  • the methods comprise platelet depletion of: the blood sample, or the blood sample component.
  • the platelet depletion removes more than: 90%, 92.5%, 95%, 97.5%, 99%,, 99.5%, 99.75%,, 99.9%, or 99.95%, of the total number of platelets present in the blood sample or the blood sample component.
  • the step of contacting the blood with a blood stabilising agent and/or snap freezing is performed within: 5 seconds, 10 seconds, 20 seconds, 30 seconds, 1 minute, 2 minutes, 3 minutes, 4 minutes, 5 minutes, 10 minutes, 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 45 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours, 4 hours, 5 hours, 7;5 hours or 10 hours of conducting the step of the blood sample being obtained from the subject.
  • the step of producing the cell lysate comprises: one or more cycles of snap freezing and thawing cells.
  • the methods comprise: contactin a blood sample with an anticoagulant; and determining levels of one or more proteins in leukocytes obtained from said leukodepletion of the blood sample or the blood sample component.
  • the methods comprise: snap freezing leukocytes obtained from said leukodepletion of the blood sample or the blood sample component; thawing the leukocytes; and determining levels of one or more proteins in the thawed leukocytes.
  • the methods comprise contacting the blood sample with an anticoagulant; and detemiining levels of one or more proteins in platelets obtained from said platelet depletion of the blood sample or the blood sample component.
  • the methods comprise: snap freezing platelets obtained from said platelet depletion of the blood sample or the blood sample component; thawing the platelets; and determining levels of one or more proteins in the thawed platelets.
  • the methods comprise: contacting the blood sample with an anticoagulant; separating plasma from the blood sample or the blood sample component; and determining levels of the one or more proteins in the plasma.
  • the method further comprises: snap freezing the plasma; thawing the plasma; and determining levels of one or more proteins in the thawed plasma.
  • the platelet depletion of the blood sample or the blood sample component is by centrifugation.
  • leukodepletion of the blood sample or the component of the blood sample is by flow cytometry and/or dextran sedimentation.
  • the step of snap freezing is at a temperature of below: -5 C C, - 10°C, -20°C, -30°C, -40°C, -50°C, -60°C, -70°C, -75°C, or -80 C C.
  • the step of thawing to generate the cellular lysate comprises: one freeze-thaw cycle, two freeze-thaw cycles, three freeze-thaw cycles, four freeze-thaw cycles, five free-thaw cycles, or more than two freeze-thaw cycles, more than three freeze-thaw cycles, more than four freeze-thaw cycles, or more than five freeze-thaw cycles.
  • the blood sample or the blood sample component comprises heparin and/or EDTA.
  • the step of determining levels of one or more proteins is conducted using the cell wash.
  • the cell wash is produced by combining two or more cell washes.
  • the cell wash is produced using wash fluid comprising one or more of: isotonic salt solution, balanced salt solution, saline, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), and Earles' balanced salt solution (EBSS).
  • the step of determining the levels of one or more proteins is conducted using the cell supernatant.
  • the cell supernatant is produced by culturing the cells used to produce the cell supernatant in cell culture media comprising one or more of: oswell Park Memorial Institute medium (RPMI), minimum essential medium (MEM), Improved Minimum Essential Medium (IMEM), Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM), Dubelco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM), and Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Media (IMDM).
  • RPMI oswell Park Memorial Institute medium
  • MEM minimum essential medium
  • IMEM Improved Minimum Essential Medium
  • EMEM Eagle's minimal essential medium
  • DMEM Dubelco's modified Eagle's medium
  • IMDM Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Media
  • the step of determining levels of one or more proteins is conducted using multiple samples of the cell supernatant, and the samples of the cell supernatant are extracted at different time points from a culture of the cells used to produce the supernatant.
  • the methods comprise: contacting the blood sample with an anticoagulant; and determining levels of one or more proteins in leukocytes obtained from leukodepletion of the blood sample or the blood sample component.
  • the methods comprise contacting the blood sample with an anticoagulant; and determining levels of one or more proteins in a cell wash and/or a cell supernatant generated by washing and/or culturing leukocytes obtained from leukodepletion of the blood sample or the blood sample component.
  • the methods comprise contacting the blood sample with an anticoagulant; and determining levels of one or more proteins in platelets obtained from platelet depletion of the blood sample or the blood sample component.
  • the methods comprise contacting the blood sample with an anticoagulant; and determining levels of one or more proteins in a platelet wash and/or a platelet supernatant generated by washing and/or culturing platelets obtained from platelet depletion of the blood sample or the blood sample component.
  • the methods comprise contacting the blood sample with an anticoagulant; separating plasma from the blood sample; and determining the levels of the one or more proteins in the plasma.
  • the platelet depletion comprises centrifugation.
  • the leukodepletion comprises flow cytometry and/or dextran sedimentation.
  • the blood sample or the blood sample component comprises heparin and'Or EDTA.
  • the methods comprise a step of: contacting the blood sample or the blood sample component with a blood stabilising agent prior to the step of producing the cell wash or the cell supernatant.
  • the step of contacting with the blood stabilising agent is performed within: 5 seconds, 10 seconds, 20 seconds, 30 seconds, 1 minute, 2 minutes, 3 minutes, 4 minutes, 5 minutes, 10 minutes, 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 45 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours, 4 hours, 5 hours, 7.5 hours or 10 hours of the blood sample being obtained from the subject.
  • the blood stabilising agent is: a protease inhibitor, a protein denaturation agent, an RNA stabiliser, an anticoagulant, and/or an anticoagulant in combination with another stabilising agent that is not an anticoagulant; is not an anticoagulant; an anticoagulant in combination with another stabilising agent that is not an anticoagulant, and/or is not heparin, EDTA, EGTA, a citrate (e.g., sodium citrate), or a fluoride (e.g., sodium fluoride).
  • the blood sample is obtained from a capillary of the subject. In other embodiments, the blood sample is obtained from a vein of the subject.
  • the step of determining levels of one or more proteins is conducted within: 2 minutes, 5 minutes, 10 minutes, 15 minutes, 20 minutes, 25 minutes, 30 minutes, 40 minutes, 50 minutes, 1 hour, 1.5 hours, 2 hours, 3 hours, 4 hours, 5 hours, 6 hours, 7 hours, 8 hours, 9 hours, 10 hours, 1 1 hours, 12 hours, 18, hours, 24 hours, 36 hours, or 48 hours of when the blood sample is obtained.
  • methods for generating a protein profile from a blood sample of a subject comprising the steps of: producing a cell lysate from a whole blood sample obtained from a subject; and determining levels of one or more proteins in the cell lysate.
  • the method comprises: snap- freezing the whole blood sample; thawing the whole blood sample to produce the cell lysate; and determining levels of one or more proteins in the cell lysate.
  • said step of thawing the whole blood sample to generate the cell lysate comprises more than: one freeze-thaw cycle, two freeze-thaw cycles, or three freeze-thaw cycles.
  • snap freezing is at a temperature of below: -5°C, - 10°C, -20°C, -30°C, -40°C, -50°C, -60°C, -70°C, -75°C, -80°C, -90, - 100°C, -120°C, - 104°C, -160°C, - 180°C, -190°C, -200°C.
  • the one or more proteins in the cell lysate is/are selected from the group consisting of: basic FGF, CTACK, Eotaxin, G-CSF, GM- CSF, HGF, IFN- ⁇ x2, IFN-y, IL-10, IL- 12p70, IL- 13, IL-12p40, IL- 15, IL-16, IL-17A, IL- 18, IL-la, IL- ⁇ ⁇ , IL-2, IL-2ra, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-9, lP-10, LIF, M-CSF, MIG, ⁇ - ⁇ , ⁇ - ⁇ , PDGF-BB, SDF- la, TNF-a, TNF- ⁇ , TRAIL, VEGF, and combinations thereof.
  • the one or more proteins in the cell lysate comprise or consist of: a protein listed in Table 1; or a combination of proteins listed in Table 2.
  • the methods comprise: contacting the whole blood sample with a blood stabilising agent prior to the step of producing the cell lysate.
  • the blood stabilising agent is a protease inhibitor, a protein denaturation agent, an RNA stabiliser, an anticoagulant, and/or an anticoagulant in combination with another stabilising agent that is not an anticoagulant; is not an anticoagulant; is an anticoagulant in combination with another stabilising agent that is not an anticoagulant, and/or is not heparin, EDTA, EGTA, a citrate (e.g., sodium citrate), or a fluoride (e.g., sodium fluoride).
  • contacting of the whole blood sample with the blood stabilising agent occurs when the whole blood sample is obtained, or, within: 5 seconds, 10 seconds, 20 seconds, 30 seconds, 45 seconds, 1 minute, 2 minutes, 3 minutes, 4 minutes, 5 minutes, 10 minutes, 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 45 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours, 4 hours, 5 hours, 7.5 hours or 10 hours of when the whole blood sample is obtained.
  • the methods comprise: contacting the whole blood sample with an anticoagulant.
  • the anticoagulant is heparin and/or EDTA.
  • the whole blood sample is obtained from a capillary of the subject.
  • the whole blood sample is obtained from a vein of the subject.
  • the step of determining levels of one or more proteins is conducted within: 2 minutes, 5 minutes, 10 minutes, 15 minutes, 20 minutes, 25 minutes, 30 minutes, 40 minutes, 50 minutes, 1 hour, 1 ;5 hours, 2 hours, 3 hours, 4 hours, 5 hours, 6 hours, 7 hours, 8 hours, 9 hours, 10 hours, 11 hours, 12 hours, 18, hours, 24 hours, 36 hours, or 48 hours of the step of the whole blood sample being obtained from the subject.
  • MIF macrophage migration inhibitory factor
  • Figure 11A-11GG is a series of graphs showing the levels of various proteins in RBCs that have been processed by washing compared to RBCs that have not been processed by washing.
  • Figure 12 is a graph summarizing the proteins secreted or released from RBCs into PBS over 24 hours at 37 °C as measured by BioPlex and reported as pg/mL (20 million RBCs in 1 OOuL PBS). Data presented as mean ⁇ SD.
  • Figure 13 is a graph summarizing the proteins secreted or released from RBCs into PBS over 24 hours at 37 °C as measured by BioPlex and reported as pg/mL (20 million RBCs in lOOuL PBS). Data presented as mean ⁇ SD.
  • Figure 14 is a graph summarizing the proteins secreted or released from RBCs into PBS over 24 hours at 37 °C as measured by BioPlex and reported as pg/mL (20 million RBCs in 1 OOuL PBS). Data presented as mean ⁇ SD.
  • Figure 15 is a graph summarizing the proteins secreted or released from RBCs into PBS over 24 hours at 37 °C as measured by BioPlex and reported as pg/mL (20 million RBCs in l OOuL PBS). Data presented as mean ⁇ SD.
  • Figure 16A-16Z is a series of graphs showing the effect of protease inhibitors (PI) on the concentration of proteins secreted from RBCs (black columns) and the concentration of proteins remaining in the cells after incubation (grey columns).
  • PI protease inhibitors
  • Figure 17 is a graph showin fold change of CRP in lysed whole blood when normalized to plasma levels.
  • Figure 18 is a graph showing the concentration of CRP in plasma and in purified, lysed RBCs.
  • Figure 19A-19TT is a series of graphs showing the levels of various proteins in small volumes of whole blood.
  • Figure 20A-20AA is a series of graphs showing the levels of various proteins in red blood cells isolated from whole blood samples obtained from healthy subjects by finger prick (FT) or venipuncture (V).
  • Figure 21A-21B is a chart indicating the ratio of the levels of various proteins in red blood cells to the levels in plasma.
  • Figure 22A-22G is a series of graphs showing the levels of various proteins in red blood cells contacted with lithium chloride.
  • Figure 23A-23VV is a series of graphs showing the difference in the level of various proteins in red blood cells isolated from healtliy individuals, healthy pregnant women, pregnant women with preeclampsia, and oncology patients.
  • Figure 24A-24C is a chart indicating the ratio of the levels of various proteins in red blood cells to the levels in plasma isolated from oncology patients.
  • Figure 25A-25RR is graphs is a series of graphs showing the levels of various proteins secreted or released from red blood cells isolated from healthy individuals, healthy pregnant women, pregnant women with preeclampsia, and oncology patients.
  • a cell lysate includes multiple cell lysates.
  • a method “comprising” steps 'A' and ' ⁇ ' may consist exclusively of steps 'A' and 'B' or may include one or more additional steps (e.g., steps ' ⁇ ', ⁇ ', and 'C').
  • a “subject” includes any animal of economic, social or research importance including bovine, equine, ovine, primate, avian and rodent species.
  • a “subject” may be a mammal such as, for example, a human or a non-human mammal.
  • antibody and “antibodies” include IgG (including IgGl, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4), IgA (including IgAl and IgA2), IgD, IgE, or IgM, and IgY, whole antibodies, including single-chain whole antibodies, and antigen-binding fragments thereof.
  • Antigen-binding antibody fragments include, but are not limited to, Fab, Fab' and F(ab')2, Fd, single-chain Fvs (scFv), single-chain antibodies, disulfide-linked Fvs (sdFv) and fragments comprising either a VL or VH domain.
  • the antibodies may be from any animal origin.
  • Antigen-binding antibody fragments may comprise the variable region(s) alone or in combination with the entire or partial of the following: hinge region, CH I, CH2, and CH3 domains. Also included are combinations of variable region(s) and hinge region, CH I, CH2, and CH3 domains. Antibodies may be monoclonal, polyclonal, chimeric, multispecific, humanized, and human monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies which specifically bind the biological molecule.
  • protein refers to a polymer made up of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.
  • protein profile refers to protein(s) and/or protein fragment(s) present in a sample.
  • the sample may or may not comprise cells. If the sample comprises cells, the proteins or protein fragments may exist intracellularly and/or partially or completely at the cell surface. Although not a requirement, the protein profile may also provide quantitative information for protein(s) and/or protein fragment(s) in the sample.
  • blood sample refers to a sample comprising at least in part blood and/or blood components.
  • the blood sample can be obtained directly from one or more subjects or from a pre-existing collection of blood from one or more subjects.
  • the blood sample can be obtained from a human subject by a number of methods known in the art e.g., venipuncture (e.g., butterfly needle and Vacutainer, straight needle and Vacutainer, and butterfly needle and syringe) of a body part (e.g., arm, leg, ear) or by stick (e.g., finger, heel, or ear prick).
  • venipuncture e.g., butterfly needle and Vacutainer, straight needle and Vacutainer, and butterfly needle and syringe
  • body part e.g., arm, leg, ear
  • stick e.g., finger, heel, or ear prick
  • the blood sample can be obtained from a non- human mammal sub ject by a number of methods known in the art e.g., venipuncture (e.g., needle and syringe) of any body part (e.g., tail, arm, leg (e.g., thigh), nose, face, ear, thorax, neck/throat, tongue, heart) or by stick (e.g., finger, heel, ear, or tail prick).
  • venipuncture e.g., needle and syringe
  • body part e.g., tail, arm, leg (e.g., thigh), nose, face, ear, thorax, neck/throat, tongue, heart
  • stick e.g., finger, heel, ear, or tail prick
  • the blood sample can be obtained from other non-human animals (e.g., chicken, birds) by a number of methods known in the art e.g., venipuncture (e.g., needle and syringe) of a body part (e.g., wing, throat, heart).
  • venipuncture e.g., needle and syringe
  • body part e.g., wing, throat, heart.
  • blood cells or “cell present in the blood sample” refers to cells in the sample, including red blood cells and white blood cells, but excludes platelets.
  • red blood cell-enriched blood sample or "RBC-enriched fraction” refers to a sample or component of a sample in which the proportion of RBCs is increased compared to that of the blood sample prior to enriching.
  • the proportion of RBCs may be increased, for example, by removing cell type(s) from the sample that are not RBCs (e.g., removal of leukocytes (leukodepletion) and/or removal of platelets), and/or by removing RBCs from other cell type(s) in the sample to provide a separate sample.
  • the RBC-enriched fraction may comprise more than 99.5%, more than 99.6%, more than 99.7%, more than 99.75%, more than 99.8%, more than 99.85%, more than 99.9%, more than 99.5%, approximately 100% red blood cells, or 100% red blood cells of the total blood cell number.
  • the term "snap freezing” refers to freezing blood cells (e.g., RBCs) and/or plasma/serum to a temperature below their freezing point generally within a rapid time period (for example, in a period of a few milliseconds, 1 -2 seconds, 1-5 seconds, 1 - 10 seconds, 1 - 15 seconds, 1 -20 seconds, 10-20 seconds, 10-30 seconds, 30-60 seconds, less than one minute, or less than two minutes).
  • leukodepletion refers to reducing the proportion of leukocytes in a blood sample or a blood sample component, for example, by removing leukocytes from the blood sample or blood sample component, or alternatively by removing other blood constituent(s) from the blood sample or blood sample component to provide a separate leukodepleted sample.
  • leukodepletion includes platelet depletion.
  • platelet depletion refers to reducing the proportion of platelets in a blood sample or a blood sample component, for example, by removing platelets from the blood sample or blood sample component, or alternatively by isolating other blood constituent(s) from the blood sample or blood sample component to provide a separate platelet depleted sample.
  • a "cell supernatant” will be understood to mean a cell culture medium used to culture a population cells at a given temperature or a given range of temperatures for a given time period, for example, more than: 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours, 6 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours, 72 hours, 96 hours, or 120 hours.
  • a "cell wash” will be understood to mean a liquid that has been used to rinse a population of cells, and differs from a cell supernatant as defined above insofar as the cell wash is not used as a medium for cell culture. Accordingly, a fluid used as to generate a "cell wash” may be mixed with the cell population for a period of less than: 30 minutes, 20 minutes, 15 minutes, 10 minutes, 5 minutes, 4, minutes, 3 minutes, 2 minutes, 1 minute, or 30 seconds.
  • a “medium” refers to a composition having the ability to maintain the viability of cells within a blood sample, cells isolated from a blood sample, or cell components produced from cells isolated from a blood sample.
  • the medium can stimulate cell growth and proliferation or maintain cells at a particular and/or existing state.
  • Non-limiting examples of media include isotonic salt solution, balanced salt solution, saline, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), Earles' balanced salt solution (EBSS), Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium (RPMI), minimum essential medium (MEM), Improved Minimum Essential Medium (IMEM), Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM), Dubelco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM), and Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Media (IMDM)
  • small volume refers to a volume of blood that is one millilitre or less.
  • a small volume can be 1 ⁇ to 100 ⁇ , 100 ⁇ to 200 ⁇ , 200 ⁇ to 300 ⁇ ,, 300 ⁇ to 400 ⁇ , 400 ⁇ to 500 ⁇ ,, 500 ⁇ , to 600 ⁇ ,, 600 ⁇ to 700 ⁇ , 700 ⁇ to 800 ⁇ ,, 800 ⁇ to 900 ⁇ , and 900 ⁇ , to 1000 ⁇ ,.
  • a small volume is 50 ⁇ L ⁇ to 100 ⁇ 100 ⁇ to 150 ⁇ , 150 ⁇ to 200 iL, 200 ⁇ to 250 ⁇ ., 250 ⁇ to 300 ⁇ , 300 ⁇ to 350 ⁇ , 350 ⁇ to 400 ⁇ ., 400 ⁇ to 450 ⁇ , 450 ⁇ to 500 UL, 500 ⁇ to 550 ⁇ , 550 ⁇ to 600 ⁇ , 600 ⁇ to 650 ⁇ iL, 650 ⁇ to 700 ⁇ ., 700 ⁇ . to 750 ⁇ , 750 ⁇ to 800 ⁇ , 800 ⁇ , to 850 ⁇ ,, 850 ⁇ to 900 ⁇ , 900 ⁇ to 950 ⁇ , 950 ⁇ to 1000 ⁇ L ⁇ .
  • a small volume is 1 ⁇ L ⁇ to 10 ⁇ , 10 ⁇ to 20 ⁇ , , 20 ⁇ to 30 ⁇ ,, 30 ⁇ to 40 ⁇ , 40 ⁇ to 50 ⁇ ,, 50 ⁇ to 60 ⁇ , 60 ⁇ to 70 ⁇ ,, 70 ⁇ to 80 ⁇ , 80 ⁇ to 90 ⁇ , or 90 ⁇ to 100 ⁇ .
  • a small volume is 1 ⁇ to 5 ⁇ , 5 ⁇ to 10 ⁇ , 10 ⁇ to 15 ⁇ ⁇ , 15 ⁇ to 20 ⁇ .., 20 ⁇ to 25 ⁇ , 25 ⁇ , to 30 ⁇ , 30 ⁇ to 35 ⁇ , 35 ⁇ to 40 ⁇ , 40 ⁇ to 45 ⁇ , 45 ⁇ to 50 ⁇ ,, 50 ⁇ , to 55 ⁇ ,, 55 ⁇ to 60 ⁇ ,, 50 ⁇ to 65 ⁇ , 65 ⁇ , to 70 ⁇ , 70 ⁇ to 75 ⁇ , 75 ⁇ to 80 ⁇ ,, 80 ⁇ to 85 ⁇ L, 85 ⁇ , to 90 ⁇ ,, 90 ⁇ L to 95 ⁇ , or 95 ⁇ L to ⁇
  • a small volume is 5 ⁇ to 10 ⁇ ⁇ , 5 ⁇ to 15 ⁇ ., 5 ⁇ to 20 ⁇ ,, 5 ⁇ , to 25 ⁇ L, 5 ⁇ to 30 ⁇ , 5 ⁇ L ⁇ to 35 ⁇ ,
  • a small volume is 1 ⁇ ⁇ , 2 ⁇ ⁇ , 3 ⁇ _., 4 ⁇ , 5 ⁇ ⁇ , 6 ⁇ , 7 ⁇ ⁇ , 8 ⁇ , 9 ⁇ L, 10 ⁇ ⁇ , 1 1 ⁇ ⁇ , 12 ⁇ 1 3 ⁇ _, 14 ⁇ , 15 ⁇ , 16 ⁇ , 17 ⁇ ., 1 8 ⁇ , 19 ⁇ ., 20 ⁇ , 21 ⁇ , 22 ⁇ , 23 ⁇ , 24xL, 25 ⁇ ,, 26 ⁇ , 27 ⁇ xL, 28 ⁇ , 29 ⁇ ,, 30 ⁇ L, 31 ⁇ , 32 ⁇ ,, 33 ⁇ , 34 ⁇ ,, 35 ⁇ ,, 36 ⁇ , 37 ⁇ ., 38 ⁇ , 39 ⁇ , 40 ⁇ , 41 ⁇ , 42 ⁇ ⁇ , 43 ⁇ , 44 ⁇ , 45 ⁇ , 46 ⁇ , 47 ⁇ , 48 ⁇ ., 49 ⁇ , or 50 ⁇ .
  • the term "detectable level” or “level of detection” refers to the ability of a composition or agent to indicate and/or signal the presence of a desired molecule, such as a protein, in a sample (e.g., a blood sample).
  • a sample e.g., a blood sample.
  • the detectable level of a protein may increase due to an increase in the protein available for detection. This increase may be due to one or more reasons, for example, through a disruption of protein-molecule interactions (e.g., protein-protein, protein-membrane, protein-nucleic acid) that prevent and/or decrease the detection of the protein.
  • protein "release” from RBCs refers to proteins that have moved by active or inactive mechanisms from (i) the intracellular region or interior of a RBC to the surface and/or extracellular or exterior region of the RBC (e.g., plasma, serum, or medium) or (ii) moved from the extracellular or exterior region of the RBC (from, e.g., the plasma, serum or medium) to the surface and/or extracellular region or the exterior of the RBC.
  • the proteins are bound to the surface of the RBCs by cell surface-protein binding interactions known in the art (e.g., receptors, covalent attachment, noncovalent attachment, adhesion).
  • the surface bound proteins may be released back into the extracellular or exterior region of the RBC (e.g., into the plasma, serum, or medium).
  • treatment refers to one or more therapies, protocols, methods and/or agents that can be used in preventing, managing, alleviating, or ameliorating a disease, disorder, or condition, including in the prevention, alleviation, or amelioration of one or more symptoms of a disease, disorder, or condition and/or a symptom related thereto.
  • the terms “treatment” and “treatments” refer to a biological therapy, supportive therapy, and/or other therapies useful in the prevention, management, alleviation, and/or amelioration of a disease, disorder, or condition known to one of skill in the art, such as medical personnel.
  • the phrase "substantially similar” or “substantially the same” denotes a sufficiently high degree of similarity between two numeric values such that one of skill in the art would consider the difference between the two values (e.g., protein concentration/level) to be of little or no biological and/or statistical significance within the context of the biological characteristic measured by the values.
  • the difference between the two values may be less than about 50%, less than about 40%, less than about 30%, less than about 20%, less than about 10%, or less than about 5%.
  • kits refers to a delivery system havin all the components necessary to carry out the methods described herein.
  • the kits may comprise means for: collecting blood, anticoagulant/s, blood stabilizing agent/s, enrichment of RBC, removal/separation of non-RBC blood components, snap- freezing blood or component/s thereof, lysmg cells, washing cells, culturing cells, detecting specific target protein/s intracellularly and/or extracellularly, or combinations thereof.
  • kits may comprise one or more of the following: device/s for obtaining a blood sample from a subject (e.g.
  • a syringe needle, butterfly needle, tube, needle holder, blood collection set, transfer device, vacutainer, hemaPENTM
  • device/s for obtaining a dried blood sample from a subject e.g. filter paper, cards, HemaSpotTM
  • device/s for obtaining a red blood cell fraction, a leukocyte fraction, and or a platelet fraction from a liquid blood sample e.g. antibody coated magnetic beads
  • anticoagulants e.g. antibody coated magnetic beads
  • protease inhibitors protein denaturation agents
  • Such delivery systems include systems that allow for the storage, transport, or delivery of reaction reagents (for example labels, reference samples, supporting material, etc.
  • kits may include one or more enclosures, such as boxes, containing the relevant reaction reagents and/or supporting materials.
  • kit includes both fragmented and combined kits.
  • fragment kit refers to a delivery system comprising two or more separate containers that contain a subportion of the total kit components.
  • the containers may be delivered to the intended recipient together or separately.
  • a delivery system comprising two or more separate containers that each contains a subportion of the total kit components are included within the meaning of the term "fragmented kit”.
  • a “combined kit” refers to a delivery system containing all of the components of a reaction assay in a single container (e.g., in a single box housing each of the desired components).
  • the present inventors have made the unexpected determination that RBCs provide a significant source of protein markers including various cytokines and chemokines. Accordingly, a deficiency in current technologies has been identified in that RBCs were not previously recognised to provide a source of various protein markers described herein, and their exclusion from protein profiling thus provides an inadequate and/or inaccurate assessment.
  • the present disclosure remedies this deficiency by providing methods for generating protein profiles from blood that incorporate analyses of RBCs.
  • the present disclosure provides a new and useful laboratory technique for producing a protein profile of an enriched red blood cell sample by evaluating the presence or level of proteins newly-identified in RBCs.
  • protein profiling in blood may vary depending on a number of factors including, for example, the source of the blood (e.g., venous, capillary etc.), whether an anticoagulant is used, the type of anticoagulant used, the timeframe within which protein content is measured after collection, whether blood is initially stabilised upon collection, and the particular blood compartment(s) analysed.
  • the source of the blood e.g., venous, capillary etc.
  • the type of anticoagulant used e.g., the timeframe within which protein content is measured after collection
  • blood is initially stabilised upon collection
  • variations in blood protein profiles arising from factors including those mentioned above are hypothesised to arise at least in part from the previously unknown capacity of RBCs to sequester and release numerous different proteins (e.g., cytokines and chemokines).
  • the degree of protein release (or alternatively sequestration) by RBCs is thought to be influenced by various factors arising during blood collection and processing. Accordingly, a further deficiency in current technologies has been identified in that the protein profile of specific blood compartments (e.g., plasma/serum) was not known to be significantly affected by factors such as blood source (e.g., venous, capillary etc.), anticoagulants, timeframe before measurement post-collection, and/or the presence/absence of stabilising agents.
  • the present disclosure remedies this deficiency by providing methods for generating protein profiles from blood in a manner that minimises changes in BCs protein profiles during the collection and processing of blood, while also taking into account the protein profile of the RBCs compartment.
  • Blood protein analyses are typically performed using separated serum/plasma and/or PBMC. Despite representing a major component of blood and by far the most abundant cell type (usually >99% of total blood cells), RBCs are routinely excluded from protein profiling assays.
  • RBCs contain a number of different protein markers relevant to, for example, diagnostic and prognostic outcomes in subjects.
  • RBCs represent a significant portion of the blood and almost its entire cellular component, it is useful to assess the protein profile of RBCs to gain a fuller picture of the overall protein marker content of blood.
  • the present disclosure also provides methods for generating a protein profile from a blood sample, red blood cell-enriched sample, and/or blood sample component comprising RBCs.
  • the number of RBCs constitute more than: 0.5%, 1%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%,, 50%, 60%,, 70%, 80%, 90%, 95%, 97.5%, 98%, 99%, 99.5%, 99.75%,, 99.9%, or 99.95%, of total number of blood cells present in the blood sample or the blood sample component.
  • the blood sample obtained in the methods is as defined herein (see, e.g., "blood sample”) and may be obtained from a subject or an existing collection of blood (e.g., blood previously obtained from one or more subjects).
  • the blood sample may be obtained from a subject using exemplary means known to those of ordinary skill in the art (see, for example, World Health Organisation, "Requirements for the collection, processing and quality control of blood, blood components and plasma derivatives ", World Health Organisation Technical report Series, No. 840, 1994, Annex 2).
  • the blood sample may be obtained from a subject using venous blood, capillary blood, arterial blood or combinations thereof.
  • a small volume blood sample is obtained from a subject or an existing collection of blood.
  • the small volume can be obtained from a subject by methodologies known to those of ordinary skill in the art, including, for example, by stick (e.g., finger prick, heel prick, ear prick, tail prick).
  • the small volume blood sample is obtained by finger prick, heel prick, or ear prick (from, e.g., a human).
  • the small volume blood sample is obtained by tail prick (from, e.g., a mouse or rat).
  • the small volume blood sample is obtained by finger prick.
  • the small volume blood sample is obtained by heel prick (from, e.g., an infant). In still other embodiments, the small volume blood sample is obtained by ear prick. In further embodiment, the small volume blood sample is obtained by tail prick.
  • the small volume is as defined herein (see, e.g., "small volume"). In other embodiments, the small volume is 5 ⁇ to 100 ⁇ ⁇ . In another embodiment, the small volume is 5 ⁇ to 50 xL. In other embodiments, the small volume is 5 ⁇ to 20 iL. In yet other embodiments, the small volume is 5 ⁇ to 10 xL. In still other embodiments, the small volume is 5 ⁇ ⁇ .
  • Obtaining a small volume blood sample allows for the more frequent sampling of, for example, a subject compared to a larger volume blood sample because taking a small volume blood sample decreases the harm to the subject (e.g., pain, blood loss, slow recovery of blood levels).
  • a small volume blood sample decreases the harm to the subject (e.g., pain, blood loss, slow recovery of blood levels).
  • frequent blood sampling from small animals e.g., rats, mice
  • a comprehensive blood analysis requires so much blood that the animal must be sacrificed.
  • infants can only be safely sampled frequently by stick (e.g., heel prick).
  • a small volume blood sample can be obtained, in certain embodiments, with a frequency of one or more times per day, two or more times per day, three or more times per day, four or more times per day, and five or more times per day.
  • a small volume blood sample is obtained one or more times per week, two or more times per week, three or more times per week, four or more times per week, five or more times per week, six or more times per week, and seven or more times per week.
  • a small volume blood sample is obtained daily.
  • a small volume blood sample is obtained once a week, once every two weeks, once every three weeks, and once every four weeks.
  • a small volume blood sample is obtained once a month.
  • the methods involve producing or generating a protein profile from a red blood cell-enriched blood sample or a red blood cell-enriched fraction and determining the levels of one or more proteins in the red blood cell-enriched sample or fraction.
  • the red blood cell-enriched sample and red blood cell-enriched fraction may be produced from a blood sample taken from a subject, for example, by leukodepletion and/or platelet depletion. Additionally or alternatively, RBCs may be removed from a sample to produce the red blood cell-enriched sample or fraction.
  • the present disclosure also provides methods for increasing the sensitivity of the detection or measurement of one or more proteins in a blood sample by producing a red blood cell-enriched sample and detecting the presence or measuring the level of one or more proteins in the red blood cell-enriched sample,
  • the ratio of blood to dextran is between 1 : 1 and 2: 1, 1 : 1 and 3:l , 1 : 1 and 4: 1, 1 : 1 and 5: l , 1 : 1 and 6: 1, 1: 1 and 7: 1, 1 : 1 and 8: 1, 1 : 1 and 9: 1, 1 : 1 and 10: 1.
  • the ratio of blood to dextran is 1 : 1 , 2: 1 , 3: 1 , 4: 1, 5: 1 , 6: 1 , 7: 1, 8: 1 , 9: 1, 10: 1.
  • the ratio of blood to dextran is 2: 1.
  • the ratio of blood to dextran is 4: 1.
  • the red blood cell-enriched sample or fraction may be generated by leukodepletion of more than 90%, 92.5%, 95%,, 97.5%,, 99%,, 99.5%, 99.75%), or 99.9% of the number of leukocytes that were present in the blood sample.
  • leukodepletion in this context may be achieved by depleting leukocytes from the blood sample directly, and/or by removing RBCs from the sample to provide a separate leukodepleted (RBCs-enriched) fraction.
  • leukodepletion includes platelet depletion.
  • the red blood cell-enriched sample or fraction may be generated by platelet depletion of more than 90%, 92.5%, 95%, 97.5%,, 99%, 99.5%, 99.75%), or 99.9% of the number of platelets that were present in the blood sample.
  • Platelet depletion' in this context may be achieved by depleting platelets from the blood sample directly, and/or by removing RBCs from the sample to provide a separate platelet depleted (RBCs-enriched) fraction.
  • the red blood cell-enriched sample or fraction may comprise more than 99.75%, more than 99.8%, more than 99.9%, more than 99.95%, approximately 100%, or 100%) red blood cells (as a component of the total number of blood cells present within the RBCs-enriched fraction).
  • the percentage of RBCs in a given enriched sample or fraction may be assessed using routine methodologies known to those of ordinary skill in the art including, for example, flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy, other antibody-based techniques, and the like.
  • the present disclosure also provides methods of producing a protein profile from a small volume of a red blood cell-enriched blood sample.
  • a small volume can be obtained from a red blood cell-enriched blood sample by methods known in the art and as deemed appropriate by one of ordinary skill in the art for subsequent methods of protein detection or protein measurement in the red blood cell-enriched sample (see, e.g., protein profiling below).
  • a small volume is a volume as defined herein (see, e.g., "small volume").
  • the small volume can be 5 ⁇ to 10 ⁇ ⁇ , 5 ⁇ to 20 ⁇ ., 5 ⁇ . to 30 ⁇ ., 5 to 40 ⁇ ., 5 ⁇ to 50 ⁇ , 5 ⁇ .
  • the small volume is 5 ⁇ to 100 ⁇ ⁇ . In another embodiment, the small volume is 5 ⁇ to 50 ⁇ . In yet other embodiments, the small volume is 5 ⁇ . to 20 ⁇ . In still other embodiments, the small volume is 5 ⁇ L ⁇ to 10 ⁇ . In certain embodiments, the small volume is 5 ⁇ .
  • the methods of the present disclosure involve the analysis of a whole blood sample comprisin RBCs.
  • the whole blood sample is analysed for a protein profile without or substantially without altering the relative proportions of blood cell types within the sample and without separating plasma/serum.
  • the whole blood sample may be obtained using exemplary means known to those of ordinary skill in the art (see, for example, World Health Organization, "Requirementsor the collection, processing and quality control of blood, blood components and plasma derivatives ", World Health Organisation Technical report Series, No. 840, 1994, Annex 2). Methodology is also presented in the Examples of the present specification.
  • the whole blood sample may be obtained using venous blood, capillary blood, arterial blood or combinations thereof.
  • methods of the present disclosure involving the analysis of whole blood may be carried out using dried blood spot (DBS) sampling.
  • DBS dried blood spot
  • Advantages of DBS sampling include one or more of the following: sample stability, minimal volume requirements (e.g., 30-100 ⁇ per spot), ease of sample collection (e.g., finger, toe or heel prick) and transport.
  • a DBS sample obtained for use in the present disclosure may, for example, maintain stability for months to years under refrigeration and/or at ambient temperature.
  • DBS Suitable methodologies for DBS are well known to those of ordinary skill in the art (see for example, McDade, el al Demography 2007, 44: 899-925; De Jesus el al. Clin Chem 2009, 55: 1 ; 158-164; Sharma el al. Drug Testing and Analysis, 2014, 6(5), 399- 414).
  • whole blood may be obtained from a subject of interest (e.g., finger, heel or toe prick) using an appropriate instrument (e.g., a sterile surgical blade or disposable lancet) and spotted onto, for example, a membrane or paper (e.g., filter paper cards).
  • a membrane or paper e.g., filter paper cards
  • a measured volume of blood may be applied.
  • the blood may then be allowed to dry for example, at room temperature and/or under nitrogen flow and/or controlled humidity. Drying time will generally depend at least in part on sample volume.
  • DBS membranes or paper may be stored at ambient temperature or refrigerated, and may be appropriately packaged to avoid humidity.
  • the DBS may then be extracted for analysis at a suitable time (e.g., using an extraction solvent or similar).
  • the methods of the present disclosure may further comprise conducting protein profile analyses of one or more additional blood compartment(s).
  • protein profile analyses may be conducted on one or more additional blood compartment(s) selected from plasma, serum, platelets, leukocytes, an enriched platelet fraction, an enriched leukocyte fraction, platelet-rich plasma, leukocyte-rich plasma, a mixture of platelets and leukocytes, specific leukocyte(s) (e.g., one or more of T lymphocytes (e.g., CD4+ T lymphocytes, CD8+ T lymphocytes), B lymphocytes, NK cells, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, and the like), and combinations thereof.
  • T lymphocytes e.g., CD4+ T lymphocytes, CD8+ T lymphocytes
  • B lymphocytes e.g., NK cells
  • monocytes e.g., neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, and the like
  • neutrophils e
  • the additional blood compartment(s) for analysis may be prepared using known techniques.
  • cellular components may be isolated by flow cytometry, magnetic bead separation, centrifugation, and the like.
  • Plasma/serum separation techniques are also well known in the art. Many standard texts and protocols are available and widely used for these purposes, and by way of non-limiting example reference is made to: World Health Organization, "Requirements for the collection, processing and quality control of blood, blood components and plasma derivatives", World Health Organisation Technical report Series, No.
  • RBCs may have a capacity to sequester and release different proteins (e.g., cytokines and chemokines), and the degree of protein release (or alternatively sequestration) by RBCs is thought to be influenced by various factors arising during blood collection and processing.
  • proteins e.g., cytokines and chemokines
  • a blood sample or a component thereof used in the methods of the present disclosure may be mixed with a blood stabilising agent.
  • Agents having a capacity to stabilise RBCs are useful so as to reduce or prevent the sequestration and/or release of proteins from RBCs during processing.
  • the blood cell stabilising agent may be mixed with the blood sample at the time of collecting the blood sample from the subject and/or during subsequent processing of the blood sample or component(s) thereof.
  • the blood stabilising agent may be mixed with the blood sample or a component thereof within 1 second, 2 seconds, 3 seconds, 4 seconds, 5 seconds, 10 seconds, 20 seconds, 30 seconds, 1 minute, 2 minutes, 3 minutes, 4 minutes, 5 minutes, 10 minutes, 15 minutes, 30 mmutes, 45 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours, 4 hours, 5 hours, 7.5 hours or 10 hours of the blood sample being obtained from the subject.
  • Non-limiting examples of suitable blood stabilisin agents include protease inhibitors (e.g., aprotinin, leupeptin, 2 -macroglobulin, antipain dihydrochloride, calpain inhibitor I, calpain inhibitor ]], chymostatin, TLCK (CAS 131918-97-3), trypsin-inhibitor, Pefabloc SC (Roche), PMSF (C 6 H5CH2SO2F - Thermo Fisher Scientific), complete protease inhibitor cocktail (Roche), and the like), anticoagulants, R A stabilisers (e.g., RNALater - Thermo Fisher Scientific), protein denaturation agents, or combinations thereof.
  • protease inhibitors e.g., aprotinin, leupeptin, 2 -macroglobulin, antipain dihydrochloride, calpain inhibitor I, calpain inhibitor ]]
  • chymostatin TLCK (CAS 1319
  • the blood stabilising agent is an anticoagulant.
  • the anticoagulant may be mixed with the anticoagulant at time of collecting the blood sample from the subject (e.g., a vessel or container into which the blood sample is collected may contain the anticoagulant), and/or during subsequent processing of the blood sample or component(s) thereof.
  • Non-limiting examples of suitable anticoagulants include heparin, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), EDTA disodium salt, EDTA tetrasodium salt, EDTA dipotassium salt, EDTA diammonium salt, ethylenebis(oxyethylenenitrilo)tetraacetic acid (EGTA), EDTA trisodium salt, EDTA tripotassium salt, ethylene glycol-0,0-bis(2-aminoethyl)-N,N,N,N-tetraacetic acid, N-(2- hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine-N,N,N-triacetic acid trisodium salt, citrate, acid-citrate- dextrose, di-ammonium hydrogen citrate, di-ammonium tartrate, warfarin, N-(2- bis(carboxymethyl)aminoethyl)-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)glycin salt dihydrate, citric acid, cit
  • An anticoagulant may be beneficial to use, for example, when, in addition to the analysis of a RBC-enriched fraction, protein profiling of one or more of leukocytes (white blood cells), platelets and/or plasma is desirable.
  • An anticoagulant may also be beneficial to use if it is desirable to conduct protein profiling of the full cellular component of blood (i.e.,, mixed population of blood cells minus the plasma component).
  • a blood sample used in the methods of the present disclosure may not be mixed with an anticoagulant. This may be the case where protein profiling is to be conducted on RBCs, enriched RBCs, or a whole blood sample. In such cases, other stabilising agents without anti-coagulant activity or with only a nominal amount of anticoagulant activity may be mixed with the blood sample or a component thereof.
  • a blood sample or a component thereof used in the methods of the present disclosure may be stabilised by freezing (e.g., snap freezing) or by drying (e.g., dried blood spot).
  • the methods of the present disclosure comprise generating a protein profile from a cellular lysate.
  • an enriched RBCs fraction prepared in accordance with the methods of the present disclosure may be treated to provide a lysate in which the levels of one or more proteins are determined.
  • the lysate may be produced from one or more other blood compartment(s) selected from whole blood, plasma, serum, platelets, leukocytes, an enriched platelet fraction, an enriched leukocyte fraction, platelet-rich plasma, leukocyte-rich plasma, a mixture of platelets and leukocytes, specific leukocyte(s) (e.g., one or more of T lymphocytes (e.g., CD4+ T lymphocytes, CD8+ T lymphocytes), B lymphocytes, NK cells, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, and the like), and combinations thereof.
  • T lymphocytes e.g., CD4+ T lymphocytes, CD8+ T lymphocytes
  • B lymphocytes e.g., NK cells, monocytes, neutrophils, eosin
  • RBCs vascular endothelial cells
  • RBCs vascular endothelial cells
  • RBCs vascular endothelial cells
  • other cellular components of blood that are not RBCs, or that contain minimal amounts of RBCs (e.g., less than: 10%, 5%, 4%, 3%, 2%, 1 %, or 0.5% RBCs) may be treated to provide a lysate in which the levels of one or more proteins are determined.
  • Cell lysates for use in the methods of the disclosure may be produced using suitable means including, for example, liquid homogenization, mechanical disruption, freeze/thaw cycles, high frequency sound waves, manual grinding, chemical permeabilisation, enzymatic permeabilisation, permeabilisation using streptolysin, and the like.
  • cell lysates are prepared by one, two, three, four, five, or more than five cycles of freeze/thawing. This technique offers the potential benefit of providing a means of stabilising a blood sample or component(s) thereof at the point of freezing and allowing storage prior to lysing and analysis of protein content.
  • the snap freezing may be performed at a temperature of at or below: -10°C, -20°C, -30°C, -40°C, - 50°C, -60°C, -70°C, -75°C, -80°C, -90°C, -100°C, -120°C, -140°C, - 160°C, - 180°C, - 190°C, -195°C, or - 196°C.
  • snap freezing is performed at a temperature of below: -5°C, -10°C, -20°C, -30°C, -40°C, -50°C, -60°C, - 70°C, -75°C, -80°C, -90, -100°C, -120°C, -104°C, -160°C, - 180°C, -190°C, -200°C.
  • snap-freezing is performed at a temperature below: - 190°C, - 191 °C, -192°C, - 193°C, -194°C, -195°C, - 196°C, -197°C, - 198°C, or -199°C.
  • a whole blood sample, a RBC-enriched sample or fraction, and/or another different cellular components may be snap frozen to stabilise the cells. This may reduce or prevent, for example, the sequestration and/or release of proteins from RBCs and/or other cell types present during processing.
  • the methods of the present disclosure comprise generating a protein profile from a cell wash and/or a cell supernatant.
  • the cell wash and/or cell supernatant may be produced from a blood sample or blood sample component comprising RBCs.
  • the number of RBCs constitute more than: 0.5%, 1%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%,, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%,, 90%, 95%,, 97.5%,, 98%, 99%,, 99.5%,, 99.75%, 99.9%, or 99.95%,, of total number of blood cells present in the blood sample or the blood sample component.
  • the cell wash may be produced by washing RBCs-enriched cells and/or by separately washing one or more cellular blood compartment(s) selected from whole blood, platelets, leukocytes, an enriched platelet fraction, an enriched leukocyte fraction, platelet-rich plasma, leukocyte-rich plasma, mixtures of platelets and leukocytes, specific leukocyte(s) (e.g., one or more of T lymphocytes (e.g., CD4+ T lymphocytes, CD8+ T lymphocytes), B lymphocytes, NK cells, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, and the like), or combinations thereof.
  • T lymphocytes e.g., CD4+ T lymphocytes, CD8+ T lymphocytes
  • B lymphocytes e.g., NK cells
  • monocytes e.g., neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, and the like
  • the cell supernatant may be produced by incubating or culturing RBCs-enriched cells and/or by separately incubating or culturing one or more cellular blood compartment(s) selected from platelets, leukocytes, an enriched platelet fraction, an enriched leukocyte fraction, platelet-rich plasma, leukocyte-rich plasma, mixtures of platelets and leukocytes, specific leukocyte(s) (e.g., one or more of T lymphocytes (e.g., CD4+ T lymphocytes, CD8+ T lymphocytes), B lymphocytes, NK cells, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, and the like), or combinations thereof.
  • T lymphocytes e.g., CD4+ T lymphocytes, CD8+ T lymphocytes
  • B lymphocytes e.g., NK cells
  • monocytes e.g., neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, and the like
  • Cell supernatant may then be separated from the cells and analysed for proteins released (intracellularly and/or from the cell surface) by the incubated or cultured cells.
  • cells remaining after removal of the supernatant may be washed and used to generate a protein profile.
  • the cell wash may be combined with the cell supernatant to generate the protein profile, or alternatively individual protein profiles may be generated from the cell wash and the cell supernatant separately. This will allow comparison of the two individual profiles if desired.
  • a series of cell superaatants may be produced by culturing cells as above for a time period and collecting a series of superaatants at different time points. Each supernatant may be analysed for protein content to provide a protein profile analysis over multiple time points.
  • the incubation or culture conditions e.g., content of media, temperature, etc.
  • cells remaining after removal of the supernatant at one or more time points may be washed and used to generate a protein profile.
  • the cell wash may be combined with the cell supernatant of a given time point (e.g., the same time point) to generate the protein profile.
  • individual protein profiles may be generated from individual cell washes and individual cell superaatants.
  • cell washes from multiple time points may be pooled and analysed to generate the protein profile.
  • cell supernatants from multiple time points may be pooled and analysed to generate the protein profile.
  • Suitable exemplary protocols and/or media for incubating or culturing the RBCs- enriched cells and/or separately incubating or culturing the other cellular blood compartment(s) are known to those of ordinary skill in the art (see, for example, Koller, Palsson, Masters, (Eds) "Human Cell Culture: Vol IV. Primary Hematopoietic cells", 2006, Springer Science and Business Media; Mirty and Hughes (Eds) 2001, “Human Cell Culture Protocols, Third edition", 2011 , Humana Press). Methodology is also presented in the Examples of the present specification.
  • Cell washes may be performed using suitable media such as, for example, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), an isotonic salt solution, a growth medium, a culture medium, or combinations thereof.
  • suitable media such as, for example, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), an isotonic salt solution, a growth medium, a culture medium, or combinations thereof.
  • Non-limiting examples of suitable media for use as cell wash liquid, cell culture media, or cell incubation media in the methods of the present disclosure include isotonic salt solution, balanced salt solution, saline, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), Earles' balanced salt solution (EBSS), Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium (RPMI), minimum essential medium (MEM), Improved Minimum Essential Medium (IMEM), Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM), Dubelco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM), and Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Media (IMDM), or combinations thereof.
  • the media is PBS or HBSS to maintain the RBCs in a non-growth or proliferation state.
  • the media is RPMI to stimulate the growth or proliferation is RBCs.
  • the methods of the present disclosure comprise contacting a red blood cell-enriched sample with at least one cationic salt that increases and/or enhances the detectable level of one or more proteins in the sample.
  • the cationic salt may be one or more that are suitable for use in the methods, as determined by one of ordinary skill in the art.
  • the cationic salt in one embodiment, is a monovalent or multivalent (e.g., divalent, trivalent) metal ion salt. In other embodiments, the cationic salt is an ammonium salt.
  • Monovalent metal cationic salts suitable for use in the methods may include, for example, a sodium salt, a potassium salt, a lithium salt, and the like, or combinations thereof.
  • Suitable sodium salts may include, for example, sodium chloride, sodium citrate, sodium sulfate, sodium lactate, sodium acetate, sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, sodium stearate, sodium ascorbate, sodium benzoate, sodium biphosphate, dibasic sodium phosphate, sodium phosphate, sodium bisulfite, sodium borate, sodium gluconate, sodium metasilicate, sodium propionate and the like, or combinations thereof.
  • Suitable potassium salts may include, for example, potassium chloride, potassium citrate, potassium bromide, potassium iodide, potassium bicarbonate, potassium nitrite, potassium persulfate, potassium sulfite, potassium sulfate, potassium bisulfite, potassium phosphate, potassium acetate, potassium citrate, potassium glutamate, dipotassium guanylate, potassium gluconate, potassium malate, potassium ascorbate, potassium sorbate, potassium succinate, potassium tartrate and combinations thereof.
  • Suitable lithium salts include, for example, lithium chloride, lithium bromide, lithium carbonate, lithium nitrate, lithium sulfate, lithium acetate, lithium lactate, lithium citrate, lithium aspartate, lithium gluconate, lithium malate, lithium ascorbate, lithium orotate, lithium succinate or combinations thereof.
  • Divalent metal cation salts suitable for use in the methods may include, for example, a calcium salt, a potassium salt, a beryllium salt, a strontium salt, a barium salt, a radium salt, an a iron (ferrous) salt, and the like, or combinations thereof.
  • Suitable calcium salts include, for example, calcium chloride, calcium sulfate, calcium lactate, calcium citrate, calcium carbonate, calcium acetate, calcium phosphate, calcium alginite, calcium stearate, calcium sorbate, calcium gluconate and the like, or combinations thereof.
  • Suitable magnesium salts may include, for example, magnesium fluoride, magnesium chloride, magnesium bromide, magnesium iodide, magnesium lactate, magnesium phosphate, magnesium sulfate, magnesium sulfite, magnesium carbonate, magnesium oxide, magnesium nitrate, magnesium borate, magnesium acetate, magnesium citrate, magnesium gluconate, magnesium maleate, magnesium succinate, magnesium malate, magnesium taurate, magnesium orotate, magnesium glycinate, magnesium naphthenate, magnesium acetylacetonate, magnesium formate, magnesium hydroxide, magnesium stearate, magnesium hexafluorsilicate, magnesium salicylate or combinations thereof.
  • Suitable beryllium salts may include, for example, beryllium phosphate, beryllium acetate, beryllium tartrate, beryllium citrate, beryllium gluconate, beryllium maleate, beryllium succinate, sodium beryllium malate, beryllium alpha brom camphor sulfonate, beryllium acetylacetonate, beryllium formate or combinations thereof.
  • Suitable strontium salts may include, for example, strontium chloride, strontium phosphate, strontium sulfate, strontium carbonate, strontium oxide, strontium nitrate, strontium acetate, strontium tartrate, strontium citrate, strontium gluconate, strontium maleate, strontium succinate, strontium malate, strontium aspartate in either L and/or D-form, strontium fumarate, strontium glutamate in either L- and/or D-form, strontium glutarate, strontium lactate, strontium L-threonate, strontium malonate, strontium ranelate (organic metal chelate), strontium ascorbate, strontium butyrate, strontium clodronate, strontium ibandronate, strontium salicylate, strontium acetyl salicylate or combinations thereof.
  • Suitable barium salts may include, for example, barium hydroxide, barium fluoride, barium chloride, barium bromide, barium iodide, barium sulfate, barium sulfide (S), barium carbonate, barium peroxide, barium oxide, barium nitrate, barium acetate, barium tartrate, barium citrate, barium gluconate, barium maleate, barium succinate, barium malate, barium glutamate, barium oxalate, barium malonate, barium naphthenate, barium acetylacetonate, barium formate, barium benzoate, barium p-t-butylbenzoate, barium adipate, barium pimelate, barium suberate, barium azelate, barium sebacate, barium phthalate, barium isophthalate, barium terephthalate, barium anthranilate, barium mandelate, barium
  • Suitable radium salts may include, for example, radium fluoride, radium chloride, radium bromide, radium iodide, radium oxide, radium nitride or combinations thereof. Suitable radium salts included, for example, radium fluoride, radium chloride, radium bromide, radium iodide, radium oxide, radium nitride, and the like.
  • Suitable iron (ferrous) salts may include, for example, ferrous sulfate, ferrous oxides, ferrous acetate, ferrous citrate, ferrous ammonium citrate, ferrous gluconate, ferrous oxalate, ferrous fumarate, ferrous maleate, ferrous malate, ferrous lactate, ferrous ascorbate, ferrous erythrobate, ferrous glycerate, ferrous pyruvate, and the like, or combinations thereof.
  • the cationic salt is one that may prevent and/or minimize pH change in the red blood cell-enriched sample (e.g., a chloride or carbonate salt).
  • the cationic salt is a carbonate salt.
  • the cationic salt may also prevent or minimize damage to cell membranes (e.g., RBC membranes).
  • the cationic salt is a chloride salt.
  • the cationic salt is calcium chloride, potassium chloride, strontium chloride, barium chloride, radium chloride, or combinations thereof.
  • the cationic salt is sodium chloride, potassium chloride, rubidium chloride, cesium chloride, lithium chloride, or combinations thereof.
  • the cationic salt is lithium chloride. In another embodiment, the cationic salt may be sodium chloride. In certain embodiments, the cationic salt may be calcium carbonate, potassium carbonate, strontium carbonate, barium carbonate, or radium carbonate. In still other embodiments, the cationic salt is sodium carbonate, potassium carbonate, rubidium carbonate, cesium carbonate, lithium carbonate, or combinations thereof. In yet other embodiments, the cationic salt is lithium carbonate. In other embodiments, the cationic salt is sodium carbonate.
  • Salts other than monovalent or divalent metal cation salts may be used in the methods, including, for example, a trivalent or other multivalent salt, such as aluminum, silicon, scandium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, cobalt, nickel, copper, manganese, zinc, tin, silver and the like, or combinations thereof.
  • a trivalent or other multivalent salt such as aluminum, silicon, scandium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, cobalt, nickel, copper, manganese, zinc, tin, silver and the like, or combinations thereof.
  • Ammonium salts may also be used in the methods with suitable ammonium salts including ammonium carbonate, ammonium chloride, ammonium nitrate, ammonium acetate, ammonium biorate, ammonium bromide, ammonium carbamate, ammonium cerium (IV) sulphate, ammonium chromate, ammonium dichromate, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, ammonium fluoride, ammonium formate, ammonium phosphate, ammonium sodium phosphate dibasic tetrahydrate, ammonium thiosulfate, ammonium zirconium, and the like, or combinations thereof.
  • suitable ammonium salts including ammonium carbonate, ammonium chloride, ammonium nitrate, ammonium acetate, ammonium biorate, ammonium bromide, ammonium carbamate, ammonium cerium (IV) sulphate, ammonium chromate, ammonium dichromate, ammonium di
  • the cationic salt is ammonium chloride. In other embodiments, the cationic salt is ammonium carbonate.
  • the red blood cell-enriched sample is contacted with oneor more combinations of the foregoing cationic salts to increase and/or enhance the detectable level of one or more protein levels in the sample.
  • the red blood cell-enriched sample is contacted with at least one cationic salt.
  • the red blood cell-enriched sample is contacted with at least two cationic salts.
  • the red blood cell-enriched sample is contacted with at least three cationic salts.
  • the blood sample is contacted with one or more combinations of the foregoing cationic salts to increase and/or enhance the detectable level of one or more protein levels in the sample prior to the red blood cell enriching of the blood sample.
  • the blood sample is contacted with at least one cationic salt.
  • the blood sample is contacted with at least two cationic salts.
  • the blood sample is contacted with at least three cationic salts.
  • references to salts e.g., sodium containing salts herein include anhydrous forms and hydrated forms of the salt.
  • a whole blood sample is contacted with at least one of the foregoing cationic salts to produce a protein profile.
  • the whole blood sample may be obtained from venous blood, capillary blood, arterial blood or combinations thereof, using methods known to one of ordinary skill in the art.
  • one or more additional blood compartment(s) selected from plasma, serum, platelets, leukocytes, an enriched platelet fraction, an enriched leukocyte fraction, platelet-rich plasma, leukocyte-rich plasma, a mixture of platelets and leukocytes, specific leukocyte(s) e.g., one or more of T lymphocytes (e.g., CD4+ T lymphocytes, CD8+ T lymphocytes), B lymphocytes, NK cells, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, and the like), and combinations thereof, are contacted by at least one for the foregoing cationic salts to produce a protein profile.
  • the additional blood compartment(s) for analysis may be prepared using known techniques (e.g., flow cytometry, magnetic bead separation, centrifugation, and the like).
  • the present disclosure provides methods for producing a protein profile from a blood sample comprising RBCs (e.g., an RBCs-enriched fraction or a whole blood sample).
  • RBCs e.g., an RBCs-enriched fraction or a whole blood sample.
  • the production of such profiles may provide insight into important biological processes including, but not limited to inflammation, immune responses, and/or cellular repair, or disease state.
  • non-limiting examples include signalling molecules, e.g., chemokines, cytokines, growth factors, receptors, intracellular signal transmitters, honnones, nuclear transcription factors, neurotransmitters, and extracellular matrix components, and enzymes.
  • signalling molecules e.g., chemokines, cytokines, growth factors, receptors, intracellular signal transmitters, honnones, nuclear transcription factors, neurotransmitters, and extracellular matrix components, and enzymes.
  • growth factors can include those that stimulate the growth, proliferation, healing, or differentiation of, for example, skin cells (e.g., epidermal growth factor (EGF), keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), migration stimulating factor (MSF)), nerve cells/nervous system (e.g., neuregulins (e.g., neuregulin 1 -4) and neurotrophins (e.g., nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), neurotrophin-4 (NT-4))), connective tissue and mesenchymal cells (e.g., fibroblast growth factor (FGF)), blood vessel cells (e.g., platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), placental growth factor (PGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)), blood cells (e.g., erythropoietin, granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-
  • Receptors can include intracellular receptors (e.g., nuclear (e.g., transcription factors), cytoplasmic (e.g., steroid), and endoplasmic recticulum (e.g., IP3) receptors) or cell surface receptors (e.g., ion channel-linked, G-protehi-linked, enzyme-linked, toll gate, and ligand gated receptors, integrins).
  • intracellular receptors e.g., nuclear (e.g., transcription factors), cytoplasmic (e.g., steroid), and endoplasmic recticulum (e.g., IP3) receptors
  • cell surface receptors e.g., ion channel-linked, G-protehi-linked, enzyme-linked, toll gate, and ligand gated receptors, integrins.
  • Hormones can include lipid-derived (e.g., prostaglandins, leukotrienes, prostacylins, thromboxane); amino acid-derived (e.g., epinephrine, melatonin, thyroxine); peptide (e.g., amylin, adiponenctin, angiotensinogeii, calcitonin, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), erythropoietin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide- 1 (GLP-1 ), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF), and the like); and steroids (e.g., androgen, estrogen, glucocorticoid, progestogen, secosteroid, and the like).
  • lipid-derived e.g., prostaglandins,
  • Intracellular signal transmitters or transducers can include families of proteins and protein kinases (e.g., Ras and Src families), and Wnt signalling family proteins.
  • Neurotransmitters can include amino acids, peptides (e.g., ⁇ -eiidorphin, opioid), monoamines, trace amines, purines, and gasotransmitters.
  • Nuclear transcription factors can include modulators of DNA transcription (e.g., fos, myc, N-myc), and modulators of mRNA transcription, and suppressors of cell division (e.g., p53, pRb).
  • Enzymes can include oxidoreductases (e.g., alcohol, aldehyde, amino acid, sulphur, diphenol, peroxidises, and the like) NADH, NADPH, nucleases, proteases, kinases, transferases, hydrolases, lyases, isomerases, and ligases.
  • Oxmokines and cytokines are numerous can include, for example, those listed in Table 1 and Table 2 below.
  • the methods comprise producing a protein profile consisting of, or comprising, a single protein or combinations of proteins as set out in Tables 1 and 2 below.
  • the profile may be generated from a blood sample comprising RBCs (e .g., a red blood cell-enriched sample, RBC-enriched fraction, or a whole blood sample).
  • Additional profile(s) may be generated from other cellular compartment(s) including, but not limited to, plasma, serum, platelets, leukocytes, an enriched platelet fraction, an enriched leukocyte fraction, platelet-rich plasma, leukocyte-rich plasma, a mixture of platelets and leukocytes, specific leukocyte(s) (e.g., one or more of T lymphocytes (e.g., CD4+ T lymphocytes, CD8+ T lymphocytes), B lymphocytes, NK cells, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, and the like), or combinations thereof.
  • T lymphocytes e.g., CD4+ T lymphocytes, CD8+ T lymphocytes
  • B lymphocytes e.g., NK cells
  • monocytes e.g., neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, and the like
  • Table 1 Non-limiting examples of individual proteins thai may be included in a protein profile generated by the methods
  • CTACK (CCL27) cutaneous T cell-attracting chemokine
  • G-CSF G-CSF
  • GM-CSF granulocyte -macrophage colony-stimulating factor
  • IL-12 interleukin 12 p35 and p4() heterodimer
  • MIP macrophage inflammatory protein- 1 alpha
  • TNF-a tumour necrosis factor alpha
  • TNF- ⁇ tumour necrosis factor-beta
  • MCP-t (CCL2) monocyte chemoattractant protein- 1
  • RANTES CCL5 regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted
  • MIF macrophage migration inhibitory factor
  • Table 2 Non-limiting examples of protein pairs that may be included in a protein profile generated by the methods of the present disclosure.
  • the protein profile may comprise or consist of one or more protein pairs listed.
  • GM-CSF IL-10 I K.I IL-12 IFN-(i2 IL-13 ⁇ ' ⁇ - ⁇ IL-12p40
  • the presence or level of one or more, two or more, three or more, four or more, five or more, six or more, seven or more, eight or more, nine or more, ten or more, eleven or more, twelve or more, thirteen or more, fourteen or more, fifteen or more, sixteen or more, seventeen or more, eighteen or more, nineteen or more, twenty or more, twenty-one or more, twenty-two or more, twenty-three or more, twenty-four or more, twenty-five or more, twenty-six or more, twenty-seven or more, twenty-eight or more, twenty-nine or more or thirty or more proteins is detected or measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample.
  • the presence of one or more proteins is detected or the level of one or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample.
  • the presence of two or more proteins is detected or the level of two or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample.
  • the presence of three or more proteins is detected or the level of three or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample.
  • the presence of four or more proteins is detected or the level of four or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample.
  • the presence of five or more proteins is detected or the level of five or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell- enriched sample.
  • the presence of six or more proteins is detected or the level of six or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample.
  • the presence of seven or more proteins is detected or the level of seven or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample.
  • the presence of eight or more proteins is detected or the level of eight or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample.
  • the presence of eight or more proteins is detected or the level of eight or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample.
  • the presence of nine or more proteins is detected or the level of nine or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample.
  • the presence of ten or more proteins is detected or the level of ten or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample.
  • the presence of eleven or more proteins is detected or the level of eleven or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell- enriched sample.
  • the presence of twelve or more proteins is detected or the level of twelve or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample.
  • the presence of thirteen or more proteins is detected or the level of thirteen or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample.
  • the presence of fourteen or more proteins is detected or the level of fourteen or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample.
  • the presence of fifteen or more proteins is detected or the level of fifteen or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample.
  • the presence of sixteen or more proteins is detected or the level of sixteen or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample.
  • the presence of seventeen or more proteins is detected or the level of seventeen or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample.
  • the presence of eighteen or more proteins is detected or the level of eighteen or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample.
  • the presence of ninteen or more proteins is detected or the level of ninteen or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample.
  • the presence of twenty or more proteins is detected or the level of twenty or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample.
  • the presence of twenty-one or more proteins is detected or the level of twenty-one or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample.
  • the presence of twenty-two or more proteins is detected or the level of twenty-two or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample.
  • the presence of twenty-three or more proteins is detected or the level of twenty-three or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample.
  • the presence of twenty-four or more proteins is detected or the level of twenty-four or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample.
  • the presence of twenty-five or more proteins is detected or the level of twenty-five or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample.
  • the presence of twenty-six or more proteins is detected or the level of twenty-six or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample.
  • the presence of twenty-seven or more proteins is detected or the level of twenty-seven or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample.
  • the presence of twenty-eight or more proteins is detected or the level of twenty-eight or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample.
  • the presence of twenty-nine or more proteins is detected or the level of twenty-nine or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample.
  • the presence of thirty or more proteins is detected or the level of thirty or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample.
  • a protein profile may be produced or generated for example, by detecting the presence of one or more proteins in a lysate, cell wash, cell supernatant, or a combination thereof prepared according to the methods of the present disclosure.
  • the protein(s) detected may also be quantified (e.g., measure the levels) to produce or generate the protein profile.
  • Non-limiting examples of suitable methods include antibody-based methods generally, flow cytometry, ELISA, lateral flow, immunostaining, immunofluorescence, immunoelectrophoresis (including, e.g., Western blot), and the like.
  • proteins may be detected and/or quantified using mass spectrometry, spectroscopy, chromatography, electrophoresis, bicinchoninic acid assay (BCA), enzyme assay and the like.
  • protein quantification methods are described in United States Patent Number 7,501 ,286, United States Patent Number 8,530, 182, and United States Patent Publication Number 2013028838. Methodology is also presented in the Examples of the present specification.
  • the present disclosure also provides methods for producing a protein profile from a red blood cell-enriched sample by calculating a protein ratio comprising the level of one or more proteins in red blood cells to the level of those same one or more proteins in plasma.
  • the protein ratio can be calculated by normalizing the measured protein concentration in the RBCs and the plasma and then dividing the concentration of the protein(s) in the RBCs by the concentration of the protein(s) in the plasma.
  • the concentration of the protein(s) in the RBCs and plasma are normalized by calculating their relative concentration per millilitre in whole blood (percent in whole blood).
  • the protein ratio comprising the level of one or more proteins in red blood cells to the level of those one or more proteins in the plasma is at least 2:1, at least 10:1, at least 20:1, at least 30:1, at least 40:1, at least 50:1, at least 60:1, at least 70:1, at least 80:1, at least 90:1, at least 100:1, at least 110:1, at least 120:1, at least 130:1, at least 140:1, at least 150:1, at least 160:1, at least 170:1, at least 180:1, at least 190:1, or at least 200:1.
  • the protein ratio is at least 3:1, at least 4:1, at least 5:1, at least 6:1, at least 7:1, at least 8:1, at least 9:1, at least 10:1, at least 11:1, at least 12:1, at least 13:1, at least 14:1, at least 15:1, at least 16:1, at least 17:1, at least 18:1, at least 19:1, at leat 20:1, at least 21:1, at least 22:1, at least 23:1, at least 24:1, at least 25:1, at least 26:1, at least 27:1, at least 28:1, at least 29:1, at least 30:1, at least 31:1, at least 32:1, at least 33:1, at least 34: 1, at least 35:1, at least 36: 1, at least 37: 1, at least 38: 1 , at least 39: 1 or at least 40: 1.
  • a disease profile can be produced for any disease or disorder for which there is a difference in the presence or levels of one or more proteins associated with a red blood cell-enriched sample.
  • a disease profile can be produced for any disease or disorder for which there is a difference in the presence or level of one or more of the proteins set out in Table 1 or one or more combinations of proteins set out in Table 2.
  • the disease or disorder profiled is selected from the group consisting of cancer, preeclampsia, autoimmune disease, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disease, diabetes, metabolic disorders, musculoskeletal disease, infectious disease, genetic disorders, renal disorders, and gastrointestinal disorders.
  • a disease protein profile(s) is produced according to the methods by obtaining a protein profile produced from one or more subjects having a disease or disorder and a protein profile produced from one or more subject not having the disease or disorder.
  • at least one protein profile is obtained from a subject having a disease or disorder and at least one profile is obtained from a subject not having the disease or disorder.
  • the blood samples are obtained from one or more subjects having a disease or disorder and pooled.
  • blood samples are obtained from one or more subjects not having the disease or disorder and pooled. Then, a protein profile is obtained from the pooled blood samples of the one or more subjects having the disease or disorder and/or the one or more subjects not having the disease or disorder.
  • one or more protein profiles are obtained from subjects having a disease or disorder and one or more protein profiles are obtained from subjects not having the disease or disorder and a statistical analysis is performed to determine the proteins that comprise (by a statistically relevant difference in presence and/or level of the proteins) a protein profile for a subject having a disease or disorder and a protein profile for a subject not having the disease or disorder.
  • the protein profile of a subject having a disease or disorder and the protein profile of a subject not having the disease or disorder can be produced at any time prior to determining a disease protein profile.
  • the disease protein profile comprises one or more proteins that are present in a subject having a disease or disorder but not present in a subject not having the disease or disorder. In another embodiment, the disease protein profile comprises one or more proteins that are not present in a subject having a disease or disorder, but are present in a subject not having the disease or disorder. In still other embodiments, the disease protein profile comprises one or more proteins that have a higher level in a subject having a disease or disorder compared to the one or more proteins in a subject not having the disease or disorder. In another embodiment, the disease protein profile comprises one or more proteins that have a lower level in a subject having a disease or disorder compared to the one or more proteins in a subject not having the disease or disorder.
  • a disease protein profile comprises proteins that have a different (e.g., higher, lower, or both higher and lower) level of one or more proteins in a subject having a disease or disorder compared to the one or more proteins in a subject not having the disease or disorder.
  • the disease protein profile is a cancer protein profile comprising one or more proteins selected from the group consisting of IL- 1 , IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL- 10, IL- 12, IL- 15, IL- 17, TNF-a, TGF- ⁇ , and IFN- ⁇ .
  • the disease protein profile is a preeclampsia protein profile comprising one or more proteins selected from the group consisting of TNF-a, IFN- ⁇ , IL-4, IL-5, IL- 10, IL- ⁇ ⁇ , IL-6, IL-8, and IL-12.
  • the preeclampsia protein profile comprises one or more proteins selected from the group consisting of IL-6, IL-8, and IFN- ⁇ .
  • the present disclosure also provides methods for determining whether a subject has a disease or disorder using a disease profile produced by the methods provided herein.
  • a protein profile can be obtained from a subject that is/was produced by one of the methods provided herein.
  • the protein profile of the subject can be compared to a disease protein profile for similarities between the two protein profiles (in e.g., protein presence or protein levels). Similarities between a subject's protein profile and a disease protein profile may indicate that the subject has the disease or disorder.
  • a subject's protein profile and a disease protein profile have the same one or more proteins present, indicating that the subject may have the disease or disorder.
  • a subject's protein profile and a disease protein profile have the same or substantially similar level of one or more proteins, indicating that the subject may have the disease or disorder.
  • the same or substantially similar level of one or more proteins can include, for example, protein levels that are the same (e.g., within a relevant statistical analysis as determined by one of skill in the art) to protein levels that are determined to be sufficiently different by a person of ordinary skill in the art by, for example, a statistical analysis or a determined threshold fold difference (e.g., less than a two-fold difference).
  • the level of one or more proteins of a subject's protein profile and a disease protein profile are the same. In yet another embodiment, the level of one or more proteins of a subject's protein profile and a disease protein profile are substantially similar. In another embodiment, the difference in the level of one or more proteins of a subject's protein profile and a disease protein profile is determined by statistical methods known to one skilled in the art (e.g., a T-test with a p-value of 0.05 or greater). In yet another embodiment, the difference in the level of one or more proteins of a subject's protein profile and a disease protein profile is determined by comparison to a predetermined reference range (e.g., a healthy or normal concentration range) known to those of skill in the art.
  • a predetermined reference range e.g., a healthy or normal concentration range
  • the level of one or more proteins of a subject's protein profile and a disease protein profile is less than 0.5 fold different. In certain other embodiments, the level of one or more proteins of a subject's protein profile and a disease protein profile is less than 1 -fold different. In still another embodiment, the level of one or more proteins of a subject's protein profile and a disease protein profile is less than 1.5-fold different. In still other embodiments, the level of one or more proteins of a subject's protein profile and a disease protein profile is less than 2-fold different.
  • the present disclosure also provides methods for monitoring treatment in a subject using a protein profile produced by the methods provided herein.
  • a protein profile produced according to the methods provided herein is obtained from a subject before treatment and after treatment and the protein profiles compared for differences between the two (in, e.g., protein presence or protein levels).
  • the subject receiving treatment can be undergoing one or more treatments or a number of treatments.
  • the subject has received and/or is receiving a particular treatment.
  • the protein profile obtained before treatment can be obtained from a subject who has had no treatment and is compared to the protein profile of the subject after treatment.
  • a protein profile is measured during the course of a treatment and at least one protein profile of a subject obtained at one point in time during the treatment is compared to at least one protein profile of the subject obtained at a different point in time during the treatment.
  • the protein profiles before treatment and after treatment are obtained from a subject that is undergoing the same treatment during the course of a treatment.
  • the protein profiles before treatment and after treatment are obtained from a subject that is undergoing a different treatment during the course of a treatment (e.g., a subject that has switched treatments).
  • Differences between a subject's protein profile may indicate that the treatment has had an effect on the subject.
  • a subject's protein profile obtained before treatment comprises different protein(s) than the protein profile obtained after treatment, indicating that the treatment may have had an effect on the subject.
  • a subject's protein profile obtained before treatment has different levels of one or more proteins compared to the protein profile obtained after treatment, indicating that the treatment may have had an effect on the subject.
  • the different levels of one or more proteins can include, for example, levels that are greater than a 1 -fold difference.
  • the difference in the level of one or more proteins of a subject's protein profile before and after treatment is greater than 1 -fold, greater than 1 .5 fold, greater than 2-fold, greater than 2.5 fold, greater than 3-fold, greater than 3.5-fold, greater than 4-fold, greater than 4.5 fold, greater than 5-fold, greater than 5.5 fold, greater than 6- fold, greater than 6.5-fold, greater than 7-fold, greater than 7.5-fold, greater than 8-fold, greater than 8.5-fold, greater than 9-fold, greater than 9.5-fold, and greater than 10-fold. In some embodiments, the difference in the level of one or more proteins of a subject's protein profile before and after treatment is greater than 1.5-fold.
  • the difference in the level of one or more proteins of a subject's protein profile before and after treatment is greater than 2-fold. In other embodiments, the difference in the level of one or more proteins of a subject's protein profile before and after treatment is greater than 2.5-fold. In still other embodiments, the difference in the level of one or more proteins of a subject's protein profile before and after treatment is greater than 3 -fold. In still other embodiments, the difference iti the level of one or more proteins of a subject's protein profile before and after treatment is greater than 4-fold. In another embodiment, the difference in the level of one or more proteins of a subject's protein profile before and after treatment is greater than 5-fold.
  • the difference in the level of one or more proteins of a subject's protein profile before and after treatment is greater than 6-fold. In still other embodiment, the difference in the level of one or more proteins of a subject's protein profile before and after treatment is greater than 7-fold. In another embodiment, the difference in the level of one or more proteins of a subject's protein profile before and after treatment is greater than 8-fold. In yet another embodiment, the difference in the level of one or more proteins of a subject's protein profile before and after treatment is greater than 9-fold. In still another embodiment, the difference in the level of one or more proteins of a subject's protein profile before and after treatment is greater than 10-fold.
  • a small volume blood sample is obtained to produce the protein profiles before treatment and after treatment in order to monitor treatment of a subject.
  • a small volume blood sample allows the subject to be sampled frequently and, consequently, allows for treatment monitoring at a frequency not previously achievable.
  • a small volume blood sample can be obtained at a frequency of one or more times per day, two or more times per day, three or more times per day, four or more times per day, and five or more times per day.
  • a small volume blood sample is obtained one or more times per week, two or more times per week, three or more times per week, four or more times per week, five or more times per week, six or more times per week, and seven or more times per week.
  • a small volume blood sample is obtained daily. In still other embodiments, a small volume blood sample is obtained once a week, once every two weeks, once every three weeks, and once every four weeks. In certain embodiments, a small volume blood sample is obtained once a month.
  • the present disclosure also provides methods for determining the effectiveness of a treatment in a subject using protein profiles produced by the methods provided herein.
  • at least one protein profile is obtained from a subject that has undergone a treatment.
  • at least one protein profile is obtained from a subject that has not undergone a treatment and the protein profile of the subject that has undergone treatment is compared to the protein profile of the subject that has not undergone treatment.
  • the protein profile is produced using blood samples obtained from one or more subjects who have not undergone treatment and the blood samples are pooled.
  • a protein profile is produced using one or more blood samples obtained from a subject who has undergone treatment and the blood samples are pooled.
  • a protein profile is then obtained from the pooled blood samples of the one or more subjects that have not undergone treatment and/or the one or more blood samples from a subject that has not undergone treatment.
  • one or more protein profiles are obtained from one or more subjects that have not undergone treatment and/or one or more protein profiles are obtained from a subject that has undergone treatment, and a statistical analysis is performed by means known in the art to determine the proteins that will comprise (by a difference in presence and/or level) the protein profile of a subject that has not undergone treatment and the protein profile of a subject that has undergone treatment.
  • the protein profile of a subject that has undergone a treatment and the protein profile of a subject that has not undergone a treatment can be produced at any time prior to comparison of the two protein profiles.
  • Similarities in the presence or level of one or more proteins between the protein profile of the subject that has undergone treatment, compared to the protein profile of the subject that has not undergone treatment may indicate the effectiveness of the treatment.
  • the protein profile of a subject that has undergone treatment and the protein profile of a subject that has not undergone treatment have the same one or more proteins present, indicating that the treatment may have been effective. In other embodiments, the protein profile of a subject that has undergone treatment and the protein profile of a subject that has not undergone treatment have the same or substantially similar level of one or more proteins, indicating that the treatment may have been effective.
  • the same or substantially similar level of one or more proteins can include, for example, protein levels that are the same (e.g., within a relevant statistical analysis as determined by one of skill in the art) to protein levels that are determined to be sufficiently different by a person of ordinary skill in the art by, for example, a statistical analysis or a determined threshold fold difference (e.g., less than a two-fold difference).
  • the level of one or more proteins of the protein profile of a subject that has undergone treatment and the protein profile of a subject that has not undergone treatment are the same.
  • the level of one or more proteins of the protein profile of a subject that has undergone treatment and the protein profile of a subject that has not undergone treatment are substantially similar.
  • the difference in the level of one or more proteins of the protein profile of a subject that has undergone treatment and the protein profile of a subject that has not undergone treatment is determined by statistical methods known to one skilled in the art (e.g., a T-test with a p-value of 0.05 of greater).
  • the difference in the level of one or more proteins of the protein profile of a subject that has undergone treatment and the protein profile of a subject that has not undergone treatment is determined by comparison to a predetermined reference range (e.g., a healthy or normal concentration range) known to those of skill in the art.
  • the level of one or more proteins of the protein profile of a subject that has undergone treatment and the protein profile of a subject that has not undergone treatment is less than 0.5 fold different. In another embodiment, the level of one or more proteins of the protein profile of a subject that has undergone treatment and the protein profile of a subject that has not undergone treatment is less than 1 -fold different. In still another embodiment, the level of one or more proteins of the protein profile of a subject that has undergone treatment and the protein profile of a subject that has not undergone treatment is less than 1.5-fold different. In still other embodiments, the level of one or more proteins of the protein profile of a subject that has undergone treatment and the protein profile of a subject that has not undergone treatment is less than 2-fold different.
  • Subjects relate to determining the protein profile of a blood sample or component thereof from a subject.
  • the subject may be an animal in which blood comprises red blood cells (e.g., a mammal, bird, fish, reptile, or amphibian).
  • suitable subjects include bovine, equine, ovine, primate, avian and rodent species.
  • the subject may be a human, a non-human mammal, a mouse, rat, hamster, ferret, gerbil, rabbit, monkey, chimpanzee, horse, pony, donkey, sheep, pig, chicken, goat, cat, or dog.
  • kits comprising the components necessary for carrying out the methods described herein.
  • kits may comprise means for: collecting blood, anticoagulant s), blood stabilising agent(s), enrichment of RBCs, removal/separation of non-RBCs blood components, snap-freezing blood or component(s) thereof, lysing cells, washing cells, culturing cells, detecting specific target protein(s) intracellularly and/or extracellularly, and/or combinations thereof.
  • the kits comprise at least one reagent to leukodeplete a blood sample and produce a red blood cell-enriched sample and at least one reagent to detect the presence or measure the level of one or more proteins in a small volume red blood cell-enriched sample.
  • the regent to detect the presence or measure the level of one or more proteins is an ELISA apparatus.
  • the kit further comprises at least one reagent to obtain a blood sample from a subject.
  • kits according to the present disclosure may comprise one or more of the following: device(s) for obtaining a blood sample from a subject (e.g., a syringe, needle, butterfly needle, tube, needle holder, blood collection set, transfer device, vacutainer, hemaPENTM), device(s) for obtaining a dried blood sample from a subject (e.g., filter paper, cards, HemaSpotTM); device(s) for obtaining a red blood cell fraction, a leukocyte fraction, and/or a platelet fraction from a liquid blood sample (e.g., antibody coated magnetic beads); anticoagulants; protein denaturation agents; and the like.
  • a blood sample from a subject e.g., a syringe, needle, butterfly needle, tube, needle holder, blood collection set, transfer device, vacutainer, hemaPENTM
  • device(s) for obtaining a dried blood sample from a subject e.g., filter paper, cards, HemaSpotTM
  • Example 1 Investigating the presence of the MIF receptor on the surface of RBCs
  • RBCs contain MIF. To determine whether RBCs have a receptor to bind MIF they were analyzed for the most well-known receptor for MIF, a complex formed between CD44 and CD74 on the cell surface. Immunophenotyping was used to identify the absence or presence of CD44 and CD74 on RBCs.
  • Whole blood (WB) was collected into an EDTA vacutainer, washed twice in PBS + FBS (2%) (centrifuged at 500 g, for 5 minutes) and finally resuspended to 1 mL of solution. 5 uL of solution was added to each respective tube.
  • Cells were then stained with 5 ⁇ or 20 ⁇ , of each antibody (anti-CD44, anti-CD74, anti-CD45, and an IgG control) and 50 ⁇ . of PBS + FBS (2%). Cell solutions were incubated in the dark at room temperature for 15 minutes and after incubation, cells were washed three times in lx PBS (500 g, 5 minutes). Cells were resuspended in 200 uL of PBS and were analysed by flow cytometry using quadrant statistics and overlay histograms
  • RBCs were positive for the receptor CD44. However, they did not appear to be positive for CD74 ( Figure 2). As expected, RBCs were not positive for the white blood cell (WBC) marker CD45 (data not shown). Because RBCs were positive for CD44, but not positive for CD74, RBCs do not have the primary MIF receptor. Therefore, if MIF is on the surface of RBCs, it must bind by another mechanism.
  • WBC white blood cell
  • RBCs w r ere analyzed for the localization of MIF using immunocytochemistry.
  • Whole blood was collected into a syringe and washed twice in lx PBS (spun in a centrifuge at 500 g, for 5 minutes). The cell pellet was the used to prepare blood smears (10 ⁇ per slide) and the blood slides left to dry at room temperature for at least 2 hours. Once the slides were completely dried, the smears were fixed in 100% methanol for 5 minutes at room temperature. After the slides were fixed, they were removed from the methanol and were left to air dry for -10 minutes. Slides were washed thoroughly with lx PBS and blood smears were then blot dried.
  • paraffin embedded samples of RA synovium (human) were sectioned and applied to glass slides. Paraffin was removed from the samples using washes in xylene (2 times, 5 minutes) and ethanol (100%, 100%, 95%, 70%, 3 minutes each) and finally running tap water. Heat-induced epitope retrieval was then performed using a boiling water bath by the following method: a Tissue-Tek container was filled with buffer (pH 6) and heated to 95 °C in water bath; slides were placed in container in boiling water bath and incubated for 20 minutes; slides were removed from the water bath and left to cool for 20 minutes at room temperature; and cold water was gradually added and finally slides were washed in cold tap water for 2-3 minutes.
  • RBCs were analyzed for their intracellular levels of MIF.
  • Whole blood was collected from the capillary bed (fingertip collection).
  • Blood was anti-coagulated (1 : 1 ) with EDTA (30 mg/mL) solution and washed twice with PBS + FBS (2%).
  • Cells were stained with CD45-FITC (5 ⁇ .) for 15 min at room temperature in the dark. After incubation, cells were washed twice with lx PBS and RBCs were then isolated using negative sorting by flow cytometry (FACS).
  • FACS flow cytometry
  • RBCs and WB were pelleted by centrifugation (2000 g, 10 minutes) and were resuspended to 250,000 ⁇ 1 ⁇ 5/50 ⁇ ). Cells were frozen at -80°C, and samples were subjected to 3 freeze/thaw cycles to lyse all the cells. Samples were analysed on a Hu MIF ELISA
  • MIF was identified at high concentrations in FACS isolated RBCs. However, levels were approximately 10 times lower than that measured in whole blood. As shown in Figure 8, there was a difference in MIF concentration in RBCs collected from the fingertip versus venous collection. Concentration of MIF in whole blood was too high to be analysed by ELISA (data not shown). The results demonstrated that MIF is present in RBCs, but that measurable MIF concentration differs depending on the collection site (fingertip or vein) and chosen anticoagulant (EDTA or heparin). Example 4. Optimization of RBC Isolation
  • anti- coagulated WB was added to high molecular weight dextran (6% w/v in 0.15 M sodium chloride, 1 : 1 blood:dextran), the solution was gently mixed and left to sit for up to 60 minutes at room temperature ( ⁇ 23°C) for the RBCs to sediment and, after sedimentation, RBCs were isolated and washed twice in lx PBS. RBCs and WB were pelleted by centrifugation (2000 g, 10 minutes) and were resuspended to 250,000 cells/5( ⁇ L).
  • RBCs were then lysed: 250 million cells were added to 6 mL ice cold Milli-Q water and were left to incubate for 30 seconds; after incubation, 2 mL of ice cold 0.6 M KC1 was added to restore isotonicity; the solution was diluted up to 50 mL with ice cold PBS; and contaminating cells were pelleted and lysate was collected (equal to 250,000 cells/5( ⁇ L); finally samples were frozen at -80°C, and subjected to 3 freeze/thaw cycles to lyse all the cells.
  • MIF in the lysed cells Concentrations of MIF in the lysed cells were measured using a M1F ELISA (R&D Systems, USA) and the absorbance data for the MIF ELISA collected with a Synergy 2 plate reader (BioTeck, USA) at 450 nm (absorbence correction at 570 nm). The calibration curve was analysed using a log/log curve fit (GraphPad Prism software (ver. 6, USA).
  • RBCs whole blood was collected into an EDTA vacutainer and RBCs isolated using dextran sedimentation as described above. RBCs were washed twice in PBS + FBS (2%), 500 g, 5 minutes and finally resuspended to 1 mL of solution. Five uL of solution was added to each respective tube and cells were stained with 5 ⁇ ⁇ or 20 ⁇ ⁇ of each antibody (anti-CD45, and an IgG control) and 50 ⁇ ⁇ of PBS + FBS (2%). Cell solutions were incubated in the dark at room temperature for 15 minutes and, after incubation, cells were washed three times in lx PBS (500 g, 5 minutes). Cells were resuspended in 200 uL of PBS and analysed by flow cytometry using quadrant statistics and overlay histograms (Coulter AcT Diff, Beckman Coulter).
  • dextran sedimentation of RBCs resulted in a higher measured concentration of MIF than using RBC lysis buffer or FACS isolation (concentration normalized to relative contribution to 1 mL of whole blood). The presence of dextran itself did not alter the level of MIF measured (data not shown).
  • RBCs isolated using dextran sedimentation were stained for the presence of contaminating CD45+ cells (WBCs). The RBCs were approximately 0.0025 % pure ( Figure lOA-lOC).
  • Red blood cells were isolated using dextran sedimentation as follows. Whole blood was centrifuged (1500 g, 10 minutes) and the upper plasma layer was discarded. The remaining cell pellet was resuspended in an equal volume of sodium chloride (0.15 M). Dextran (6 % w/v in 0.15 M sodium chloride) was then added to the cellular suspension at a 1 :4 ratio (dextran : cell suspension). This solution was left at room temperature for 30 minutes for red blood cell sedimentation to the bottom of the tube. After this time the upper white blood cell rich layer was discarded and the lower red blood cell fraction was collected.
  • the lower red blood cell fraction was either washed once in phosphate buffered saline (PBS, 500 g, 5 minutes) or washed thoroughly with inversion three times in PBS.
  • the resulting red blood cells were either used fresh or were frozen (-80 °C).
  • An aliquot of red blood cells were diluted to 400 million cells/mL in PBS and were incubated at 37 °C and 5 % CO2 for 24 hrs. Following incubation, the red blood cells and the resulting conditioned PBS was separated and frozen (-80 °C).
  • red blood cells were subjected to 3 freeze-thaw cycles to ensure complete cellular lysis. Following lysis, the red blood cell lysates were diluted in PBS to the equivalent of 400 million cells/mL. These lysates were then analysed on the multiplex cytokine assays. Two multiplex assays were utilised.
  • the assays were performed according to manufacturer's instructions using an automated magnetic wash station (BioPlex Pro II, Bio-Rad) for the washing steps.
  • the assays were run on the Luminex® 20() I M system (Bio-Rad) and fluorescent values were collected.
  • the calibration curve for each cytokine was analysed with 5 parametric logistic curve regression using BioPlex manager software (ver. 5.0, Bio-Rad, USA).
  • Table 3 The percentage depletion of white blood cells and platelets from enriched red blood cell fractions produced using dextran sedimentation.
  • the concentration of most proteins in the washed red blood cells was notably lower than what was observed in unwashed red blood cells, as seen for, instance, in IFN- ⁇ (2- fold less), G-CSF (4-fold less), and PDGF-bb (6-fold less). Further to that point, the levels of a collection of proteins were below the level of detection unlike the unwashed control. Where IFN-a2 and IL-17 were detectable in the unwashed red blood cells, they were entirely absent in the washed cells. These results demonstrate that excessive washing of red blood cells can alter their cytokine profile. This washing is a critical step in most red blood cell isolation techniques.
  • RBCs were analyzed for the presence of MIF.
  • Whole blood was collected by venous collection into EDTA vacutainer. Plasma was collected after centrifugation and cells were isolated using either FACS or dextran sedimentation.
  • FACS isolation blood was washed twice with PBS + FBS (2%), cells were stained with CD45-FITC (5 ⁇ ) for 15 min at room temperature in the dark, and then washed twice with lx PBS.
  • RBCs were then isolated using negative sorting on FACS; WBCs were isolated using positive staining for CD45; and platelets were isolated according to size.
  • Dextran sedimentation was performed as described above, after which WBCs and platelets were isolated from the supernatant with centrifugation. Cells and WB were pelleted by centrifugation (2000 g, 10 minutes) and were resuspended to set concentrations. Samples were frozen at -80°C, and samples were subjected to 3x freeze/thaw cycles to lyse all the cells. Samples were then analysed on a Hu MIF ELISA.
  • MIF distribution when cells w r ere isolated by FACS or dextran sedimentation is shown in Tables 4 and 5. Whilst MIF was present in all components of blood, RBCs contributed the largest proportion of the total MIF. WBCs contained the highest concentration of MIF per cell; however, there were 1000 times more RBCs in blood.
  • RBCs are a reservoir for proteins other than MIF
  • the levels of other proteins in RBCs were assessed.
  • Whole blood was collected by venous collection into EDTA vacutainers.
  • Plasma was collected after centrifugation and cells were isolated using either FACS or dextran sedimentation as described above. Isolated cells and WB were pelleted by centrifugation (2000 g, 10 minutes) and were resuspended to set concentrations. Samples were frozen at -80°C, and subjected to 3 times freeze/thaw cycles to lyse all the cells. Samples were analysed on a Hu 27-plex BioPlex. In addition, proteins released or secreted by RBCs were analyzed.
  • Table 7 Summary of pro-inflammatory cytokines in whole blood and blood components as measured by BioPlex and reported as pg/mL of whole blood, total yield is reported according to protein concentration in whole blood (n I). Underlined values have been extrapolated off the bottom of the standard curve.
  • IL-12 pro-inflammatory cytokines in whole blood and blood components as measured by BioPlex and reported as pg/mL of whole blood, total yield is reported according to protein concentration in whole blood (n I). Underlined values have been extrapolated off the bottom of the standard curve.
  • FIG. 12-15 show a summary of analytes released or secreted from RBCs into PBS over 24 hours at 37 °C as measured by BioPlex and reported as pg/mL (20 million RBCs in lOOuL PBS). Figures are separated according to average detected concentration of each protein. The addition of protease inhibitors durin RBCs culture altered protein release or secretion (24 hours at 37 °C).
  • RBCs + PBS (20 million RBCs in 1 OOuL PBS) 2.
  • RBCs + PBS + protease inhibitors (PI) (20 million RBCs in 1 OOuL PBS + PI)
  • the series of graphs shown in Figure 16A-16Z depict the effect of protease inhibitors (PI) on the concentration of proteins released or secreted from RBCs (black columns) and the concentration of proteins remaining in the cells after secretion (grey columns). Inclusion of protease inhibitors in the culture solution typically resulted in a lower detectable concentration for both release or secretion and cell lysate, although there were some exceptions (i.e., MlP-l b). Data presented as mean ⁇ standard deviation (SD).
  • WB was collected by finger prick using lancets.
  • the blood was analysed for CRP levels using the iChroma instrument on either fresh blood (which detects plasma levels) or after three freeze-thaw cycles to lyse all of the cells (for whole blood levels).
  • Purified RBCs (after dextran sedimentation) were collected and lysed using 3 freeze-thaw cycles, were run on the iChroma instrument, and protein levels compared to those in stored plasma samples.
  • CRP was detectable in higher levels in lysed whole blood than in the plasma component.
  • CRP was also detectable in a similar ratio in RBCs lysate when compared to corresponding plasma concentrations (Figure 18).
  • Example 8 Measurement of protein levels in a small blood volume
  • the whole blood was analysed on the multiplex cytokine assay at 5 whole blood (in 45 ⁇ ⁇ PBS), 10 ⁇ whole blood (in 40 ⁇ , PBS), 15 ⁇ , whole blood (in 35 ⁇ PBS), 20 ⁇ , whole blood (in 30 ⁇ , PBS), or 25 ⁇ whole blood (in 25 ⁇ . PBS). Two multiplex assays were utilised.
  • the assays were performed according to manufacturer's instructions using an automated magnetic wash station (BioPlex Pro II, Bio-Rad) for the washing steps.
  • the assays were run on the Luminex® 200TM system (Bio-Rad) and fluorescent values were collected.
  • the calibration curve for each cytokine was analysed with 5 parametric logistic curve regression using BioPlex manager software (ver. 5.0, Bio-Rad, USA).
  • Example 9 Presence of proteins in fingertip versus venous blood samples.
  • EDTA vacutainers k 2 EDTA vacutainers, BD Biosciences
  • EDTA solution 3 mg/mL
  • All fractions of blood were collected and processed at room temperature within 4 hours of collection.
  • All samples were stored at -80 °C and were subjected to 3 freeze-thaw cycles at -80 °C to ensure complete cellular lysis prior to analysis.
  • the plasma and red blood cells were isolated using dextran sedimentation as follows. Whole blood was centrifuged (1500 g, 10 minutes) and the upper plasma layer was collected.
  • the remaining cell pellet was resuspended in an equal volume of sodium chloride (0.15 M). Dextran (6 % w/v in 0.15 M sodium chloride) was then added to this cellular suspension at a 1 :4 ratio (dextran : cell suspension). This solution was left at room temperature for 30 minutes for red blood cell sedimentation to the bottom of the tube. After this time the upper white blood cell rich layer was discarded and the lower red blood cell fraction was isolated. The red blood cell fraction was washed twice in phosphate buffered saline (PBS, 500 g, 5 minutes) and the remaining red blood cell pellet was counted (Coulter Act Diff, Beckman Coulter) and then frozen (-80 °C) until analysis.
  • PBS phosphate buffered saline
  • red blood cells were subjected to 3 freeze-thaw cycles to ensure complete cellular lysis. Following lysis, the red blood cell lysates were diluted in PBS to the equivalent of 400 million cells/mL. These lysates were then analysed on the multiplex cytokine assay. One multiplex assay was utilised.
  • the assay were performed according to manufacturer's instructions using an automated magnetic wash station (BioPlex Pro II, Bio-Rad) for the washing steps.
  • the assays were run on the Luminex® 200 I M system (Bio-Rad) and fluorescent values were collected.
  • the calibration curve for each cytokine was analysed with 5 parametric logistic curve regression using BioPlex manager software (ver. 5.0, Bio-Rad, USA).
  • the concentration of the indicated proteins in the plasma isolated from venous blood and fingertip blood, or the lysate of red blood cells isolated from venous blood and fingertip blood are depicted in Figure 20A-20AA. Significant differences (p ⁇ 0.05) were determined usin Student T-tests. There were consistent trends between levels of proteins in the plasma and the red blood cells when fingertip blood and venous blood were compared. For example, the concentration of IL-6 was at a significantly higher concentration in the plasma isolated from the fingertip as opposed to that in venous plasma. This same trend was observed with the red blood cells, with significantly higher levels of proteins observed in the cells isolated from fingertip blood. This trend was observed for a number of proteins including, for example, IL-2, RANTES, and IP-10.
  • red blood cells isolated from fingertip blood including, for instance, IL- ⁇ , IL-8, and TNF-a.
  • the biological variation was lower in the fingertip samples than the venous samples (e.g., ⁇ - ⁇ ⁇ , G-CSF). This suggested that analysis of the red blood cells collected from the fingertip would be more reproducible than analysis of venous blood.
  • venous plasma was less variable than the fingertip blood (e.g., 1L-7, PDGF-bb).
  • Example 10 Profile of proteins in RBCs versus plasma.
  • the plasma, red blood cells, and white blood cells were isolated using dextran sedimentation as follows. Whole blood was centrifuged ( 1500 g, 10 minutes) and the upper plasma layer was discarded. The remaining cell pellet was resuspended in an equal volume of sodium chloride (0. 15 M). Dextran (6 % w/v in 0.15 M sodium chloride) was then added to this cellular suspension at a 1 :4 ratio (dextran : cell suspension). This solution was left at room temperature for 30 minutes for red blood cell sedimentation to the bottom of the tube. After this time the upper white blood cell rich layer and the lower red blood cell fraction were separated and added into individual tubes.
  • the lower red blood cell fraction was washed twice in phosphate buffered saline (PBS, 500 g, 5 minutes) and the remaining red blood cell pellet was frozen (-80 °C).
  • the upper, white blood cell rich layer was washed twice in PBS (1000 g, 10 minutes).
  • the supernatant was discarded, and any contaminating red blood cells were lysed by hypotonic shock by resuspending the cell pellet in 3 mL Milli-Q water for 30 seconds.
  • isotonicity was restored by adding 1 mL potassium chloride (0.65 M) and the solution was diluted up to 15 mL with PBS.
  • the remaining cells were pelleted and washed twice in PBS (1000 g, 5 minutes).
  • the remaining cell pellet was resuspended in PBS and frozen immediately at -80°C.
  • red blood cells and white blood cells were subjected to 3 freeze-thaw cycles to ensure complete cellular lysis. Following lysis, the red blood cell lysates were diluted in PBS to the equivalent of 400 million cells/mL, and the white blood cell lysates were diluted to 20,000 cells/mL. These lysates were then analysed on the multiplex cytokine assays. Two multiplex assays were utilised.
  • the assays were performed according to manufacturer's instructions using an automated magnetic wash station (BioPlex Pro II, Bio-Rad) for the washing steps.
  • the assays were run on the Luminex® 200 1M system (Bio-Rad) and fluorescent values were collected.
  • the calibration curve for each cytokine was analysed with 5 parametric logistic curve regression using BioPlex manager software (ver. 5.0, Bio-Rad, USA).
  • FIG. 21A-21B A chart indicating the concentration of the indicated proteins in plasma and in the lysate of red blood cells (400 million cells/mL) is shown in Figure 21A-21B.
  • the protein concentration was calculated back to the relative concentration per mL of whole blood (approximately 5 billion cells/mL) and corrected for white blood cell contamination.
  • the fold difference between the corrected red blood cell protein concentration and plasma protein concentration was also determined ( Figure 21A-21B).
  • Across the 48 proteins e.g., cytokines, chemokines
  • the range of fold change increase in protein concentration in RBCs versus that in plasma was 3.6 to 3970.
  • the median RBC:plasma ratio was 1 1.3.
  • a small volume of blood e.g., 1/10 th of the volume of whole blood or RBCs isolated from a small volume of blood could be used detect proteins of interest (including the proteins identified in the experiment).
  • the ability to sample a small volume of blood through, e.g., a finger prick) would allow for frequent, minimally-invasive sampling.
  • Red blood cells were isolated using dextran sedimentation as follows. Whole blood was centrifuged (1500 , 10 minutes) and the upper plasma layer was discarded. The remaining cell pellet was resuspended in an equal volume of sodium chloride (0.15 M). Dextran (6 % w/v in 0.15 M sodium chloride) was then added to this cellular suspension at a 1 :4 ratio (dextran : cell suspension). This solution was left at room temperature for 30 minutes for red blood cell sedimentation to the bottom of the tube. After this time the upper white blood cell rich layer and the lower red blood cell fraction were separated and the white blood cells discarded. The lower red blood cell fraction was washed twice in phosphate buffered saline (PBS, 500 g, 5 minutes). The supernatant was discarded, and the red blood cell pellet resuspended in either PBS or PBS containing 100 mM LiCl.
  • PBS phosphate buffered saline
  • the red blood cells were subjected to 3 freeze-thaw cycles to ensure complete cellular lysis. Following lysis, the red blood cell lysates were diluted in PBS to the equivalent of 400 million cells/mL. The red blood cell lysates were analysed on a 21-plex human cytokine panel that assays for IL-l a, IL-2Ra, IL-3, IL-12, IL-16, IL- 18, CTACK, GPvO-a, HGF, IFN-a2, LIF, MCP-3, M-CSF, MIF, M1G, ⁇ -NGF, SCF, SCGF- ⁇ , SDF-la, TNF- ⁇ , TRAIL (Bio-Plex Pro 27-plex and 21 -plex, Bio-Rad).
  • the assays were performed according to manufacturer's instructions using an automated magnetic wash station (BioPlex Pro II, Bio-Rad) for the washing steps.
  • the assays were run on the Luminex® 200TM system (Bio-Rad) and fluorescent values were collected.
  • the calibration curve for each cytokine was analysed with 5 parametric logistic curve regression using BioPlex manager software (ver. 5.0, Bio-Rad, USA).
  • lithium chloride increased and/or enhanced the level of several of the proteins in the assay.
  • Example 12 Protein profile in RBCs from healthy individuals versus individuals having preeclampsia or cancer.
  • the difference in the levels of proteins in the blood of healthy individuals compared to those with a disease or disorder was measured.
  • Whole blood was collected from four groups of people including: 1 ) healthy volunteers, 2) healthy, pregnant women, 3) pregnant women with preeclampsia, and 4) oncology patients (see Table 12).
  • the healthy, pregnant controls were matched with the preeclampsia samples according to gestation.
  • Blood was collected from each volunteer by venipuncture ( « > 3) directly into EDTA vacutainers (k 2 EDTA vacutainers, BD Biosciences).
  • PE-001 Preeclampsia 3 rd trimester
  • PE-002 Preeclampsia 3 rd trimester
  • the plasma and red blood cells were isolated using dextran sedimentation as follows. Whole blood was centrifuged (1500 g, 10 minutes) and the upper plasma layer was collected. The remaining cell pellet was resuspended in an equal volume of sodium chloride (0. 15 M). Dextran (6 % w/v in 0.15 M sodium chloride) was then added to this cellular suspension at a 1 :4 ratio (dextran : cell suspension). This solution was left at room temperature for 30 minutes for red blood cell sedimentation to the bottom of the tube. After this time the upper white blood cell rich layer was discarded and the lower red blood cell fraction was isolated.
  • the red blood cell fraction was washed twice in phosphate buffered saline (PBS, 500 g, 5 minutes) and the remaining red blood cell pellet was counted (Coulter Act Diff, Beckman Coulter) and then frozen (-80 °C) until analysis.
  • PBS phosphate buffered saline
  • red blood cells were subjected to 3 freeze-thaw cycles to ensure complete cellular lysis. Following lysis, the red blood cell lysates were diluted in PBS to the equivalent of 400 million cells/mL. These lysates and the plasma samples (undiluted) were then analysed on the multiplex cytokine assays. Two multiplex assays were utilised.
  • the assays were performed according to manufacturer's instructions using an automated magnetic wash station (BioPlex Pro II, Bio-Rad) for the washing steps.
  • the assays were run on the Luminex® 200TM system (Bio-Rad) and fluorescent values were collected.
  • the calibration curve for each cytokine was analysed with 5 parametric logistic curve regression using BioPlex manager software (ver. 5.0, Bio-Rad, USA).
  • Figure 23A-23VV shows the concentration of the indicated proteins in the plasma and the lysate of red blood cells (400 million cells/mL) from participant groups calculated back to the relative concentration per mL of whole blood (approximately 5 x 10 9 cells/mL). Significant differences (p ⁇ 0.05) were determined using Student T-tests. The protein levels in the blood of healthy (non-pregnant) individuals were compared to the oncology patients and that of healthy, pregnant individuals was compared to that of pregnant individuals with preeclampsia.
  • Figure 24A-24C shows the fold difference between the concentration of the proteins in red blood cell as opposed to plasma.
  • IL-2 was significantly lower (approximately 10-fold lower) in the red blood cells collected from the oncology group than in the healthy group and the chemokine CTACK was significantly higher in the red blood cells collected from the preeclampsia group than the healthy, pregnant group.
  • twenty-eight of the 48 cytokines had a level of protein in RBCs that substantially exceeded the plasma level (greater than 2: 1 ), with the fold change ranging from 2: 1 to -280: 1 (RBCplasma ratio).
  • the median RBC-plasma ratio was 5.9: 1.
  • red blood cells may be a useful tool for identifying biomarkers in disease.
  • analysis of red blood cells in conjunction with plasma could provide more information about the disease state that is currently unachievable, especially in instances in which there are no clear differences in protein levels in plasma alone, but identifiable differences in red blood cells (e.g., bFGF) or between red blood cells and plasma.
  • red blood cells e.g., bFGF
  • Example 13 Protein profile in RBCs and RBC protein release from healthy individuals versus individuals having preeclampsia or cancer.
  • the levels of proteins released by red blood cells was evaluated in healthy individuals and those with a disease or disorder.
  • Whole blood was collected from four groups of people including: 1) healthy volunteers, 2) healthy, pregnant women, 3) pregnant women with pre-eclampsia, and 4) oncology patients (Table 13).
  • PE-002 Preeclampsia 3 rd trimester
  • PE-003 Preeclampsia 3 r trimester
  • the healthy, pregnant control samples were matched with the preeclampsia samples according to gestation.
  • Blood was collected from each volunteer by venipuncture (n > 3) directly into EDTA vacutainers (k 2 EDTA vacutamers, BD Biosciences). All fractions of blood were collected and processed at room temperature within 4 hours of collection.
  • EDTA vacutainers k 2 EDTA vacutamers, BD Biosciences
  • the red blood cells were isolated using dextran sedimentation as follows. Whole blood was centrifuged (1500 g, 10 minutes) and the upper plasma layer was discarded. The remaining cell pellet was resuspended in an equal volume of sodium chloride (0.15 M). Dextran (6 % w/v in 0.15 M sodium chloride) was then added to this cellular suspension at a 1 :4 ratio (dextran : cell suspension). This solution was left at room temperature for 30 minutes for red blood cell sedimentation to the bottom of the tube. After this time the upper white blood cell rich layer was discarded and the lower red blood cell fraction was isolated.
  • the red blood cell fraction was washed twice in phosphate buffered saline (PBS, 500 g, 5 minutes) and the remaining red blood cell pellet was counted (Coulter Act Diff, Beckman Coulter).
  • the red blood cells were then diluted to 400 million cells/mL in PBS and were incubated at 37 °C and 5 % C0 2 for 24 hrs. After incubation, the resulting conditioned PBS was isolated by centrifugation (500 g, 5 minutes). All samples were stored at -80 °C, and underwent 3 freeze/thaw cycles before analysis.
  • the conditioned PBS samples were then analysed on the multiplex cytokine assays. Two multiplex assays were utilised.
  • the assays were performed according to the manufacturer's instructions using an automated magnetic wash station (BioPlex Pro II, Bio-Rad) for the washing steps.
  • the assays were run on the Luminex® 200 ⁇ M system (Bio-Rad) and fluorescent values w r ere collected.
  • the calibration curve for each cytokine was analysed with 5 parametric logistic curve regression using BioPlex manager software (ver. 5.0, Bio-Rad, USA).
  • Figure 25A-25RR shows the concentration of the indicated proteins in the red blood cell conditioned PBS from the participant groups.
  • the conditioned PBS was produced following red blood cell incubation for 24 hrs at 37 °C.
  • Significant differences p ⁇ 0.05 were determined using Strident T-tests.
  • IL-la and GCS-F was released from red blood cells isolated from people with cancer when compared to the healthy controls, and significantly more IL-12(p40) and Eotaxin was released from the red blood cells isolated from cancer patients than healthy individuals.
  • a few cytokines were significantly different between the healthy pregnant group and the group with preeclampsia, such as MIF
  • red blood cells could be a useful diagnostic tool for identifying and tracking biomarkers in disease. Analysis of the secretion of red blood cells (red blood cell protein release) could provide additional information regarding disease state.
  • Example 14 Other exemplary non-limiting embodiments
  • a method of producing a protein profile comprising:
  • protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins detected in the red blood cell-enriched sample
  • the method further comprises measuring the level of the one or more proteins detected in the red blood cell-enriched sample, wherein the protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins measured in the red blood cell-enriched sample;
  • the method further comprises contacting the red blood cell-enriched sample with at least one cationic salt prior to detecting the presence or measuring the level of the one or more proteins, wherein the cationic salt increases the detectable level of one or more proteins in the red blood cell-enriched sample.
  • a method of producing a protein profile comprising:
  • protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins detected in the red blood cell-enriched sample
  • a cation of the at least one cationic salt is a metal ion or an ammonium ion; wherein the at least one cationic salt is selected from the group consisting of a sodium salt, a potassium salt, a magnesium salt, a lithium salt, a rubidium salt, a cesium salt, an iron salt, a francium salt, a pyridinium salt, and combinations thereof;
  • the at least one cationic salt is a chloride salt selected from the group consisting of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, rubidium chloride, cesium chloride, lithium chloride, and combinations thereof;
  • the at least one cationic salt is a carbonate salt selected from the group consisting of sodium carbonate, potassium carbonate, rubidium carbonate, cesium carbonate, lithium carbonate, and combinations thereof;
  • the at least one cationic salt is an ammonium salt
  • ammonium salt is selected from the group consisting of ammonium carbonate, ammonium chloride, ammonium nitrate, and combinations thereof.
  • a method of producing a protein profile comprising:
  • the protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins that have a protein ratio of at least 2:1;
  • the level of the one or more proteins in the red blood cells and the plasma is measured in a small volume from the red blood cell-enriched sample
  • the protein ratio is selected from the group consisting of at least 10:1, at least 20: 1 , at least 30: 1 , at least 40: 1 , at least 50: 1 , at least 60: 1 , at least 70: 1 , at least 80: 1 , at least 90:1, at least 100:1, at least 110:1, at least 120:1, at least 130:1, at least 140:1, at least 150:1, at least 160:1, at least 170:1, at least 180:1, at least 190:1, and at least 200:1.
  • the protein ratio is selected from the group consisting of at least 2:1, at least 3:1, at least 4:1, at least 5:1, at least 6:1, at least 7:1, at least 8:1, at least 9:1, and at least 10:1.
  • a method of producing a protein profile comprising:
  • the protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins that have a protein ratio of at least 2:1;
  • the protein ratio is selected from the group consisting of at least 10: 1 , at least 20: 1 , at least 30: 1 , at least 40: 1 , at least 50: 1 , at least 60: 1 , at least 70: 1 , at least 80: 1 , at least 90:1, at least 100:1, at least 110:1, at least 120:1, at least 130:1, at least 140:1, at least 150:1, at least 160:1, at least 170:1, at least 180:1, at least 190:1, and at least 200: 1.
  • the protein ratio is selected from the group consisting of at least 2:1, at least 3:1, at least 4:1, at least 5: 1, at least 6:1, at least 7:1, at least 8:1, at least 9:1, and at least 10:1.
  • a method of producing a protein profile comprising:
  • the protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins detected in the medium
  • the method further comprises measuring the level of the one or more proteins detected in the medium, wherein the protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins measured in the red blood cell-enriched sample;
  • the medium is one or more selected from the group consisting of isotonic salt solution, balanced salt solution, saline, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), and/or Earles' balanced salt solution (EBSS), Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium (RPMl), minimum essential medium (MEM), Improved Minimum Essential Medium (IMEM), Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM), Dubelco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM), and/or Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Media (IMDM).
  • isotonic salt solution balanced salt solution
  • PBS phosphate buffered saline
  • HBSS hank's balanced salt solution
  • EBSS Earles' balanced salt solution
  • RPMl Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium
  • MEM minimum essential medium
  • IMEM Improved Minimum Essential Medium
  • EMEM Eagle's minimal essential medium
  • DMEM Dubelco's modified Eagle's medium
  • IMDM Iscove
  • a method of producing a protein profile comprising:
  • the protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins detected in the medium
  • the method further comprises measuring the level of the one or more proteins detected in the medium, wherein the protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins measured in the red blood cell-enriched sample;
  • the medium is one or more selected from the group consisting of isotonic salt solution, balanced salt solution, saline, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), and/or Earles' balanced salt solution (EBSS), Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium (RPMl), minimum essential medium (MEM), Improved Minimum Essential Medium (IMEM), Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM), Dubelco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM), arid/or Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Media (IMDM).
  • isotonic salt solution balanced salt solution
  • PBS phosphate buffered saline
  • HBSS hank's balanced salt solution
  • EBSS Earles' balanced salt solution
  • RPMl Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium
  • MEM minimum essential medium
  • IMEM Improved Minimum Essential Medium
  • EMEM Eagle's minimal essential medium
  • DMEM Dubelco's modified Eagle's medium
  • IMDM I
  • a method of producing a protein profile comprising:
  • protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins detected in the red blood cell-enriched sample
  • the method further comprising measurin the level of the one or more proteins detected in the red blood cell-enriched sample, wherein the protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins measured in the red blood cell-enriched sample;
  • the small volume blood sample is 5 ⁇ to 100 ⁇ ;
  • the small volume blood sample is 5 ⁇ L ⁇ to 20 ⁇ ;
  • the blood sample is obtained from a subject
  • the subject is a human or a non-human animal
  • the small volume blood sample is obtained from a finger, heel, ear, or tail;
  • the small volume blood sample is obtained by finger prick, heel prick, or ear prick;
  • the subject is a human
  • the small volume blood sample is obtained from a finger, heel, or ear;
  • the small volume blood sample is obtained by finger prick, heel prick, ear prick, or tail prick;
  • the subject is a non-human animal selected from the group consisting of a mouse, rat, hamster, ferret, gerbil, rabbit, monkey, chimpanzee, horse, pony, donkey, sheep, pig, chicken, goat, cat, and dog;
  • the small volume blood sample is obtained by a tail prick or an ear prick
  • the small volume blood sample is obtained a number of times selected from the group consisting of one or more times per day, two or more times per day, three or more times per day, four or more times per day, and five or more times per day;
  • the small volume blood sample is obtained a number of times selected from the group consisting of one or more times per week, two or more times per week, three or more times per week, four or more times per week, five or more times per week, six or more times per week, and seven or more times per week; wherein the small volume blood sample is obtained daily;
  • the small volume blood sample is obtained a number of times selected from the group consisting of once a week, once every two weeks, once every three weeks, and once every four weeks;
  • a method of producing a disease protein profile comprising:
  • disease protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins that have a different presence or level in the protein profile from the subject having the disease or disorder compared to the protein profile of the at least one subject not having the disease or disorder;
  • disease or disorder is cancer
  • the disease protein profile is a cancer protein profile comprising one or more proteins selected from the group consisting of IL- 1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-15, IL- 17, TNF-a, TGF- ⁇ , and IFN- ⁇ ;
  • disease or disorder is preeclampsia
  • the disease profile is a preeclampsia protein profile comprising one or more proteins selected from the group consisting of TNF-a, IFN- ⁇ , IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL- ⁇ ⁇ , IL- 6, IL-8, and IL- 12;
  • preeclampsia protein profile comprises one or more proteins selected from the group consisting of IL-6, IL-8, and IFN- ⁇ .
  • a method for determining whether a subject has a disease or disorder comprising: a. ) obtaining a protein profile of the subject produced according to one or more of the above examples; and
  • similarities in the presence or level of one or more proteins in the protein profile of the subject compared to the presence or level of the one or more proteins in the disease protein profile indicate the subject has the disease or disorder; wherein the disease or disorder is selected from the group consisting of cancer, preeclampsia, autoimmune disease, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disease, diabetes, metabolic disorders, musculoskeletal disease, infectious disease, genetic disorders, renal disorders, and gastrointestinal disorders.
  • a method of monitoring treatment in a subject comprising:
  • the blood sample is a small volume blood sample
  • the subject is monitored a number of times selected from the group consisting of one or more times per day, two or more times per day, three or more times per day, four or more times per day, and five or more times per day;
  • the subject is monitored a number of times selected from the group consisting of one or more times per week, two or more times per week, three or more times per week, four or more times per week, five or more times per week, six or more times per week, and seven or more times per week;
  • the subject is monitored a number of times selected from the group consisting of once a week, once every two weeks, once every three weeks, and once every four weeks; wherein the subject is monitored once a month.
  • a method of determining the effectiveness of a treatment comprising:
  • similarities in the presence or level of one or more proteins in the protein profile of the subject that has undergone the treatment compared to the protein profile of the subject that has not undergone the treatment indicate the effectiveness of the treatment.
  • the one or more proteins are selected from the group consisting of chemokines, cytokines, growth factors, receptors, intracellular signal transmitters, hormones, nuclear transcription factors, neurotransmitters, and extracellular matrix components, and enzymes.
  • the one or more proteins are selected from the group consisting of basic FGF, CTACK, Eotaxin, G-CSF, GM-CSF, HGF, IFN-a2, IFN- ⁇ , IL- 10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL- 12p40, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, IL-18, IL-la, IL- ⁇ ⁇ , IL-2, IL-2ra, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-9, IP-10, LIF, M-CSF, MIG, ⁇ - ⁇ , ⁇ - ⁇ ⁇ , PDGF-BB, SDF-la, TNF-a, TNF- ⁇ , TRAIL, VEGF, CRP, and DDT.
  • the one or more proteins are selected from the group consisting of basic FGF, CTACK, Eotaxin, G-CSF, GM-CSF, HGF, IFN-a2, IFN- ⁇ , IL- 10, IL
  • a method for increasing the accuracy of the detection or measurement of one or more proteins in a blood sample comprising:
  • the blood sample is a small volume blood sample
  • the small volume blood sample is between 5 and 100 ⁇ .
  • ratio of blood to dextran in the blood sample is selected from the group consisting of 1 : 1 , 2: 1, 3: 1 , 4: 1 , 5: 1 , 6: 1 , 7: 1, 8: 1 , 9: 1 , and 10: 1 ;
  • a kit for measuring the protein profile of a blood sample comprising:
  • a. at least one reagent to leukodeplete a blood sample and produce a red blood cell- enriched sample
  • the cationic salt increases the detectable level of one or more proteins in the blood sample
  • the method further comprises at least one reagent to obtain a blood sample from a subject;
  • the reagent to detect the presence or measure the level of one or more proteins is one or more antibodies
  • reagent to detect the presence or measure the level of one or more proteins is an enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) apparatus.
  • ELISA enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay
  • a method for generating a protein profile from a blood sample obtained from a subject or a component of the blood sample comprising:
  • red blood cells each comprise red blood cells (RBCs)
  • the protein profile is generated from the blood sample component
  • the RBCs constitute more than 0.5%, 1%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%,, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%,, 90%, 95%, 97.5%, 98%, 99%, 99.5%, 99.75%, 99.9%, or 99.95% of total number of blood cells present in the blood sample component; wherein the blood sample component is an RBC-enriched fraction produced by leukodepletion of the blood sample;
  • leukodepletion removes more than 90%, 92.5%,, 95%, 97.5%,, 99%, 99.5%, 99.75%,, 99.9%), or 99.95%) of the number of leukocytes from the blood sample or portion thereof;
  • the leukodepletion provides an RBC-enriched fraction in which more than 99%o, 99.5%, 99.75%, 99.9%, or 99.95% of the number of blood cells in the fraction are RBCs; wherein the blood sample or portion thereof is subjected to platelet depletion;
  • the platelet depletion removes more than: 90%, 92.5%, 95%, 97.5%, 99%, 99.5%, 99.75%, 99.9%,, or 99.95% of the number of platelets from the blood sample or portion thereof;
  • the one or more proteins is/are selected from the group consisting of basic FGF, CTAC , Eotaxin, G-CSF, GM-CSF, HGF, IFN-a2, IFN- ⁇ , IL- 10, IL-12p7(), IL-13, IL- 12p40, 1L-15, 1L-16, 1L- 17A, IL-18, IL-l a, IL- ⁇ ⁇ , IL-2, IL-2ra, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, 1L-6, IL-7, IL-9, IP- 10, L1F, M-CSF, MIG, ⁇ - ⁇ , ⁇ - ⁇ ⁇ , PDGF-BB, SDF-la, TNF-a, TNF- ⁇ , TRAIL, VEGF, CRP, DDT, and any combination thereof;
  • one or more proteins comprise or consist of:
  • the blood sample is a dried blood spot sample (DBS).
  • DBS dried blood spot sample
  • a method according to one or more of the above examples, wherein generating the protein profile comprises:
  • the determining levels of one or more proteins is conducted using the cell wash; wherein the cell wash is produced by combining two or more cell washes;
  • wash liquid comprising one or more of isotonic salt solution, balanced salt solution, saline, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), and/or Earles' balanced salt solution (EBSS);
  • cell supernatant is produced by culturing cells used to produce the cell supernatant in cell culture media comprising any one or more of Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium (RPMI), minimum essential medium (MEM), Improved Minimum Essential Medium (IMEM), Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM), Dubelco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM), and/or Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Media (IMDM);
  • RPMI Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium
  • MEM minimum essential medium
  • IMEM Improved Minimum Essential Medium
  • EMEM Eagle's minimal essential medium
  • DMEM Dubelco's modified Eagle's medium
  • IMDM Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Media
  • step of determining levels of one or more proteins is conducted using multiple samples of the cell supernatant
  • samples of the cell supernatant are extracted at different time points from a culture of the cells used to produce the cell supernatant.
  • the method further comprises, determining levels of one or more proteins in a cell wash and/or a cell supernatant generated by washing and/or culturing the leukocytes.
  • thawing the platelets to produce a platelet lysate; and iii.) determining levels of one or more proteins in the thawed platelets;
  • the method further comprises determining levels of one or more proteins in a cell wash and/or a cell supernatant generated by washing and/or culturing the platelets.
  • determining levels of one or more proteins in plasma separated from the RBCs wherein the snap freezing is at a temperature of below or at -10°C, -20°C, -30°C, -40°C, - 50°C, -60°C, -70°C, -75°C, -8()°C, 100°C, -120°C, -140°C, -160°C, - 180°C, -190°C, - 195°C, or -196°C.
  • the blood stabilising agent is one or more selected from the group consisting of a protease inhibitor, a protein denaturation agent, an RNA stabiliser, an anticoagulant, and an anticoagulant in combination with another stabilising agent that is not an anticoagulant;
  • the blood stabilising agent is not an anticoagulant
  • the blood stabilising agent is a protease inhibitor selected from the group consisting of aprotinin, leupeptin, a2-macroglobulin, antipain dihydrochloride, calpain inhibitor 1, calpain inhibitor 11, chymostatin, TLCK (CAS 131918-97-3), trypsin-inhibitor, Pefabloc SC (Roche), PMSF (C6H5CH2S02F - Thermo Fisher Scientific), complete protease inhibitor cocktail (Roche), and any combination thereof;
  • a protease inhibitor selected from the group consisting of aprotinin, leupeptin, a2-macroglobulin, antipain dihydrochloride, calpain inhibitor 1, calpain inhibitor 11, chymostatin, TLCK (CAS 131918-97-3), trypsin-inhibitor, Pefabloc SC (Roche), PMSF (C6H5CH2S02F - Thermo Fisher Scientific), complete prote
  • the blood stabilizing agent is an anticoagulant is selected from the group consisting of: heparin, citrate, acid citrate dextrose, EDTA, and any combination thereof; wherein the step of contacting with the blood stabilising agent is performed within 5 seconds, 10 seconds, 20 seconds, 30 seconds, 1 minute, 2 minutes, 3 minutes, 4 minutes, 5 minutes, 10 minutes, 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 45 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours, 4 hours, 5 hours, 7.5 hours or 10 hours of conducting the step of the blood sample being obtained from the subject;

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Abstract

The present disclosure relates to methods for generating blood protein profiles in red blood cell-enriched blood samples. The disclosed methods represent a new and improved laboratory technique for producing a protein profile from blood, increasing protein detection.

Description

BLOOD PREPARATION AND PROFILING
Technical Field
The present disclosure relates generally to the field of haematology. The present disclosure also relates to protein profiling in the blood and, in particular, methods for producing or generating blood protein profiles, including cytokine and/or chemokine profiles, in red blood cell-enriched blood samples.
Cross Reference
This applications claims priority to and is related to Australian Application No.
2015904075 entitled "Blood Preparation and Profiling" filed on 7 October 2015. This application is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In addition, the other references or publications referred to in the present disclosure are also hereby
incorporated by reference in their entirety.
Background
Protein profiling of blood is used for a variety of purposes. For example, the profiling of indicative proteins in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and serum/plasma is commonly used in disease diagnosis. Additionally, monitoring protein profiles within the blood may assist in directing more effective therapeutic interventions by providing a means of monitoring responsiveness to treatment and an indication of remission or regression.
Biological markers in blood compartments such as cytokines, chemokines and growth factors may provide insight into inflammation, immune responses, and repair. In particular, the detection and quantification of pro- and/or anti-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels in blood is widely employed to gauge immune status. These cytokines and chemokines are commonly used to diagnose certain disease states, determine a predisposition to developing disease, and/or to predict prognostic outcomes.
Typically, the detection and quantification of various proteins in the blood compartment is assessed using isolated serum/plasma, and/or PBMC. This effectively neglects erythrocytes/red blood cells (RBCs) which are the most abundant cellular component of blood and account for 40%-50% of its volume. RBCs are routinely removed prior to conducting protein analyses on plasma/serum and/or white blood cells (leukocytes) because they may complicate processing/assaying and/or are not considered to provide a significant contribution to the overall protein profile of the blood. Accordingly, current analyses are inadequate in the case where RBCs make a substantial contribution and/or otherwise influence the protein profile of blood.
It has also become evident that inconsistencies in blood collection techniques and/or the way in which blood is processed may adversely affect the accuracy of known protein profiling.
A need therefore exists for more comprehensive, and/or consistent methods for determining protein profiles in blood. Accordingly, systems, methods and/or kits for addressing these and other problems disclosed herein are desirable. The present disclosure is directed to overcoming and/or ameliorating at least one of the disadvantages of the prior art as will become apparent from the discussion herein.
Summary of the Disclosure
The present inventors have surprisingly identified that RBCs, a major component of the blood that is routinely excluded from blood protein profile analyses seeking to determine blood protein profiles, are nonetheless a source of a number of different proteins (e.g., cytokines, chemokines, growth factors) at substantial levels. Moreover, the present inventors have found that the levels of various proteins detected within individual blood compartments (e.g., red blood cells, plasma, leukocytes) may differ significantly depending on the manner in which the blood and/or the components are collected and processed. Thus, the present inventors have created a new and useful laboratory technique for producing a protein profile of an enriched red blood cell sample by evaluating the presence or level of proteins newly-identified in RBCs. The new and useful laboratory technique is a significant improvement over current techniques for producing a protein profile from blood, increasing the ability to detect proteins (e.g., increasing the level of detection). Proteins are more easily detected in an enriched RBC sample due to their higher concentration in RBCs, a unique process to further increase their detectable levels in RBCs, and RBC isolation methods requiring less cell processing. Moreover, the high concentration of proteins in RBCs allows them to be detected in a small volume of blood. Without being bound to theory, it is postulated that RBCs may act as a reservoir for various proteins (e.g., cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors), and the manner in which blood is processed may influence the release and/or sequestration of these proteins by RBCs. This in turn may alter and/or enhance the protein profile of blood and/or other blood compartment(s).
Accordingly, the present disclosure provides improved methods, kits, and/or systems for producing or generating protein profiles in a small volume red blood cell- enriched sample or fraction, thereby reducing or eliminating blood processing effects on protein profiles.
Certain non-limiting embodiments of the present disclosure are listed below:
In one aspect of the disclosure, provide herein are methods for producing a protein profile in a red blood cell-enriched blood sample comprising obtaining a blood sample; leukodepleting at least a portion of the blood sample to produce a red blood cell-enriched sample; and detecting the presence of one or more proteins in a small volume of the red blood cell-enriched sample, wherein the small volume is 5 μΐ^ to 100 μΐ^, and wherein the protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins detected in the red blood cell- enriched sample. In one embodiment, the method further comprises measuring the level of the one or more proteins detected in the red blood cell-enriched sample, wherein the protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins measured in the red blood cell- enriched sample. In another embodiment, the method further comprises contacting the red blood cell-enriched sample with at least one cationic salt prior to detecting the presence or measuring the level of the one or more proteins, wherein the cationic salt increases the detectable level of one or more proteins in the red blood cell-enriched sample.
In other aspects of the disclosure, provided herein are methods of producing a protein profile comprising obtaining a blood sample; leukodepleting at least a portion of the blood sample to produce a red blood cell-enriched sample; contacting the red blood cell-enriched sample with at least one cationic salt, wherein the at least one cationic salt increases the detectable level of one or more proteins in the red blood cell-enriched sample; and detecting the presence of one or more proteins in a small volume of the red blood cell-enriched sample, wherein the small volume is 5 μΐ^ to 100 μΐ^, wherein the protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins detected in the red blood cell- enriched sample. In one embodiment, the method further comprises measurin the level of the one or more proteins detected in the red blood cell-enriched sample, wherein the protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins measured in the red blood cell- enriched sample. In another embodiment, a cation of the at least one cationic salt is a metal ion or an ammonium ion. In other embodiments, the at least one cationic salt is selected from the group consisting of a sodium salt, a potassium salt, a magnesium salt, a lithium salt, a rubidium salt, a cesium salt, an iron salt, a franc ium salt, a pyridinium salt, and combinations thereof. In still other embodiments, the at least one cationic salt is a chloride salt selected from the group consisting of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, rubidium chloride, cesium chloride, lithium chloride, and combinations thereof. In another embodiment, the at least one cationic salt is a carbonate salt selected from the group consisting of sodium carbonate, potassium carbonate, rubidium carbonate, cesium carbonate, lithium carbonate, and combinations thereof. In yet another embodiment, the at least one cationic salt is an ammonium salt. In still other embodiments, the ammonium salt is selected from the group consisting of ammonium carbonate, ammonium chloride, ammonium nitrate, and combinations thereof.
In another aspect of the disclosure, provided herein are methods of producing a protein profile in a red blood cell-enriched blood sample comprising obtaining a blood sample; leukodepleting at least a portion of the blood sample to produce a red blood cell- enriched sample; isolating the red blood cells and the plasma in the red blood cell- enriched sample; measuring the level of one or more proteins in the red blood cells and the level of the one or more proteins in the plasma; and calculating a protein ratio comprising the level of the one or more proteins in red blood cells to the level of the one or more proteins in the plasma, wherein the protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins that have a protein ratio of at least 2: 1.
In another aspect of the disclosure, provided herein are methods of producing a protein profile in a red blood cell-enriched blood sample comprising obtaining a blood sample; leukodepleting at least a portion of the blood sample to produce a red blood cell- enriched sample; incubating the red blood cells in the red blood cell-enriched sample in a medium; and detecting one or more proteins in the medium, wherein the protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins detected in the medium. In one embodiment, the method further comprises measuring the level of the one or more proteins detected in the medium, wherein the protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins measured in the red blood cell-enriched sample. In another embodiment, the medium is one or more selected from the group consisting of isotonic salt solution, balanced salt solution, saline, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), and/or Earles' balanced salt solution (EBSS), Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium (RPMI), minimum essential medium (MEM), Improved Minimum Essential Medium (IMEM), Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM), Dubelco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM), and/or Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Media (IMDM). In yet another aspect of the disclosure, provided herein are methods of producing a protein profile in a red blood cell-enriched blood sample comprising: obtaining a small volume blood sample; leukodepleting at least a portion of the small volume blood sample to produce a red blood cell-enriched sample; and detecting one or more proteins in the red blood cell-enriched sample, wherein the protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins detected in the red blood cell-enriched sample. In one embodiment, the method further comprises measuring the level of the one or more proteins detected in the red blood cell-enriched sample, wherein the protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins measured in the red blood cell-enriched sample. In another embodiment, the small volume blood sample is obtained from a subject. In another embodiment, the small volume blood sample is between 5 μΐ^ and 100 μί. In another embodiment, the small volume blood sample is between 5 μΐ^ and 20 μ In other embodiments, the small volume blood sample is obtained from a finger, heel, ear, or tail. In further embodiments, the small volume blood sample is obtained by finger prick, heel prick, ear prick, or tail prick. Tn certain embodiments, the small volume blood sample is obtained a number of times selected from the group consisting of one or more times per day, two or more times per day, three or more times per day, four or more times per day, and five or more times per day. In another embodiment, the small volume blood sample is obtained a number of times selected from the group consisting of one or more times per week, two or more times per week, three or more times per week, four or more times per week, five or more times per week, six or more times per week, and seven or more times per week. In yet another embodiment, the small volume blood sample is obtained daily. In another embodiment, the small volume blood sample is obtained a number of times selected from the group consisting of once a week, once every two weeks, once every three weeks, and once every four weeks. In other embodiments, the small volume blood sample is obtained once a month.
In certain embodiments of the methods provided herein, the blood sample is obtained from a subject. In another embodiment, the blood sample is obtained from the capillary of the subject or the vein of the subject. In yet another embodiment, the subject is a human or a non-human animal. In certain embodiments, the subject is a human. In certain other embodiments, the subject is a non-human animal selected from the group consisting of a mouse, rat, hamster, ferret, gerbil, rabbit, monkey, chimpanzee, horse, pony, donkey, sheep, pig, chicken, goat, cat, and dog. In yet another embodiment, the subject has a disease or disorder. In other embodiments of the methods of the disclosure, the blood sample is leukodepleted by one or more methods selected from the group consisting of flow cytometry, magnetic bead separation, centrifugation, cellulose column, and dextran sedimentation. In certain embodiments, the red blood cells are leukodepleted by dextran sedimentation.
In certain embodiments of the methods of the disclosure, the small volume of the red blood cell-enriched sample is between 5 μΐ^ and 20 μΐ^. In yet another embodiment, the small volume of the red blood cell-enriched sample is 5 μί.
In another embodiment of the methods provided herein, the one of more proteins are detected or measured from one or more places selected from the group consisting of the one of more proteins are detected or measured from one or more places selected from the group consisting of the surface of the red blood cells, the interior of red blood cells, the lysate of red blood cells, the supernatant of the red blood cells, medium containing the red blood cells, and medium that previously contained the red blood cells.
In other embodiments of the methods provided herein, the presence of two or more proteins is detected or the level of two or more proteins is measured in the red blood cell- enriched sample. In another embodiment, the presence of three or more proteins is detected or the level of three or more proteins is measured in the red blood cell-enriched sample. In yet another embodiment, the presence of four or more proteins is detected or the level of four or more proteins is measured in the red blood cell-enriched sample. In still another embodiment, the presence of five or more proteins is detected or the level of five or more proteins is measured in the red blood cell-enriched sample. In another embodiment, the presence of ten or more proteins is detected or the level of ten or more proteins is measured in the red blood cell-enriched sample. In still other embodiments, the presence of thirty or more proteins is detected or the level of thirty or more proteins is measured in the red blood cell-enriched sample. In certain embodiments, the presence of one or more proteins is detected or the level of one or more proteins is measured using one or more antibodies. In some embodiments, the one or more proteins are selected from the group consisting of chemokines, cytokines, growth factors, receptors, intracellular signal transmitters, hormones, nuclear transcription factors, neurotransmitters, and extracellular matrix components, and enzymes. In yet another embodiment, the one or more proteins are selected from the group consisting of the proteins listed in Table 1 or a combination of proteins listed in Table 2. In still other embodiments, the one or more proteins are selected from the group consisting of basic FGF, CTACK, Eotaxin, G-CSF, GM-CSF, HGF, IFN-a2, IFN-γ, IL- 10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-12p40, IL- 15, IL-16, IL-17A, IL-18, IL-la, IL-Ιβ, IL-2, IL-2ra, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-9, IP- 10, LIF, M-CSF, MIG, MlP- l a, ΜΙΡ-Ιβ, PDGF-BB, SDF-l a, TNF-a, TNF-β, TRAIL, VEGF, CRP, and DDT.
In one aspect of the disclosure, provided herein are methods for producing a disease protein profile in a red blood cell-enriched blood sample comprising obtaining at least one protein profile produced according to the methods provided herein from a subject having a disease or disorder, and a subject not having the disease or disorder; and comparing the protein profile of the subject having the disease or disorder to the protein profile of the subject not having the disease or disorder, wherein the disease protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins that have a different presence or level in the protein profile from a subject having the disease or disorder compared to the protein profile of the subject not having the disease or disorder. In one embodiment, the disease or disorder is cancer. In a further embodiment, the disease protein profile is a cancer protein profile comprising one or more proteins selected from the group consisting of 1L- 1 , TL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL- 10, IL- 12, IL- 15, IL-17, TNF-a, TGF-β, and lFN-y. In another embodiment, the disease or disorder is preeclampsia. In yet another embodiment, the disease profile is a preeclampsia protein profile comprising one or more proteins selected from the group consisting of TNF-a, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-Ιβ, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-12. In a further embodiment, the preeclampsia protein profile comprises one or more proteins selected from the group consisting of IL-6, IL-8, and IFN-γ.
In another aspect of the disclosure, provided herein are methods for determining whether a subject has a disease or disorder comprising obtaining a protein profile of the subject produced according to the methods provided herein; and comparing the protein profile of the subject to a disease protem profile, wherem similarities in the presence or level of one or more proteins in the protein profile of the subject compared to the presence or level of the one or more proteins in the disease protein profile indicate the subject has the disease or disorder. In one embodiment, the disease or disorder is selected from the group consisting of cancer, preeclampsia, autoimmune disease, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disease, diabetes, metabolic disorders, musculoskeletal disease, infectious disease, genetic disorders, renal disorders, and gastrointestinal disorders.
In yet another aspect of the disclosure, provided herein are methods of monitoring treatment in a subject comprising obtaining a protein profile produced according the methods provided herein from a subject before treatment and after treatment; and comparing the protein profile of the subject before treatment to the protein profile of the subject after treatment, wherein a difference in the presence or level of one or more proteins in the protein profile of the subject before treatment compared to the protein profile of the subject after treatment indicates an effect of the treatment on the subject. In one embodiment, the protein profile of a subject who has received no treatment is compared to the protein profile of the subject after receiving treatment. In another embodiment, at least one protein profile of a subject after treatment at one point in time is compared to at least one protein profile of the subject after treatment at a different point in time. In further embodiments, the subject has received the same treatment. In still other embodiments, the subject has received a different treatment. In certain embodiments, the blood sample is a small volume blood sample. In certain other embodiments, the subject is monitored a number of times selected from the group consisting of one or more times per day, two or more times per day, three or more times per day, four or more times per day, and five or more times per day. In further embodiments, the subject is monitored a number of times selected from the group consisting of one or more times per week, two or more times per week, three or more times per week, four or more times per week, five or more times per week, six or more times per week, and seven or more times per week. In another embodiment, the subject is monitored daily. In yet another embodiment, the subject is monitored a number of times selected from the group consisting of once a week, once every two weeks, once every three weeks, and once every four weeks. In yet another embodiment, the subject is monitored once a month.
In other aspects of the disclosure, provided herein are methods of determining the effectiveness of a treatment comprising obtaining at least one protein profile produced according to the methods provided herein from a subject that has undergone the treatment, and a subject that has not undergone the treatment; and comparing the protein profile of the subject who has undergone the treatment to the protein profile of the subject who has not undergone the treatment, wherein similarities in the presence or level of one or more proteins in the protein profile of the subject that has undergone the treatment compared to the protein profile of the subject that has not undergone the treatment indicate the effectiveness of the treatment.
In another aspect of the disclosure, provided herein are methods for increasing the accuracy of the detection or measurement of one or more proteins in a blood sample comprising contacting the blood sample with dextran; allowing the blood sample to form a leukocyte-containing layer and a red blood cell dense layer; isolating the red blood cells in the red blood cell dense layer to create a red blood cell-enriched blood sample; and detecting the presence or measuring the level of one or more proteins in the red blood cell-enriched blood sample. In one embodiment, the blood sample is a small volume blood sample. In a further embodiment, the small volume blood sample is between 5 and 100 μί. In another embodiment, the ratio of blood to dextran in the blood sample is selected from the group consisting of 1 : 1, 2: 1 , 3: 1, 4: 1 , 5: 1, 6: 1 , 7: 1, 8: 1, 9: 1, and 10: 1. In other embodiments, the average depletion of white blood cells and platelets from the blood sample is 85% to 99%.
In another aspects of the disclosure, provided herein are kits for measuring the protein profile of a blood sample comprising at least one reagent to leukodeplete a blood sample and produce a red blood cell-enriched sample; and at least one reagent to detect the presence or measure the level of one or more proteins in a small volume red blood cell-enriched sample. In one embodiment, the kit further comprises at least one reagent to obtain a blood sample from a subject. In another embodiment, the reagent to detect the presence or measure the level of one or more proteins is one or more antibodies. In certain embodiments, the reagent to detect the presence or measure the level of one or more proteins is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) apparatus.
In one aspect of the disclosure, provided herein is a method for generating a protein profile from a blood sample obtained from a subject or a component of the blood sample, the method comprising: determining levels of one or more proteins in the blood sample or the blood sample component, wherein the blood sample and the blood sample component each comprise red blood cells (RBCs).
In one embodiment of the method, the protein profile is generated from the blood sample component. In another embodiment of the method the number of RBCs constitute more than: 0.5%,, 1%, 5%, 10%, 20%,, 30%, 40%,, 50%, 60%, 70%,, 80%,, 90%, 95%, 97.5%, 98%,, 99%,, 99.5%, 99.75%, 99.9%, or 99.95%; of total blood cells present in the blood sample component. In yet another embodiment of the methods, the blood sample component is a RBCs-enriched fraction produced by leukodepletion of the blood sample. In other embodiments of the method, the leukodepletion removes more than: 90%, 92.5%,, 95%,, 97.5%, 99%, 99.5%,, 99.75%,, 99.9%, or 99.95%, of the original number of leukocytes from the blood sample or portion thereof. In still other embodiments, the leukodepletion provides a RBCs-enriched fraction in which more than: 99%,, 99.5%, 99.75%, 99.9%, or 99.95% of the total number of blood cells in the fraction are RBCs. In further embodiments, the blood sample or portion thereof is subjected to platelet depletion. In another embodiment, the platelet depletion removes more than: 90%, 92.5%, 95%,, 97.5%, 99%, 99.5%, 99.75%, 99.9%, or 99.95% of the original number of platelets from the blood sample or portion thereof.
In certain embodiments of the methods, the one or more proteins are selected from the group consisting of: basic FGF, CTACK, Eotaxin, G-CSF, GM-CSF, HGF, IFN-a2, IFN-γ, IL-10, 1L- I2p70, 1L-13, IL- 12p40, IL-15, lL- 16, IL-17A, IL-18, IL- la, IL-Ιβ, 1L- 2, IL-2ra, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-9, IP- 10, LIF, M-CSF, MIG, MlP-l a, ΜΙΡ-Ι β, PDGF-BB, SDF- l a, TNF- , TNF-β, TRAIL, VEGF, CRP, DDT, and combinations thereof. In other embodiments, the one or more proteins comprise or consist of a protein listed in Table 1 or a combination of proteins listed in Table 2.
In some embodiments of the methods, the levels of one or more proteins on the surface of the RBCs are determined. In still other embodiments, the levels of one or more proteins within the RBCs are determined. In another embodiment, the levels of one or more proteins released by the RBCs are determined. In yet another embodiment, the blood sample is a dried blood spot sample (DBS).
In one aspect of the disclosure, generation the protein profile comprises: producing a cell lysate, a cell wash, or a cell supernatant from a cell population comprising the RBCs; and determining levels of one or more proteins in the cell lysate, the cell wash, or the cell supernatant. In one embodiment, determination of the levels of one or more proteins is conducted using the cell lysate. In other embodiments of the methods, determination of the levels of one or more proteins is conducted by snap freezing the RBCs; thawing the RBCs to produce the cell lysate; and determining levels of the one or more proteins in the cell lysate. In yet another embodiment, determination of the levels of one or more proteins is conducted using a cell wash. In a further embodiment, the cell wash is produced by combining two or more cell washes. In yet another embodiment, the cell wash is produced using wash liquid comprising one or more of: isotonic salt solution, balanced salt solution, saline, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), and/or Earles' balanced salt solution (EBSS).
In some embodiments, determination of the levels of one or more proteins is conducted using the cell supernatant. In another embodiment, the cell supernatant is produced by culturing cells used to produce the cell supernatant in cell culture media comprising one or more of: Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium (RPMI), minimum essential medium (MEM), Improved Minimum Essential Medium (IMEM), Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM), Dubelco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM), and/or Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Media (IMDM). In other embodiments, the step of determining levels of one or more proteins is conducted using multiple samples of the cell supernatant, and the samples of the cell supernatant are extracted at different time points from a culture of the cells used to produce the cell supernatant.
In certain embodiments, methods comprise: contacting the blood sample with an anticoagulant; and determining levels of one or more proteins in leukocytes separated from the RBCs. In one embodiment, the method comprises: snap freezing the leukocytes; thawing the leukocytes to produce a leukocyte lysate; and determining levels of one or more proteins in the thawed leukocytes. In another embodiment, the method comprises: determining levels of one or more proteins in a cell wash and/or a cell supernatant generated by washing and/or culturing the leukocytes. In further embodiments, the methods comprise: contacting the blood sample with an anticoagulant; and determining levels of one or more proteins in platelets separated from the RBCs. In still other embodiments, the method comprises snap freezing the platelets; thawing the platelets to produce a platelet lysate; and determining levels of one or more proteins in the thawed platelets. In another embodiment, the method comprises determining levels of one or more proteins in a cell wash and/or a cell supernatant generated by washing and/or culturing the platelets.
In some embodiments, the methods comprise contacting the blood sample with an anticoagulant; and determining levels of one or more proteins in plasma separated from the RBCs.
In other embodiments of the methods, snap freezing is at a temperature of below or at: -5°C, -] ()°C, -20°C, -30°C, -40°C, -50°C, -60°C, -7()°C, -75°C, -80°C, 100°C, -120°C, -140°C, -160°C, -180°C, -190°C, -195°C, or - 196°C. In other embodiments of the methods, the snap freezing and thawing comprises multiple freeze-thaw cycles.
In another embodiment of the methods, leukocytes are separated from the RBCs by flow cytometry and/or dextran sedimentation. In other embodiments, platelets are separated from the RBCs by centrifugation.
In still other embodiments of the methods, the blood sample has been mixed with a blood stabilising agent during collection. In another embodiment, the blood sample obtained from the subject is contacted with a blood stabilising agent prior to determining the levels of one or more proteins. In yet another embodiment of the methods, the blood stabilising agent is one or more of: a protease inhibitor, a surfactant, a protein denaturation agent, an RNA stabiliser, an anticoagulant, and/or an anticoagulant in combination with another stabilising agent that is not an anticoagulant. In some embodiments of the methods, the blood stabilising agent is not an anticoagulant. In another embodiment, the blood stabilising agent is a protease inhibitor selected from the group consisting of: aprotinin, leupeptin, a2-macroglobulin, antipain dihydrochloride, calpain inhibitor I, calpain inhibitor II, chymostatin, TLCK (CAS 131918-97-3), trypsin- lnhibitor, Pefabloc SC (Roche), PMSF (C6H5CH2S02F - Thermo Fisher Scientific), complete protease inhibitor cocktail (Roche), and combinations thereof. In still other embodiments, the anticoagulant is selected from the group consisting of: heparin, heparin sulfate, perlecan, agrin, syndecan, betaglycan, glypican, sergiycin, citrate, acid citrate dextrose, EDTA, and combinations thereof.
In certain embodiments of the methods, the step of contacting the blood sample with the blood stabilising agent is performed within: 5 seconds, 10 seconds, 20 seconds, 30 seconds, 1 minute, 2 minutes, 3 minutes, 4 minutes, 5 minutes, 10 minutes, 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 45 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours, 4 hours, 5 hours, 7.5 hours or 10 hours of the blood sample being obtained from the subject.
In one embodiment of the methods, the blood sample is obtained from a capillary of the subject. In other embodiments of the methods, the blood sample is obtained from a vein of the subject.
In some embodiments of the methods, the step of determining the levels of one or more proteins is conducted within: 2 minutes, 5 minutes, 10 minutes, 15 minutes, 20 minutes, 25 minutes, 30 minutes, 40 minutes, 50 minutes, 1 hour, 1.5 hours, 2 hours, 3 hours, 4 hours, 5 hours, 6 hours, 7 hours, 8 hours, 9 hours, 10 hours, 1 1 hours, 12 hours, 18, hours, 24 hours, 36 hours, or 48 hours of when the blood sample is obtained.
In certain aspects, the methods further comprise a first step of obtaining the blood sample from the subject.
Further non-limiting embodiments of the present disclosure are listed below:
In certain aspects of the disclosure, provided herein is a method for generating a protein profile from a blood sample obtained from a subject, the method comprising the steps of: producing a cell lysate, a cell wash, or a cell supernatant from the blood sample or a component of the blood sample; and determining levels of one or more proteins in the cell lysate, the cell wash, or the cell supernatant, wherein the blood sample or the blood sample component comprises red blood cells. In one embodiment of the method, the red blood cells constitute more than: 0.5%, 1 %, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 95%, 97.5%, 98%, 99%, 99.5%, 99.75%, 99.9%, or 99.95% of total number of blood cells present in the blood sample or the blood sample component. In another embodiment, the methods comprise leukodepletion of the blood sample and/or the blood sample component prior to producing the cell lysate, the cell wash, or the cell supernatant. Still other embodiments of the method comprise a step of: contacting the blood sample or the blood sample component with a blood stabilising agent; and/or snap freezing the blood sample or the blood sample component.
In one aspect of the disclosure, provided herein is a method comprises generating a protein profile from a blood sample obtained from a subject, the method comprising the steps of: producing a red blood cell (RBCs)-enriched fraction by leukodepletion of the blood sample or a component of the blood sample; producing a cell lysate, a cell wash, or a cell supernatant from the RBCs-enriched fraction; and determining levels of one or more proteins in the cell lysate, the cell wash, or the cell supernatant. In one embodiment, the leukodepletion provides an RBCs-enriched fraction in which more than: 90%, 92.5%, 95%, 97.5%,, 99%,, 99.5%, 99.75%, 99.9%, or 99.95%, of the number of leukocytes present in the blood sample are removed. In another embodiment of the methods, the leukodepletion provides an RBC-enriched fraction comprising more than: 99%, 99.5%,, 99.75%, 99.9%, or 99.95% of the number of RBCs in total blood cells.
In other embodiments, the methods comprise: contacting the RBCs-enriched fraction with a blood stabilising agent; and/or snap freezing the blood sample or the blood sample component prior to producing the cell lysate, the cell wash, or the cell supernatant. In yet another embodiment, the step of producing the RBC-enriched fraction is performed prior to said snap freezing. In yet another embodiment, the step of producing the RBC- enriched fraction is performed after said snap freezing.
In some embodiments of the methods, said one or more proteins in the cell lysate, the cell wash, or the cell supernatant are selected from the group consisting of: basic FGF, CTAC , Eotaxin, G-CSF, GM-CSF, HGF, IFN-a2, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL- 12p4(), IL- 15, IL-16, IL- 17A, IL-18, IL- l a, IL-Ι β, IL-2, IL-2ra, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-9, IP- 10, LIF, M-CSF, MIG, ΜΙΡ- Ι α, ΜΙΡ-Ι β, PDGF-BB, SDF-l a, TNF-a, TNF-β, TRAIL, VEGF, and combinations thereof. In another embodiment, said one or more proteins in the cell lysate, the cell wash, or the cell supernatant comprise or consist of: a protein listed in Table 1 ; or a combination of proteins listed in Table 2.
In still other embodiments, the methods comprise platelet depletion of: the blood sample, or the blood sample component. In one embodiment, the platelet depletion removes more than: 90%, 92.5%, 95%, 97.5%, 99%,, 99.5%, 99.75%,, 99.9%, or 99.95%, of the total number of platelets present in the blood sample or the blood sample component.
In another embodiment, the step of contacting the blood with a blood stabilising agent and/or snap freezing is performed within: 5 seconds, 10 seconds, 20 seconds, 30 seconds, 1 minute, 2 minutes, 3 minutes, 4 minutes, 5 minutes, 10 minutes, 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 45 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours, 4 hours, 5 hours, 7;5 hours or 10 hours of conducting the step of the blood sample being obtained from the subject. In other embodiments, the step of producing the cell lysate comprises: one or more cycles of snap freezing and thawing cells.
In other embodiments, the methods comprise: contactin a blood sample with an anticoagulant; and determining levels of one or more proteins in leukocytes obtained from said leukodepletion of the blood sample or the blood sample component. In certain embodiments, the methods comprise: snap freezing leukocytes obtained from said leukodepletion of the blood sample or the blood sample component; thawing the leukocytes; and determining levels of one or more proteins in the thawed leukocytes. In further embodiments, the methods comprise contacting the blood sample with an anticoagulant; and detemiining levels of one or more proteins in platelets obtained from said platelet depletion of the blood sample or the blood sample component. In still other embodiments, the methods comprise: snap freezing platelets obtained from said platelet depletion of the blood sample or the blood sample component; thawing the platelets; and determining levels of one or more proteins in the thawed platelets.
In still other embodiments, the methods comprise: contacting the blood sample with an anticoagulant; separating plasma from the blood sample or the blood sample component; and determining levels of the one or more proteins in the plasma. In a further embodiment, the method further comprises: snap freezing the plasma; thawing the plasma; and determining levels of one or more proteins in the thawed plasma.
In some embodiments, the platelet depletion of the blood sample or the blood sample component is by centrifugation. In other embodiments, leukodepletion of the blood sample or the component of the blood sample is by flow cytometry and/or dextran sedimentation. In still other embodiments, the step of snap freezing is at a temperature of below: -5CC, - 10°C, -20°C, -30°C, -40°C, -50°C, -60°C, -70°C, -75°C, or -80CC. In further embodiments, the step of thawing to generate the cellular lysate comprises: one freeze-thaw cycle, two freeze-thaw cycles, three freeze-thaw cycles, four freeze-thaw cycles, five free-thaw cycles, or more than two freeze-thaw cycles, more than three freeze-thaw cycles, more than four freeze-thaw cycles, or more than five freeze-thaw cycles.
In other embodiments of the methods, the blood sample or the blood sample component comprises heparin and/or EDTA.
In still other embodiments of the methods, the step of determining levels of one or more proteins is conducted using the cell wash. In another embodiment, the cell wash is produced by combining two or more cell washes. In yet another embodiment, the cell wash is produced using wash fluid comprising one or more of: isotonic salt solution, balanced salt solution, saline, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), and Earles' balanced salt solution (EBSS).
In certain embodiments of the methods, the step of determining the levels of one or more proteins is conducted using the cell supernatant. In another embodiment, the cell supernatant is produced by culturing the cells used to produce the cell supernatant in cell culture media comprising one or more of: oswell Park Memorial Institute medium (RPMI), minimum essential medium (MEM), Improved Minimum Essential Medium (IMEM), Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM), Dubelco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM), and Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Media (IMDM).
In other embodiments of the methods, the step of determining levels of one or more proteins is conducted using multiple samples of the cell supernatant, and the samples of the cell supernatant are extracted at different time points from a culture of the cells used to produce the supernatant.
In another embodiment, the methods comprise: contacting the blood sample with an anticoagulant; and determining levels of one or more proteins in leukocytes obtained from leukodepletion of the blood sample or the blood sample component. In other embodiments, the methods comprise contacting the blood sample with an anticoagulant; and determining levels of one or more proteins in a cell wash and/or a cell supernatant generated by washing and/or culturing leukocytes obtained from leukodepletion of the blood sample or the blood sample component. In yet other embodiments, the methods comprise contacting the blood sample with an anticoagulant; and determining levels of one or more proteins in platelets obtained from platelet depletion of the blood sample or the blood sample component. In still other embodiments, the methods comprise contacting the blood sample with an anticoagulant; and determining levels of one or more proteins in a platelet wash and/or a platelet supernatant generated by washing and/or culturing platelets obtained from platelet depletion of the blood sample or the blood sample component. In another embodiment, the methods comprise contacting the blood sample with an anticoagulant; separating plasma from the blood sample; and determining the levels of the one or more proteins in the plasma.
In other embodiments, the platelet depletion comprises centrifugation. In another embodiment, the leukodepletion comprises flow cytometry and/or dextran sedimentation.
In other embodiments, the blood sample or the blood sample component comprises heparin and'Or EDTA. In further embodiments, the methods comprise a step of: contacting the blood sample or the blood sample component with a blood stabilising agent prior to the step of producing the cell wash or the cell supernatant. In another embodiment, the step of contacting with the blood stabilising agent is performed within: 5 seconds, 10 seconds, 20 seconds, 30 seconds, 1 minute, 2 minutes, 3 minutes, 4 minutes, 5 minutes, 10 minutes, 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 45 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours, 4 hours, 5 hours, 7.5 hours or 10 hours of the blood sample being obtained from the subject.
In some embodiments, the blood stabilising agent is: a protease inhibitor, a protein denaturation agent, an RNA stabiliser, an anticoagulant, and/or an anticoagulant in combination with another stabilising agent that is not an anticoagulant; is not an anticoagulant; an anticoagulant in combination with another stabilising agent that is not an anticoagulant, and/or is not heparin, EDTA, EGTA, a citrate (e.g., sodium citrate), or a fluoride (e.g., sodium fluoride).
In certain embodiments, the blood sample is obtained from a capillary of the subject. In other embodiments, the blood sample is obtained from a vein of the subject.
In other embodiments of the methods, the step of determining levels of one or more proteins is conducted within: 2 minutes, 5 minutes, 10 minutes, 15 minutes, 20 minutes, 25 minutes, 30 minutes, 40 minutes, 50 minutes, 1 hour, 1.5 hours, 2 hours, 3 hours, 4 hours, 5 hours, 6 hours, 7 hours, 8 hours, 9 hours, 10 hours, 1 1 hours, 12 hours, 18, hours, 24 hours, 36 hours, or 48 hours of when the blood sample is obtained.
In one aspect of the disclosure, provided herein are methods for generating a protein profile from a blood sample of a subject, the method comprising the steps of: producing a cell lysate from a whole blood sample obtained from a subject; and determining levels of one or more proteins in the cell lysate. In one embodiment, the method comprises: snap- freezing the whole blood sample; thawing the whole blood sample to produce the cell lysate; and determining levels of one or more proteins in the cell lysate. In another embodiment, said step of thawing the whole blood sample to generate the cell lysate comprises more than: one freeze-thaw cycle, two freeze-thaw cycles, or three freeze-thaw cycles. In still other embodiments, snap freezing is at a temperature of below: -5°C, - 10°C, -20°C, -30°C, -40°C, -50°C, -60°C, -70°C, -75°C, -80°C, -90, - 100°C, -120°C, - 104°C, -160°C, - 180°C, -190°C, -200°C.
In certain embodiments of the methods, the one or more proteins in the cell lysate is/are selected from the group consisting of: basic FGF, CTACK, Eotaxin, G-CSF, GM- CSF, HGF, IFN-<x2, IFN-y, IL-10, IL- 12p70, IL- 13, IL-12p40, IL- 15, IL-16, IL-17A, IL- 18, IL-la, IL-Ι β, IL-2, IL-2ra, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-9, lP-10, LIF, M-CSF, MIG, ΜΙΡ-Ια, ΜΙΡ- Ιβ, PDGF-BB, SDF- la, TNF-a, TNF-β, TRAIL, VEGF, and combinations thereof. In some embodiments, the one or more proteins in the cell lysate comprise or consist of: a protein listed in Table 1; or a combination of proteins listed in Table 2.
In other embodiments, the methods comprise: contacting the whole blood sample with a blood stabilising agent prior to the step of producing the cell lysate. In another embodiment, the blood stabilising agent: is a protease inhibitor, a protein denaturation agent, an RNA stabiliser, an anticoagulant, and/or an anticoagulant in combination with another stabilising agent that is not an anticoagulant; is not an anticoagulant; is an anticoagulant in combination with another stabilising agent that is not an anticoagulant, and/or is not heparin, EDTA, EGTA, a citrate (e.g., sodium citrate), or a fluoride (e.g., sodium fluoride). In still another embodiment, contacting of the whole blood sample with the blood stabilising agent occurs when the whole blood sample is obtained, or, within: 5 seconds, 10 seconds, 20 seconds, 30 seconds, 45 seconds, 1 minute, 2 minutes, 3 minutes, 4 minutes, 5 minutes, 10 minutes, 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 45 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours, 4 hours, 5 hours, 7.5 hours or 10 hours of when the whole blood sample is obtained. In yet other embodiments, the methods comprise: contacting the whole blood sample with an anticoagulant. In another embodiment, the anticoagulant is heparin and/or EDTA. In further embodiments of the methods, the whole blood sample is obtained from a capillary of the subject. In another embodiment, the whole blood sample is obtained from a vein of the subject.
In still other embodiments of the methods, the step of determining levels of one or more proteins is conducted within: 2 minutes, 5 minutes, 10 minutes, 15 minutes, 20 minutes, 25 minutes, 30 minutes, 40 minutes, 50 minutes, 1 hour, 1 ;5 hours, 2 hours, 3 hours, 4 hours, 5 hours, 6 hours, 7 hours, 8 hours, 9 hours, 10 hours, 11 hours, 12 hours, 18, hours, 24 hours, 36 hours, or 48 hours of the step of the whole blood sample being obtained from the subject.
As well as the embodiments discussed in the summary, other embodiments are disclosed in the specification, drawings, and claims. The summary is not meant to cover each and every embodiment; combination or variations are contemplated with the present disclosure.
Brief Description of the Drawings
Embodiments of the present disclosure are described, by way of example only, with reference to the accompanying figures. Figure 1A-1C shows the results of RBC immunophenotyping for CD44 against IgG controls. Cells (filled with grey histogram) are positive for CD44 (n = 3).
Figure 2 shows the results of RBC immunophenotyping for CD74 against IgG controls demonstrating that cells (filled with grey histogram) are negative for CD74 (n = 3).
Figure 3 shows the results of immunocytochemistry for MIF with alkaline phosphate staining of blood slides, positive (stained) sample (n = 1).
Figure 4 shows the results of immunocytochemistry for MIF with alkaline phosphate staining of blood slides, negative (unstained) control (n = 1 ).
Figure 5 shows the results of immunohistochemistry for MIF with HRP staining of RA synovium, negative control (n = 1).
Figure 6 shows the results of immunocytochemistry with HRP staining of RA synovium, positive control (n = 1 ).
Figure 7 is a graph showing macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) concentration in RBCs isolated using FACS, with blood collected from fingertip prick (n = 4).
Figure 8 is a graph showing MIF concentration in RBCs isolated using FACS, with blood collected from fingertip prick and venipuncture (n = 1).
Figure 9 is a graph showing RBCs isolated using FACS, dextran sedimentation and RBC lysis buffer, with blood collected from venipuncture (n = 1).
Figure lOA-lOC shows the results of tests for WBC contamination in isolated RBCs using immunophenotyping for CD45 against IgG. Cells (filled grey histogram) were largely negative for CD45 (n = 3).
Figure 11A-11GG is a series of graphs showing the levels of various proteins in RBCs that have been processed by washing compared to RBCs that have not been processed by washing.
Figure 12 is a graph summarizing the proteins secreted or released from RBCs into PBS over 24 hours at 37 °C as measured by BioPlex and reported as pg/mL (20 million RBCs in 1 OOuL PBS). Data presented as mean ± SD.
Figure 13 is a graph summarizing the proteins secreted or released from RBCs into PBS over 24 hours at 37 °C as measured by BioPlex and reported as pg/mL (20 million RBCs in lOOuL PBS). Data presented as mean ± SD.
Figure 14 is a graph summarizing the proteins secreted or released from RBCs into PBS over 24 hours at 37 °C as measured by BioPlex and reported as pg/mL (20 million RBCs in 1 OOuL PBS). Data presented as mean ± SD. Figure 15 is a graph summarizing the proteins secreted or released from RBCs into PBS over 24 hours at 37 °C as measured by BioPlex and reported as pg/mL (20 million RBCs in l OOuL PBS). Data presented as mean ± SD.
Figure 16A-16Z is a series of graphs showing the effect of protease inhibitors (PI) on the concentration of proteins secreted from RBCs (black columns) and the concentration of proteins remaining in the cells after incubation (grey columns).
Figure 17 is a graph showin fold change of CRP in lysed whole blood when normalized to plasma levels.
Figure 18 is a graph showing the concentration of CRP in plasma and in purified, lysed RBCs.
Figure 19A-19TT is a series of graphs showing the levels of various proteins in small volumes of whole blood.
Figure 20A-20AA is a series of graphs showing the levels of various proteins in red blood cells isolated from whole blood samples obtained from healthy subjects by finger prick (FT) or venipuncture (V).
Figure 21A-21B is a chart indicating the ratio of the levels of various proteins in red blood cells to the levels in plasma.
Figure 22A-22G is a series of graphs showing the levels of various proteins in red blood cells contacted with lithium chloride.
Figure 23A-23VV is a series of graphs showing the difference in the level of various proteins in red blood cells isolated from healtliy individuals, healthy pregnant women, pregnant women with preeclampsia, and oncology patients.
Figure 24A-24C is a chart indicating the ratio of the levels of various proteins in red blood cells to the levels in plasma isolated from oncology patients.
Figure 25A-25RR is graphs is a series of graphs showing the levels of various proteins secreted or released from red blood cells isolated from healthy individuals, healthy pregnant women, pregnant women with preeclampsia, and oncology patients.
Definitions
As used in this application, the singular form "a", "an" and "the" include plural references unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. For example, the term "a cell lysate" includes multiple cell lysates.
As used herein, the term "comprising" means "including." Variations of the word "comprising", such as "comprise" and "comprises," have correspondingly varied meanings. Thus, for example, a method "comprising" steps 'A' and 'Β' may consist exclusively of steps 'A' and 'B' or may include one or more additional steps (e.g., steps 'Α', Έ', and 'C').
The subject headings used in the detailed description are included for the ease of reference or the reader and should not be used to limit the subject matter found throughout the disclosure or the claims. The subject headings should not be used in construing the scope of the claims or the claim limitations.
As used herein, the term "subject" includes any animal of economic, social or research importance including bovine, equine, ovine, primate, avian and rodent species. Hence, a "subject" may be a mammal such as, for example, a human or a non-human mammal.
As used herein, the terms "antibody" and "antibodies" include IgG (including IgGl, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4), IgA (including IgAl and IgA2), IgD, IgE, or IgM, and IgY, whole antibodies, including single-chain whole antibodies, and antigen-binding fragments thereof. Antigen-binding antibody fragments include, but are not limited to, Fab, Fab' and F(ab')2, Fd, single-chain Fvs (scFv), single-chain antibodies, disulfide-linked Fvs (sdFv) and fragments comprising either a VL or VH domain. The antibodies may be from any animal origin. Antigen-binding antibody fragments, including single-chain antibodies, may comprise the variable region(s) alone or in combination with the entire or partial of the following: hinge region, CH I, CH2, and CH3 domains. Also included are combinations of variable region(s) and hinge region, CH I, CH2, and CH3 domains. Antibodies may be monoclonal, polyclonal, chimeric, multispecific, humanized, and human monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies which specifically bind the biological molecule.
As used herein, the term "protein" refers to a polymer made up of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.
As used herein, the term "protein profile" refers to protein(s) and/or protein fragment(s) present in a sample. The sample may or may not comprise cells. If the sample comprises cells, the proteins or protein fragments may exist intracellularly and/or partially or completely at the cell surface. Although not a requirement, the protein profile may also provide quantitative information for protein(s) and/or protein fragment(s) in the sample.
As used herein, the term "blood sample" refers to a sample comprising at least in part blood and/or blood components. The blood sample can be obtained directly from one or more subjects or from a pre-existing collection of blood from one or more subjects. The blood sample can be obtained from a human subject by a number of methods known in the art e.g., venipuncture (e.g., butterfly needle and Vacutainer, straight needle and Vacutainer, and butterfly needle and syringe) of a body part (e.g., arm, leg, ear) or by stick (e.g., finger, heel, or ear prick). The blood sample can be obtained from a non- human mammal sub ject by a number of methods known in the art e.g., venipuncture (e.g., needle and syringe) of any body part (e.g., tail, arm, leg (e.g., thigh), nose, face, ear, thorax, neck/throat, tongue, heart) or by stick (e.g., finger, heel, ear, or tail prick). The blood sample can be obtained from other non-human animals (e.g., chicken, birds) by a number of methods known in the art e.g., venipuncture (e.g., needle and syringe) of a body part (e.g., wing, throat, heart).
As used herein, the term "blood cells" or "cell present in the blood sample" refers to cells in the sample, including red blood cells and white blood cells, but excludes platelets.
As used herein, the term "red blood cell-enriched blood sample" or "RBC-enriched fraction" refers to a sample or component of a sample in which the proportion of RBCs is increased compared to that of the blood sample prior to enriching. The proportion of RBCs may be increased, for example, by removing cell type(s) from the sample that are not RBCs (e.g., removal of leukocytes (leukodepletion) and/or removal of platelets), and/or by removing RBCs from other cell type(s) in the sample to provide a separate sample. The RBC-enriched fraction may comprise more than 99.5%, more than 99.6%, more than 99.7%, more than 99.75%, more than 99.8%, more than 99.85%, more than 99.9%, more than 99.5%, approximately 100% red blood cells, or 100% red blood cells of the total blood cell number.
As used herein, the term "snap freezing" refers to freezing blood cells (e.g., RBCs) and/or plasma/serum to a temperature below their freezing point generally within a rapid time period (for example, in a period of a few milliseconds, 1 -2 seconds, 1-5 seconds, 1 - 10 seconds, 1 - 15 seconds, 1 -20 seconds, 10-20 seconds, 10-30 seconds, 30-60 seconds, less than one minute, or less than two minutes).
As used herein, "leukodepletion" refers to reducing the proportion of leukocytes in a blood sample or a blood sample component, for example, by removing leukocytes from the blood sample or blood sample component, or alternatively by removing other blood constituent(s) from the blood sample or blood sample component to provide a separate leukodepleted sample. In some embodiments, leukodepletion includes platelet depletion.
As used herein, "platelet depletion" refers to reducing the proportion of platelets in a blood sample or a blood sample component, for example, by removing platelets from the blood sample or blood sample component, or alternatively by isolating other blood constituent(s) from the blood sample or blood sample component to provide a separate platelet depleted sample.
As used herein, a "cell supernatant" will be understood to mean a cell culture medium used to culture a population cells at a given temperature or a given range of temperatures for a given time period, for example, more than: 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours, 6 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours, 72 hours, 96 hours, or 120 hours.
As used herein, a "cell wash" will be understood to mean a liquid that has been used to rinse a population of cells, and differs from a cell supernatant as defined above insofar as the cell wash is not used as a medium for cell culture. Accordingly, a fluid used as to generate a "cell wash" may be mixed with the cell population for a period of less than: 30 minutes, 20 minutes, 15 minutes, 10 minutes, 5 minutes, 4, minutes, 3 minutes, 2 minutes, 1 minute, or 30 seconds.
As used herein, a "medium" refers to a composition having the ability to maintain the viability of cells within a blood sample, cells isolated from a blood sample, or cell components produced from cells isolated from a blood sample. The medium can stimulate cell growth and proliferation or maintain cells at a particular and/or existing state. Non-limiting examples of media include isotonic salt solution, balanced salt solution, saline, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), Earles' balanced salt solution (EBSS), Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium (RPMI), minimum essential medium (MEM), Improved Minimum Essential Medium (IMEM), Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM), Dubelco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM), and Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Media (IMDM)
As used herein, the term "small volume" refers to a volume of blood that is one millilitre or less. A small volume can be 1 μΕ to 100 μΕ, 100 μΕ to 200 μΕ, 200 μΕ to 300 μΐ,, 300 μΕ to 400 μΕ, 400 μΕ to 500 μΐ,, 500 μΐ, to 600 μΐ,, 600 μΕ to 700 μΕ, 700 μΕ to 800 μΐ,, 800 μΕ to 900 μί, and 900 μΐ, to 1000 μΐ,. In some embodiments, a small volume is 50 μL· to 100 μ 100 μΐ to 150 μΕ, 150 μΕ to 200 iL, 200 μΐ to 250 μΐ., 250 μΕ to 300 μΕ, 300 μΕ to 350 μΕ, 350 μΕ to 400 μΐ., 400 μΕ to 450 μΕ, 450 μΕ to 500 UL, 500 μΕ to 550 μΕ, 550 μΕ to 600 μί, 600 μΕ to 650 \iL, 650 μΕ to 700 μΐ., 700 μΐ. to 750 μί, 750 μΕ to 800 μΕ, 800 μί, to 850 μΐ,, 850 μΕ to 900 μί, 900 μΕ to 950 μΕ, 950 μΕ to 1000 μL·. In some embodiments, a small volume is 1 μL· to 10 μΕ, 10 μΕ to 20 μΕ, , 20 μΕ to 30 μΐ,, 30 μΕ to 40 ί, 40 Ε to 50 μΐ,, 50 μΕ to 60 μί, 60 μΕ to 70 μΐ,, 70 μΕ to 80 μΕ, 80 μΕ to 90 μΕ, or 90 μΕ to 100 μΕ. In other embodiments, a small volume is 1 μΕ to 5 μί, 5 μΕ to 10 μΕ, 10 μΕ to 15 μΐ^, 15 μΕ to 20 μΐ.., 20 μΕ to 25 μΕ, 25 μΐ, to 30 μΕ, 30 μΕ to 35 μΕ, 35 μΕ to 40 μΕ, 40 μΕ to 45 μΕ, 45 μΕ to 50 μΐ,, 50 μΐ, to 55 μΐ,, 55 μί to 60 μΐ,, 50 μί to 65 μί, 65 μΐ, to 70 μΐ, 70 μί to 75 μΐ, 75 μί to 80 μΐ,, 80 μί to 85 μL, 85 μΐ, to 90 μΐ,, 90 μL to 95 μΐ,, or 95 μL to ΙΟΟμ In some embodiments, a small volume is 5 μί to 10 μΐ^, 5 μί to 15 μΐ., 5 μί to 20 μ ,, 5 μί, to 25 μL, 5 μί to 30 μΐ, 5 μL· to 35 μί, 5 μΐ to 40 μί, 5 μΐ, to 45 μL·, 5 μί to 50 μL, 5 μΐ, to 55 μΐ^, 5 μΐ^ to 60 μL, 5 μί to 65 μL·, 5 μί to 70 μΐ^, 5 μΐ^ to 75 μL, 5 μί to 80 μΐ,, 5 μί to 85 μί, 5 μί to 90 μί, 5 μ]_, to 95 μί, or 5 μί to 100 μL. In other embodiments, a small volume is 1 μΐ^, 2 μΐ^, 3 μΙ_., 4 μί, 5 μΐ^, 6 μί, 7 μί^, 8 μί, 9 μL, 10 μΐ^, 1 1 μΐ^, 12 μ^ 1 3 μΙ_, 14 μί, 15 μί, 16 μί, 17 μΐ., 1 8 μί, 19 μΐ., 20 μί, 21 μί, 22 μί, 23 μί, 24xL, 25 μΐ,, 26 μί, 27 \xL, 28 μί, 29 μΐ,, 30 μL, 31 μί, 32 μΐ,, 33 μί, 34 μΐ,, 35 μΐ,, 36 μί, 37 μΐ., 38 μιί, 39 μί, 40 μί, 41 μί, 42 μΐ^, 43 μί, 44 μί, 45 μί, 46 μί, 47 μί, 48 μΐ., 49 μί, or 50 μί.
As used herein, the term "detectable level" or "level of detection" refers to the ability of a composition or agent to indicate and/or signal the presence of a desired molecule, such as a protein, in a sample (e.g., a blood sample). In a red blood cell- enriched sample described in the methods disclosed herein, for example, the detectable level of a protein may increase due to an increase in the protein available for detection. This increase may be due to one or more reasons, for example, through a disruption of protein-molecule interactions (e.g., protein-protein, protein-membrane, protein-nucleic acid) that prevent and/or decrease the detection of the protein.
As used herein, protein "release" from RBCs refers to proteins that have moved by active or inactive mechanisms from (i) the intracellular region or interior of a RBC to the surface and/or extracellular or exterior region of the RBC (e.g., plasma, serum, or medium) or (ii) moved from the extracellular or exterior region of the RBC (from, e.g., the plasma, serum or medium) to the surface and/or extracellular region or the exterior of the RBC. In some embodiment, the proteins are bound to the surface of the RBCs by cell surface-protein binding interactions known in the art (e.g., receptors, covalent attachment, noncovalent attachment, adhesion). In a further embodiment, the surface bound proteins may be released back into the extracellular or exterior region of the RBC (e.g., into the plasma, serum, or medium).
As used herein, "treatment" refers to one or more therapies, protocols, methods and/or agents that can be used in preventing, managing, alleviating, or ameliorating a disease, disorder, or condition, including in the prevention, alleviation, or amelioration of one or more symptoms of a disease, disorder, or condition and/or a symptom related thereto. In certain embodiments, the terms "treatment" and "treatments" refer to a biological therapy, supportive therapy, and/or other therapies useful in the prevention, management, alleviation, and/or amelioration of a disease, disorder, or condition known to one of skill in the art, such as medical personnel.
As used herein, the phrase "substantially similar" or "substantially the same" denotes a sufficiently high degree of similarity between two numeric values such that one of skill in the art would consider the difference between the two values (e.g., protein concentration/level) to be of little or no biological and/or statistical significance within the context of the biological characteristic measured by the values. For example, the difference between the two values may be less than about 50%, less than about 40%, less than about 30%, less than about 20%, less than about 10%, or less than about 5%.
As used herein, the term "kit" refers to a delivery system havin all the components necessary to carry out the methods described herein. By way of non-limiting example, the kits may comprise means for: collecting blood, anticoagulant/s, blood stabilizing agent/s, enrichment of RBC, removal/separation of non-RBC blood components, snap- freezing blood or component/s thereof, lysmg cells, washing cells, culturing cells, detecting specific target protein/s intracellularly and/or extracellularly, or combinations thereof. In some embodiments, kits may comprise one or more of the following: device/s for obtaining a blood sample from a subject (e.g. a syringe, needle, butterfly needle, tube, needle holder, blood collection set, transfer device, vacutainer, hemaPEN™); device/s for obtaining a dried blood sample from a subject (e.g. filter paper, cards, HemaSpot™); device/s for obtaining a red blood cell fraction, a leukocyte fraction, and or a platelet fraction from a liquid blood sample (e.g. antibody coated magnetic beads); anticoagulants; protease inhibitors; protein denaturation agents; and the like. Such delivery systems include systems that allow for the storage, transport, or delivery of reaction reagents (for example labels, reference samples, supporting material, etc. in the appropriate containers) and/or supporting materials (for example, buffers, written instructions for performing an assay etc.) from one location to another. For example, kits may include one or more enclosures, such as boxes, containing the relevant reaction reagents and/or supporting materials. The term "kit" includes both fragmented and combined kits.
As used herein, the term "fragmented kit" refers to a delivery system comprising two or more separate containers that contain a subportion of the total kit components. The containers may be delivered to the intended recipient together or separately. A delivery system comprising two or more separate containers that each contains a subportion of the total kit components are included within the meaning of the term "fragmented kit". As used herein, a "combined kit" refers to a delivery system containing all of the components of a reaction assay in a single container (e.g., in a single box housing each of the desired components).
Any description of prior art documents herein, or statements herein derived from or based on those documents, is not an admission that the documents or derived statements are part of the common general knowledge of the relevant art.
Detailed Description
Currently used techniques for profiling protein levels in blood typically restrict the analysis to serum/plasma and/or PBMC. RBCs are routinely removed during blood processing prior to generating protein profiles.
The present inventors have made the unexpected determination that RBCs provide a significant source of protein markers including various cytokines and chemokines. Accordingly, a deficiency in current technologies has been identified in that RBCs were not previously recognised to provide a source of various protein markers described herein, and their exclusion from protein profiling thus provides an inadequate and/or inaccurate assessment. The present disclosure remedies this deficiency by providing methods for generating protein profiles from blood that incorporate analyses of RBCs. In particular, the present disclosure provides a new and useful laboratory technique for producing a protein profile of an enriched red blood cell sample by evaluating the presence or level of proteins newly-identified in RBCs.
Additionally, it has been determined by the present inventors that protein profiling in blood may vary depending on a number of factors including, for example, the source of the blood (e.g., venous, capillary etc.), whether an anticoagulant is used, the type of anticoagulant used, the timeframe within which protein content is measured after collection, whether blood is initially stabilised upon collection, and the particular blood compartment(s) analysed. Without limitation to a particular mode of action, variations in blood protein profiles arising from factors including those mentioned above are hypothesised to arise at least in part from the previously unknown capacity of RBCs to sequester and release numerous different proteins (e.g., cytokines and chemokines). The degree of protein release (or alternatively sequestration) by RBCs is thought to be influenced by various factors arising during blood collection and processing. Accordingly, a further deficiency in current technologies has been identified in that the protein profile of specific blood compartments (e.g., plasma/serum) was not known to be significantly affected by factors such as blood source (e.g., venous, capillary etc.), anticoagulants, timeframe before measurement post-collection, and/or the presence/absence of stabilising agents. The present disclosure remedies this deficiency by providing methods for generating protein profiles from blood in a manner that minimises changes in BCs protein profiles during the collection and processing of blood, while also taking into account the protein profile of the RBCs compartment.
The followin description conveys exemplary embodiments of the present disclosure in sufficient detail to enable those of ordinary skill in the art to practice it. Features or limitations of the various embodiments described do not necessarily limit other embodiments of the present disclosure or the present disclosure as a whole. Hence, the following detailed description does not limit the scope of the present disclosure, which is defined only by the claims.
Protein profiling in red blood cells (RBCs)
Blood protein analyses are typically performed using separated serum/plasma and/or PBMC. Despite representing a major component of blood and by far the most abundant cell type (usually >99% of total blood cells), RBCs are routinely excluded from protein profiling assays.
The present disclosure arises at least in part from the unexpected observation that RBCs contain a number of different protein markers relevant to, for example, diagnostic and prognostic outcomes in subjects. Given that RBCs represent a significant portion of the blood and almost its entire cellular component, it is useful to assess the protein profile of RBCs to gain a fuller picture of the overall protein marker content of blood.
The present disclosure also provides methods for generating a protein profile from a blood sample, red blood cell-enriched sample, and/or blood sample component comprising RBCs. In some embodiments, the number of RBCs constitute more than: 0.5%, 1%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%,, 50%, 60%,, 70%, 80%, 90%, 95%, 97.5%, 98%, 99%, 99.5%, 99.75%,, 99.9%, or 99.95%, of total number of blood cells present in the blood sample or the blood sample component.
Blood samples
The blood sample obtained in the methods is as defined herein (see, e.g., "blood sample") and may be obtained from a subject or an existing collection of blood (e.g., blood previously obtained from one or more subjects). The blood sample may be obtained from a subject using exemplary means known to those of ordinary skill in the art (see, for example, World Health Organisation, "Requirements for the collection, processing and quality control of blood, blood components and plasma derivatives ", World Health Organisation Technical report Series, No. 840, 1994, Annex 2). By way of non-limiting example, the blood sample may be obtained from a subject using venous blood, capillary blood, arterial blood or combinations thereof.
In some embodiments, a small volume blood sample is obtained from a subject or an existing collection of blood. The small volume can be obtained from a subject by methodologies known to those of ordinary skill in the art, including, for example, by stick (e.g., finger prick, heel prick, ear prick, tail prick). In one embodiment, the small volume blood sample is obtained by finger prick, heel prick, or ear prick (from, e.g., a human). In another embodiment, the small volume blood sample is obtained by tail prick (from, e.g., a mouse or rat). In other embodiments, the small volume blood sample is obtained by finger prick. In other embodiments, the small volume blood sample is obtained by heel prick (from, e.g., an infant). In still other embodiments, the small volume blood sample is obtained by ear prick. In further embodiment, the small volume blood sample is obtained by tail prick.
In some embodiments, the small volume is as defined herein (see, e.g., "small volume"). In other embodiments, the small volume is 5 μί to 100 μΐ^. In another embodiment, the small volume is 5 μί to 50 xL. In other embodiments, the small volume is 5 μί to 20 iL. In yet other embodiments, the small volume is 5 μί to 10 xL. In still other embodiments, the small volume is 5 μΐ^.
Obtaining a small volume blood sample allows for the more frequent sampling of, for example, a subject compared to a larger volume blood sample because taking a small volume blood sample decreases the harm to the subject (e.g., pain, blood loss, slow recovery of blood levels). For instance, using current methods, frequent blood sampling from small animals (e.g., rats, mice) is not achievable because a comprehensive blood analysis requires so much blood that the animal must be sacrificed. Similarly, to prevent harm from blood loss, infants can only be safely sampled frequently by stick (e.g., heel prick). According in the methods provided herein, a small volume blood sample can be obtained, in certain embodiments, with a frequency of one or more times per day, two or more times per day, three or more times per day, four or more times per day, and five or more times per day. In other embodiments, a small volume blood sample is obtained one or more times per week, two or more times per week, three or more times per week, four or more times per week, five or more times per week, six or more times per week, and seven or more times per week. In other embodiments, a small volume blood sample is obtained daily. In still other embodiments, a small volume blood sample is obtained once a week, once every two weeks, once every three weeks, and once every four weeks. In certain embodiments, a small volume blood sample is obtained once a month.
Enriched red blood cell samples or fractions
In some embodiments, the methods involve producing or generating a protein profile from a red blood cell-enriched blood sample or a red blood cell-enriched fraction and determining the levels of one or more proteins in the red blood cell-enriched sample or fraction. The red blood cell-enriched sample and red blood cell-enriched fraction may be produced from a blood sample taken from a subject, for example, by leukodepletion and/or platelet depletion. Additionally or alternatively, RBCs may be removed from a sample to produce the red blood cell-enriched sample or fraction.
Methodologies for leukodepletion and platelet depletion are well known to those of ordinary skill in the art (see, for example Wenz, B., "Methods for leukodepletion" in "Clinical Benefits of Leukodepleted Blood Products", pp 5- 16, 1 995, Springer Berlin Heidelberg; Novotny V., and Brand, A., "Leukocyte-Poor Blood and Platelet Transfusions" in "Modern Transfusion Medicine", pp 117-121, 1995, CRC Press, Inc.; White and Jennings, "Platelet Protocols: Research and Clinical Laboratory Procedures", 1999, Academic Press). Non-limiting examples of suitable techniques for leukodepletion include flow cytometry, dextran sedimentation, ficol/percol density gradient centrifugation, and the like.
The present disclosure also provides methods for increasing the sensitivity of the detection or measurement of one or more proteins in a blood sample by producing a red blood cell-enriched sample and detecting the presence or measuring the level of one or more proteins in the red blood cell-enriched sample, In certain embodiments, the ratio of blood to dextran is between 1 : 1 and 2: 1, 1 : 1 and 3:l , 1 : 1 and 4: 1, 1 : 1 and 5: l , 1 : 1 and 6: 1, 1: 1 and 7: 1, 1 : 1 and 8: 1, 1 : 1 and 9: 1, 1 : 1 and 10: 1. In other embodiments, the ratio of blood to dextran is 1 : 1 , 2: 1 , 3: 1 , 4: 1, 5: 1 , 6: 1 , 7: 1, 8: 1 , 9: 1, 10: 1. In still other embodiments, the ratio of blood to dextran is 2: 1. In further embodiments, the ratio of blood to dextran is 4: 1.
By way of non-limiting example, the red blood cell-enriched sample or fraction may be generated by leukodepletion of more than 90%, 92.5%, 95%,, 97.5%,, 99%,, 99.5%, 99.75%), or 99.9% of the number of leukocytes that were present in the blood sample. 'Leukodepletion' in this context may be achieved by depleting leukocytes from the blood sample directly, and/or by removing RBCs from the sample to provide a separate leukodepleted (RBCs-enriched) fraction. In some embodiments, leukodepletion includes platelet depletion.
Additionally or alternatively, the red blood cell-enriched sample or fraction may be generated by platelet depletion of more than 90%, 92.5%, 95%, 97.5%,, 99%, 99.5%, 99.75%), or 99.9% of the number of platelets that were present in the blood sample. 'Platelet depletion' in this context may be achieved by depleting platelets from the blood sample directly, and/or by removing RBCs from the sample to provide a separate platelet depleted (RBCs-enriched) fraction.
In some embodiments the red blood cell-enriched sample or fraction may comprise more than 99.75%, more than 99.8%, more than 99.9%, more than 99.95%, approximately 100%, or 100%) red blood cells (as a component of the total number of blood cells present within the RBCs-enriched fraction).
The percentage of RBCs in a given enriched sample or fraction may be assessed using routine methodologies known to those of ordinary skill in the art including, for example, flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy, other antibody-based techniques, and the like.
Small volume red blood cell-enriched samples
The present disclosure also provides methods of producing a protein profile from a small volume of a red blood cell-enriched blood sample. A small volume can be obtained from a red blood cell-enriched blood sample by methods known in the art and as deemed appropriate by one of ordinary skill in the art for subsequent methods of protein detection or protein measurement in the red blood cell-enriched sample (see, e.g., protein profiling below). A small volume is a volume as defined herein (see, e.g., "small volume"). By way of non-limiting example, in other embodiments, the small volume can be 5 μί to 10 μΐ^, 5 μί to 20 μΐ., 5 μΐ. to 30 μΐ., 5 to 40 μΐ., 5 μί to 50 μί, 5 μΐ. to 60 μΐ., 5 μΐ. to 70 μί,, 5 μί to 80 μΐ,, 5 μί to 90 μί, or 5 μί to 100 μΐ^. In one embodiment, the small volume is 5 μί to 100 μΐ^. In another embodiment, the small volume is 5 μί to 50 μί. In yet other embodiments, the small volume is 5 μί. to 20 μί. In still other embodiments, the small volume is 5 μL· to 10 μί. In certain embodiments, the small volume is 5 μί.
Whole blood comprising RBCs
In other embodiments, the methods of the present disclosure involve the analysis of a whole blood sample comprisin RBCs. In these embodiments, the whole blood sample is analysed for a protein profile without or substantially without altering the relative proportions of blood cell types within the sample and without separating plasma/serum.
The whole blood sample may be obtained using exemplary means known to those of ordinary skill in the art (see, for example, World Health Organisation, "Requirementsor the collection, processing and quality control of blood, blood components and plasma derivatives ", World Health Organisation Technical report Series, No. 840, 1994, Annex 2). Methodology is also presented in the Examples of the present specification.
By way of non-limiting example, the whole blood sample may be obtained using venous blood, capillary blood, arterial blood or combinations thereof.
In some embodiments, methods of the present disclosure involving the analysis of whole blood may be carried out using dried blood spot (DBS) sampling. Non-limiting advantages of DBS sampling include one or more of the following: sample stability, minimal volume requirements (e.g., 30-100 μί per spot), ease of sample collection (e.g., finger, toe or heel prick) and transport. A DBS sample obtained for use in the present disclosure may, for example, maintain stability for months to years under refrigeration and/or at ambient temperature.
Suitable methodologies for DBS are well known to those of ordinary skill in the art (see for example, McDade, el al Demography 2007, 44: 899-925; De Jesus el al. Clin Chem 2009, 55: 1 ; 158-164; Sharma el al. Drug Testing and Analysis, 2014, 6(5), 399- 414).
Briefly, and again by way of non-limiting example only, whole blood may be obtained from a subject of interest (e.g., finger, heel or toe prick) using an appropriate instrument (e.g., a sterile surgical blade or disposable lancet) and spotted onto, for example, a membrane or paper (e.g., filter paper cards). For quantitative analyses a measured volume of blood may be applied. The blood may then be allowed to dry for example, at room temperature and/or under nitrogen flow and/or controlled humidity. Drying time will generally depend at least in part on sample volume. DBS membranes or paper may be stored at ambient temperature or refrigerated, and may be appropriately packaged to avoid humidity. The DBS may then be extracted for analysis at a suitable time (e.g., using an extraction solvent or similar).
Analyses of additional blood compartments
In addition to protein profiling of enriched RBCs fractions or whole blood samples comprising RBCs, the methods of the present disclosure may further comprise conducting protein profile analyses of one or more additional blood compartment(s). For example, protein profile analyses may be conducted on one or more additional blood compartment(s) selected from plasma, serum, platelets, leukocytes, an enriched platelet fraction, an enriched leukocyte fraction, platelet-rich plasma, leukocyte-rich plasma, a mixture of platelets and leukocytes, specific leukocyte(s) (e.g., one or more of T lymphocytes (e.g., CD4+ T lymphocytes, CD8+ T lymphocytes), B lymphocytes, NK cells, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, and the like), and combinations thereof.
The additional blood compartment(s) for analysis may be prepared using known techniques. For example, cellular components may be isolated by flow cytometry, magnetic bead separation, centrifugation, and the like. Plasma/serum separation techniques are also well known in the art. Many standard texts and protocols are available and widely used for these purposes, and by way of non-limiting example reference is made to: World Health Organisation, "Requirements for the collection, processing and quality control of blood, blood components and plasma derivatives", World Health Organisation Technical report Series, No. 840, 1 994, Annex 2; Wenz, B., "Methods for leukodepletion" in "Clinical Benefits of Leukodepleted Blood Products", pp 5-16, 1995, Springer Berlin Heidelberg; Novotny V., and Brand, A. "Leukocyte-Poor Blood and Platelet Transfusions" in "Modern Transfusion Medicine", pp l 17-121 , 1995, CRC Press, Inc.; White and Jennings, "Platelet Protocols: Research and Clinical Laboratory Procedures", 1999, Academic Press).
Blood stabilising agents and anticoagulants
As noted above and again without limitation to specific mechanistic features, it is hypothesised that RBCs may have a capacity to sequester and release different proteins (e.g., cytokines and chemokines), and the degree of protein release (or alternatively sequestration) by RBCs is thought to be influenced by various factors arising during blood collection and processing.
In some embodiments a blood sample or a component thereof used in the methods of the present disclosure may be mixed with a blood stabilising agent. Agents having a capacity to stabilise RBCs are useful so as to reduce or prevent the sequestration and/or release of proteins from RBCs during processing.
The blood cell stabilising agent may be mixed with the blood sample at the time of collecting the blood sample from the subject and/or during subsequent processing of the blood sample or component(s) thereof. By way of non-limiting example, the blood stabilising agent may be mixed with the blood sample or a component thereof within 1 second, 2 seconds, 3 seconds, 4 seconds, 5 seconds, 10 seconds, 20 seconds, 30 seconds, 1 minute, 2 minutes, 3 minutes, 4 minutes, 5 minutes, 10 minutes, 15 minutes, 30 mmutes, 45 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours, 4 hours, 5 hours, 7.5 hours or 10 hours of the blood sample being obtained from the subject.
Non-limiting examples of suitable blood stabilisin agents include protease inhibitors (e.g., aprotinin, leupeptin, 2-macroglobulin, antipain dihydrochloride, calpain inhibitor I, calpain inhibitor ]], chymostatin, TLCK (CAS 131918-97-3), trypsin-inhibitor, Pefabloc SC (Roche), PMSF (C6H5CH2SO2F - Thermo Fisher Scientific), complete protease inhibitor cocktail (Roche), and the like), anticoagulants, R A stabilisers (e.g., RNALater - Thermo Fisher Scientific), protein denaturation agents, or combinations thereof.
In exemplary embodiments, the blood stabilising agent is an anticoagulant. The anticoagulant may be mixed with the anticoagulant at time of collecting the blood sample from the subject (e.g., a vessel or container into which the blood sample is collected may contain the anticoagulant), and/or during subsequent processing of the blood sample or component(s) thereof.
Non-limiting examples of suitable anticoagulants include heparin, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), EDTA disodium salt, EDTA tetrasodium salt, EDTA dipotassium salt, EDTA diammonium salt, ethylenebis(oxyethylenenitrilo)tetraacetic acid (EGTA), EDTA trisodium salt, EDTA tripotassium salt, ethylene glycol-0,0-bis(2-aminoethyl)-N,N,N,N-tetraacetic acid, N-(2- hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine-N,N,N-triacetic acid trisodium salt, citrate, acid-citrate- dextrose, di-ammonium hydrogen citrate, di-ammonium tartrate, warfarin, N-(2- bis(carboxymethyl)aminoethyl)-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)glycin salt dihydrate, citric acid, citric acid monosodium salt, citric acid disodium salt, citric acid trisodium salt, citric acid monopotassium salt, citric acid tripotassium salt, protein C/protein S, nitrilotriacetic acid, potassium sodium tartrate, potassium hydrogen D-tartrate, L-tartaric acid monosodium salt, L-tartaric acid disodium salt, L-tartaric acid dipotassium salt, streptokinase, protamine sulfate, tris(carboxyinethyl)amine, anti-thrombin III, phenprocoumon, hirudin, nicoumalone, Coumadin, glycosaminoglymays, ibuprofen, acetylsalicylic acid, indomethacin, prostaglandins, sulfinpyrazone, urokinase, hirulog, tissue plasminogen activator, coumarin, or combinations thereof.
An anticoagulant may be beneficial to use, for example, when, in addition to the analysis of a RBC-enriched fraction, protein profiling of one or more of leukocytes (white blood cells), platelets and/or plasma is desirable. An anticoagulant may also be beneficial to use if it is desirable to conduct protein profiling of the full cellular component of blood (i.e.,, mixed population of blood cells minus the plasma component).
In other embodiments, a blood sample used in the methods of the present disclosure may not be mixed with an anticoagulant. This may be the case where protein profiling is to be conducted on RBCs, enriched RBCs, or a whole blood sample. In such cases, other stabilising agents without anti-coagulant activity or with only a nominal amount of anticoagulant activity may be mixed with the blood sample or a component thereof.
In other embodiments, a blood sample or a component thereof used in the methods of the present disclosure may be stabilised by freezing (e.g., snap freezing) or by drying (e.g., dried blood spot).
Lysate analyses
In some embodiments, the methods of the present disclosure comprise generating a protein profile from a cellular lysate.
By way of non-limiting example only, an enriched RBCs fraction prepared in accordance with the methods of the present disclosure may be treated to provide a lysate in which the levels of one or more proteins are determined. For example, the lysate may be produced from one or more other blood compartment(s) selected from whole blood, plasma, serum, platelets, leukocytes, an enriched platelet fraction, an enriched leukocyte fraction, platelet-rich plasma, leukocyte-rich plasma, a mixture of platelets and leukocytes, specific leukocyte(s) (e.g., one or more of T lymphocytes (e.g., CD4+ T lymphocytes, CD8+ T lymphocytes), B lymphocytes, NK cells, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, and the like), and combinations thereof.
Additionally or alternatively, other cellular components of blood that are not RBCs, or that contain minimal amounts of RBCs (e.g., less than: 10%, 5%, 4%, 3%, 2%, 1 %, or 0.5% RBCs) may be treated to provide a lysate in which the levels of one or more proteins are determined.
Cell lysates for use in the methods of the disclosure may be produced using suitable means including, for example, liquid homogenization, mechanical disruption, freeze/thaw cycles, high frequency sound waves, manual grinding, chemical permeabilisation, enzymatic permeabilisation, permeabilisation using streptolysin, and the like.
In some embodiments, cell lysates are prepared by one, two, three, four, five, or more than five cycles of freeze/thawing. This technique offers the potential benefit of providing a means of stabilising a blood sample or component(s) thereof at the point of freezing and allowing storage prior to lysing and analysis of protein content. Typically, the snap freezing may be performed at a temperature of at or below: -10°C, -20°C, -30°C, -40°C, - 50°C, -60°C, -70°C, -75°C, -80°C, -90°C, -100°C, -120°C, -140°C, - 160°C, - 180°C, - 190°C, -195°C, or - 196°C. In still another embodiment, snap freezing is performed at a temperature of below: -5°C, -10°C, -20°C, -30°C, -40°C, -50°C, -60°C, - 70°C, -75°C, -80°C, -90, -100°C, -120°C, -104°C, -160°C, - 180°C, -190°C, -200°C. In still another embodiment, snap-freezing is performed at a temperature below: - 190°C, - 191 °C, -192°C, - 193°C, -194°C, -195°C, - 196°C, -197°C, - 198°C, or -199°C. A whole blood sample, a RBC-enriched sample or fraction, and/or another different cellular components may be snap frozen to stabilise the cells. This may reduce or prevent, for example, the sequestration and/or release of proteins from RBCs and/or other cell types present during processing.
Analyses of cell washes and supernatants
In some embodiments, the methods of the present disclosure comprise generating a protein profile from a cell wash and/or a cell supernatant.
The cell wash and/or cell supernatant may be produced from a blood sample or blood sample component comprising RBCs. In some embodiments, the number of RBCs constitute more than: 0.5%, 1%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%,, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%,, 90%, 95%,, 97.5%,, 98%, 99%,, 99.5%,, 99.75%, 99.9%, or 99.95%,, of total number of blood cells present in the blood sample or the blood sample component.
In some embodiments, the cell wash may be produced by washing RBCs-enriched cells and/or by separately washing one or more cellular blood compartment(s) selected from whole blood, platelets, leukocytes, an enriched platelet fraction, an enriched leukocyte fraction, platelet-rich plasma, leukocyte-rich plasma, mixtures of platelets and leukocytes, specific leukocyte(s) (e.g., one or more of T lymphocytes (e.g., CD4+ T lymphocytes, CD8+ T lymphocytes), B lymphocytes, NK cells, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, and the like), or combinations thereof.
In some embodiments, the cell supernatant may be produced by incubating or culturing RBCs-enriched cells and/or by separately incubating or culturing one or more cellular blood compartment(s) selected from platelets, leukocytes, an enriched platelet fraction, an enriched leukocyte fraction, platelet-rich plasma, leukocyte-rich plasma, mixtures of platelets and leukocytes, specific leukocyte(s) (e.g., one or more of T lymphocytes (e.g., CD4+ T lymphocytes, CD8+ T lymphocytes), B lymphocytes, NK cells, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, and the like), or combinations thereof. Cell supernatant may then be separated from the cells and analysed for proteins released (intracellularly and/or from the cell surface) by the incubated or cultured cells. Optionally, cells remaining after removal of the supernatant may be washed and used to generate a protein profile. The cell wash may be combined with the cell supernatant to generate the protein profile, or alternatively individual protein profiles may be generated from the cell wash and the cell supernatant separately. This will allow comparison of the two individual profiles if desired.
A series of cell superaatants may be produced by culturing cells as above for a time period and collecting a series of superaatants at different time points. Each supernatant may be analysed for protein content to provide a protein profile analysis over multiple time points. Optionally, the incubation or culture conditions (e.g., content of media, temperature, etc.) may be varied between time point sampling of supernatants. Optionally, cells remaining after removal of the supernatant at one or more time points may be washed and used to generate a protein profile. The cell wash may be combined with the cell supernatant of a given time point (e.g., the same time point) to generate the protein profile. Alternatively, individual protein profiles may be generated from individual cell washes and individual cell superaatants. Alternatively, cell washes from multiple time points may be pooled and analysed to generate the protein profile. Likewise, cell supernatants from multiple time points may be pooled and analysed to generate the protein profile.
Suitable exemplary protocols and/or media for incubating or culturing the RBCs- enriched cells and/or separately incubating or culturing the other cellular blood compartment(s) are known to those of ordinary skill in the art (see, for example, Koller, Palsson, Masters, (Eds) "Human Cell Culture: Vol IV. Primary Hematopoietic cells", 2006, Springer Science and Business Media; Mirty and Hughes (Eds) 2001, "Human Cell Culture Protocols, Third edition", 2011 , Humana Press). Methodology is also presented in the Examples of the present specification.
Cell washes may be performed using suitable media such as, for example, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), an isotonic salt solution, a growth medium, a culture medium, or combinations thereof.
Non-limiting examples of suitable media for use as cell wash liquid, cell culture media, or cell incubation media in the methods of the present disclosure include isotonic salt solution, balanced salt solution, saline, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), Earles' balanced salt solution (EBSS), Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium (RPMI), minimum essential medium (MEM), Improved Minimum Essential Medium (IMEM), Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM), Dubelco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM), and Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Media (IMDM), or combinations thereof. In some embodiments, the media is PBS or HBSS to maintain the RBCs in a non-growth or proliferation state. In other embodiments, the media is RPMI to stimulate the growth or proliferation is RBCs.
Use of Cationic Salts
In some embodiments, the methods of the present disclosure comprise contacting a red blood cell-enriched sample with at least one cationic salt that increases and/or enhances the detectable level of one or more proteins in the sample. The cationic salt may be one or more that are suitable for use in the methods, as determined by one of ordinary skill in the art. The cationic salt, in one embodiment, is a monovalent or multivalent (e.g., divalent, trivalent) metal ion salt. In other embodiments, the cationic salt is an ammonium salt.
Monovalent metal cationic salts suitable for use in the methods may include, for example, a sodium salt, a potassium salt, a lithium salt, and the like, or combinations thereof. Suitable sodium salts may include, for example, sodium chloride, sodium citrate, sodium sulfate, sodium lactate, sodium acetate, sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, sodium stearate, sodium ascorbate, sodium benzoate, sodium biphosphate, dibasic sodium phosphate, sodium phosphate, sodium bisulfite, sodium borate, sodium gluconate, sodium metasilicate, sodium propionate and the like, or combinations thereof. Suitable potassium salts may include, for example, potassium chloride, potassium citrate, potassium bromide, potassium iodide, potassium bicarbonate, potassium nitrite, potassium persulfate, potassium sulfite, potassium sulfate, potassium bisulfite, potassium phosphate, potassium acetate, potassium citrate, potassium glutamate, dipotassium guanylate, potassium gluconate, potassium malate, potassium ascorbate, potassium sorbate, potassium succinate, potassium tartrate and combinations thereof. Suitable lithium salts include, for example, lithium chloride, lithium bromide, lithium carbonate, lithium nitrate, lithium sulfate, lithium acetate, lithium lactate, lithium citrate, lithium aspartate, lithium gluconate, lithium malate, lithium ascorbate, lithium orotate, lithium succinate or combinations thereof.
Divalent metal cation salts suitable for use in the methods may include, for example, a calcium salt, a potassium salt, a beryllium salt, a strontium salt, a barium salt, a radium salt, an a iron (ferrous) salt, and the like, or combinations thereof. Suitable calcium salts include, for example, calcium chloride, calcium sulfate, calcium lactate, calcium citrate, calcium carbonate, calcium acetate, calcium phosphate, calcium alginite, calcium stearate, calcium sorbate, calcium gluconate and the like, or combinations thereof. Suitable magnesium salts may include, for example, magnesium fluoride, magnesium chloride, magnesium bromide, magnesium iodide, magnesium lactate, magnesium phosphate, magnesium sulfate, magnesium sulfite, magnesium carbonate, magnesium oxide, magnesium nitrate, magnesium borate, magnesium acetate, magnesium citrate, magnesium gluconate, magnesium maleate, magnesium succinate, magnesium malate, magnesium taurate, magnesium orotate, magnesium glycinate, magnesium naphthenate, magnesium acetylacetonate, magnesium formate, magnesium hydroxide, magnesium stearate, magnesium hexafluorsilicate, magnesium salicylate or combinations thereof. Suitable beryllium salts may include, for example, beryllium phosphate, beryllium acetate, beryllium tartrate, beryllium citrate, beryllium gluconate, beryllium maleate, beryllium succinate, sodium beryllium malate, beryllium alpha brom camphor sulfonate, beryllium acetylacetonate, beryllium formate or combinations thereof. Suitable strontium salts may include, for example, strontium chloride, strontium phosphate, strontium sulfate, strontium carbonate, strontium oxide, strontium nitrate, strontium acetate, strontium tartrate, strontium citrate, strontium gluconate, strontium maleate, strontium succinate, strontium malate, strontium aspartate in either L and/or D-form, strontium fumarate, strontium glutamate in either L- and/or D-form, strontium glutarate, strontium lactate, strontium L-threonate, strontium malonate, strontium ranelate (organic metal chelate), strontium ascorbate, strontium butyrate, strontium clodronate, strontium ibandronate, strontium salicylate, strontium acetyl salicylate or combinations thereof. Suitable barium salts may include, for example, barium hydroxide, barium fluoride, barium chloride, barium bromide, barium iodide, barium sulfate, barium sulfide (S), barium carbonate, barium peroxide, barium oxide, barium nitrate, barium acetate, barium tartrate, barium citrate, barium gluconate, barium maleate, barium succinate, barium malate, barium glutamate, barium oxalate, barium malonate, barium naphthenate, barium acetylacetonate, barium formate, barium benzoate, barium p-t-butylbenzoate, barium adipate, barium pimelate, barium suberate, barium azelate, barium sebacate, barium phthalate, barium isophthalate, barium terephthalate, barium anthranilate, barium mandelate, barium salicylate, barium titanate or combinations thereof. Suitable radium salts may include, for example, radium fluoride, radium chloride, radium bromide, radium iodide, radium oxide, radium nitride or combinations thereof. Suitable radium salts included, for example, radium fluoride, radium chloride, radium bromide, radium iodide, radium oxide, radium nitride, and the like. Suitable iron (ferrous) salts may include, for example, ferrous sulfate, ferrous oxides, ferrous acetate, ferrous citrate, ferrous ammonium citrate, ferrous gluconate, ferrous oxalate, ferrous fumarate, ferrous maleate, ferrous malate, ferrous lactate, ferrous ascorbate, ferrous erythrobate, ferrous glycerate, ferrous pyruvate, and the like, or combinations thereof.
In certain embodiments, the cationic salt is one that may prevent and/or minimize pH change in the red blood cell-enriched sample (e.g., a chloride or carbonate salt). Thus, in certain embodiments, the cationic salt is a carbonate salt. In further embodiments, the cationic salt may also prevent or minimize damage to cell membranes (e.g., RBC membranes). In certain embodiments, the cationic salt is a chloride salt. In other embodiments, the cationic salt is calcium chloride, potassium chloride, strontium chloride, barium chloride, radium chloride, or combinations thereof. In still other embodiments, the cationic salt is sodium chloride, potassium chloride, rubidium chloride, cesium chloride, lithium chloride, or combinations thereof. In yet another embodiment, the cationic salt is lithium chloride. In another embodiment, the cationic salt may be sodium chloride. In certain embodiments, the cationic salt may be calcium carbonate, potassium carbonate, strontium carbonate, barium carbonate, or radium carbonate. In still other embodiments, the cationic salt is sodium carbonate, potassium carbonate, rubidium carbonate, cesium carbonate, lithium carbonate, or combinations thereof. In yet other embodiments, the cationic salt is lithium carbonate. In other embodiments, the cationic salt is sodium carbonate.
Salts other than monovalent or divalent metal cation salts may be used in the methods, including, for example, a trivalent or other multivalent salt, such as aluminum, silicon, scandium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, cobalt, nickel, copper, manganese, zinc, tin, silver and the like, or combinations thereof.
Ammonium salts may also be used in the methods with suitable ammonium salts including ammonium carbonate, ammonium chloride, ammonium nitrate, ammonium acetate, ammonium biorate, ammonium bromide, ammonium carbamate, ammonium cerium (IV) sulphate, ammonium chromate, ammonium dichromate, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, ammonium fluoride, ammonium formate, ammonium phosphate, ammonium sodium phosphate dibasic tetrahydrate, ammonium thiosulfate, ammonium zirconium, and the like, or combinations thereof.
In certain embodiments, the cationic salt is ammonium chloride. In other embodiments, the cationic salt is ammonium carbonate.
In certain embodiments, the red blood cell-enriched sample is contacted with oneor more combinations of the foregoing cationic salts to increase and/or enhance the detectable level of one or more protein levels in the sample. In some embodiments, the red blood cell-enriched sample is contacted with at least one cationic salt. In other embodiments, the red blood cell-enriched sample is contacted with at least two cationic salts. In still other embodiments, the red blood cell-enriched sample is contacted with at least three cationic salts.
In certain embodiments, the blood sample is contacted with one or more combinations of the foregoing cationic salts to increase and/or enhance the detectable level of one or more protein levels in the sample prior to the red blood cell enriching of the blood sample. In some embodiments, the blood sample is contacted with at least one cationic salt. In other embodiments, the blood sample is contacted with at least two cationic salts. In still other embodiments, the blood sample is contacted with at least three cationic salts.
The references to salts (e.g., sodium containing salts) herein include anhydrous forms and hydrated forms of the salt.
In certain embodiments, a whole blood sample is contacted with at least one of the foregoing cationic salts to produce a protein profile. The whole blood sample may be obtained from venous blood, capillary blood, arterial blood or combinations thereof, using methods known to one of ordinary skill in the art.
In other embodiments, one or more additional blood compartment(s) selected from plasma, serum, platelets, leukocytes, an enriched platelet fraction, an enriched leukocyte fraction, platelet-rich plasma, leukocyte-rich plasma, a mixture of platelets and leukocytes, specific leukocyte(s) (e.g., one or more of T lymphocytes (e.g., CD4+ T lymphocytes, CD8+ T lymphocytes), B lymphocytes, NK cells, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, and the like), and combinations thereof, are contacted by at least one for the foregoing cationic salts to produce a protein profile. The additional blood compartment(s) for analysis may be prepared using known techniques (e.g., flow cytometry, magnetic bead separation, centrifugation, and the like).
Protein profiling
The present disclosure provides methods for producing a protein profile from a blood sample comprising RBCs (e.g., an RBCs-enriched fraction or a whole blood sample). The production of such profiles may provide insight into important biological processes including, but not limited to inflammation, immune responses, and/or cellular repair, or disease state.
While not imparting particular limitations to the type(s) of proteins that may be detected in generatin a protein profile by the methods of the present disclosure, non- limiting examples include signalling molecules, e.g., chemokines, cytokines, growth factors, receptors, intracellular signal transmitters, honnones, nuclear transcription factors, neurotransmitters, and extracellular matrix components, and enzymes. For instance, growth factors can include those that stimulate the growth, proliferation, healing, or differentiation of, for example, skin cells (e.g., epidermal growth factor (EGF), keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), migration stimulating factor (MSF)), nerve cells/nervous system (e.g., neuregulins (e.g., neuregulin 1 -4) and neurotrophins (e.g., nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), neurotrophin-4 (NT-4))), connective tissue and mesenchymal cells (e.g., fibroblast growth factor (FGF)), blood vessel cells (e.g., platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), placental growth factor (PGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)), blood cells (e.g., erythropoietin, granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)), and cell proliferation (e.g., insulin-like growth factor (IGF- l ), insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2)) along with pleitropic growth factors (e.g, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF- ), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)).
Receptors can include intracellular receptors (e.g., nuclear (e.g., transcription factors), cytoplasmic (e.g., steroid), and endoplasmic recticulum (e.g., IP3) receptors) or cell surface receptors (e.g., ion channel-linked, G-protehi-linked, enzyme-linked, toll gate, and ligand gated receptors, integrins). Hormones can include lipid-derived (e.g., prostaglandins, leukotrienes, prostacylins, thromboxane); amino acid-derived (e.g., epinephrine, melatonin, thyroxine); peptide (e.g., amylin, adiponenctin, angiotensinogeii, calcitonin, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), erythropoietin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide- 1 (GLP-1 ), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF), and the like); and steroids (e.g., androgen, estrogen, glucocorticoid, progestogen, secosteroid, and the like). Intracellular signal transmitters or transducers can include families of proteins and protein kinases (e.g., Ras and Src families), and Wnt signalling family proteins. Neurotransmitters can include amino acids, peptides (e.g., β-eiidorphin, opioid), monoamines, trace amines, purines, and gasotransmitters. Nuclear transcription factors can include modulators of DNA transcription (e.g., fos, myc, N-myc), and modulators of mRNA transcription, and suppressors of cell division (e.g., p53, pRb). Enzymes can include oxidoreductases (e.g., alcohol, aldehyde, amino acid, sulphur, diphenol, peroxidises, and the like) NADH, NADPH, nucleases, proteases, kinases, transferases, hydrolases, lyases, isomerases, and ligases. Chemokines and cytokines are numerous can include, for example, those listed in Table 1 and Table 2 below.
In certain embodiments, the methods comprise producing a protein profile consisting of, or comprising, a single protein or combinations of proteins as set out in Tables 1 and 2 below. The profile may be generated from a blood sample comprising RBCs (e .g., a red blood cell-enriched sample, RBC-enriched fraction, or a whole blood sample). Additional profile(s) may be generated from other cellular compartment(s) including, but not limited to, plasma, serum, platelets, leukocytes, an enriched platelet fraction, an enriched leukocyte fraction, platelet-rich plasma, leukocyte-rich plasma, a mixture of platelets and leukocytes, specific leukocyte(s) (e.g., one or more of T lymphocytes (e.g., CD4+ T lymphocytes, CD8+ T lymphocytes), B lymphocytes, NK cells, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, and the like), or combinations thereof. Table 1: Non-limiting examples of individual proteins thai may be included in a protein profile generated by the methods of the present disclosure. Ihe protein profile may comprise or consist of one or more of the proteins listed.
Single Protein (acronym) Single Protein (full name)
basic FGF basic fibroblast growth factor
CTACK (CCL27) cutaneous T cell-attracting chemokine
Eotaxin 1 CCLl l #1
G-CSF (GCSF) granulocyte-colony stimulating factor
GM-CSF (CSI-2) granulocyte -macrophage colony-stimulating factor
HGF hepatocyte growth factor
1ΓΝ-α2 interferon alpha subtype tx2
ΙΓ-'Ν-γ interferon gamma
IF- 10 interleukin 10
IL-12 (IL-12p70) interleukin 12 p35 and p4() heterodimer
IL- 13 interleukin 13
TI.- 12p40 interleukin 12 p4() subunit
IL- 15 interleukin 15
IL- 16 interleukin 16
IL- 17A interleukin 1 7A
IL- 1 interleukin 18
IL- la interleukin 1 alpha
ΙΙ,-Ι β interleukin 1 beta
IL-2 interleukin 2
II -2li; interleukin 2 receptor alpha chain
IL-3 interleukin 3
IL-5 interleukin 5
IL-6 interleukin 6
IL-7 interleukin 7
IF-9 interleukin 9
IP-10 (CXCLIO) interferon gamma-induced protein 10
LFF leukaemia inhibitory factor
M-CSF (CSF l ) macrophage colony-stimulating factor
MIG (CXCL9) monokine induced by FFNy, Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 MIP- la (CCL3) macrophage inflammatory protein- 1 alpha
MIP (CCL4) macrophage inflammatory protein- 1 alpha
PDGF-BB platelet-derived growth factor B chain homodimer
SDF- la (CXCL 12) stromal cell-derived factor 1
TNF-a (cachexin) tumour necrosis factor alpha
TNF-β (lymphotoxin) tumour necrosis factor-beta
TKAll TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand
VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor
IL-8 interleukin 8
MCP-t (CCL2) monocyte chemoattractant protein- 1
MGSA maintenance of genome stability protein A
PGE-2 prostaglandin E2
RANTES (CCL5) regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted
MIF (MMIF) macrophage migration inhibitory factor
GRO-a (CXCL1 ) Growth-regulated oncogene u
CRP C-reactive protein
DDT (MIF-2) D-dopachrome tautomerase
IGF-1 insulin like growth factor I
Table 2: Non-limiting examples of protein pairs that may be included in a protein profile generated by the methods of the present disclosure. The protein profile may comprise or consist of one or more protein pairs listed.
Protein #1 Protein #2 Protein #1 Protein #2 Protein #1 Protein #2 Protein #1 Protein #2 basic FGF CTACK CTACK Eotaxin 1 Eotaxin 1 G-CSF G-CSF GM-CSF basic FGF Eotaxin 1 CTACK G-CSF Eotaxin 1 GM-CSF G-CSF' IIGF basic FGF G-CSF CTACK GM-CSF Eotaxin 1 IIGF G-CSF IFN-a2 basic FGF GM-CSF CTACK IIGF Eotaxin 1 IFN-a2 G-CSF IFN-γ basic FGF IIGF CTACK IFN-a2 Eotaxin 1 IFN-γ G-CSF' IL- 10 basic FGF IFN-(x2 C TACK IFN-γ Eotaxin 1 IE- 10 G-CSF IL-12 basic FGF IFN-γ CTACK IE- 10 Eotaxin 1 IL- 12 G-CSF IL- 13 basic FGF IE- 10 CTACK IL- 12 Eotaxin 1 IE- 13 G-CSF IL- 12p40 basic FGF IE- 12 CTACK IE- 13 Eotaxin 1 IL-I2p40 G-CSF IL- 15 basic FGF IL-13 C TACK IL- 12p40 Eotaxin 1 IL- 15 G-CSF IL- 16 basic FGF IL-12p40 CTACK IL- 15 Eotaxin 1 IL- 16 G-CSF IL-1 7A basic FGF IE- 15 CTACK IL- 16 Eotaxin 1 IE- 17A G-CSF IL-18 basic FGF IE- 16 CTACK IL- 1 7A Eotaxin 1 IL- 18 G-CSF IL-la basic FGF IL-17A CTACK IE- 1 8 Eotaxin 1 IE- la G-CSF' IL- Ι β basic FGF IE- 18 CTACK IE- l a Eotaxin 1 ΙΕ- 1 β G-CSF IL-2 basic FGF IL-lu CTACK IL- Ι β Eotaxin 1 11,-2 G-CSF IL-2ra basic FGF IL-Ιβ CTACK IL-2 Eotaxin 1 IL-2ra G-CSF IL-3 basic FGF IL-2 CTACK IL-2ra Eotaxin 1 IL-3 G-CSF IL-5 basic FGF IL-2ra CTACK IL-3 Eotaxin 1 IL-5 G-CSF IL-6 basic FGF IL-3 CTACK IL-5 Eotaxin I 11,-6 G-CSF IL-7 basic FGF TE-5 CTACK TE-6 Eotaxin 1 IL-7 G-CSF IL-9 basic FGF IL-6 CTACK IL-7 Eotaxin 1 IL-9 G-CSF' IP- tO basic FGF IL-7 CTACK IE -9 Eotaxin 1 IP- 10 G-CSF LIF basic FGF IL-9 CTACK IP- 10 Eotaxin 1 LIF G-CSF M-CSF basic FGF IP- 10 CTACK LIF Eotaxin 1 M-CSF G-CSF MIG basic FGF LIF CTACK M-CSF Eotaxin 1 MIG G-CSF MlP- l a basic FGF M-CSF CTACK MIG Eotaxin 1 M IP- la G-CSF ΜΙΡ- Ι β basic FGF MIG CTACK MlP- la Eotaxin 1 ΜΙΡ-1β G-CSF PDGF-BB basic FGF MlP-la CTACK MIP-ip Eotaxin 1 PDGF-BB G-CSF SDF-la basic FGF ΜΙΡ-Ιβ CTACK PDGF-BB Eotaxin 1 SDF-la G-CSF' TNF-a basic FGF PDGF-BB CTACK SDF-la Eotaxin 1 TNF-a G-CSF TNF-β basic FGF SDF- l rx CTACK TNF-a Eotaxin 1 ΤΝΓ-β G-CSF TRAIL basic FGF I M C TACK TNF-β Eotaxin I TRAIL G-CSF VEGF basic FGF ΤΝΙ'-β CI AC K FRAIL Eotaxin 1 VEGF G-CSF IL-8 basic FGF TRAIL, CTAC VEGF Eotaxin 1 IL-8 G-CSF MCP-1 basic FGF VEGF CTACK IL-8 Eotaxin 1 MCP-1 G-CSF MGSA basic FGF IL-8 CTACK MCP-1 Eotaxin 1 MGSA G-CSF PGE-2 basic FGF MCP-1 CTACK MGSA Eotaxin 1 PGE-2 G-CSF RANTES basic FGF MGSA I, U K PGE-2 Eotaxin 1 RANTES (j-CSF MIF basic FGF PGE-2 CTACK RANTES Eotaxin 1 MIF G-CSF GRO-a basic FGF RANTES CTACK MIF Eotaxin I GRO-a G-CSF CRP basic FGF MIF CTACK GRO-a Eotaxin 1 CRP G-CSF DDI basic FGF GRO-a CTACK CRP Eotaxin 1 DDT
basic GF CRP CTACK DDT
basic FGF DDT
Protein #1 Protein #2 Protein #1 Protein #2 Protein #1 Protein #2 Protein #1 Protein #2
GM-CSF IIGF IIC.I II N-i/2 IFN-a2 lF'N-γ TFN-γ IL-10
GM-CSF IFN-(i2 IIGF IFN-γ IFN-o2 IL-10 IFN-γ IL-12
GM-CSF LFN-γ HGF IL-10 IFN-a2 IL-12 IFN-γ IL-13
GM-CSF IL-10 I K.I IL-12 IFN-(i2 IL-13 Ιϊ'Ν-γ IL-12p40
GM-CSF IL-12 HGF IL-13 IFN-a2 IL-12p4() IFN-γ IL-15
GM-CSF IL-13 IIGF IL-12p4() IFN-o2 IL-15 IFN-γ II ,- 16
GM-CSF IL-12p40 HGF IL-15 IFN-a2 11,-16 IFN-γ IL-17A
GM-CSF IL-15 HGF IE- 16 IFN-U2 IL-17A IFN-y IL-18
GM-CSF IL-J6 HGF IL-17A IFN-a2 IL-1 IFN-γ IL-la
GM-CSF IL-17A IIGF IL-18 IFN-o2 IL-la IFN-γ IL-Ιβ
GM-CSF IL-18 HGF IL-la IFN-a2 II,- 1 β IFN-y IL-2
GM-CSF IL-la II F IL-Ιβ IFN-a2 IL-2 IFN-y IL-2ra
GM-CSF IL-IP IIGF IL-2 IFN-a2 IL-2ra IFN-y IL-3
GM-CSF IL-2 IIGF IL-2ra IFN-02 11,-3 IFN-y IL-5
GM-CSF IL-2ra HGF IL-3 IFN-a2 IL-5 IFN-y IL-6
GM-CSF IL-3 HGF IL-5 IFN-a2 11,-6 IFN-y IL-7
GM-CSF IL-5 HGF IL-6 IFN-a2 IL-7 IFN-y IL-9
GM-CSF IL-6 IIGF IL-7 IFN-02 IL-9 IFN-y IP-10
GM-CSF IL-7 IIGF IL-9 IFN-(i2 IP-10 IFN-y LIF
GM-CSF IL-9 HGF IP-10 IFN-a2 LIF IFN-y M-CSF
GM-CSF IP- 10 HGF LIF IFN-a2 M-CSF IFN-y MIG
GM-CSF LIF IIGF M-CSF IFN-a2 MIG IFN-y ΜΙΡ-Ια
GM-CSF M-CSF HGF' MIG IFN-a2 MIP-lo IFN-y ΜΙΡ-1β
GM-CSF MIG HGF ΜΙΡ-Ια IFN-a2 ΜΙΡ-1β IFN-y PDGF-BB
GM-CSF M IP- Id IIGF ΜΙΡ-Ιβ IFN-a2 PDGF-BB IFN-y SDF-la
GM-CSF ΜΙΡ-1β HGF PDGF-BB IFN-U2 SDF-la IFN-y TNF-a
GM-CSF PDGF-BB IIGF SDF-la IFN-a2 'I"NF-a IFN-y TNF-β
GM-CSF SDF-la IIGF TNF-a IFN-a2 TNF-P IFN-y TRAIL
GM-CSF TNF-a HGF TNF-β IFN-a2 TRAIL IFN-y VEGF
GM-CSF TNF-β HGF TRAIL IFN-a2 VEGF IFN-y IL-8
GM-CSF FRAIL HGF VEGF IFN-(i2 IL-8 IFN-y MCP-1
GM-CSF VEGF HGF IL-8 IFN-a2 MCP-1 IFN-y MGSA
GM-CSF IL-8 HGF MCP-1 IFN-a2 MGSA IFN-y PGE-2
GM-CSF MCP-1 HGF MGSA IFN-02 PGE-2 IFN-y RANTES
GM-CSF MGSA IIGF' PGE-2 IFN-(i2 RANTES IFN-y MIF
GM-CSF PGE-2 HGF RANTES IFN-02 MIF IFN-y GRO-a
GM-CSF RANTES HGF MIF IFN-02 GRO-a IFN-y CRP
GM-CSF MIF HGF GRO-a IFN-o2 CRP IFN-y DDT
GM-CSF GRO-a HGF CRP IFN-02 DDT
GM-CSF CRP HGF DDT
GM-CSF DDT
Protein #1 Protein #2 Protein #1 Protein #2 Protein #1 Protein #2 Protein #1 Protein #2
IL-10 IL-12 IL-12 IL-13 IL-13 IL-12p40 IL-12p40 IL-15 IL-10 IL-13 IL-12 IL-12p40 IL-13 IL-15 IL-12p40 IL-16
11,-10 IL-12p40 11,-12 IL-15 IL-13 IL-16 IL-12p40 IL-17A
IL-10 IL-15 IL-12 IL-16 IL-13 IL-17A IL-12p40 IL-18
IL-10 IL-16 IL-12 IL-17A IL-13 IL-18 IE-I2p40 IL-la
IL-10 IL-17A IL-12 IL-18 IL-13 IL-lu IL-12p4() IL-i
IL-10 IL-18 IL-12 IL-la IL-13 IL-ip IL-12p40 IL-2
IL-10 IL-la IL-12 IL-ip IL-13 IL-2 IL-12p40 IL-2ra
IL-10 IL-ip IL-12 IL-2 IL-13 IL-2ra IL-12p40 IL-3
IL-10 IL-2 IL-12 IL-2ra IL-13 IL-3 IL-12p4() IL-5
IL-10 IL-2ra IL-12 IL-3 IL-13 IL-5 IL-12p40 IL-6
IL-10 IL-3 IL-12 IL-5 IL-13 IL-6 IL-12p40 IL-7
IL-10 IL-5 IL-12 IL-6 IL-13 IL-7 IL-12p40 IL-9
IL-10 IL-6 IL-12 IL-7 IL-13 IL-9 IE-12p40 IP- 10
IL-10 IL-7 IL-12 IL-9 IL-13 IP- 10 IL-12p40 LIF
IL-10 IL-9 IL-12 IP- 10 IL-13 LIF IL-12p40 M-CSF
IL-10 IP- 10 IL-12 LIF IL-13 M-CSF IL-12p40 MIG
IL-10 LIF IL-12 M-CSF IL-13 MIG IL-12p40 MlP-la
IL-10 M-CSF IL-12 MIG IL-13 MTP-la IL-12p4() MIP-ip
IL-10 MIG IL-12 ΜΙΡ-Ια IL-13 MIP-ip IL-12p40 PDGF-BB
IL-10 MIP-1(X IL-12 ΜΙΡ-Ιβ IL-13 PDGF-BB IL-12p40 SDF-la
IL-10 ΙΡ-Ιβ IL-12 PDGF-BB IL-13 SDF-la IL-I2p40 TNF-a
IL-10 PDGF-BB IL-12 SDF-la IL-13 TNF-a IL-12p40 TNF-P
IL-10 SDF-la IL-12 TNF-a IL-13 TNF-P IL-12p40 FRAIL
IL-10 TNF-a IL-12 TNF-P IL-13 TRAIL IL-12p40 VEGF
IL-10 TNF-P IL-12 TRAIL IL-13 VEGF IL-12p40 IL-8
IL-10 FRAIL IL-12 VEGF IL-13 IL-8 IL-12p40 MCP-1
IL-10 VEGF IL-12 IL-8 IL-13 MCP-1 IL-I2p40 MGSA
IL-10 IL-8 IL-12 MCP-1 IL-13 MGSA IL-12p40 PGE-2
IL-10 MCP-1 IL-12 MGSA IL-13 PGE-2 IE-12p40 RANTES
IL-10 MGSA IL-12 PGE-2 IL-13 RANTES IL-12p4() MIF
IL-10 PGE-2 IL-12 RANTES IL-13 MIF IL-12p40 GRO-a
IL-10 RAM I S IL-12 MIF IL-13 GRO-a IL-12p40 CRP
IL-10 MIF IL-12 GRO-a IL-1 CRP IL-12p40 DDT
IL-10 GRO- IL-12 CRP IL-13 DDT
IL-10 CRP IL-12 DDI
IL-10 DDT
Protein #1 Protein #2 Protein #1 Protein #2 Protein #1 Protein #2 Protein #1 Protein #2
IL-15 IL-16 IL-16 IL-17A IL-17A IL-1 IL-18 IL-la
IL-15 IL-17A IL-16 IL- 18 IL-17A IL-la IL-18 IL-ip
IL-15 IL-18 IL-16 IL-la IL-17A IL-lp IL-18 IL-2
IL-15 IL-lrx IL-16 IL-IP IL-17A IL-2 IL-18 IL-2ra
IL-15 IL-ip IL-16 IL-2 IL-17A IL-2ra IL-1 IL-3
IL-15 IL-2 IL-16 IL-2ra IL-17A IL-3 IL-18 IL-5
IL-15 IL-2ra IL-16 IL-3 IL-17A IL-5 IL-18 IL-6
IL-15 IL-3 IL-16 IL-5 IL-17A IL-6 IL-18 IL-7
IL-15 IL-5 IL-16 IL-6 IL-17A IL-7 IL-18 IL-9
IL-15 IL-6 IL-16 11,-7 IL-17A IL-9 IL-18 IP- 10
IL-15 IL-7 IL-16 IL-9 IL-I7A lP-10 IL-18 LIF
IL-15 IL-9 IL-16 IP- 10 IL-17A LIF IL-18 M-CSF
IL-15 IP- 10 IL-16 LIF IL-17A M-CSF IL-18 MIG
TL-15 ETF IL-16 M-CSF IL-17A MIG 11,-18 ΜΙΡ-Ι
IL-15 M-CSF IL-16 MIG IL-17A ΜΙΡ-Ια IL-18 MIP-ip
IL-15 MIG IL-16 ΜΙΡ-Ια IL-17A MIP-ip IL-18 PDGF-BB
IL-15 MIP-lix IL-16 MIP-ip IL-17A PDGF-BB IL-18 SDF-la
IL-15 ΙΡ-Ιβ IL-16 PDGF-BB IL-17A SDF-la IL-18 TNF-a
IL-15 PDGF-BB IL-16 SDF-la IL-17A TNF-a IL-18 TNF-P
IL-15 SDF-la IL-16 TNF-a IL-17A TNF-P IL-18 TRAIL
IL-15 TNF-a IL-16 TNF-P II.-17A FRAIL IL-18 VEGF
Figure imgf000046_0001
IL-3 VEGF IL-5 IL-8 IL-6 MCP-1 IL-7 MGSA
IL-3 IL-8 IL-5 MCP- 1 IL-6 MGSA IL-7 PGE-2
IL-3 MCP-1 IL-5 MGSA IL-6 PGE-2 IE -7 RANTES
IL-3 MGSA IL-5 PGE-2 IL-6 RANTES IL-7 MIF
IL-3 PGF.-2 IL-5 RANTES IL-6 MIF IL-7 GRO-a
IL-3 R ANTES IL-5 MIF IL-6 GRO-a IL-7 CRP
IL-3 IF IL-5 GRO-a IL-6 CRP IL-7 DDT
IL-3 GRO-a IL-5 CRP IL-6 DDT
IL-3 CRP IL-5 DDT
IL-3 DDT
Protein #1 Protein #2 Protein #1 Protein #2 Protein #1 Protein #2 Protein #1 Protein #2
IL-9 IP- 10 IP- 10 LIF LIF M-CSF M-CSF MIG
IL-9 LIF IP- 10 M-CSF LIF MIG M-CSF MIP- l a
IL-9 M-CSF IP- 10 MIG LIF MIP- la M-CSF ΜΙΡ- Ι β
IL-9 MIG IP- 10 MIP-l a LIF MIP- i M-CSF PDGF-BB
IL-9 MIP-la IP- 10 ΜΙΡ-1 β LIF PDGF-BB M-CSF SDF-la
IL-9 MIP- i p IP- 10 PDGF-BB LIF SDF- la M-CSF TNF-a
IL-9 PDGF-BB IP- 10 SDF-la LIF TNF-a M-CSF TNF-P
IL-9 SDF-l a IP- 10 TNF-a LIF TNF-P M-CSF TRAIL
IL-9 TNF-a IP- 10 TNF-P LIF TRAIL M-CSF VEGF
IL-9 TNF-P IP- 10 TRAIL LIF VEGF M-CSF IL-8
IL-9 TRAIL IP- 10 VEGF LIF IL-8 M-CSF MCP-1
IL-9 VEGF IP- 10 IL-8 LIF MCP-1 M-CSF MGSA
IL-9 IL-8 IP- 10 MCP-1 LIF MGSA M-CSF PGE-2
IL-9 MCP-1 IP- 10 MGSA LIF PGE-2 M-CSF RANTES
IL-9 MGSA IP- 10 PGE-2 LIF RANTES M-CSF MIF
IL-9 PGE-2 IP- 10 RANTES LIF MIF M-CSF CRP
IL-9 RANTES IP- 10 MIF LIF GRO-a M-CSF DDT
IL-9 MIF IP- 10 GRO-a LIF CRP
IL-9 GRO-a I - 10 CRP LIF DDT
IL-9 CRP IP- 10 DDT
IL-9 DDT
Protein #1 Protein #2 Protein #1 Protein #2 Protein #1 Protein #2 Protein #1 Protein #2
MIG MIP-la MIP-l a ΜΙΡ- 1 β MIP-i p PDGF-BB PDGF-BB SDF-la
MIG ΜΙΡ-Ιβ MIP-l a PDGF-BB MIP-i p SDF-la PDGF-BB TNF-a
MIG PDGF-BB MIP- la SDF-la ΜΙΡ- Ιβ TNF-a PDGF-BB TNF-P
MIG SDF- la MIP-la TNF-a MIP-ip TNF-p PDGF-BB TRAIL MIG TNF-a MIP-l a TNF-P MIP-i p TRAIL PDGF-BB VEGF
MIG TNF-β MIP-l a TRAIL MIP-i p VEGF PDGF-BB IL-8
MIG TRAIL MIP-l a VEGF IP-i p IL-8 PDGF-BB MCP-1
MIG VEGF MIP-l a IL-8 MIP-i p MCP-1 PDGF-BB MGSA
MIG IL-8 MIP-l a MCP-1 MIP-i p MGSA PDGF-BB PGE-2
MIG MCP-1 MIP-l a MGSA MIP-i p PGE-2 PDGF-BB RANTES
MIG MGSA MIP- la PGE-2 MIP- ip RANTES PDGF-BB MIF
MIG PGE-2 MIP-la RANTES MIP-ip MIF PDGF-BB GRO-a
MIG RANTES MIP-l a MIF MIP-i p GRO-u PDGF-BB CRP
MIG MIF MIP-l a GRO-a MIP-i p CRP PDGF-BB DDT
MIG GRO-a MIP-l a CRP IP-i p DDT
MIG CRP MIP-l a DDT
MIG DD I
Protein #1 Protein #2 Protein #1 Protein #2 Protein #1 Protein #2 Protein #1 Protein #2
SDF-la TNF-a TNF-a TNF-P TNF-P TRAIL TRAIL VEGF
SDF-la TNF-β TNF-a TRAIL TNF-P VEGF TRAIL IL-8
SDF- lrt TRAIL TNF-a \'EGF TNF-P IL-8 TRAIL MCP- l
SDF-lrt VEGF TNF-a IL-8 TNF-P MCP-1 TRAIL MGSA
SDF-lu IL-8 TNF-a MCP-1 TNF-P MGSA TRAIL PGE-2
SDF-l a MCP-1 TNF-a MGSA TNF-P PGE-2 TRAIL RANTES
SDF- lrt MGSA TNF-a PGE-2 TNF-P RANTES TRAIL MIF
Figure imgf000048_0001
In certain embodiments, the presence or level of one or more, two or more, three or more, four or more, five or more, six or more, seven or more, eight or more, nine or more, ten or more, eleven or more, twelve or more, thirteen or more, fourteen or more, fifteen or more, sixteen or more, seventeen or more, eighteen or more, nineteen or more, twenty or more, twenty-one or more, twenty-two or more, twenty-three or more, twenty-four or more, twenty-five or more, twenty-six or more, twenty-seven or more, twenty-eight or more, twenty-nine or more or thirty or more proteins is detected or measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample.
In certain other embodiments, the presence of one or more proteins is detected or the level of one or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample. In another embodiment, the presence of two or more proteins is detected or the level of two or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample. In other embodiments, the presence of three or more proteins is detected or the level of three or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample. In another embodiment, the presence of four or more proteins is detected or the level of four or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample. In yet another embodiment, the presence of five or more proteins is detected or the level of five or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell- enriched sample. In other embodiments, the presence of six or more proteins is detected or the level of six or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample. In another embodiment, the presence of seven or more proteins is detected or the level of seven or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample. In still another embodiment, the presence of eight or more proteins is detected or the level of eight or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample. In yet another embodiment, the presence of eight or more proteins is detected or the level of eight or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample. In other embodiments, the presence of nine or more proteins is detected or the level of nine or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample. In still other embodiments, the presence of ten or more proteins is detected or the level of ten or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample. In yet other embodiments, the presence of eleven or more proteins is detected or the level of eleven or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell- enriched sample. In some embodiments, the presence of twelve or more proteins is detected or the level of twelve or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample. In some other embodiment, the presence of thirteen or more proteins is detected or the level of thirteen or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample. In yet other embodiments, the presence of fourteen or more proteins is detected or the level of fourteen or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample. In further embodiments, the presence of fifteen or more proteins is detected or the level of fifteen or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample. In another embodiment, the presence of sixteen or more proteins is detected or the level of sixteen or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample. In still other embodiments, the presence of seventeen or more proteins is detected or the level of seventeen or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample. In yet other embodiments, the presence of eighteen or more proteins is detected or the level of eighteen or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample. In another embodiment, the presence of ninteen or more proteins is detected or the level of ninteen or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample. In still another embodiment, the presence of twenty or more proteins is detected or the level of twenty or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample. In yet another embodiment, the presence of twenty-one or more proteins is detected or the level of twenty-one or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample. In other embodiments, the presence of twenty-two or more proteins is detected or the level of twenty-two or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample. In another embodiment, the presence of twenty-three or more proteins is detected or the level of twenty-three or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample. In still other embodiments, the presence of twenty-four or more proteins is detected or the level of twenty-four or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample. In yet another embodiment, the presence of twenty-five or more proteins is detected or the level of twenty-five or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample. In still another embodiment, the presence of twenty-six or more proteins is detected or the level of twenty-six or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample. In still other embodiment, the presence of twenty-seven or more proteins is detected or the level of twenty-seven or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample. In another embodiment, the presence of twenty-eight or more proteins is detected or the level of twenty-eight or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample. In another embodiment, the presence of twenty-nine or more proteins is detected or the level of twenty-nine or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample. In still another embodiment, the presence of thirty or more proteins is detected or the level of thirty or more proteins is measured in a red blood cell-enriched sample.
A protein profile may be produced or generated for example, by detecting the presence of one or more proteins in a lysate, cell wash, cell supernatant, or a combination thereof prepared according to the methods of the present disclosure. The protein(s) detected may also be quantified (e.g., measure the levels) to produce or generate the protein profile.
Methods for the detection and/or quantification of proteins in single or mixed blood cell populations and plasma/serum are well known to those of ordinary skill in the art. Non-limiting examples of suitable methods include antibody-based methods generally, flow cytometry, ELISA, lateral flow, immunostaining, immunofluorescence, immunoelectrophoresis (including, e.g., Western blot), and the like. Alternatively, proteins may be detected and/or quantified using mass spectrometry, spectroscopy, chromatography, electrophoresis, bicinchoninic acid assay (BCA), enzyme assay and the like. Again by way of example only, protein quantification methods are described in United States Patent Number 7,501 ,286, United States Patent Number 8,530, 182, and United States Patent Publication Number 2013028838. Methodology is also presented in the Examples of the present specification.
The present disclosure also provides methods for producing a protein profile from a red blood cell-enriched sample by calculating a protein ratio comprising the level of one or more proteins in red blood cells to the level of those same one or more proteins in plasma. The protein ratio can be calculated by normalizing the measured protein concentration in the RBCs and the plasma and then dividing the concentration of the protein(s) in the RBCs by the concentration of the protein(s) in the plasma. The concentration of the protein(s) in the RBCs and plasma are normalized by calculating their relative concentration per millilitre in whole blood (percent in whole blood).
In certain embodiments, the protein ratio comprising the level of one or more proteins in red blood cells to the level of those one or more proteins in the plasma is at least 2:1, at least 10:1, at least 20:1, at least 30:1, at least 40:1, at least 50:1, at least 60:1, at least 70:1, at least 80:1, at least 90:1, at least 100:1, at least 110:1, at least 120:1, at least 130:1, at least 140:1, at least 150:1, at least 160:1, at least 170:1, at least 180:1, at least 190:1, or at least 200:1. In other embodiments, the protein ratio is at least 3:1, at least 4:1, at least 5:1, at least 6:1, at least 7:1, at least 8:1, at least 9:1, at least 10:1, at least 11:1, at least 12:1, at least 13:1, at least 14:1, at least 15:1, at least 16:1, at least 17:1, at least 18:1, at least 19:1, at leat 20:1, at least 21:1, at least 22:1, at least 23:1, at least 24:1, at least 25:1, at least 26:1, at least 27:1, at least 28:1, at least 29:1, at least 30:1, at least 31:1, at least 32:1, at least 33:1, at least 34: 1, at least 35:1, at least 36: 1, at least 37: 1, at least 38: 1 , at least 39: 1 or at least 40: 1.
Disease profiles
The present disclosure provides methods herein for producing a disease protein profile in a red blood cell-enriched blood sample. A disease profile can be produced for any disease or disorder for which there is a difference in the presence or levels of one or more proteins associated with a red blood cell-enriched sample. By way of non-limiting example, a disease profile can be produced for any disease or disorder for which there is a difference in the presence or level of one or more of the proteins set out in Table 1 or one or more combinations of proteins set out in Table 2. For example, in certain embodiments, the disease or disorder profiled is selected from the group consisting of cancer, preeclampsia, autoimmune disease, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disease, diabetes, metabolic disorders, musculoskeletal disease, infectious disease, genetic disorders, renal disorders, and gastrointestinal disorders.
A disease protein profile(s) is produced according to the methods by obtaining a protein profile produced from one or more subjects having a disease or disorder and a protein profile produced from one or more subject not having the disease or disorder. In one embodiment, at least one protein profile is obtained from a subject having a disease or disorder and at least one profile is obtained from a subject not having the disease or disorder. In another embodiment, the blood samples are obtained from one or more subjects having a disease or disorder and pooled. In another embodiment, blood samples are obtained from one or more subjects not having the disease or disorder and pooled. Then, a protein profile is obtained from the pooled blood samples of the one or more subjects having the disease or disorder and/or the one or more subjects not having the disease or disorder. In another embodiment, one or more protein profiles are obtained from subjects having a disease or disorder and one or more protein profiles are obtained from subjects not having the disease or disorder and a statistical analysis is performed to determine the proteins that comprise (by a statistically relevant difference in presence and/or level of the proteins) a protein profile for a subject having a disease or disorder and a protein profile for a subject not having the disease or disorder. The protein profile of a subject having a disease or disorder and the protein profile of a subject not having the disease or disorder can be produced at any time prior to determining a disease protein profile.
In one embodiment, the disease protein profile comprises one or more proteins that are present in a subject having a disease or disorder but not present in a subject not having the disease or disorder. In another embodiment, the disease protein profile comprises one or more proteins that are not present in a subject having a disease or disorder, but are present in a subject not having the disease or disorder. In still other embodiments, the disease protein profile comprises one or more proteins that have a higher level in a subject having a disease or disorder compared to the one or more proteins in a subject not having the disease or disorder. In another embodiment, the disease protein profile comprises one or more proteins that have a lower level in a subject having a disease or disorder compared to the one or more proteins in a subject not having the disease or disorder. In certain embodiments, a disease protein profile comprises proteins that have a different (e.g., higher, lower, or both higher and lower) level of one or more proteins in a subject having a disease or disorder compared to the one or more proteins in a subject not having the disease or disorder.
In certain embodiments, the disease protein profile is a cancer protein profile comprising one or more proteins selected from the group consisting of IL- 1 , IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL- 10, IL- 12, IL- 15, IL- 17, TNF-a, TGF-β, and IFN-γ. In other embodiments, the disease protein profile is a preeclampsia protein profile comprising one or more proteins selected from the group consisting of TNF-a, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-5, IL- 10, IL-Ι β, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-12. In particular embodiments, the preeclampsia protein profile comprises one or more proteins selected from the group consisting of IL-6, IL-8, and IFN-γ. The present disclosure also provides methods for determining whether a subject has a disease or disorder using a disease profile produced by the methods provided herein. A protein profile can be obtained from a subject that is/was produced by one of the methods provided herein. The protein profile of the subject can be compared to a disease protein profile for similarities between the two protein profiles (in e.g., protein presence or protein levels). Similarities between a subject's protein profile and a disease protein profile may indicate that the subject has the disease or disorder. In one embodiment, there are similarities between at least one protein, at least two proteins, at least three proteins, at least four proteins, at least five proteins, at least six proteins, at least seven proteins, at least eight proteins, at least nine proteins, at least ten proteins, at least eleven proteins, at least twelve proteins, at least thirteen proteins, at least fourteen proteins, at least fifteen proteins, at least sixteen proteins, at least seventeen proteins, at least eighteen proteins, at least nineteen proteins, at least twenty proteins, at least twenty-one proteins, at least twenty-two proteins, at least twenty-three proteins, at least twenty-four proteins, at least twenty-five proteins, at least twenty-six proteins, at least twenty-seven proteins, at least twenty-eight proteins, at least twenty-nine proteins, or at least thirty proteins. In another embodiment, there are similarities between at least one protein. In yet another embodiment, there are similarities between at least 3 proteins. In still other embodiments, there are similarities between at least 5 proteins. In still other embodiments, there are similarities between at least 10 proteins. In yet other embodiments, there are similarities between at least 15 proteins. In other embodiments, there are similarities between at least 20 proteins. In other embodiments, there are similarities between at least 30 proteins.
In certain embodiments, a subject's protein profile and a disease protein profile have the same one or more proteins present, indicating that the subject may have the disease or disorder. In other embodiments, a subject's protein profile and a disease protein profile have the same or substantially similar level of one or more proteins, indicating that the subject may have the disease or disorder. The same or substantially similar level of one or more proteins can include, for example, protein levels that are the same (e.g., within a relevant statistical analysis as determined by one of skill in the art) to protein levels that are determined to be sufficiently different by a person of ordinary skill in the art by, for example, a statistical analysis or a determined threshold fold difference (e.g., less than a two-fold difference). In some embodiments, the level of one or more proteins of a subject's protein profile and a disease protein profile are the same. In yet another embodiment, the level of one or more proteins of a subject's protein profile and a disease protein profile are substantially similar. In another embodiment, the difference in the level of one or more proteins of a subject's protein profile and a disease protein profile is determined by statistical methods known to one skilled in the art (e.g., a T-test with a p-value of 0.05 or greater). In yet another embodiment, the difference in the level of one or more proteins of a subject's protein profile and a disease protein profile is determined by comparison to a predetermined reference range (e.g., a healthy or normal concentration range) known to those of skill in the art. In other embodiments, the level of one or more proteins of a subject's protein profile and a disease protein profile is less than 0.5 fold different. In certain other embodiments, the level of one or more proteins of a subject's protein profile and a disease protein profile is less than 1 -fold different. In still another embodiment, the level of one or more proteins of a subject's protein profile and a disease protein profile is less than 1.5-fold different. In still other embodiments, the level of one or more proteins of a subject's protein profile and a disease protein profile is less than 2-fold different.
Treatment evaluation
The present disclosure also provides methods for monitoring treatment in a subject using a protein profile produced by the methods provided herein. A protein profile produced according to the methods provided herein is obtained from a subject before treatment and after treatment and the protein profiles compared for differences between the two (in, e.g., protein presence or protein levels). In one embodiment, the subject receiving treatment can be undergoing one or more treatments or a number of treatments. In another embodiment, the subject has received and/or is receiving a particular treatment. In one embodiment, the protein profile obtained before treatment can be obtained from a subject who has had no treatment and is compared to the protein profile of the subject after treatment. In another embodiment, a protein profile is measured during the course of a treatment and at least one protein profile of a subject obtained at one point in time during the treatment is compared to at least one protein profile of the subject obtained at a different point in time during the treatment. In certain embodiments, the protein profiles before treatment and after treatment are obtained from a subject that is undergoing the same treatment during the course of a treatment. In another embodiment, the protein profiles before treatment and after treatment are obtained from a subject that is undergoing a different treatment during the course of a treatment (e.g., a subject that has switched treatments).
Differences between a subject's protein profile (e.g., protein presence or levels) before treatment and after treatment may indicate that the treatment has had an effect on the subject. In one embodiment, there are differences between at least one protein, at least two proteins, at least three proteins, at least four proteins, at least five proteins, at least six proteins, at least seven proteins, at least eight proteins, at least nine proteins, at least ten proteins, at least eleven proteins, at least twelve proteins, at least thirteen proteins, at least fourteen proteins, at least fifteen proteins, at least sixteen proteins, at least seventeen proteins, at least eighteen proteins, at least nineteen proteins, at least twenty proteins, at least twenty-one proteins, at least twenty-two proteins, at least twenty- three proteins, at least twenty-four proteins, at least twenty-five proteins, at least twenty- six proteins, at least twenty-seven proteins, at least twenty-eight proteins, at least twenty- nine proteins, or at least thirty proteins. In another embodiment, there are differences between at least one protein. In yet another embodiment, there are differences between at least 3 proteins. In still other embodiments, there are differences between at least 5 proteins. In still other embodiments, there are differences between at least 10 proteins. In yet other embodiments, there are differences between at least 15 proteins. In other embodiments, there are differences between at least 20 proteins. In other embodiments, there are differences between at least 30 proteins.
In certain embodiments, a subject's protein profile obtained before treatment comprises different protein(s) than the protein profile obtained after treatment, indicating that the treatment may have had an effect on the subject. In other embodiments, a subject's protein profile obtained before treatment has different levels of one or more proteins compared to the protein profile obtained after treatment, indicating that the treatment may have had an effect on the subject. The different levels of one or more proteins can include, for example, levels that are greater than a 1 -fold difference. In certain embodiments, the difference in the level of one or more proteins of a subject's protein profile before and after treatment is greater than 1 -fold, greater than 1 .5 fold, greater than 2-fold, greater than 2.5 fold, greater than 3-fold, greater than 3.5-fold, greater than 4-fold, greater than 4.5 fold, greater than 5-fold, greater than 5.5 fold, greater than 6- fold, greater than 6.5-fold, greater than 7-fold, greater than 7.5-fold, greater than 8-fold, greater than 8.5-fold, greater than 9-fold, greater than 9.5-fold, and greater than 10-fold. In some embodiments, the difference in the level of one or more proteins of a subject's protein profile before and after treatment is greater than 1.5-fold. In other embodiments, the difference in the level of one or more proteins of a subject's protein profile before and after treatment is greater than 2-fold. In other embodiments, the difference in the level of one or more proteins of a subject's protein profile before and after treatment is greater than 2.5-fold. In still other embodiments, the difference in the level of one or more proteins of a subject's protein profile before and after treatment is greater than 3 -fold. In still other embodiments, the difference iti the level of one or more proteins of a subject's protein profile before and after treatment is greater than 4-fold. In another embodiment, the difference in the level of one or more proteins of a subject's protein profile before and after treatment is greater than 5-fold. In other embodiments, the difference in the level of one or more proteins of a subject's protein profile before and after treatment is greater than 6-fold. In still other embodiment, the difference in the level of one or more proteins of a subject's protein profile before and after treatment is greater than 7-fold. In another embodiment, the difference in the level of one or more proteins of a subject's protein profile before and after treatment is greater than 8-fold. In yet another embodiment, the difference in the level of one or more proteins of a subject's protein profile before and after treatment is greater than 9-fold. In still another embodiment, the difference in the level of one or more proteins of a subject's protein profile before and after treatment is greater than 10-fold.
In certain embodiments, a small volume blood sample is obtained to produce the protein profiles before treatment and after treatment in order to monitor treatment of a subject. A small volume blood sample allows the subject to be sampled frequently and, consequently, allows for treatment monitoring at a frequency not previously achievable. In some embodiments, a small volume blood sample can be obtained at a frequency of one or more times per day, two or more times per day, three or more times per day, four or more times per day, and five or more times per day. In other embodiments, a small volume blood sample is obtained one or more times per week, two or more times per week, three or more times per week, four or more times per week, five or more times per week, six or more times per week, and seven or more times per week. In other embodiments, a small volume blood sample is obtained daily. In still other embodiments, a small volume blood sample is obtained once a week, once every two weeks, once every three weeks, and once every four weeks. In certain embodiments, a small volume blood sample is obtained once a month.
The present disclosure also provides methods for determining the effectiveness of a treatment in a subject using protein profiles produced by the methods provided herein. In one embodiment, at least one protein profile is obtained from a subject that has undergone a treatment. In another embodiment, at least one protein profile is obtained from a subject that has not undergone a treatment and the protein profile of the subject that has undergone treatment is compared to the protein profile of the subject that has not undergone treatment. In another embodiment, the protein profile is produced using blood samples obtained from one or more subjects who have not undergone treatment and the blood samples are pooled. In another embodiment, a protein profile is produced using one or more blood samples obtained from a subject who has undergone treatment and the blood samples are pooled. A protein profile is then obtained from the pooled blood samples of the one or more subjects that have not undergone treatment and/or the one or more blood samples from a subject that has not undergone treatment. In another embodiment, one or more protein profiles are obtained from one or more subjects that have not undergone treatment and/or one or more protein profiles are obtained from a subject that has undergone treatment, and a statistical analysis is performed by means known in the art to determine the proteins that will comprise (by a difference in presence and/or level) the protein profile of a subject that has not undergone treatment and the protein profile of a subject that has undergone treatment. The protein profile of a subject that has undergone a treatment and the protein profile of a subject that has not undergone a treatment can be produced at any time prior to comparison of the two protein profiles.
Similarities in the presence or level of one or more proteins between the protein profile of the subject that has undergone treatment, compared to the protein profile of the subject that has not undergone treatment may indicate the effectiveness of the treatment. In one embodiment, there are similarities between at least one protein, at least two proteins, at least three proteins, at least four proteins, at least five proteins, at least six proteins, at least seven proteins, at least eight proteins, at least nine proteins, at least ten proteins, at least eleven proteins, at least twelve proteins, at least thirteen proteins, at least fourteen proteins, at least fifteen proteins, at least sixteen proteins, at least seventeen proteins, at least eighteen proteins, at least nineteen proteins, at least twenty proteins, at least twenty-one proteins, at least twenty-two proteins, at least twenty-three proteins, at least twenty-four proteins, at least twenty-five proteins, at least twenty-six proteins, at least twenty-seven proteins, at least twenty-eight proteins, at least twenty-nine proteins, or at least thirty proteins. In another embodiment, there are similarities between at least one protein. In yet another embodiment, there are similarities between at least 3 proteins. In still other embodiments, there are similarities between at least 5 proteins. In still other embodiments, there are similarities between at least 10 proteins. In yet other embodiments, there are similarities between at least 15 proteins. In other embodiments, there are similarities between at least 20 proteins. In other embodiments, there are similarities between at least 30 proteins.
In certain embodiments, the protein profile of a subject that has undergone treatment and the protein profile of a subject that has not undergone treatment have the same one or more proteins present, indicating that the treatment may have been effective. In other embodiments, the protein profile of a subject that has undergone treatment and the protein profile of a subject that has not undergone treatment have the same or substantially similar level of one or more proteins, indicating that the treatment may have been effective. The same or substantially similar level of one or more proteins can include, for example, protein levels that are the same (e.g., within a relevant statistical analysis as determined by one of skill in the art) to protein levels that are determined to be sufficiently different by a person of ordinary skill in the art by, for example, a statistical analysis or a determined threshold fold difference (e.g., less than a two-fold difference). In some embodiments, the level of one or more proteins of the protein profile of a subject that has undergone treatment and the protein profile of a subject that has not undergone treatment are the same. In yet another embodiment, the level of one or more proteins of the protein profile of a subject that has undergone treatment and the protein profile of a subject that has not undergone treatment are substantially similar. In another embodiment, the difference in the level of one or more proteins of the protein profile of a subject that has undergone treatment and the protein profile of a subject that has not undergone treatment is determined by statistical methods known to one skilled in the art (e.g., a T-test with a p-value of 0.05 of greater). In yet another embodiment, the difference in the level of one or more proteins of the protein profile of a subject that has undergone treatment and the protein profile of a subject that has not undergone treatment is determined by comparison to a predetermined reference range (e.g., a healthy or normal concentration range) known to those of skill in the art. In another embodiment, the level of one or more proteins of the protein profile of a subject that has undergone treatment and the protein profile of a subject that has not undergone treatment is less than 0.5 fold different. In another embodiment, the level of one or more proteins of the protein profile of a subject that has undergone treatment and the protein profile of a subject that has not undergone treatment is less than 1 -fold different. In still another embodiment, the level of one or more proteins of the protein profile of a subject that has undergone treatment and the protein profile of a subject that has not undergone treatment is less than 1.5-fold different. In still other embodiments, the level of one or more proteins of the protein profile of a subject that has undergone treatment and the protein profile of a subject that has not undergone treatment is less than 2-fold different.
Subjects Certain embodiments relate to determining the protein profile of a blood sample or component thereof from a subject.
The subject may be an animal in which blood comprises red blood cells (e.g., a mammal, bird, fish, reptile, or amphibian). Non-limiting examples of suitable subjects include bovine, equine, ovine, primate, avian and rodent species. Hence, in some embodiments the subject may be a human, a non-human mammal, a mouse, rat, hamster, ferret, gerbil, rabbit, monkey, chimpanzee, horse, pony, donkey, sheep, pig, chicken, goat, cat, or dog.
Kits
The present disclosure also provides kits comprising the components necessary for carrying out the methods described herein.
By way of non-limiting example, the kits may comprise means for: collecting blood, anticoagulant s), blood stabilising agent(s), enrichment of RBCs, removal/separation of non-RBCs blood components, snap-freezing blood or component(s) thereof, lysing cells, washing cells, culturing cells, detecting specific target protein(s) intracellularly and/or extracellularly, and/or combinations thereof. In certain embodiments, the kits comprise at least one reagent to leukodeplete a blood sample and produce a red blood cell-enriched sample and at least one reagent to detect the presence or measure the level of one or more proteins in a small volume red blood cell-enriched sample. In one embodiment, the regent to detect the presence or measure the level of one or more proteins is an ELISA apparatus. In other embodiments, the kit further comprises at least one reagent to obtain a blood sample from a subject.
In some embodiments, kits according to the present disclosure may comprise one or more of the following: device(s) for obtaining a blood sample from a subject (e.g., a syringe, needle, butterfly needle, tube, needle holder, blood collection set, transfer device, vacutainer, hemaPEN™), device(s) for obtaining a dried blood sample from a subject (e.g., filter paper, cards, HemaSpot™); device(s) for obtaining a red blood cell fraction, a leukocyte fraction, and/or a platelet fraction from a liquid blood sample (e.g., antibody coated magnetic beads); anticoagulants; protein denaturation agents; and the like.
Examples
The present disclosure will now be described with reference to specific example(s), which should not be construed as in any way limiting. Example 1. Investigating the presence of the MIF receptor on the surface of RBCs
RBCs contain MIF. To determine whether RBCs have a receptor to bind MIF they were analyzed for the most well-known receptor for MIF, a complex formed between CD44 and CD74 on the cell surface. Immunophenotyping was used to identify the absence or presence of CD44 and CD74 on RBCs. Whole blood (WB) was collected into an EDTA vacutainer, washed twice in PBS + FBS (2%) (centrifuged at 500 g, for 5 minutes) and finally resuspended to 1 mL of solution. 5 uL of solution was added to each respective tube. Cells were then stained with 5 μΐυ or 20 μΐ, of each antibody (anti-CD44, anti-CD74, anti-CD45, and an IgG control) and 50 μΐ. of PBS + FBS (2%). Cell solutions were incubated in the dark at room temperature for 15 minutes and after incubation, cells were washed three times in lx PBS (500 g, 5 minutes). Cells were resuspended in 200 uL of PBS and were analysed by flow cytometry using quadrant statistics and overlay histograms
As shown in Figure lA-lC, RBCs were positive for the receptor CD44. However, they did not appear to be positive for CD74 (Figure 2). As expected, RBCs were not positive for the white blood cell (WBC) marker CD45 (data not shown). Because RBCs were positive for CD44, but not positive for CD74, RBCs do not have the primary MIF receptor. Therefore, if MIF is on the surface of RBCs, it must bind by another mechanism.
Example 2. MIF localization in RBCs
RBCs wrere analyzed for the localization of MIF using immunocytochemistry. Whole blood was collected into a syringe and washed twice in lx PBS (spun in a centrifuge at 500 g, for 5 minutes). The cell pellet was the used to prepare blood smears (10 ί per slide) and the blood slides left to dry at room temperature for at least 2 hours. Once the slides were completely dried, the smears were fixed in 100% methanol for 5 minutes at room temperature. After the slides were fixed, they were removed from the methanol and were left to air dry for -10 minutes. Slides were washed thoroughly with lx PBS and blood smears were then blot dried. The smears were blocked with PBS + 5 % BSA for 1 hour at room temperature. After blocking, the samples were incubated with or without primary MIF antibody (anti-human, rabbit MIF antibody, 1 μg/mL) overnight at 4 °C. After incubation, slides were washed well with lx PBS and then incubated with secondary antibody (anti-rabbit, AP conjugated antibody, 1 :50 dilution) for 30 minutes at room temperature. Slides were rinsed well with lx PBS and excess fluid was removed. Freshly prepared substrate (AP development buffer: substrate A : substrate B = 100: 1 : 1) was dropped over the slide, left to incubate for 20 minutes at room temperature, and the reaction terminated with Milli-Q water. Slides were dried and mounted and images collected using light microscopy
Next, paraffin embedded samples of RA synovium (human) were sectioned and applied to glass slides. Paraffin was removed from the samples using washes in xylene (2 times, 5 minutes) and ethanol (100%, 100%, 95%, 70%, 3 minutes each) and finally running tap water. Heat-induced epitope retrieval was then performed using a boiling water bath by the following method: a Tissue-Tek container was filled with buffer (pH 6) and heated to 95 °C in water bath; slides were placed in container in boiling water bath and incubated for 20 minutes; slides were removed from the water bath and left to cool for 20 minutes at room temperature; and cold water was gradually added and finally slides were washed in cold tap water for 2-3 minutes. Slides were attached to Sequenza trays and were washed for 6 minutes with wash buffer (TBST). Sections were blocked using Dako Protein Block Serum Free (100 μΐ^, 10 minutes). Primary antibody (or corresponding negative IgG control) was added to slides at prepared concentrations and incubated overnight (100 μΐ,, 4 °C; 0.5 μg mL, 1 μg/'mL, 2 μ§/ηιΙ-·, 4 μg/mL). After incubation, slides were washed with TBST (6 minutes, room temperature). Secondary antibody (En Vision polymer, rabbit, HRP) was added to slides (3 drops) and slides were incubated for 30 minutes at room temperature. Slides were then washed with TBST (6 minutes, room temperature), removed from Sequenza trays, and an HRP substrate reagent (NovaRED) was added to each slide (200 μΕ) by dropping directly it onto each slide. Slides were incubated for 15 minutes at room temperature. Slides were then washed in running tap water for 5 minutes to stop the reaction and the samples were counterstained with haematoxylin (2 minutes, room temperature) and Scott's Blue (30 seconds, room temperature). Samples were then dehydrated in increasing concentrations of ethanol then xylene, mounted, and observed using light microscopy
A clear intracellular staining of white blood cells (Figure 3) was observed as anticipated (WBCs contain high intracellular pools of MIF). These results also showed that the cell surface of the RBCs were stained (Figure 3), suggesting that MIF is present on the cell surface. There was no clear intracellular staining on the RBCs (Figure 3). The negative control is shown in Figure 4.
Staining synovium sections was also successful. There was little to no staining with the negative controls (Figure 5) and good staining of the endothelial cells and the inflammatory cells in the positive control (Figure 6). There appeared to be staining of the RBCs inside the blood vessels; however, the localisation of staining was not determined
These results suggested that the MIF is localised on the cell membrane but not within the cell. In contrast, RBCs ghosts and RBCs lysates did not exhibit MIF staining (data not shown). WBCs do contain intracellular MIF.
Example 3. Investigating the presence of MIF in RBCs
Because MIF levels were -1000 times higher in RBCs than in plasma, RBCs were analyzed for their intracellular levels of MIF. Whole blood was collected from the capillary bed (fingertip collection). Blood was anti-coagulated (1 : 1 ) with EDTA (30 mg/mL) solution and washed twice with PBS + FBS (2%). Cells were stained with CD45-FITC (5 μΐ.) for 15 min at room temperature in the dark. After incubation, cells were washed twice with lx PBS and RBCs were then isolated using negative sorting by flow cytometry (FACS). RBCs and WB were pelleted by centrifugation (2000 g, 10 minutes) and were resuspended to 250,000 cells/5(^L. Cells were frozen at -80°C, and samples were subjected to 3 freeze/thaw cycles to lyse all the cells. Samples were then analysed on a Hu MIF ELISA. For fingertip and venous blood, whole blood was collected from either the capillary bed (fingertip collection) or from a vein. Blood was anti-coagulated (1 : 1 ) with EDTA (30 mg/mL) solution, washed twice with PBS + FBS (2%) and cells were stained with CD45-FITC (5 μί) for 15 min at room temperature in the dark. After incubation, cells were washed twice with lx PBS and RBCs isolated using negative sorting on FACS. RBCs and WB were pelleted by centrifugation (2000 g, 10 minutes) and were resuspended to 250,000 ΰε1ΐ5/50μί). Cells were frozen at -80°C, and samples were subjected to 3 freeze/thaw cycles to lyse all the cells. Samples were analysed on a Hu MIF ELISA
As shown in Figure 7, MIF was identified at high concentrations in FACS isolated RBCs. However, levels were approximately 10 times lower than that measured in whole blood. As shown in Figure 8, there was a difference in MIF concentration in RBCs collected from the fingertip versus venous collection. Concentration of MIF in whole blood was too high to be analysed by ELISA (data not shown). The results demonstrated that MIF is present in RBCs, but that measurable MIF concentration differs depending on the collection site (fingertip or vein) and chosen anticoagulant (EDTA or heparin). Example 4. Optimization of RBC Isolation
4.1 Dextran sedimentation versus flow cytometry
Whole blood was collected by venous collection into EDTA and heparin vacutainers. RBCs were isolated using either FACS, dextran sedimentation, or RBC lysis buffer. For FACS isolation, blood was washed twice with FACS wash buffer (PBS + 2% FBS) by centrifugation (1000 g for 5 minutes). The resulting cell pellet was resuspended in 50 μΐ. of FACs wash buffer, stained with CD45-FITC (5 μί, FITC-mouse anti-human CD45, H I 30, eBioscience 1 1 -0459-42), and incubated for 15 min at room temperature in the dark. After incubation, the cells were washed twice with FACS wash buffer (1000 g for 5 minutes) and RBCs resuspended in the buffer were then isolated using negative sorting on FACS (FACSAria HI flow cytometer, 4 lasers). RBCs and WBCs were gated from platelets according to size by forward scatter and side scatter. RBCs were then gated from WBCs by the WBCs lack of CD45 staining. For dextran sedimentation, anti- coagulated WB was added to high molecular weight dextran (6% w/v in 0.15 M sodium chloride, 1 : 1 blood:dextran), the solution was gently mixed and left to sit for up to 60 minutes at room temperature (~23°C) for the RBCs to sediment and, after sedimentation, RBCs were isolated and washed twice in lx PBS. RBCs and WB were pelleted by centrifugation (2000 g, 10 minutes) and were resuspended to 250,000 cells/5(^L). RBCs were then lysed: 250 million cells were added to 6 mL ice cold Milli-Q water and were left to incubate for 30 seconds; after incubation, 2 mL of ice cold 0.6 M KC1 was added to restore isotonicity; the solution was diluted up to 50 mL with ice cold PBS; and contaminating cells were pelleted and lysate was collected (equal to 250,000 cells/5(^L); finally samples were frozen at -80°C, and subjected to 3 freeze/thaw cycles to lyse all the cells.
Concentrations of MIF in the lysed cells were measured using a M1F ELISA (R&D Systems, USA) and the absorbance data for the MIF ELISA collected with a Synergy 2 plate reader (BioTeck, USA) at 450 nm (absorbence correction at 570 nm). The calibration curve was analysed using a log/log curve fit (GraphPad Prism software (ver. 6, USA).
To determine the purity of isolated RBCs, whole blood was collected into an EDTA vacutainer and RBCs isolated using dextran sedimentation as described above. RBCs were washed twice in PBS + FBS (2%), 500 g, 5 minutes and finally resuspended to 1 mL of solution. Five uL of solution was added to each respective tube and cells were stained with 5 μΐ^ or 20 μΐ^ of each antibody (anti-CD45, and an IgG control) and 50 μΐ^ of PBS + FBS (2%). Cell solutions were incubated in the dark at room temperature for 15 minutes and, after incubation, cells were washed three times in lx PBS (500 g, 5 minutes). Cells were resuspended in 200 uL of PBS and analysed by flow cytometry using quadrant statistics and overlay histograms (Coulter AcT Diff, Beckman Coulter).
As shown in Figure 9, dextran sedimentation of RBCs resulted in a higher measured concentration of MIF than using RBC lysis buffer or FACS isolation (concentration normalized to relative contribution to 1 mL of whole blood). The presence of dextran itself did not alter the level of MIF measured (data not shown). In addition, RBCs isolated using dextran sedimentation were stained for the presence of contaminating CD45+ cells (WBCs). The RBCs were approximately 0.0025 % pure (Figure lOA-lOC).
The results demonstrated that the amount of MIF measured in a RBC population is dependent on the method of RBC isolation. Dextran sedimentation was the optimal RBC isolation technique, yielding the highest number of RBCs with a high level of purity. The results indicated dextran sedimentation was as effective, or even more effective than other commonly used RBC isolation techniques. In addition, dextran sedimentation resulted in detection of much higher levels of MIF, indicating the method could be much more accurate than other methods for the measurement of protein levels.
4.2 RBC processing: dextran sedimentation versus other methods
Whole blood was collected from healthy volunteers by venipuncture (« = 1) directly into EDTA vacutainers (k2EDTA vacutainers, BD Biosciences). All fractions of blood were collected and processed at room temperature within 4 hours of collection. For multiplex analysis (BioPlex analysis) all samples were stored at -80 °C and were subjected to 3 freeze-thaw cycles at -80 °C to ensure complete cellular lysis prior to analysis.
Red blood cells were isolated using dextran sedimentation as follows. Whole blood was centrifuged (1500 g, 10 minutes) and the upper plasma layer was discarded. The remaining cell pellet was resuspended in an equal volume of sodium chloride (0.15 M). Dextran (6 % w/v in 0.15 M sodium chloride) was then added to the cellular suspension at a 1 :4 ratio (dextran : cell suspension). This solution was left at room temperature for 30 minutes for red blood cell sedimentation to the bottom of the tube. After this time the upper white blood cell rich layer was discarded and the lower red blood cell fraction was collected. The lower red blood cell fraction was either washed once in phosphate buffered saline (PBS, 500 g, 5 minutes) or washed thoroughly with inversion three times in PBS. The resulting red blood cells were either used fresh or were frozen (-80 °C). An aliquot of red blood cells were diluted to 400 million cells/mL in PBS and were incubated at 37 °C and 5 % CO2 for 24 hrs. Following incubation, the red blood cells and the resulting conditioned PBS was separated and frozen (-80 °C).
The red blood cells were subjected to 3 freeze-thaw cycles to ensure complete cellular lysis. Following lysis, the red blood cell lysates were diluted in PBS to the equivalent of 400 million cells/mL. These lysates were then analysed on the multiplex cytokine assays. Two multiplex assays were utilised. The first was the 27-plex human cytokine panel that assays for FGF basic, Eotaxin, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-Ιβ, IL- lra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL- 12(p70), IL-13, 1L-15, IL-17, IP- 10, MCP-1, ΜΙΡ-Ι α, ΜΙΡ- Ι β, PDGF-BB, RANTES, T F-a, and VEGF, and the second was the 21-plex human cytokine panel that assays for IL- l a, IL-2Ra, IL-3, IL-12, IL-16, IL-18, CTACK, GRO-a, HGF, IFN-a2, LIF, MCP-3, M-CSF, MIF, MIG, β-NGF, SCF, SCGF-β, SDF- l a, TNF-β, TRAIL (Bio-Plex Pro 27-plex and 21 -plex, Bio-Rad). The assays were performed according to manufacturer's instructions using an automated magnetic wash station (BioPlex Pro II, Bio-Rad) for the washing steps. The assays were run on the Luminex® 20()I M system (Bio-Rad) and fluorescent values were collected. The calibration curve for each cytokine was analysed with 5 parametric logistic curve regression using BioPlex manager software (ver. 5.0, Bio-Rad, USA).
The data once again showed that isolation of red blood cells by dextran sedimentation resulted in average white blood cell and platelet depletion of greater than 95 % (Table 3).
Table 3. The percentage depletion of white blood cells and platelets from enriched red blood cell fractions produced using dextran sedimentation.
White blood cell Platelet depletion Red blood cell depletion (%) (%) purity (%)
95.5 ± 5.0 96.1 + 5.5 99.992 ± 0.004
To evaluate the effect of washing steps typically used in RBC isolation methods. The addition of a thorough washing step following dextran sedimentation isolation of red blood cells resulted in an altered cytokine profile when compared to cells that did not undergo this washing step. There was an overall reduction in measurable cytokines in washed cells (Figure 11A-11GG).
The concentration of most proteins in the washed red blood cells was notably lower than what was observed in unwashed red blood cells, as seen for, instance, in IFN-γ (2- fold less), G-CSF (4-fold less), and PDGF-bb (6-fold less). Further to that point, the levels of a collection of proteins were below the level of detection unlike the unwashed control. Where IFN-a2 and IL-17 were detectable in the unwashed red blood cells, they were entirely absent in the washed cells. These results demonstrate that excessive washing of red blood cells can alter their cytokine profile. This washing is a critical step in most red blood cell isolation techniques.
Because RBCs lysis is incomplete, the data suggest that dextran sedimentation gave the most accurate answer with respect to MIF levels. The primary difference between the RBC isolation techniques is how extensively each was processed. The dextran sedimentation method is relatively gentle and involves minimal washing steps, while the FACs method necessitates that the cells undergo numerous washing steps and high speed flow through a cytometer for cell sorting.
Example 5. Distribution of MIF across blood components
To determine whether RBCs were the primary reservoir for MIF, RBCs were analyzed for the presence of MIF. Whole blood was collected by venous collection into EDTA vacutainer. Plasma was collected after centrifugation and cells were isolated using either FACS or dextran sedimentation. For FACS isolation, blood was washed twice with PBS + FBS (2%), cells were stained with CD45-FITC (5 μί) for 15 min at room temperature in the dark, and then washed twice with lx PBS. RBCs were then isolated using negative sorting on FACS; WBCs were isolated using positive staining for CD45; and platelets were isolated according to size. Dextran sedimentation was performed as described above, after which WBCs and platelets were isolated from the supernatant with centrifugation. Cells and WB were pelleted by centrifugation (2000 g, 10 minutes) and were resuspended to set concentrations. Samples were frozen at -80°C, and samples were subjected to 3x freeze/thaw cycles to lyse all the cells. Samples were then analysed on a Hu MIF ELISA.
MIF distribution when cells wrere isolated by FACS or dextran sedimentation is shown in Tables 4 and 5. Whilst MIF was present in all components of blood, RBCs contributed the largest proportion of the total MIF. WBCs contained the highest concentration of MIF per cell; however, there were 1000 times more RBCs in blood.
Table 4: The distribution of MIF between blood components as compared to whole blood after isolation using dextran sedimentation (n - I) Percentage Total MIF
Previously of MIF contribution to Measured
Blood Fraction contribution 1
(%)
Figure imgf000067_0001
Whole blood 100 21,179 ti/ n/a
RBCs 82.6 17,500 2.97 n/a
WBCs 2.0 416 70.6 3.9 - 100
Platelets 1.2 258 1.49 0.3
Plasma 0.05 1 1.53 n/ n/a
Table 5: The distribution of MIF between blood components as compared to whole blood after isolation using FACS (n = 1)
Percentage Total MIF
Previously of MIF contribution to Measured
reported
Blood Fraction contribution 1 mL whole MIF/cell
MIF/cell (%) blood (fg/cell)
(fg/cell) (ng/mL)
Whole blood 100 21,179 n/ a n/a
RBCs 11.4 2,420 0.41 n/a
WBCs 0.7 157 2.67 3.9 - 100
Platelets 0.3 72 0.42 0.3
Plasma 0.05 1 1.53 n/a n/ a
Table 6: The distribution of MIF between blood components as compared to whole blood after isolation using dextran sedimentation, data presented as mean i standard deviation
(n = 3)
Percentage Total MIF Measured Previously
Blood Fraction of MIF contribution to MIF/cell reported contribution 1 mL whole (fg/cell) MIF/cell (%) blood (fg/cell)
(ng/mL)
Whole blood 100 17,297 ± 3,682 ii/ a/a
RBCs 43.9 7,591 ± 1,223 1.4 ± 0.2 n/
WBCs 0.13 23.1 ± 13.6 4.0 ± 3.3 3.9 - 100
Platelets 0.04 7.1 ± 0.5 0.02 ± 0.02 0.3
Plasma 0.10 16.8 ± 1.3 ti/ a n/ a
Example 6. Identification of proteins present in RBCs.
To investigate whether RBCs are a reservoir for proteins other than MIF, the levels of other proteins in RBCs were assessed. Whole blood was collected by venous collection into EDTA vacutainers. Plasma was collected after centrifugation and cells were isolated using either FACS or dextran sedimentation as described above. Isolated cells and WB were pelleted by centrifugation (2000 g, 10 minutes) and were resuspended to set concentrations. Samples were frozen at -80°C, and subjected to 3 times freeze/thaw cycles to lyse all the cells. Samples were analysed on a Hu 27-plex BioPlex. In addition, proteins released or secreted by RBCs were analyzed. Whole blood was collected by venous collection into EDTA vacutainers and RBCs isolated by dextran sedimentation as described previously. Isolated RBCs were aliquoted to 20 million cells in 100 uL of PBS or PBS + protease inhibitors (lx) and cells were incubated at 37 CC with 5 % C02 for 24 hours. After incubation, supernatant and cells were separated by centrifugation, samples were frozen at -80°C, and subjected to 3 times freeze/thaw cycles to lyse all the cells. The samples wrere analysed on Hu 27-plex BioPlex.
A number of proteins were identified as being present in RBCs as well as other blood components after samples were run on the BioPlex. The analysis reports the respective concentrations of the 16 proteins (out of a total 27) that were present in both whole blood and RBCs in substantial quantities (Tables 7-11). Total yield is reported as the total yield of protein from each blood component as compared back to the measured protein in whole blood (Tables 7-11).
Table 7: Summary of pro-inflammatory cytokines in whole blood and blood components as measured by BioPlex and reported as pg/mL of whole blood, total yield is reported according to protein concentration in whole blood (n I). Underlined values have been extrapolated off the bottom of the standard curve. IL-12
Blood components IFN-g IL-lb IL-5 IL-8 I L-9 IL-15 1L-17 TNF-a
(P70)
Whole blood 2,401 71 38 242 728 484 2,546 5,044 1687
RBCs 805 50 18 242 321 165 2,366 4,883 401
WBCs 324 20 4 159 48 59 83 32.3 32.3
Platelets 380 28 7 114 238 195 890 2,188 419
Plasma 36 0.71 1 6 5 7 5 12 21
Total yield (%) 64.3 139 22 215 84.1 88 131.3 146.8 69
Table 8: Summary of anti-inflammatory cytokines in whole blood and blood components as measured by BioPlex and reported as pg/mL of whole blood, total yield is reported according to protein concentration in whole blood (n = I). Underlined values have been extrapolated off the bottom of the standard curve.
Blood
IL-lra IL-4 IL-10 IL-13
components
Whole blood 106 991 124
RBCs 760 53
WBCs 684 17 46 54
Platelets 39 391 39
Plasma 76 0.98 3.55 31
Total y ield (%) 121 143
Table 9: Summary of growth factors in whole blood and blood components as measured by BioPlex and reported as pg/mL of whole blood, total yield is reported according to protein concentration in whole blood (n = I). Underlined values have been extrapolated off the bottom of the standard curve.
Blood
bFGF G-CSF GM-CSF PDGF VEGF IL-7 components
Whole blood 5,381 6,340 109,454 28,586 2,950
RBCs 2,717 2,844 107,721 2,287 2,254
WBCs 368 773 3,355 18,349 92 43
Platelets 2,027 921 41 ,436 1007 800
Plasma 23 36 50 1 1 3
Total yield (%) 95.4 72.1 139.3 75.9 107.0 Table 10: Summary of chemokines in whole blood and blood components as measured by BioPlex and reported as pg/mL of whole blood, total yield is reported according to protein concentration in whole blood (n = I). Underlined values have been extrapolated off the bottom of the standard curve.
Blood
Eotaxin IP-10 MGP-1 MIP-la MIP-lb RANTES components
Whole blood 1617 3,233 2,738 133 732 432,325
RBCs 486 1 ,494 1 ,636 77 610 37,197
WBCs 273 84 38 347 26,163
Platelets 167 6 8 748 28 89 50,907
Pl sma 14 81 7 1 7 741
Total yield (%) 47 76.3 90.4 108.3 144 26.6
Table 11: Summary of cytokines with multiple functions in whole blood and blood components as measured by BioPlex and reported as pg/mL of whole blood, total yield is reported according to protein concentration in whole blood (n = I). Underlined values have been extrapolated off the bottom of the standard curve.
Blood
IL-2 TL-6
components
Whole blood 1 ,345 540
RBCs 834 218
WBCs 72 59
Platelets 441 1 54
Plasma 5
Total yield (%) 100.5 81.1
A number of proteins were released or secreted after RBCs were cultured in PBS for 24 hours at 37 °C. See Tables 7-11 for protein classification as anti-inflammatory, pro-inflammatory, chemokine, or growth factors. Figures 12-15 show a summary of analytes released or secreted from RBCs into PBS over 24 hours at 37 °C as measured by BioPlex and reported as pg/mL (20 million RBCs in lOOuL PBS). Figures are separated according to average detected concentration of each protein. The addition of protease inhibitors durin RBCs culture altered protein release or secretion (24 hours at 37 °C).
Culture conditions were as follows:
1. RBCs + PBS (20 million RBCs in 1 OOuL PBS) 2. RBCs + PBS + protease inhibitors (PI) (20 million RBCs in 1 OOuL PBS + PI) The series of graphs shown in Figure 16A-16Z depict the effect of protease inhibitors (PI) on the concentration of proteins released or secreted from RBCs (black columns) and the concentration of proteins remaining in the cells after secretion (grey columns). Inclusion of protease inhibitors in the culture solution typically resulted in a lower detectable concentration for both release or secretion and cell lysate, although there were some exceptions (i.e., MlP-l b). Data presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD).
The data demonstrated that many cytokines are present in RBCs. Because cytokine levels in whole blood are much different compared to in plasma, they give a very different picture of the cytokine profile of peripheral blood, and this has implications for biomarker analysis.
Example 7. Presence of CRP in or on RBCs
To investigate whether the CRP inflammatory marker is associated with RBCs, WB was collected by finger prick using lancets. The blood was analysed for CRP levels using the iChroma instrument on either fresh blood (which detects plasma levels) or after three freeze-thaw cycles to lyse all of the cells (for whole blood levels). Purified RBCs (after dextran sedimentation) were collected and lysed using 3 freeze-thaw cycles, were run on the iChroma instrument, and protein levels compared to those in stored plasma samples.
As shown in Figure 17, CRP was detectable in higher levels in lysed whole blood than in the plasma component. CRP was also detectable in a similar ratio in RBCs lysate when compared to corresponding plasma concentrations (Figure 18). The results suggested that CRP is associated with RBCs, and the RBCs are responsible for approximately 50 % of the total CRP detectable in whole blood.
Example 8. Measurement of protein levels in a small blood volume
The discovery of a high level of various proteins in red blood cells as compared to their levels in an equivalent volume in plasma, for example, suggested that a small volume of whole blood and/or RBCs could be used to identify protein markers. The levels of numerous proteins were analyzed in a small volume of whole blood and RBCs.
Whole blood was collected from healthy volunteers by finger prick (« = 1 ) directly into EDTA solution (3 mg/mL). For multiplex analysis (BioPlex analysis) all samples were stored at -80 °C and were subjected to 3 freeze-thaw cycles at -80 °C to ensure complete cellular lysis prior to analysis. The red blood cells were subjected to 3 freeze- thaw cycles to ensure complete cellular lysis. Following lysis, the whole blood was analysed on the multiplex cytokine assay at 5 whole blood (in 45 μΐ^ PBS), 10 μί whole blood (in 40 μΐ, PBS), 15 μΐ, whole blood (in 35 μί PBS), 20 μΐ, whole blood (in 30 μΐ, PBS), or 25 μί whole blood (in 25 μί. PBS). Two multiplex assays were utilised. The first was the 27-plex human cytokine panel that assays for FGF basic, Eotaxin, G- CSF, GM-CSF, IF -γ, IL- Ι β, IL- lra, IL-2, 1L-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, lL-8, IL-9, IL- 10, IL- 12(p70), IL- 13, IL-15, IL-17, IP- 10, MCP-1 , ΜΙΡ- Ια, ΜΊΡ-Ι β, PDGF-BB, RANTES, TNF-a, and VEGF, and the second was the 2 1-plex human cytokine panel that assays for IL- l a, IL-2Ra, IL-3, IL- 12, IL- 16, IL- 1 8, CTACK, GRO-a, HGF, IFN-a2, LIF, MCP-3, M-CSF, MIF, MIG, β-NGF, SCF, SCGF-β, SDF- l a, TNF-β, TRAIL (Bio-Plex Pro 27- plex and 21-plex, Bio-Rad). The assays were performed according to manufacturer's instructions using an automated magnetic wash station (BioPlex Pro II, Bio-Rad) for the washing steps. The assays were run on the Luminex® 200™ system (Bio-Rad) and fluorescent values were collected. The calibration curve for each cytokine was analysed with 5 parametric logistic curve regression using BioPlex manager software (ver. 5.0, Bio-Rad, USA).
The concentration of the indicated proteins in whole blood at various dilutions (1 : 10, 1 :5, 1 :3.3, 1 :2.5, 1 :2) are shown in Figure 19A-19TT (calculated back to the undiluted concentration). Analysis of whole blood revealed the presence of a number of proteins and these proteins were also present at a range of dilutions. However, there was no dilution linearity for many of the analysed proteins, which is not unique to whole blood; it is also observed in the analysis of plasma on Luminex platforms such as BioPlex (more protein is typically detected with dilution). The results indicate that proteins can be monitored in small volumes of whole blood (down to 5 μί). The ease of detection of numerous proteins in whole blood demonstrates that very small blood volumes (obtained from e.g., the fingertip) could be collected and used for analysis of protein levels.
Example 9. Presence of proteins in fingertip versus venous blood samples.
To further explore the detection of proteins in small blood volumes, the levels of numerous proteins in a finger prick was compared to their levels in venous blood collected by known methods.
Whole blood was collected from healthy volunteers by venipuncture or by finger prick (n > 12) directly into EDTA vacutainers (k2EDTA vacutainers, BD Biosciences) or EDTA solution (3 mg/mL). All fractions of blood were collected and processed at room temperature within 4 hours of collection. For multiplex analysis (BioPlex analysis) all samples were stored at -80 °C and were subjected to 3 freeze-thaw cycles at -80 °C to ensure complete cellular lysis prior to analysis. The plasma and red blood cells were isolated using dextran sedimentation as follows. Whole blood was centrifuged (1500 g, 10 minutes) and the upper plasma layer was collected. The remaining cell pellet was resuspended in an equal volume of sodium chloride (0.15 M). Dextran (6 % w/v in 0.15 M sodium chloride) was then added to this cellular suspension at a 1 :4 ratio (dextran : cell suspension). This solution was left at room temperature for 30 minutes for red blood cell sedimentation to the bottom of the tube. After this time the upper white blood cell rich layer was discarded and the lower red blood cell fraction was isolated. The red blood cell fraction was washed twice in phosphate buffered saline (PBS, 500 g, 5 minutes) and the remaining red blood cell pellet was counted (Coulter Act Diff, Beckman Coulter) and then frozen (-80 °C) until analysis.
The red blood cells were subjected to 3 freeze-thaw cycles to ensure complete cellular lysis. Following lysis, the red blood cell lysates were diluted in PBS to the equivalent of 400 million cells/mL. These lysates were then analysed on the multiplex cytokine assay. One multiplex assay was utilised. It was the 27-plex human cytokine panel that assays for FGF basic, Eotaxin, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-Ιβ, IL-lra, 1L-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12(p70), IL-13, IL- 15, IL-17, IP-10, MCP-1 , MlP-la, ΜΙΡ-Ι β, PDGF-BB, RANTES, TNF-a, and VEGF (Bio-Plex Pro 27-plex, Bio- Rad). The assay were performed according to manufacturer's instructions using an automated magnetic wash station (BioPlex Pro II, Bio-Rad) for the washing steps. The assays were run on the Luminex® 200 I M system (Bio-Rad) and fluorescent values were collected. The calibration curve for each cytokine was analysed with 5 parametric logistic curve regression using BioPlex manager software (ver. 5.0, Bio-Rad, USA).
The concentration of the indicated proteins in the plasma isolated from venous blood and fingertip blood, or the lysate of red blood cells isolated from venous blood and fingertip blood are depicted in Figure 20A-20AA. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were determined usin Student T-tests. There were consistent trends between levels of proteins in the plasma and the red blood cells when fingertip blood and venous blood were compared. For example, the concentration of IL-6 was at a significantly higher concentration in the plasma isolated from the fingertip as opposed to that in venous plasma. This same trend was observed with the red blood cells, with significantly higher levels of proteins observed in the cells isolated from fingertip blood. This trend was observed for a number of proteins including, for example, IL-2, RANTES, and IP-10. For a number of proteins, higher concentrations were observed in the plasma and red blood cells isolated from fingertip blood, including, for instance, IL-Ιβ, IL-8, and TNF-a. For the red blood cells, the biological variation (standard deviation) was lower in the fingertip samples than the venous samples (e.g., ΜΓΡ-Ι β, G-CSF). This suggested that analysis of the red blood cells collected from the fingertip would be more reproducible than analysis of venous blood. The opposite was observed for a number of proteins in plasma, where venous plasma was less variable than the fingertip blood (e.g., 1L-7, PDGF-bb). These results supported the case for isolating and analysing red blood cells from the fingertip, where frequent blood collection could be used.
Example 10. Profile of proteins in RBCs versus plasma.
Given the relatively high level of proteins in red blood cells, protein levels in the red blood cells lysates were compared to that in plasma. Whole blood was collected from healthy volunteers by venipuncture (n = 6) directly into EDTA vacutainers (k^EDTA vacutainers, BD Biosciences). All fractions of blood were collected and processed at room temperature within 4 hours of collection. For multiplex analysis (BioPlex analysis) all samples were stored at -80 °C and were subjected to 3 freeze-thaw cycles at -80 °C to ensure complete cellular lysis prior to analysis.
The plasma, red blood cells, and white blood cells were isolated using dextran sedimentation as follows. Whole blood was centrifuged ( 1500 g, 10 minutes) and the upper plasma layer was discarded. The remaining cell pellet was resuspended in an equal volume of sodium chloride (0. 15 M). Dextran (6 % w/v in 0.15 M sodium chloride) was then added to this cellular suspension at a 1 :4 ratio (dextran : cell suspension). This solution was left at room temperature for 30 minutes for red blood cell sedimentation to the bottom of the tube. After this time the upper white blood cell rich layer and the lower red blood cell fraction were separated and added into individual tubes. The lower red blood cell fraction was washed twice in phosphate buffered saline (PBS, 500 g, 5 minutes) and the remaining red blood cell pellet was frozen (-80 °C). The upper, white blood cell rich layer was washed twice in PBS (1000 g, 10 minutes). The supernatant was discarded, and any contaminating red blood cells were lysed by hypotonic shock by resuspending the cell pellet in 3 mL Milli-Q water for 30 seconds. After this time, isotonicity was restored by adding 1 mL potassium chloride (0.65 M) and the solution was diluted up to 15 mL with PBS. The remaining cells were pelleted and washed twice in PBS (1000 g, 5 minutes). The remaining cell pellet was resuspended in PBS and frozen immediately at -80°C.
The red blood cells and white blood cells were subjected to 3 freeze-thaw cycles to ensure complete cellular lysis. Following lysis, the red blood cell lysates were diluted in PBS to the equivalent of 400 million cells/mL, and the white blood cell lysates were diluted to 20,000 cells/mL. These lysates were then analysed on the multiplex cytokine assays. Two multiplex assays were utilised. The first was the 27-plex human cytokine panel that assays for FGF basic, Eotaxin, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-Ι β, IL-lra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, 1L-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL- 10, IL-12(p70), lL- 13, IL-15, IL- 17, IP-10, CP-1 , ΜΙΡ-Ια, ΜΙΡ-Ιβ, PDGF-BB, RANTES, TNF-a, and VEGF, and the second was the 21- plex human cytokine panel that assays for IL- la, IL-2Ra, IL-3, 1L-12, IL-16, IL-18, CTAC , GRO-a, HGF, IFN-a2, LIF, MCP-3, M-CSF, MIF, MIG, β-NGF, SCF, SCGF- β, SDF-l a, TNF-β, TRAIL (Bio-Plex Pro 27-plex and 21 -plex, Bio-Rad). The assays were performed according to manufacturer's instructions using an automated magnetic wash station (BioPlex Pro II, Bio-Rad) for the washing steps. The assays were run on the Luminex® 2001M system (Bio-Rad) and fluorescent values were collected. The calibration curve for each cytokine was analysed with 5 parametric logistic curve regression using BioPlex manager software (ver. 5.0, Bio-Rad, USA).
A chart indicating the concentration of the indicated proteins in plasma and in the lysate of red blood cells (400 million cells/mL) is shown in Figure 21A-21B. The protein concentration was calculated back to the relative concentration per mL of whole blood (approximately 5 billion cells/mL) and corrected for white blood cell contamination. The fold difference between the corrected red blood cell protein concentration and plasma protein concentration was also determined (Figure 21A-21B). Across the 48 proteins (e.g., cytokines, chemokines) analyzed there were 31 proteins that had a substantially higher concentration in RBCs than in plasma. The range of fold change increase in protein concentration in RBCs versus that in plasma (the RBC:plasma ratio) was 3.6 to 3970. The median RBC:plasma ratio was 1 1.3. These results suggested that a small volume of blood (e.g., 1/10th of the volume of whole blood or RBCs isolated from a small volume of blood could be used detect proteins of interest (including the proteins identified in the experiment). In addition, the ability to sample a small volume of blood (through, e.g., a finger prick) would allow for frequent, minimally-invasive sampling.
Example 11. Protein profile in RBCs using cationic salts
Red blood cells were isolated using dextran sedimentation as follows. Whole blood was centrifuged (1500 , 10 minutes) and the upper plasma layer was discarded. The remaining cell pellet was resuspended in an equal volume of sodium chloride (0.15 M). Dextran (6 % w/v in 0.15 M sodium chloride) was then added to this cellular suspension at a 1 :4 ratio (dextran : cell suspension). This solution was left at room temperature for 30 minutes for red blood cell sedimentation to the bottom of the tube. After this time the upper white blood cell rich layer and the lower red blood cell fraction were separated and the white blood cells discarded. The lower red blood cell fraction was washed twice in phosphate buffered saline (PBS, 500 g, 5 minutes). The supernatant was discarded, and the red blood cell pellet resuspended in either PBS or PBS containing 100 mM LiCl.
The red blood cells were subjected to 3 freeze-thaw cycles to ensure complete cellular lysis. Following lysis, the red blood cell lysates were diluted in PBS to the equivalent of 400 million cells/mL. The red blood cell lysates were analysed on a 21-plex human cytokine panel that assays for IL-l a, IL-2Ra, IL-3, IL-12, IL-16, IL- 18, CTACK, GPvO-a, HGF, IFN-a2, LIF, MCP-3, M-CSF, MIF, M1G, β-NGF, SCF, SCGF-β, SDF-la, TNF-β, TRAIL (Bio-Plex Pro 27-plex and 21 -plex, Bio-Rad). The assays were performed according to manufacturer's instructions using an automated magnetic wash station (BioPlex Pro II, Bio-Rad) for the washing steps. The assays were run on the Luminex® 200™ system (Bio-Rad) and fluorescent values were collected. The calibration curve for each cytokine was analysed with 5 parametric logistic curve regression using BioPlex manager software (ver. 5.0, Bio-Rad, USA).
As seen in Figure 22, lithium chloride increased and/or enhanced the level of several of the proteins in the assay.
Example 12. Protein profile in RBCs from healthy individuals versus individuals having preeclampsia or cancer.
The difference in the levels of proteins in the blood of healthy individuals compared to those with a disease or disorder was measured. Whole blood was collected from four groups of people including: 1 ) healthy volunteers, 2) healthy, pregnant women, 3) pregnant women with preeclampsia, and 4) oncology patients (see Table 12). The healthy, pregnant controls were matched with the preeclampsia samples according to gestation. Blood was collected from each volunteer by venipuncture (« > 3) directly into EDTA vacutainers (k2EDTA vacutainers, BD Biosciences).
Table 12. Participant summary.
Subject Condition Relevant information
Chemotherapy and radiation
OBS-101 Lymphoma
therapy
OBS- 102 Lymphoma Chemotherapy
Cancer (specific type unknown)
OBS- 103 Chemotherapy
PE-001 Preeclampsia 3rd trimester PE-002 Preeclampsia 3rd trimester
PE-003 Preeclampsia 3rd trimester
All fractions of blood were collected and processed at room temperature within 4 hours of collection. For multiplex analysis (BioPlex analysis) all samples were stored at -80 °C and were subjected to 3 freeze-tha cycles at -80 °C to ensure complete cellular lysis prior to analysis.
The plasma and red blood cells were isolated using dextran sedimentation as follows. Whole blood was centrifuged (1500 g, 10 minutes) and the upper plasma layer was collected. The remaining cell pellet was resuspended in an equal volume of sodium chloride (0. 15 M). Dextran (6 % w/v in 0.15 M sodium chloride) was then added to this cellular suspension at a 1 :4 ratio (dextran : cell suspension). This solution was left at room temperature for 30 minutes for red blood cell sedimentation to the bottom of the tube. After this time the upper white blood cell rich layer was discarded and the lower red blood cell fraction was isolated. The red blood cell fraction was washed twice in phosphate buffered saline (PBS, 500 g, 5 minutes) and the remaining red blood cell pellet was counted (Coulter Act Diff, Beckman Coulter) and then frozen (-80 °C) until analysis.
The red blood cells were subjected to 3 freeze-thaw cycles to ensure complete cellular lysis. Following lysis, the red blood cell lysates were diluted in PBS to the equivalent of 400 million cells/mL. These lysates and the plasma samples (undiluted) were then analysed on the multiplex cytokine assays. Two multiplex assays were utilised. The first was the 27-plex human cytokine panel that assays for FGF basic, Eotaxin, G- CSF, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL- Ι β, IL- lra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL- 12(p70), IL- 13, IL-15, IL-17, IP- 10, MCP-1 , ΜΙΡ-Ια, ΜΙΡ-Ιβ, PDGF-BB, RANTES, TNF- , and VEGF, and the second was the 21 -plex human cytokine panel that assays for IL-l a, IL-2Ra, IL-3, IL-12, IL-16, IL-18, CTACK, GRO-a, HGF, IFN-a2, LIF, MCP-3, M-CSF, MIF, MIG, β-NGF, SCF, SCGF-β, SDF- l a, TNF-β, TRAIL (Bio-Plex Pro 27- plex and 21-plex, Bio-Rad). The assays were performed according to manufacturer's instructions using an automated magnetic wash station (BioPlex Pro II, Bio-Rad) for the washing steps. The assays were run on the Luminex® 200™ system (Bio-Rad) and fluorescent values were collected. The calibration curve for each cytokine was analysed with 5 parametric logistic curve regression using BioPlex manager software (ver. 5.0, Bio-Rad, USA).
Figure 23A-23VV shows the concentration of the indicated proteins in the plasma and the lysate of red blood cells (400 million cells/mL) from participant groups calculated back to the relative concentration per mL of whole blood (approximately 5 x 109 cells/mL). Significant differences (p < 0.05) were determined using Student T-tests. The protein levels in the blood of healthy (non-pregnant) individuals were compared to the oncology patients and that of healthy, pregnant individuals was compared to that of pregnant individuals with preeclampsia. Figure 24A-24C shows the fold difference between the concentration of the proteins in red blood cell as opposed to plasma.
There were significant differences between the protein levels in healthy control individuals and that in the individuals with a disease or disorder in a collection of proteins. For example, IL-2 was significantly lower (approximately 10-fold lower) in the red blood cells collected from the oncology group than in the healthy group and the chemokine CTACK was significantly higher in the red blood cells collected from the preeclampsia group than the healthy, pregnant group. In addition, twenty-eight of the 48 cytokines had a level of protein in RBCs that substantially exceeded the plasma level (greater than 2: 1 ), with the fold change ranging from 2: 1 to -280: 1 (RBCplasma ratio). The median RBC-plasma ratio was 5.9: 1. The results of the study demonstrated that red blood cells may be a useful tool for identifying biomarkers in disease. Moreover, analysis of red blood cells in conjunction with plasma could provide more information about the disease state that is currently unachievable, especially in instances in which there are no clear differences in protein levels in plasma alone, but identifiable differences in red blood cells (e.g., bFGF) or between red blood cells and plasma.
Example 13. Protein profile in RBCs and RBC protein release from healthy individuals versus individuals having preeclampsia or cancer.
The levels of proteins released by red blood cells was evaluated in healthy individuals and those with a disease or disorder. Whole blood was collected from four groups of people including: 1) healthy volunteers, 2) healthy, pregnant women, 3) pregnant women with pre-eclampsia, and 4) oncology patients (Table 13).
Table 13. Participant summary
Subject Condition Relevant information
Chemotherapy and radiation
OBS-101 Lymphoma
therapy
OBS-102 Lymphoma Chemotherapy
OBS-103 Cancer (specific type unknown) Chemotherapy
PE-001 Preeclampsia 3rd trimester
PE-002 Preeclampsia 3rd trimester PE-003 Preeclampsia 3r trimester
The healthy, pregnant control samples were matched with the preeclampsia samples according to gestation. Blood was collected from each volunteer by venipuncture (n > 3) directly into EDTA vacutainers (k2EDTA vacutamers, BD Biosciences). All fractions of blood were collected and processed at room temperature within 4 hours of collection. For multiplex analysis (BioPlex analysis) all samples were stored at -80 °C and were subjected to 3 freeze-thaw cycles at -80 °C to ensure complete cellular lysis prior to analysis.
The red blood cells were isolated using dextran sedimentation as follows. Whole blood was centrifuged (1500 g, 10 minutes) and the upper plasma layer was discarded. The remaining cell pellet was resuspended in an equal volume of sodium chloride (0.15 M). Dextran (6 % w/v in 0.15 M sodium chloride) was then added to this cellular suspension at a 1 :4 ratio (dextran : cell suspension). This solution was left at room temperature for 30 minutes for red blood cell sedimentation to the bottom of the tube. After this time the upper white blood cell rich layer was discarded and the lower red blood cell fraction was isolated. The red blood cell fraction was washed twice in phosphate buffered saline (PBS, 500 g, 5 minutes) and the remaining red blood cell pellet was counted (Coulter Act Diff, Beckman Coulter). The red blood cells were then diluted to 400 million cells/mL in PBS and were incubated at 37 °C and 5 % C02 for 24 hrs. After incubation, the resulting conditioned PBS was isolated by centrifugation (500 g, 5 minutes). All samples were stored at -80 °C, and underwent 3 freeze/thaw cycles before analysis. The conditioned PBS samples were then analysed on the multiplex cytokine assays. Two multiplex assays were utilised. The first was the 27-plex human cytokine panel that assays for FGF basic, Eotaxin, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-Ι β, IL-lra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12(p70), IL-13, IL- 15, IL-17, IP-10, MCP-1, ΜΓΡ-Ια, ΜΙΡ- Ιβ, PDGF-BB, RANTES, TNF-a, and VEGF, and the second was the 21- plex human cytokine panel that assays for IL-l a, IL-2Ra, IL-3, IL-12, IL-16, IL-18, CTAC , GRO-a, HGF, IFN-a2, LIF, MCP-3, M-CSF, MIF, MIG, β-NGF, SCF, SCGF- β, SDF-l a, TNF-β, TRAIL (Bio-Plex Pro 27-plex and 21 -plex, Bio-Rad). The assays were performed according to the manufacturer's instructions using an automated magnetic wash station (BioPlex Pro II, Bio-Rad) for the washing steps. The assays were run on the Luminex® 200Ί M system (Bio-Rad) and fluorescent values wrere collected. The calibration curve for each cytokine was analysed with 5 parametric logistic curve regression using BioPlex manager software (ver. 5.0, Bio-Rad, USA).
Figure 25A-25RR shows the concentration of the indicated proteins in the red blood cell conditioned PBS from the participant groups. The conditioned PBS was produced following red blood cell incubation for 24 hrs at 37 °C. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were determined using Strident T-tests. There were significant differences in protein levels between the healthy control individuals and individuals in the disease groups. For example, significantly less IL-la and GCS-F was released from red blood cells isolated from people with cancer when compared to the healthy controls, and significantly more IL-12(p40) and Eotaxin was released from the red blood cells isolated from cancer patients than healthy individuals. Similarly, a few cytokines were significantly different between the healthy pregnant group and the group with preeclampsia, such as MIF
The results suggested that analysis of the secretome of red blood cells could be a useful diagnostic tool for identifying and tracking biomarkers in disease. Analysis of the secretion of red blood cells (red blood cell protein release) could provide additional information regarding disease state.
Example 14. Other exemplary non-limiting embodiments
Further advantages of the claimed subject matter will become apparent from the following examples describing certain embodiments of the claimed subject matter.
1. A method of producing a protein profile comprising:
a. ) obtaining a blood sample;
b. ) leukodepleting at least a portion of the blood sample to produce a red blood cell- enriched sample; and
c. ) detecting the presence of one or more proteins in a small volume of the red blood cell- enriched sample, wherein the small volume is 5 μί to 100 μί,
wherein the protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins detected in the red blood cell-enriched sample;
wherein the method further comprises measuring the level of the one or more proteins detected in the red blood cell-enriched sample, wherein the protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins measured in the red blood cell-enriched sample;
wherein the method further comprises contacting the red blood cell-enriched sample with at least one cationic salt prior to detecting the presence or measuring the level of the one or more proteins, wherein the cationic salt increases the detectable level of one or more proteins in the red blood cell-enriched sample.
2. A method of producing a protein profile comprising:
a. ) obtaining a blood sample;
b. ) leukodepleting at least a portion of the blood sample to produce a red blood cell- enriched sample;
c. ) contacting the red blood cell-enriched sample with at least one cationic salt, wherein the cationic salt increases the detectable level of one or more proteins in the red blood cell-enriched sample; and
d. ) detectin the presence of one or more proteins in a small volume of the red blood cell- enriched sample, wherein the small volume is 5 μί to 100 μί,
wherein the protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins detected in the red blood cell-enriched sample;
wherein a cation of the at least one cationic salt is a metal ion or an ammonium ion; wherein the at least one cationic salt is selected from the group consisting of a sodium salt, a potassium salt, a magnesium salt, a lithium salt, a rubidium salt, a cesium salt, an iron salt, a francium salt, a pyridinium salt, and combinations thereof;
wherein the at least one cationic salt is a chloride salt selected from the group consisting of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, rubidium chloride, cesium chloride, lithium chloride, and combinations thereof;
wherein the at least one cationic salt is a carbonate salt selected from the group consisting of sodium carbonate, potassium carbonate, rubidium carbonate, cesium carbonate, lithium carbonate, and combinations thereof;
wherein the at least one cationic salt is an ammonium salt;
wherein the ammonium salt is selected from the group consisting of ammonium carbonate, ammonium chloride, ammonium nitrate, and combinations thereof.
3. A method of producing a protein profile comprising:
a. ) obtaining a blood sample;
b. ) leukodepleting at least a portion of the blood sample to produce a red blood cell- enriched sample;
c. ) isolating red blood cells and plasma in the red blood cell-enriched sample;
d. ) measuring the level of one or more proteins in the red blood cells and the level of the one or more proteins in the plasma; and e.) calculating a protein ratio comprising the level of the one or more proteins in the red blood cells to the level of the one or more proteins in the plasma,
wherein the protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins that have a protein ratio of at least 2:1;
wherein the level of the one or more proteins in the red blood cells and the plasma is measured in a small volume from the red blood cell-enriched sample;
wherein the protein ratio is selected from the group consisting of at least 10:1, at least 20: 1 , at least 30: 1 , at least 40: 1 , at least 50: 1 , at least 60: 1 , at least 70: 1 , at least 80: 1 , at least 90:1, at least 100:1, at least 110:1, at least 120:1, at least 130:1, at least 140:1, at least 150:1, at least 160:1, at least 170:1, at least 180:1, at least 190:1, and at least 200:1. wherein the protein ratio is selected from the group consisting of at least 2:1, at least 3:1, at least 4:1, at least 5:1, at least 6:1, at least 7:1, at least 8:1, at least 9:1, and at least 10:1.
4. A method of producing a protein profile comprising:
a. ) obtaining a blood sample;
b. ) leukodepleting at least a portion of the blood sample to produce a red blood cell- enriched sample;
c. ) isolating red blood cells and plasma in the red blood cell-enriched sample;
d. ) contacting the red blood cells with a cationic salt, wherein the at least one cationic salt increases the detectable level of one or more proteins in the red blood cells;
e. ) measuring in a small volume of the red blood cell-enriched sample the level of one or more proteins in the red blood cells and the level of the one or more proteins in the plasma; and
f. ) calculating a protein ratio comprising the level of the one or more proteins in the red blood cells to the level of the one or more proteins in the plasma,
wherein the protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins that have a protein ratio of at least 2:1;
wherein the protein ratio is selected from the group consisting of at least 10: 1 , at least 20: 1 , at least 30: 1 , at least 40: 1 , at least 50: 1 , at least 60: 1 , at least 70: 1 , at least 80: 1 , at least 90:1, at least 100:1, at least 110:1, at least 120:1, at least 130:1, at least 140:1, at least 150:1, at least 160:1, at least 170:1, at least 180:1, at least 190:1, and at least 200: 1. wherein the protein ratio is selected from the group consisting of at least 2:1, at least 3:1, at least 4:1, at least 5: 1, at least 6:1, at least 7:1, at least 8:1, at least 9:1, and at least 10:1.
5. A method of producing a protein profile comprising:
a.) obtaining a blood sample; b. ) leukodepleting at least a portion of the blood sample to produce a red blood cell- enriched sample;
c. ) incubating red blood cells in the red blood cell-enriched sample in a medium; and d. ) detectin one or more proteins in the medium,
wherein the protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins detected in the medium;
wherein the method further comprises measuring the level of the one or more proteins detected in the medium, wherein the protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins measured in the red blood cell-enriched sample;
wherein the medium is one or more selected from the group consisting of isotonic salt solution, balanced salt solution, saline, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), and/or Earles' balanced salt solution (EBSS), Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium (RPMl), minimum essential medium (MEM), Improved Minimum Essential Medium (IMEM), Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM), Dubelco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM), and/or Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Media (IMDM).
6. A method of producing a protein profile comprising:
a. ) obtaining a blood sample;
b. ) leukodepleting at least a portion of the blood sample to produce a red blood cell- enriched sample;
c. ) incubating red blood cells in the red blood cell-enriched sample in a medium, wherein the medium contains a cationic salt that increases the detectable level of one or more proteins in the red blood cell-enriched sample; and
d. ) detecting one or more proteins in the medium,
wherein the protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins detected in the medium;
wherein the method further comprises measuring the level of the one or more proteins detected in the medium, wherein the protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins measured in the red blood cell-enriched sample;
wherein the medium is one or more selected from the group consisting of isotonic salt solution, balanced salt solution, saline, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), and/or Earles' balanced salt solution (EBSS), Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium (RPMl), minimum essential medium (MEM), Improved Minimum Essential Medium (IMEM), Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM), Dubelco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM), arid/or Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Media (IMDM).
7. A method of producing a protein profile comprising:
a. ) obtaining a small volume blood sample;
b. ) leukodepleting at least a portion of the small volume blood sample to produce a red blood cell-enriched sample; and
c. ) detecting one or more proteins in the red blood cell-enriched sample,
wherein the protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins detected in the red blood cell-enriched sample;
wherein the method further comprising measurin the level of the one or more proteins detected in the red blood cell-enriched sample, wherein the protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins measured in the red blood cell-enriched sample;
wherein the small volume blood sample is 5 μΕ to 100 μΕ;
wherein the small volume blood sample is 5 μL· to 20 μΕ;
wherein the blood sample is obtained from a subject;
wherein the subject is a human or a non-human animal;
wherein the small volume blood sample is obtained from a finger, heel, ear, or tail;
wherein the small volume blood sample is obtained by finger prick, heel prick, or ear prick;
wherein the subject is a human;
wherein the the small volume blood sample is obtained from a finger, heel, or ear;
wherein the small volume blood sample is obtained by finger prick, heel prick, ear prick, or tail prick;
wherein the subject is a non-human animal selected from the group consisting of a mouse, rat, hamster, ferret, gerbil, rabbit, monkey, chimpanzee, horse, pony, donkey, sheep, pig, chicken, goat, cat, and dog;
wherein the small volume blood sample is obtained by a tail prick or an ear prick;
wherein the small volume blood sample is obtained a number of times selected from the group consisting of one or more times per day, two or more times per day, three or more times per day, four or more times per day, and five or more times per day;
wherein the small volume blood sample is obtained a number of times selected from the group consisting of one or more times per week, two or more times per week, three or more times per week, four or more times per week, five or more times per week, six or more times per week, and seven or more times per week; wherein the small volume blood sample is obtained daily;
wherein the small volume blood sample is obtained a number of times selected from the group consisting of once a week, once every two weeks, once every three weeks, and once every four weeks;
wherein the small volume blood sample is obtained once a month.
8. A method of producing a disease protein profile comprising:
a. ) obtaining at least one protein profile produced according to one or more of one or more of the above examples from:
(I) a subject having a disease or disorder, and
(ii) at least one subject not having the disease or disorder; and
b. ) comparing the protein profile of the subject having the disease or disorder to the protein profile of the at least one subject not having the disease or disorder,
wherein the disease protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins that have a different presence or level in the protein profile from the subject having the disease or disorder compared to the protein profile of the at least one subject not having the disease or disorder;
wherein the disease or disorder is cancer;
wherein the disease protein profile is a cancer protein profile comprising one or more proteins selected from the group consisting of IL- 1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-15, IL- 17, TNF-a, TGF-β, and IFN-γ;
wherein the disease or disorder is preeclampsia;
wherein the disease profile is a preeclampsia protein profile comprising one or more proteins selected from the group consisting of TNF-a, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-Ι β, IL- 6, IL-8, and IL- 12;
wherein the preeclampsia protein profile comprises one or more proteins selected from the group consisting of IL-6, IL-8, and IFN-γ.
9. A method for determining whether a subject has a disease or disorder comprising: a. ) obtaining a protein profile of the subject produced according to one or more of the above examples; and
b. ) comparing the protein profile of the subject to a disease protein profile,
wherein similarities in the presence or level of one or more proteins in the protein profile of the subject compared to the presence or level of the one or more proteins in the disease protein profile indicate the subject has the disease or disorder; wherein the disease or disorder is selected from the group consisting of cancer, preeclampsia, autoimmune disease, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disease, diabetes, metabolic disorders, musculoskeletal disease, infectious disease, genetic disorders, renal disorders, and gastrointestinal disorders.
10. A method of monitoring treatment in a subject comprising:
a. ) obtaining a protein profile produced according to one or more of the above examples from a subject before treatment and after treatment; and
b. ) comparing the protein profile of the subject before treatment to the protein profile of the subject after treatment,
wherein a difference in the presence or level of one or more proteins in the protein profile of the subject before treatment compared to the protein profile of the subject after treatment indicates an effect of the treatment on the subject;
wherein the protein profile of a subject who has received no treatment is compared to the protein profile of the subject after receiving treatment;
wherein at least one protein profile of a subject after treatment at one point in time is compared to at least one protein profile of the subject after treatment at a different point in time;
wherein the subject has received the same treatment;
wherein the subject has received a different treatment;
wherein the blood sample is a small volume blood sample;
wherein the subject is monitored a number of times selected from the group consisting of one or more times per day, two or more times per day, three or more times per day, four or more times per day, and five or more times per day;
wherein the subject is monitored a number of times selected from the group consisting of one or more times per week, two or more times per week, three or more times per week, four or more times per week, five or more times per week, six or more times per week, and seven or more times per week;
wherein the subject is monitored daily;
wherein the subject is monitored a number of times selected from the group consisting of once a week, once every two weeks, once every three weeks, and once every four weeks; wherein the subject is monitored once a month.
1 1. A method of determining the effectiveness of a treatment comprising:
a.) obtaining at least one protein profile produced according to one or more of the above examples from: (i) a subject that has undergone the treatment, and
(ii) a subject that has not undergone the treatment; and
b.) comparing the protein profile of the subject who has undergone the treatment to the protein profile of the subject who has not undergone the treatment,
wherein similarities in the presence or level of one or more proteins in the protein profile of the subject that has undergone the treatment compared to the protein profile of the subject that has not undergone the treatment indicate the effectiveness of the treatment.
12. The method of one or more of the above examples, wherein the blood sample is obtained from a subject.
13. The method one or more of the above examples, wherein the blood sample is obtained from a capillary of the subject or a vein of the subject.
14. The method of one or more of the above examples, wherein the subject is a human or a non-human animal.
15. The method of one or more of the above examples, wherein the subject is a human.
16. The method of one or more of the above examples, wherein the small volume of the red blood cell-enriched sample is 5 to 20 μL.
17. The method of one or more of the above examples, wherein the small volume of the red blood cell-enriched sample is 5 μΐ^.
18. The method of one or more of the above examples, wherein the presence of the one or more proteins is detected or the level of the one or more proteins is measured using one or more antibodies.
19. The method of one or more of the above examples, wherein the presence of three or more proteins is detected or the level of three or more protems is measured in the red blood cell-enriched sample.
20. The method of one or more of the above examples, wherein the presence of five or more proteins is detected or the level of five or more proteins is measured in the red blood cell-enriched sample.
21. The method of one or more of the above examples, wherein the presence of ten or more proteins is detected or the level of ten or more proteins is measured in the red blood cell-enriched sample.
22. The method of one or more of the above examples, wherein the presence of twenty or more proteins is detected or the level of twenty or more proteins is measured in the red blood cell-enriched sample. 23. The method of one or more of the above examples, wherein the presence of thirty or more proteins is detected or the level of thirty or more proteins is measured in the red blood cell-enriched sample.
24. The method of one or more of the above examples, wherein the one or more proteins are selected from the group consisting of chemokines, cytokines, growth factors, receptors, intracellular signal transmitters, hormones, nuclear transcription factors, neurotransmitters, and extracellular matrix components, and enzymes.
25. The method of one or more of the above examples, wherein the one or more proteins are selected from the group consisting of the proteins listed in Table 1 or a combination of proteins listed in Table 2.
26. The method of one or more of one or more of the above examples, wherein the one or more proteins are selected from the group consisting of basic FGF, CTACK, Eotaxin, G-CSF, GM-CSF, HGF, IFN-a2, IFN-γ, IL- 10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL- 12p40, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17A, IL-18, IL-la, IL-Ι β, IL-2, IL-2ra, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-9, IP-10, LIF, M-CSF, MIG, ΜΙΡ- Ια, ΜΙΡ- Ι β, PDGF-BB, SDF-la, TNF-a, TNF-β, TRAIL, VEGF, CRP, and DDT.
27. The method of one or more of the above examples, wherein the blood sample is leukodepleted by one or more methods selected from the group consisting of flow cytometry, magnetic bead separation, centrifugation, cellulose column, and dextran sedimentation.
28. The method of one or more of the above examples, wherein the red blood cells are leukodepleted by dextran sedimentation.
29. The method of one or more of the above examples, wherein the one or more proteins are detected or measured from one or more places selected from the group consisting of the surface of the red blood cells, the interior of red blood cells, the lysate of red blood cells, the supernatant of the red blood cells, medium containing the red blood cells, and medium that previously contained the red blood cells.
30. The method of one or more of the above examples, wherein the subject has a disease or disorder.
31. A method for increasing the accuracy of the detection or measurement of one or more proteins in a blood sample comprising:
a. ) contacting the blood sample with dextran;
b. ) allowing the blood sample to form a leukocyte-containing layer and a red blood cell dense layer; c. ) isolating red blood cells in the red blood cell dense layer to create a red blood cell- enriched blood sample; and
d. ) detecting the presence or measuring the level of one or more proteins in the red blood cell-enriched blood sample,
wherein the blood sample is a small volume blood sample;
wherein the small volume blood sample is between 5 and 100 μί.
wherein the ratio of blood to dextran in the blood sample is selected from the group consisting of 1 : 1 , 2: 1, 3: 1 , 4: 1 , 5: 1 , 6: 1 , 7: 1, 8: 1 , 9: 1 , and 10: 1 ;
wherein the average depletion of white blood cells and platelets from the blood sample is 85% to 95%.
32. A kit for measuring the protein profile of a blood sample comprising:
a. ) at least one reagent to leukodeplete a blood sample and produce a red blood cell- enriched sample; and
b. ) at least one reagent to detect the presence or measure the level of one or more proteins in a small volume red blood cell-enriched sample,
wherein the cationic salt increases the detectable level of one or more proteins in the blood sample;
wherein the method further comprises at least one reagent to obtain a blood sample from a subject;
wherein the reagent to detect the presence or measure the level of one or more proteins is one or more antibodies;
wherein the reagent to detect the presence or measure the level of one or more proteins is an enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) apparatus.
33. A method for generating a protein profile from a blood sample obtained from a subject or a component of the blood sample, the method comprising:
a. ) determining levels of one or more proteins in the blood sample or the blood sample component,
b. ) wherein the blood sample and the blood sample component each comprise red blood cells (RBCs),
wherein the protein profile is generated from the blood sample component;
wherein the RBCs constitute more than 0.5%, 1%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%,, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%,, 90%, 95%, 97.5%, 98%, 99%, 99.5%, 99.75%, 99.9%, or 99.95% of total number of blood cells present in the blood sample component; wherein the blood sample component is an RBC-enriched fraction produced by leukodepletion of the blood sample;
wherein the leukodepletion removes more than 90%, 92.5%,, 95%, 97.5%,, 99%, 99.5%, 99.75%,, 99.9%), or 99.95%) of the number of leukocytes from the blood sample or portion thereof;
wherein the leukodepletion provides an RBC-enriched fraction in which more than 99%o, 99.5%, 99.75%, 99.9%, or 99.95% of the number of blood cells in the fraction are RBCs; wherein the blood sample or portion thereof is subjected to platelet depletion;
wherein the platelet depletion removes more than: 90%, 92.5%, 95%, 97.5%, 99%, 99.5%, 99.75%, 99.9%,, or 99.95% of the number of platelets from the blood sample or portion thereof;
wherein the one or more proteins is/are selected from the group consisting of basic FGF, CTAC , Eotaxin, G-CSF, GM-CSF, HGF, IFN-a2, IFN-γ, IL- 10, IL-12p7(), IL-13, IL- 12p40, 1L-15, 1L-16, 1L- 17A, IL-18, IL-l a, IL-Ι β, IL-2, IL-2ra, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, 1L-6, IL-7, IL-9, IP- 10, L1F, M-CSF, MIG, ΜΙΡ- Ια, ΜΙΡ-Ι β, PDGF-BB, SDF-la, TNF-a, TNF-β, TRAIL, VEGF, CRP, DDT, and any combination thereof;
wherein the one or more proteins comprise or consist of:
a. ) a protein listed in Table 1 ; or
b. ) a combination of proteins listed in Table 2.
34. A method according to one or more of the above examples, comprising one or more of:
a. ) determining the levels of one or more proteins on the surface of the RBCs;
b. ) determining the levels of one or more proteins within the RBCs;
c. ) determining the levels of one or more proteins released by the RBCs,
wherein the blood sample is a dried blood spot sample (DBS).
35. A method according to one or more of the above examples, wherein generating the protein profile comprises:
a. ) producing a cell lysate, a cell wash, or a cell supernatant from a cell population comprising the RBCs; and
b. ) determining levels of one or more proteins in the cell lysate, the cell wash, or the cell supernatant,
wherein the determining levels of one or more proteins is conducted using the cell lysate.
36. The method of one or more of the above examples, comprising:
a.) snap freezing the RBCs; b. ) thawing the RBCs to produce the cell lysate; and
c. ) determining levels of the one or more proteins in the cell lysate,
wherein the determining levels of one or more proteins is conducted using the cell wash; wherein the cell wash is produced by combining two or more cell washes;
wherein the cell wash is produced using wash liquid comprising one or more of isotonic salt solution, balanced salt solution, saline, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), and/or Earles' balanced salt solution (EBSS);
wherein the determining levels of one or more proteins is conducted using the cell supernatant;
wherein the cell supernatant is produced by culturing cells used to produce the cell supernatant in cell culture media comprising any one or more of Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium (RPMI), minimum essential medium (MEM), Improved Minimum Essential Medium (IMEM), Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM), Dubelco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM), and/or Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Media (IMDM);
wherein the step of determining levels of one or more proteins is conducted using multiple samples of the cell supernatant;
wherein the samples of the cell supernatant are extracted at different time points from a culture of the cells used to produce the cell supernatant.
37. A method of one or more of the above examples, comprising:
a. ) contacting the blood sample with an anticoagulant;
b. ) determining levels of one or more proteins in leukocytes separated from the RBCs; wherein the method further comprises:
i. ) snap freezing the leukocytes;
ii. ) thawing the leukocytes to produce a leukocyte lysate; and
iii. ) determining levels of one or more proteins in the thawed leukocytes,
wherein the method further comprises, determining levels of one or more proteins in a cell wash and/or a cell supernatant generated by washing and/or culturing the leukocytes.
38. The method of one or more of the above examples, comprising:
a. ) contacting the blood sample with an anticoagulant; and
b. ) determining levels of one or more proteins in platelets separated from the RBCs, wherein the method further comprises:
i. ) snap freezing the platelets;
ii. ) thawing the platelets to produce a platelet lysate; and iii.) determining levels of one or more proteins in the thawed platelets;
wherein the method further comprises determining levels of one or more proteins in a cell wash and/or a cell supernatant generated by washing and/or culturing the platelets.
39. The method of one or more of the above examples, comprising:
a. ) contacting the blood sample with an anticoagulant;
b. ) determining levels of one or more proteins in plasma separated from the RBCs, wherein the snap freezing is at a temperature of below or at -10°C, -20°C, -30°C, -40°C, - 50°C, -60°C, -70°C, -75°C, -8()°C, 100°C, -120°C, -140°C, -160°C, - 180°C, -190°C, - 195°C, or -196°C.
40. The method of one or more of the above examples, wherein the snap freezing and thawing comprises multiple freeze-thaw cycles.
41. The method of one or more of the above examples, wherein leukocytes are separated from the RBCs by flow cytometry and/or dextran sedimentation.
42. The method of one or more of the above examples, wherein platelets are separated from the RBCs by centrifugation.
43. The method of one or more of the above examples, wherein the blood sample has been mixed with a blood stabilising agent during collection.
44. The method of one or more of the above examples, further comprising contacting the blood sample obtained from the subject with a blood stabilising agent prior to the determining levels of one or more proteins,
wherein the blood stabilising agent is one or more selected from the group consisting of a protease inhibitor, a protein denaturation agent, an RNA stabiliser, an anticoagulant, and an anticoagulant in combination with another stabilising agent that is not an anticoagulant;
wherein the blood stabilising agent is not an anticoagulant;
wherein the blood stabilising agent is a protease inhibitor selected from the group consisting of aprotinin, leupeptin, a2-macroglobulin, antipain dihydrochloride, calpain inhibitor 1, calpain inhibitor 11, chymostatin, TLCK (CAS 131918-97-3), trypsin-inhibitor, Pefabloc SC (Roche), PMSF (C6H5CH2S02F - Thermo Fisher Scientific), complete protease inhibitor cocktail (Roche), and any combination thereof;
wherein the blood stabilizing agent is an anticoagulant is selected from the group consisting of: heparin, citrate, acid citrate dextrose, EDTA, and any combination thereof; wherein the step of contacting with the blood stabilising agent is performed within 5 seconds, 10 seconds, 20 seconds, 30 seconds, 1 minute, 2 minutes, 3 minutes, 4 minutes, 5 minutes, 10 minutes, 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 45 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours, 4 hours, 5 hours, 7.5 hours or 10 hours of conducting the step of the blood sample being obtained from the subject;
45. The method of one or more of the above examples, wherein the blood sample is obtained from a capillary of the subject.
46. The method of one or more of the above examples, wherein the blood sample is obtained from a vein of the subject.
47. The method of one or more of the above examples, wherein the step of determining levels of one or more proteins is conducted within 2 minutes, 5 minutes, 10 minutes, 15 minutes, 20 minutes, 25 minutes, 30 minutes, 40 minutes, 50 minutes, 1 hour, 1.5 hours, 2 hours, 3 hours, 4 hours, 5 hours, 6 hours, 7 hours, 8 hours, 9 hours, 10 hours, 1 1 hours, 12 hours, 18, hours, 24 hours, 36 hours, or 48 hours of when the blood sample is obtained.
48. The method of one or more of the above examples, further comprising a first step of obtaining the blood sample from the subject.
It will be appreciated by persons of ordinary skill in the art that numerous variations and/or modifications may be made to the present embodiments as disclosed in the specific embodiments without departing from the spirit or scope of the present disclosure as broadly described. The present embodiments are, therefore, to be considered in all respects as illustrative and not restrictive.

Claims

CLAIMS WHAT IS CLAIMED:
1. A method of producing a protein profile comprising: a. ) obtaining a blood sample; b. ) leukodepleting at least a portion of the blood sample to produce a red blood cell-enriched sample; and c. ) detecting the presence of one or more proteins in a small volume of the red blood cell-enriched sample, wherein the small volume is 5 to 100 μί, wherein the protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins detected in the red blood cell-enriched sample.
2. The method of claim 1 , further comprising measuring the level of the one or more proteins detected in the red blood cell-enriched sample, wherein the protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins measured in the red blood cell-enriched sample.
3. The method of claim 2, further comprising contacting the red blood cell-enriched sample with at least one cationic salt prior to detecting the presence or measuring the level of the one or more proteins, wherein the cationic salt increases the detectable level of one or more proteins in the red blood cell-enriched sample.
4. A method of producing a protein profile comprising: a. ) obtaining a blood sample; b. ) leukodepleting at least a portion of the blood sample to produce a red blood cell-enriched sample; c. ) isolating red blood cells and plasma in the red blood cell-enriched sample; d.) measuring the level of one or more proteins in the red blood cells and the level of the one or more proteins in the plasma; and e.) calculating a protein ratio comprising the level of the one or more proteins in the red blood cells to the level of the one or more proteins in the plasma,
wherein the protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins that have the protein ratio of at least 2: 1 .
5. A method of producing a protein profile comprising: a. ) obtaining a blood sample; b. ) leukodepleting at least a portion of the blood sample to produce a red blood cell-enriched sample; c. ) incubating red blood cells in the red blood cell-enriched sample in a medium; and d. ) detecting one or more proteins in the medium,
wherein the protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins detected in the medium.
6. The method of claim 5 further comprising measuring the level of the one or more proteins detected in the medium, wherein the protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins measured in the red blood cell-enriched sample.
7. The method of one or more of claims 1 to 6, wherein the blood sample is obtained from a subject.
8. The method of claim 7, wherein the subject is a human or a non-human animal.
9. The method of one or more of claims 1 to 8, wherein the blood sample obtained is a small volume blood sample, wherein the small volume is 5 pL to 100 pL.
10. The method of claim 9, wherein the small volume blood sample is obtained by finger prick, heel prick, ear prick, or tail prick.
1 1. The method of claim 9 or claim 10, wherein the small volume blood sample is obtained a number of times selected from the group consisting of one or more times per week, two or more times per week, three or more times per week, four or more times per week, five or more times per week, six or more times per week, and seven or more times per week.
12. The method of one or more of claims 1 to 1 1 , wherein the presence of the one or more proteins is detected or the level of the one or more proteins is measured using one or more antibodies.
13. The method of one or more of claims 1 to 12, wherein the presence of three or more proteins is detected or the level of three or more proteins is measured in the red blood cell-enriched sample.
14. The method of one or more of claims 1 to 13, wherein the one or more proteins are selected from the group consisting of chemokines, cytokines, growth factors, receptors, intracellular signal transmitters, hormones, nuclear transcription factors, neurotransmitters, extracellular matrix components, and enzymes.
15. The method of one or more of claims 1 to 13, wherein the one or more proteins are selected from the group consisting of basic FGF, CTACK, Eotaxin, G-CSF, GM-CSF, HGF, IFN-a2, IFN-γ, IL- 10, 1L- I 2p70, IL- 13, IL- 12p40, IL- 15, IL- 16, 1L- 17A, TL- 1 8, IL- l a, IL- Ι , IL-2, IL-2ra, TL-3, TL-4, IL-5, 1L-6, IL-7, IL-9, IP- 10, LIF, M-CSF, MIG, MlP- l a, ΜΙΡ- Ι β, PDGF-BB, SDF-l a, TNF-a, TNF-β, TRAIL, VEGF, CRP, and DDT.
16. The method of one or more of claims 1 to 15, wherein the red blood cells are leukodepleted by dextran sedimentation.
17. A method of producing a disease protein profile comprising: a. ) obtaining at least one protein profile produced according to one or more of claims 1 to 7 from:
(i) a subject having a disease or disorder, and
(ii) at least one subject not having the disease or disorder; and b. ) comparing the protein profile of the subject having the disease or disorder to the protein profile of the at least one subject not having the disease or disorder, wherein the disease protein profile produced comprises one or more proteins that have a different presence or level in the protein profile from the subject having the disease or disorder compared to the protein profile of the at least one subject not having the disease or disorder.
18. The method of claim 17, wherein the disease protein profile is a cancer protein profile comprising one or more proteins selected from the group consisting of IL- 1 , IL-2, 1L-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL- 12, IL- 15, 1L-17, TNF-a, TGF-β, and IFN-γ.
19. The method of claim 17, wherein the disease profile is a preeclampsia protein profile comprising one or more proteins selected from the group consisting of TNF-a, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-5, IL- 10, IL-Ι β, IL-6, IL-8, and IL- 12.
20. The method of claim 19, wherem the preeclampsia protein profile comprises one or more proteins selected from the group consisting of IL-6, IL-8, and IFN-γ.
21. A method for determining whether a subject has a disease or disorder comprising: a. ) obtaining a protein profile of the subject produced according to one or more of claims 1 to 7; and b. ) comparing the protein profile of the subject to a disease protein profile, wherein similarities in the presence or level of one or more proteins in the protein profile of the subject compared to the presence or level of the one or more proteins in the disease protein profile indicate the subject has the disease or disorder.
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