WO2017052654A1 - Scaled interconnect via and transistor contact by adjusting scattering - Google Patents

Scaled interconnect via and transistor contact by adjusting scattering Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2017052654A1
WO2017052654A1 PCT/US2015/052483 US2015052483W WO2017052654A1 WO 2017052654 A1 WO2017052654 A1 WO 2017052654A1 US 2015052483 W US2015052483 W US 2015052483W WO 2017052654 A1 WO2017052654 A1 WO 2017052654A1
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via
interconnect
region
material
embodiments
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PCT/US2015/052483
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French (fr)
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Uygar E. Avci
Ian A. Young
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Intel Corporation
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Priority to PCT/US2015/052483 priority Critical patent/WO2017052654A1/en
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L29/00Semiconductor devices adapted for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating or switching, or capacitors or resistors with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction depletion layer or carrier concentration layer; Details of semiconductor bodies or of electrodes thereof; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/66Types of semiconductor device ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/66007Multistep manufacturing processes
    • H01L29/66075Multistep manufacturing processes of devices having semiconductor bodies comprising group 14 or group 13/15 materials
    • H01L29/66227Multistep manufacturing processes of devices having semiconductor bodies comprising group 14 or group 13/15 materials the devices being controllable only by the electric current supplied or the electric potential applied, to an electrode which does not carry the current to be rectified, amplified or switched, e.g. three-terminal devices
    • H01L29/66409Unipolar field-effect transistors
    • H01L29/66477Unipolar field-effect transistors with an insulated gate, i.e. MISFET
    • H01L29/66787Unipolar field-effect transistors with an insulated gate, i.e. MISFET with a gate at the side of the channel
    • H01L29/66795Unipolar field-effect transistors with an insulated gate, i.e. MISFET with a gate at the side of the channel with a horizontal current flow in a vertical sidewall of a semiconductor body, e.g. FinFET, MuGFET
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L23/00Details of semiconductor or other solid state devices
    • H01L23/52Arrangements for conducting electric current within the device in operation from one component to another, i.e. interconnections, e.g. wires, lead frames
    • H01L23/522Arrangements for conducting electric current within the device in operation from one component to another, i.e. interconnections, e.g. wires, lead frames including external interconnections consisting of a multilayer structure of conductive and insulating layers inseparably formed on the semiconductor body
    • H01L23/528Geometry or layout of the interconnection structure
    • H01L23/5283Cross-sectional geometry
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L23/00Details of semiconductor or other solid state devices
    • H01L23/52Arrangements for conducting electric current within the device in operation from one component to another, i.e. interconnections, e.g. wires, lead frames
    • H01L23/522Arrangements for conducting electric current within the device in operation from one component to another, i.e. interconnections, e.g. wires, lead frames including external interconnections consisting of a multilayer structure of conductive and insulating layers inseparably formed on the semiconductor body
    • H01L23/532Arrangements for conducting electric current within the device in operation from one component to another, i.e. interconnections, e.g. wires, lead frames including external interconnections consisting of a multilayer structure of conductive and insulating layers inseparably formed on the semiconductor body characterised by the materials
    • H01L23/53204Conductive materials
    • H01L23/53209Conductive materials based on metals, e.g. alloys, metal silicides
    • H01L23/53228Conductive materials based on metals, e.g. alloys, metal silicides the principal metal being copper
    • H01L23/53238Additional layers associated with copper layers, e.g. adhesion, barrier, cladding layers
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L29/00Semiconductor devices adapted for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating or switching, or capacitors or resistors with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction depletion layer or carrier concentration layer; Details of semiconductor bodies or of electrodes thereof; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/40Electrodes ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/41Electrodes ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor characterised by their shape, relative sizes or dispositions
    • H01L29/417Electrodes ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor characterised by their shape, relative sizes or dispositions carrying the current to be rectified, amplified or switched
    • H01L29/41725Source or drain electrodes for field effect devices
    • H01L29/41791Source or drain electrodes for field effect devices for transistors with a horizontal current flow in a vertical sidewall, e.g. FinFET, MuGFET
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L29/00Semiconductor devices adapted for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating or switching, or capacitors or resistors with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction depletion layer or carrier concentration layer; Details of semiconductor bodies or of electrodes thereof; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/66Types of semiconductor device ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/68Types of semiconductor device ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor controllable by only the electric current supplied, or only the electric potential applied, to an electrode which does not carry the current to be rectified, amplified or switched
    • H01L29/76Unipolar devices, e.g. field effect transistors
    • H01L29/772Field effect transistors
    • H01L29/78Field effect transistors with field effect produced by an insulated gate
    • H01L29/785Field effect transistors with field effect produced by an insulated gate having a channel with a horizontal current flow in a vertical sidewall of a semiconductor body, e.g. FinFET, MuGFET

Abstract

Described is an apparatus which comprises: a via formed of a first material; and a first interconnect, formed of a second material, with an end region coupled to the via, wherein the first interconnect has an angled sidewall at the end region. Described is an apparatus which comprises: a via formed of a first material; and a first interconnect, formed of a second material, with an end region coupled to the via, wherein the first interconnect has a rougher interface for at least one wall of the first interconnect at the end region compared to at least another wall of the first interconnect.

Description

SCALED INTERCONNECT VIA AND TRANSISTOR CONTACT BY ADJUSTING

SCATTERING

BACKGROUND

[0001] As the dimension of interconnects gets close to the Mean Free Path (MFP) of the carriers in the metals forming interconnect, the resistance at the corners of interconnect, where metal or metal-to-transistor is connected through a via or contact, becomes a significant part of the resistance of the interconnect. Here, MFP generally refers to the average distance traveled by a moving particle (such as an atom, a molecule, a photon, electron, etc.) between successive impacts (i.e., collisions), which modify the direction or energy or other particle properties of the moving particle.

[0002] The higher resistance at the corners of interconnects may be caused by scattering effects in metals. Scattering effect becomes prominent at the corners of interconnect and results in resistance due to poly crystalline structure of the metals (i.e., lower mobility to grain boundary scattering). Scattering effect may also explain the increased resistance due to line- widths getting smaller than MFP.

[0003] As integrated circuits (ICs) are becoming smaller in size, carriers travel shorter distances from point to point over metal interconnect. When the distances traveled by the carriers is shorter than the MFP, traditional resistance models underestimate the resistance because the carriers cannot turn the corners up or down (through a via or contact) because they have a high probability of being reflected or scattered back at the wall of the turn.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0004] The embodiments of the disclosure will be understood more fully from the detailed description given below and from the accompanying drawings of various embodiments of the disclosure, which, however, should not be taken to limit the disclosure to the specific embodiments, but are for explanation and understanding only.

[0005] Fig. 1A illustrates a cross-section of a transistor coupled to an interconnect through a via, where the Means-Free-Path (MFP) of the carrier is larger than the interconnect feature dimensions.

[0006] Fig. IB illustrates a cross-section of two interconnects coupled through a via, where the MFP of the carrier is larger than the interconnect feature dimensions.

[0007] Fig. 2A illustrates a cross-section of a transistor coupled to an interconnect through a via, where the interconnect and transistor side-walls are angled to improve carrier flow, in accordance with some embodiments. [0008] Fig. 2B illustrates a cross-section of two interconnects coupled through a via, where the interconnects have angled side-walls to improve carrier flow, in accordance with some embodiments.

[0009] Fig. 2C illustrates a cross-section of a transistor coupled to an interconnect through a via, where the interconnect and transistor side-walls are angled to improve carrier flow, in accordance with some embodiments.

[0010] Fig. 3A illustrates a cross-section of a transistor coupled to an interconnect through a via, where the interconnect and transistor side-walls have rough surfaces to improve carrier flow, in accordance with some embodiments.

[0011] Fig. 3B illustrates a cross-section of two interconnects coupled through a via, where the interconnects have rough surfaces to improve carrier flow, in accordance with some embodiments.

[0012] Fig. 4A illustrates a cross-section of a transistor coupled to an interconnect through a via, where a high scattering material is deposited at the interconnect and transistor side-walls to improve carrier flow, in accordance with some embodiments.

[0013] Fig. 4B illustrates a cross-section of two interconnects coupled through a via, where a high scattering material is deposited at the interconnect side-walls to improve carrier flow, in accordance with some embodiments.

[0014] Fig. 5A illustrates a cross-section of a transistor coupled to an interconnect through a via, where the interconnect has an angled side-wall and the transistor has a rough surface to improve carrier flow, in accordance with some embodiments.

[0015] Fig. 5B illustrates a cross-section of two interconnects coupled through a via, where one interconnect has an angled side-wall and the other interconnect has a rough surface to improve carrier flow, in accordance with some embodiments.

[0016] Fig. 6A illustrates a cross-section of a transistor coupled to an interconnect through a via, where the interconnect has an angled side-wall and a high scattering material is deposited at the transistor side-wall to improve carrier flow, in accordance with some embodiments.

[0017] Fig. 6B illustrates a cross-section of two interconnects coupled through a via, where one interconnect has an angled side-wall and a high scattering material is deposited at side-wall of the other interconnect to improve carrier flow, in accordance with some embodiments. [0018] Fig. 7 A illustrates a cross-section of a transistor coupled to an interconnect through a via, where the interconnect has a rough side-wall and the transistor has an angled side-wall to improve carrier flow, in accordance with some embodiments.

[0019] Fig. 7B illustrates a cross-section of two interconnects coupled through a via, where one interconnect has a rough side-wall and the other interconnect has an angled side- wall to improve carrier flow, in accordance with some embodiments.

[0020] Fig. 8A illustrates a cross-section of a transistor coupled to an interconnect through a via, where the interconnect has a rough side-wall and a high scattering material is deposited at the transistor side-wall to improve carrier flow, in accordance with some embodiments.

[0021] Fig. 8B illustrates a cross-section of two interconnects coupled through a via, where one interconnect has a rough side-wall and a high scattering material is deposited at the side-wall of the other interconnect to improve carrier flow, in accordance with some embodiments.

[0022] Fig. 9A illustrates a cross-section of a transistor coupled to an interconnect through a via, where a high scattering material is deposited at the interconnect side-wall and the transistor has an angled side-wall to improve carrier flow, in accordance with some embodiments.

[0023] Fig. 9B illustrates a cross-section of two interconnects coupled through a via, where a high scattering material is deposited at one of the interconnect side-walls and the other interconnect has an angled side-wall to improve carrier flow, in accordance with some embodiments.

[0024] Fig. 10A illustrates a cross-section of a transistor coupled to an interconnect through a via, where a high scattering material is deposited at the interconnect side-wall and the transistor has a rough side-wall to improve carrier flow, in accordance with some embodiments.

[0025] Fig. 10B illustrates a cross-section of two interconnects coupled through a via, where a high scattering material is deposited at one of the interconnect side-walls and the other interconnect has a rough side-wall to improve carrier flow, in accordance with some embodiments.

[0026] Fig. 11 illustrates a smart device or a computer system or a SoC (System-on-Chip) having interconnects and transistors which engineered corner regions for improve carrier flow, according to some embodiments. DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0027] Fig. 1A illustrates cross-section 100 of a transistor coupled to interconnect 101 (e.g., a Cu interconnect) through source region Contact/Via 102 (e.g., formed of W), where the Means-Free-Path (MFP) of the carrier (e.g., electrons) is larger than the interconnect feature dimensions. For a given medium, a moving electron can be ascribed a MFP as being the average length that the electron can travel freely (i.e., before a collision, which could change the momentum of that electron). The MFP can be increased by reducing the number of impurities in a crystalline material/medium or by lowering its temperature.

[0028] For purposes of describing the various embodiments, a simplified version of the transistor is illustrated having a source region, drain region, channel, Substrate, and Gate terminal. In cases where the transistor is a Fin Field Effect Transistor (FinFET), a Fin is formed under the gate. In this example, drain region Via 103 is also shown coupled to the drain region.

[0029] When carriers (e.g., electrons) traverse through interconnect 101, some of the carriers are scattered or reflected by the corner wall of interconnect 101 near the coupling area with Via 102. As such, resistivity increases at the corner region of interconnect 101. This increase in resistivity may also cause electro-migration issues in the corner region of interconnect 101 near the intersection with Via 102. While the carriers are scattered, some of them are directed through Via 203 towards the source region. Again, the carriers face scattering at the interface of the Substrate and/or the interface of the source region and the Substrate. The scattering of electrons (or the carriers) reduces the amount of electrons delivered from interconnect 101 to the transistor.

[0030] Generally, as processing technology improves, metal resistance reduces. This suggests increase in MFP for the carriers. The issue of scattering is significantly more pronounced for high mobility transistors such as transistors formed using elements from the Group III-V of the Periodic Table. For high mobility transistors, carriers are more ballistic than conventional materials such as Silicon. These more ballistic carriers result in less scattering that result in inefficient transport of carriers and a significant increase in the resistance for the vias and contacts.

[0031] Fig. IB illustrates cross-section 120 of two interconnects 101 and 121 coupled through Via 122, where the MFP of the carrier is larger than the interconnect feature dimensions. It is pointed out that those elements of Fig. IB having the same reference numbers (or names) as the elements of any other figure can operate or function in any manner similar to that described, but are not limited to such. Fig. IB is described with reference to Fig. 1 A. Here, metal-to-metal connection is illustrated instead of metal-to-transistor connection as shown in Fig. 1A. In this example, scattering is illustrated at the corner regions of interconnects 101 and 121 where they couple to Via 122.

[0032] Conventional vias or contacts are generally designed with one-dimensional resistivity consideration focusing on lowering resistance of small wires. This enables resistance scaling of interconnect technologies for long metal lines. However, the same properties that improve resistivity (i.e., reducing resistance) of the metal lines (which also means improved (i.e., increased) MFP), lower the scattering rates through better materials and improved sidewall quality. As such, ballistic conduction is achieved by improving the resistivity of the metal lines. Ballistic conduction is the unimpeded flow of charge, or energy-carrying particles, over relatively long distances in a material.

[0033] The properties that improve resistivity also mean that when electrons reach the end of an interconnect line (e.g., the end of interconnect 101 near the corner region), the electrons are more likely to be reflected back. This means that although the one-dimensional resistance of long metal lines are improved, the resistance of vias and contacts that connect metals of different levels increase, in spite of improved intrinsic material quality.

[0034] Various embodiments described here lower via and contact resistance of these ultra-scaled dimensions of technology nodes without affecting the improved one-dimensional metal resistivity by designing interconnect edges differently than the rest of the interconnects. Various embodiments described here address the problem associated with scaling transistors and interconnects to smaller cross sectional dimensions such that these dimensions are smaller than the MFP of the carriers (for either transistors or wires/vias). As such, the carriers are not captured as the flow of carriers requires a change in direction/momentum.

[0035] Some embodiments take into consideration the electron's long MFP, compared to metal dimensions, to design interconnects, vias, and transistor contacts to improve conductivity and lower effective resistance of the interconnects, vias, and transistor contacts. In some embodiments, conductivity of interconnects, vias, and transistor contacts is improved through efficient reflection of electrons onto the right path or by increasing scattering rate at the corners before a 90 degree turn(s). Various embodiments guide electron flow to the desired direction as efficiently as possible, avoiding reflection of carriers back in the original direction they were supplied from. [0036] In the following description, numerous details are discussed to provide a more thorough explanation of embodiments of the present disclosure. It will be apparent, however, to one skilled in the art, that embodiments of the present disclosure may be practiced without these specific details. In other instances, well-known structures and devices are shown in block diagram form, rather than in detail, in order to avoid obscuring embodiments of the present disclosure.

[0037] Note that in the corresponding drawings of the embodiments, signals are represented with lines. Some lines may be thicker, to indicate more constituent signal paths, and/or have arrows at one or more ends, to indicate primary information flow direction. Such indications are not intended to be limiting. Rather, the lines are used in connection with one or more exemplary embodiments to facilitate easier understanding of a circuit or a logical unit. Any represented signal, as dictated by design needs or preferences, may actually comprise one or more signals that may travel in either direction and may be implemented with any suitable type of signal scheme.

[0038] Throughout the specification, and in the claims, the term "connected" means a direct connection, such as electrical, mechanical, or magnetic connection between the things that are connected, without any intermediary devices. The term "coupled" means a direct or indirect connection, such as a direct electrical, mechanical, or magnetic connection between the things that are connected or an indirect connection, through one or more passive or active intermediary devices. The term "circuit" or "module" may refer to one or more passive and/or active components that are arranged to cooperate with one another to provide a desired function. The term "signal" may refer to at least one current signal, voltage signal, magnetic signal, or data/clock signal. The meaning of "a," "an," and "the" include plural references. The meaning of "in" includes "in" and "on."

[0039] The term "scaling" generally refers to converting a design (schematic and layout) from one process technology to another process technology and subsequently being reduced in layout area. The term "scaling" generally also refers to downsizing layout and devices within the same technology node. The term "scaling" may also refer to adjusting (e.g., slowing down or speeding up - i.e. scaling down, or scaling up respectively) of a signal frequency relative to another parameter, for example, power supply level. The terms "substantially," "close," "approximately," "near," and "about," generally refer to being within +/- 10% of a target value. [0040] Unless otherwise specified the use of the ordinal adjectives "first," "second," and "third," etc., to describe a common object, merely indicate that different instances of like objects are being referred to, and are not intended to imply that the objects so described must be in a given sequence, either temporally, spatially, in ranking or in any other manner.

[0041] For the purposes of the present disclosure, phrases "A and/or B" and "A or B" mean (A), (B), or (A and B). For the purposes of the present disclosure, the phrase "A, B, and/or C" means (A), (B), (C), (A and B), (A and C), (B and C), or (A, B and C). The terms "left," "right," "front," "back," "top," "bottom," "over," "under," and the like in the description and in the claims, if any, are used for descriptive purposes and not necessarily for describing permanent relative positions.

[0042] For purposes of the embodiments, the transistors in various circuits and logic blocks described here are metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) transistors or their derivatives, where the MOS transistors include drain, source, gate, and bulk terminals. The transistors and/or the MOS transistor derivatives also include Tri-Gate and FinFET transistors, Gate All Around Cylindrical Transistors, Tunneling FET (TFET), Square Wire, or Rectangular Ribbon Transistors, ferroelectric FET (FeFETs), dynamic -VT FeFETs, dynamic -VT nanocrystal based FETs, or other devices implementing transistor functionality like carbon nanotubes or spintronic devices. MOSFET symmetrical source and drain terminals i.e., are identical terminals and are interchangeably used here. A TFET device, on the other hand, has asymmetric Source and Drain terminals. Those skilled in the art will appreciate that other transistors, for example, Bi-polar junction transistors— BJT PNP/NPN, BiCMOS, CMOS, etc., may be used without departing from the scope of the disclosure. The term "M " indicates an n-type transistor (e.g., NMOS, NPN BJT, etc.) and the term "MP" indicates a p- type transistor (e.g., PMOS, PNP BJT, etc.).

[0043] Fig. 2 A illustrates cross-section 200 of a transistor coupled to interconnect 201 through source region Via 102, where interconnect 201 and transistor side-walls are angled to improve carrier flow, in accordance with some embodiments. It is pointed out that those elements of Fig. 2 A having the same reference numbers (or names) as the elements of any other figure can operate or function in any manner similar to that described, but are not limited to such.

[0044] In some embodiments, an angled side-wall 204 is engineered at the end region 202 (or corner region) of interconnect 201 where interconnect 201 couples with Via 102. The process of engineering an angled side-wall involves determining the optimal angle of the side-wall that reduces scattering and channels the flow of carriers in the desired direction. The process of engineering the side-wall also involves determining various parameters of the side-wall to improve flow of carriers to the desired path instead of reflecting back and causing increase in resistance.

[0045] For example, a side-wall can be engineered to have a certain angle to reflect electrons towards a desired path. A side-wall can also be engineered to have a certain roughness to increase scattering such that the carriers are directed to the desired path. A side- wall can also be engineered by using certain materials that increase scattering such that the carriers are directed to the desired path.

[0046] In some embodiments, angled side-wall 204 redirects the scattering of the electrons to the desired flow direction (i.e., towards Via 102). In some embodiments, the angle of the side-wall 204 is 45 degrees. In other embodiments, other angles may be engineered. For example, the angle of side-wall 204 may be in the range of 30-55 degrees depending on the material of interconnect 201. In some embodiments, corner region 203 of the transistor also has an angled side-wall 205. In some embodiments, corner region 203 faces Via 102. In some embodiments, angled side-wall 205 is formed in the substrate. In some embodiments, angled side-wall 205 is formed at the interface of the diffusion region (e.g., source region) and the Substrate. In some embodiments, the location of the angled side- wall 205 can be modified or engineered to redirect the electrons or carriers towards the Channel.

[0047] While the embodiment of Fig. 2A describes fine angle cuts at corner regions 204 and 205, smoother curves at the corner regions may also achieve the desired scattering, in accordance with some embodiments. The arrows in various figures, indicating the flow of electrons, is for illustration purposes. The various embodiments described here are also applicable when the desired path of current flow is opposite to what is illustrated by the various figures.

[0048] Fig. 2B illustrates cross-section 220 of two interconnects (201 and 221) coupled through via 221, where interconnects (201 and 221) have angled side-walls to improve carrier flow, in accordance with some embodiments. It is pointed out that those elements of Fig. 2B having the same reference numbers (or names) as the elements of any other figure can operate or function in any manner similar to that described, but are not limited to such.

[0049] In some embodiments, second interconnect 221 also has an angled side-wall 225 at its end region 223 (or its corner region). Here, first interconnect is interconnect 201. Second interconnect 221 may be on a different metal layer than first interconnect 201. For example, second interconnect 221 is formed in Metal 3 (M3) while first interconnect 201 is formed on Metal 1 (Ml). In some embodiments, first and second interconnects (201 and 221) extend in a direction parallel to one another. However, the embodiments are not limited to such orientation of interconnects. In some embodiments, first interconnect 201 extends perpendicular or orthogonal to second interconnect 221. The various embodiments of improving electron flow apply to various orientations of interconnects relative to the transistor and other interconnects.

[0050] In some embodiments, end region 223 of interconnect 221 couples to Via 121. In some embodiments, angled side-wall 225 redirects the scattering of electrons to the desired flow direction (e.g., towards interconnect 221). In some embodiments, the angle of side-wall 224 is 45 degrees. In other embodiments, other angles may be used. For example, the angle of side-wall 224 may be in the range of 30-55 degrees. In some embodiments, the angle may depend on the height and width of Via 102. In some embodiments, side-wall 224 has some curvature (e.g., convex or concave) to steer the carriers more efficiently.

[0051] While the embodiment of Fig. 2B describes angle cuts at corner regions 221 and 223, a smoother curve at the corner regions may also achieve the desired scattering, in accordance with some embodiments. The improved flow of current generally means a shorter path to reach the destination and with possibly lowest number of scattering events, in accordance with some embodiments. As such, the resistance of the vias (e.g., via 102 and 122) is reduced by the various embodiments.

[0052] In some embodiments, the materials used for interconnects 201 and 221 are the same (e.g., Cu). In some embodiments, interconnects 201 and 221 may be of different materials. For example, interconnect 201 is formed of Cu while interconnect 221 is formed of polysilicon. In some embodiments, a liner is added at the angled side-walls 204 and 225 to increase scattering efficiency. In some embodiments, via 102 and via 122 are formed of the same material (e.g., W). In other embodiments, via 102 and via 122 may be formed of different materials. In some embodiments, via 102 and via 122 may be formed of the same materials as the materials used for forming interconnects.

[0053] Fig. 2C illustrates cross-section 230 of a transistor coupled to interconnect 201 through via 102, where interconnect 201 and transistor side-walls 205 are angled to improve carrier flow, in accordance with some embodiments. It is pointed out that those elements of Fig. 2C having the same reference numbers (or names) as the elements of any other figure can operate or function in any manner similar to that described, but are not limited to such. Fig. 2C is similar to Fig. 2 A except that angled side- walls 205 of Fig. 2C are formed in the diffusion regions (e.g., source/drain regions). Here, side-wall 205 is illustrated with a bold (i.e., thick) line.

[0054] In Fig. 2A, the transistor may not steer all the carriers into the Channel because the 45° angle may be too deep (i.e., too away from the Channel and in the Substrate) for some process technologies. In some embodiments, the surface of the angle of side- wall 205 matches or faces the thickness of the Channel. In some embodiments, for a nanowire, horizontal ribbon, or fin, the angle is the whole width of the nanowire or fin (e.g., the 45° angle may be the whole width of the nanowire or fin). In some embodiments, the angle for side-wall 205 is selected such that the reflection of carriers, which do not reach the Channel of the transistor, is avoided.

[0055] In some embodiments, if the fin or ribbon is vertical, then the 45° angle for side- wall 205 is formed just at the bottom of the fin to reflect the remaining ballistic carriers because most of the carriers should have scattered before reaching the bottom of the fin, as the fin is tall. Various embodiments described here reflect carriers into the transistor or wire when the transistor source/drain junction is very thin (e.g., less than lOnm) or the Via is very thin (e.g., less thanlO-20 nm).

[0056] In some embodiments, waveguide engineering is performed on an interconnect running down the sides of a stack of nanowires because simple 45° angles may block carriers going from one nanowire to another nanowire. For example, each or just one interconnect in the stack of nanowires is waveguide engineered to achieve the optimum angle to cause the carriers to flow to the Channel of the transistor with minimal reflections.

[0057] Fig. 3A illustrates cross-section 300 of a transistor coupled to interconnect 302 through via 102, where interconnect 302 and transistor side-walls have rough surfaces to improve carrier flow, in accordance with some embodiments. It is pointed out that those elements of Fig. 3A having the same reference numbers (or names) as the elements of any other figure can operate or function in any manner similar to that described, but are not limited to such.

[0058] In some embodiments, an etch process is used to increase scattering at the corner region 302 (or end region) on interconnect 301. In some embodiments, for damascene processing, an oxide (e.g., a porous oxide) can etch with a rough surface to increase the scattering at the corner region 302. In some embodiments, a liner is used around the interconnect metal (in damascene) to act as the scattering agent. Another way to increase scattering in corner region 302 is to change between two different etches. For example, each lnm to 2nm of interconnect 302 is etched with a different angle at corner region 302 to achieve a rough surface 304.

[0059] In some embodiments, by increasing scattering, the probability that the carriers (e.g., electrons) will flow in the desired path increases. As such, when the carriers are on the right path (i.e., the desired path), low resistance of the rest of the material makes sure that the conductivity of the corner region and via is high.

[0060] In some embodiments, the etch process is used to generate a rough surface 304 at the edge of interconnect 301. In some embodiments, rough surface 304 may have repeatable rough patterns. In some embodiments, rough surface 304 may have different angles along its surface to increase the percentage of carriers directed to the 90° angle. In some

embodiments, the rough surface increases scattering. In some embodiments, a corner region 303 of the transistor is also roughened as shown by rough surface 325 to increase scattering at that surface. In some embodiments, a rough surface (not shown) is formed at the intersection of the drain/source region and the Substrate to direct the electrons towards the Channel.

[0061] Here, rough surfaces 304 and 325 are quantified by the deviations in the direction of the normal vector of a real surface from its ideal form. The ideal form is a smooth polished form. For example, the surface edges of interconnect 301 are smooth compared to side-wall 304. If these deviations in the direction of the normal vector of a real surface from its ideal form is above a threshold, the surface is considered rough. Roughness is typically considered to be the high-frequency, short-wavelength component of a measured surface. By adjusting the amplitude and frequency of the ridges formed on regions 304 and 325, scattering behavior can be engineered so that carriers travel the desired paths such that overall conductivity of the path increases.

[0062] Fig. 3B illustrates cross-section 330 of two interconnects coupled through via 122, where the interconnects have rough surfaces to improve carrier flow, in accordance with some embodiments. It is pointed out that those elements of Fig. 3B having the same reference numbers (or names) as the elements of any other figure can operate or function in any manner similar to that described, but are not limited to such.

[0063] In some embodiments, second interconnect 321 also has rough surface 325 at its corner region 323. Here, first interconnect is interconnect 301. In some embodiments, second interconnect 321 is coupled to first interconnect 301 through via 122. In some embodiments, an etch process is used to increase scattering at the corner region 323 (or end region) on interconnect 321. In some embodiments, by increasing scattering, the probability that the carriers (e.g., electrons) will flow in the desired path increases. As such the carriers are directed in the right direction (i.e., along interconnect 321 from via 122) rather than reflecting back by 180 degrees.

[0064] Here, rough surface 325 is quantified by the deviations in the direction of the normal vector of a real surface from its ideal form. Here, the ideal form is a smooth polished form. For example, the surface edges of interconnect 321 are smooth. By adjusting the amplitude and frequency of the ridges formed on region 325, scattering behavior can be engineered so that the carriers travel the desired paths such that overall conductivity of the path increases.

[0065] In some embodiments, rough surfaces 304, 305, and/or 325 can be formed on angled side-walls. For example, angled-side walls 204, 205, and/or 225 can have rough surfaces to improve redirection of electrons towards a desired path, in accordance with some embodiments.

[0066] Fig. 4A illustrates cross-section 400 of a transistor coupled to interconnect 401 through via 102, where a high scattering material is deposited at the side-walls of interconnect and the transistor to improve carrier flow, in accordance with some

embodiments. It is pointed out that those elements of Fig. 4A having the same reference numbers (or names) as the elements of any other figure can operate or function in any manner similar to that described, but are not limited to such.

[0067] In some embodiments, a thin layer of material that exhibits higher scattering rate than the neighboring material is deposited at the edge of interconnect 401. In some embodiments, interconnect 401 is formed of a first material having a MFP of a first value, where interconnect 401 has end region 404 with a MFP of a second value, where the second value is lower than the first value.

[0068] In some embodiments, a material of lower MFP is deposited as a thin layer (i.e., liner) at the corner region 402 of interconnect 401. In some embodiments, the thin layer is a liner of low conductivity material. In some embodiments, the material for interconnect 401 is a high grain material (i.e., a higher poly crystalline or more amorphous material) than thin layer 404. For example, thin layer 404 is formed of low grain Cu while interconnect 401 is formed of high grain Cu. Other examples of thin layer 404 include Ta, TiN, TaN, Ru, W, Co which have lower conductivity and shorter MFP compared to Cu. [0069] In some embodiments, thin layer 404 increases scattering at corner region 402 to cause the carriers (e.g., electrons) to flow towards via 102 instead of crowding near region 402 or reflecting back towards interconnect 401. As such, the conductivity increases near corner region 402 and through via 102.

[0070] In some embodiments, corner region 402 of the transistor is also deposited with a thin layer 405 with high scattering rate. As such, the carriers directed towards region 403 are directed towards the Channel region. For example, thin layer 405 is formed of a highly doped Silicon (e.g., le~21 doped Si). In some embodiments, corner region 423 is the region of the substrate. In some embodiments, corner region 423 is the source/drain region where it interfaces with the Substrate.

[0071] Fig. 4B illustrates cross-section 420 of two interconnects 401 and 421 coupled through via 122, where a high scattering material is deposited at the interconnect side-walls to improve carrier flow, in accordance with some embodiments. It is pointed out that those elements of Fig. 4B having the same reference numbers (or names) as the elements of any other figure can operate or function in any manner similar to that described, but are not limited to such.

[0072] In some embodiments, second interconnect 421 also has a thin layer (e.g., liner) with high scattering rate at its corner region 423. Here, first interconnect is interconnect 401. In some embodiments, second interconnect 421 is coupled to first interconnect 401 through via 122. In some embodiments, a thin layer of material that exhibits higher scattering rate than the neighboring material is deposited at the edge of interconnect 421. For example, a material of lower MFP is deposited as a thin layer at the corner region 425 of interconnect 421. In some embodiments, material for interconnect 421 is a high grain material (i.e., higher poly crystalline or more amorphous material) than thin layer 425. For example, thin layer 425 is formed of low grain Cu while interconnect 421 is formed of high grain Cu.

[0073] In some embodiments, thin layer 425 increases scattering at corner region 423 to cause carriers (e.g., electrons) to flow towards via 122 instead of crowding near region 423 or reflecting back towards interconnect 421. As such, the conductivity increases near corner region 423 and through via 122.

[0074] In some embodiments, thin layers 402, 405, and/or 425 can be formed on angled side-walls. For example, angled-side walls 204, 205, and/or 225 can have thin layers of materials with higher scattering material to improve redirection of electrons towards a desired path, in accordance with some embodiments. In some embodiments, thin layers 402, 405, and/or 425 can be formed with rough edges. For example, rough surfaces 304, 305, and/or 325 can be formed on layers of materials with higher scattering properties to improve redirection of electrons towards a desired path, in accordance with some embodiments.

[0075] The following embodiments described with reference to Figs. 5-10 illustrates various combinations of schemes based on Figs. 2-4 that result in improved conductance (i.e., lower resistance) for vias, contacts, and corner regions of interconnects and transistors.

[0076] Fig. 5A illustrates cross-section 500 of a transistor coupled to interconnect 201 through via 102, where interconnect 201 has angled side- wall 204 and the transistor has rough surface 305 to improve carrier flow, in accordance with some embodiments. It is pointed out that those elements of Fig. 5A having the same reference numbers (or names) as the elements of any other figure can operate or function in any manner similar to that described, but are not limited to such. In some embodiments, scattering is improved at region 202 by angled side-wall 204 while scattering is improved at region 303 via rough surface 305. As such, conductance is improved in regions 202 and 303, and via 102, in accordance with some embodiments.

[0077] Fig. 5B illustrates cross-section 520 of two interconnects 201 and 321 coupled through via 122, where one interconnect has an angled side-wall and the other interconnect has a rough surface to improve carrier flow, in accordance with some embodiments. It is pointed out that those elements of Fig. 5B having the same reference numbers (or names) as the elements of any other figure can operate or function in any manner similar to that described, but are not limited to such. In some embodiments, scattering is improved at region 202 by angled side-wall 204 while scattering is improved at region 323 via rough surface 325. As such, conductance is improved in regions 202 and 323, and via 122, in accordance with some embodiments.

[0078] Fig. 6A illustrates cross-section 600 of a transistor coupled to interconnect 201 through via 102, where interconnect 201 has angled side-wall 204 and a high scattering material 405 is deposited at the transistor side-wall to improve carrier flow, in accordance with some embodiments. It is pointed out that those elements of Fig. 6A having the same reference numbers (or names) as the elements of any other figure can operate or function in any manner similar to that described, but are not limited to such. In some embodiments, scattering is improved at region 202 by angled side-wall 204 while scattering is improved at region 403 via thin layer 405 of high scattering material. As such, conductance is improved in regions 202 and 403, and via 102, in accordance with some embodiments. [0079] Fig. 6B illustrates cross-section 620 of two interconnects 201 and 421 coupled through via 122, where interconnect 201 has angled side-wall 204 and high scattering material 425 is deposited at side-wall of interconnect 421 to improve carrier flow, in accordance with some embodiments. It is pointed out that those elements of Fig. 6B having the same reference numbers (or names) as the elements of any other figure can operate or function in any manner similar to that described, but are not limited to such.

[0080] In some embodiments, scattering is improved at region 202 by angled side-wall 204 while scattering is improved at region 423 via thin layer 425 of high scattering material. As such, conductance is improved in regions 202 and 423, and via 122, in accordance with some embodiments.

[0081] Fig. 7 A illustrates cross-section 700 of a transistor coupled to interconnect 301 through via 102, where interconnect 301 has rough side-wall 304 and the transistor has angled side-wall 205 to improve carrier flow, in accordance with some embodiments. It is pointed out that those elements of Fig. 7A having the same reference numbers (or names) as the elements of any other figure can operate or function in any manner similar to that described, but are not limited to such. In some embodiments, scattering is improved at region 302 by rough side-wall 304 while scattering is improved at region 203 via angled side-wall 205. As such, conductance is improved in regions 302 and 203, and via 102, in accordance with some embodiments.

[0082] Fig. 7B illustrates cross-section 720 of two interconnects 301 and 221 coupled through via 122, where interconnect 301 has rough side-wall 304 and interconnect 221 has angled side-wall 225 to improve carrier flow, in accordance with some embodiments. It is pointed out that those elements of Fig. 7B having the same reference numbers (or names) as the elements of any other figure can operate or function in any manner similar to that described, but are not limited to such. In some embodiments, scattering is improved at region 302 by rough side-wall 304 while scattering is improved at region 225 via angled side-wall 225. As such, conductance is improved in regions 302 and 223, and via 122, in accordance with some embodiments.

[0083] Fig. 8A illustrates cross-section 800 of a transistor coupled to interconnect 301 through via 102, where interconnect 301 has rough side-wall 302 and high scattering material is deposited at the transistor side-wall 405 to improve carrier flow, in accordance with some embodiments. It is pointed out that those elements of Fig. 8A having the same reference numbers (or names) as the elements of any other figure can operate or function in any manner similar to that described, but are not limited to such. In some embodiments, scattering is improved at region 302 by rough side-wall 304 while scattering is improved at region 403 by high scattering materials which is deposited at the transistor side-wall 405. As such, conductance is improved in regions 302 and 403, and via 102, according to some

embodiments.

[0084] Fig. 8B illustrates cross-section 820 of two interconnects 301 and 421 coupled through via 122, where interconnect 301 has rough side-wall 304 and a high scattering material is deposited at the side-wall of the other interconnect to improve carrier flow, in accordance with some embodiments. It is pointed out that those elements of Fig. 8B having the same reference numbers (or names) as the elements of any other figure can operate or function in any manner similar to that described, but are not limited to such. In some embodiments, scattering is improved at region 302 by rough side-wall 304 while scattering is improved at region 403 via a thin layer of high scattering material which is deposited at the transistor side-wall 425. As such, conductance is improved in regions 302 and 423, and via 122, according to some embodiments.

[0085] Fig. 9A illustrates cross-section 900 of a transistor coupled to interconnect 401 through via 102, where a high scattering material is deposited at interconnect side-wall 404 and the transistor has angled side-wall 205 to improve carrier flow, in accordance with some embodiments. It is pointed out that those elements of Fig. 9A having the same reference numbers (or names) as the elements of any other figure can operate or function in any manner similar to that described, but are not limited to such. In some embodiments, scattering is improved at region 402 by high scattering material deposited at interconnect side-wall 404 while scattering is improved at region 203 via angled side-wall 205. As such, conductance is improved in regions 203, 402, and via 102, according to some embodiments.

[0086] Fig. 9B illustrates cross-section 920 of two interconnects 401 coupled through via 122, where a high scattering material is deposited on interconnect side- wall 404 and interconnect 221 has angled side-wall 225 to improve carrier flow, in accordance with some embodiments. It is pointed out that those elements of Fig. 9B having the same reference numbers (or names) as the elements of any other figure can operate or function in any manner similar to that described, but are not limited to such. In some embodiments, scattering is improved at region 402 by high scattering material deposited at interconnect side-wall 404 while scattering is improved at region 223 via angled side-wall 225. As such, conductance is improved in regions 402 and 223, and via 122, according to some embodiments. [0087] Fig. 10A illustrates cross-section 1000 of a transistor coupled to interconnect 401 through via 102, where a high scattering material is deposited at interconnect side-wall 404 and the transistor has rough side-wall 305 to improve carrier flow, in accordance with some embodiments. It is pointed out that those elements of Fig. 10A having the same reference numbers (or names) as the elements of any other figure can operate or function in any manner similar to that described, but are not limited to such. In some embodiments, scattering is improved at region 402 by high scattering material deposited at interconnect side-wall 404 while scattering is improved at region 303 via rough side-wall 305. As such, conductance is improved in regions 303, 402, and via 102, in accordance with some embodiments.

[0088] Fig. 10B illustrates cross-section 1020 of two interconnects 401 and 321 coupled through via 122, where a high scattering material is deposited at interconnect side-wall 404 and interconnect 321 has rough side-wall 325 to improve carrier flow, in accordance with some embodiments. It is pointed out that those elements of Fig. 10B having the same reference numbers (or names) as the elements of any other figure can operate or function in any manner similar to that described, but are not limited to such. In some embodiments, scattering is improved at region 402 by high scattering material deposited at interconnect side-wall 404 while scattering is improved at region 323 via rough side-wall 325. As such, conductance is improved in regions 323, 402, and via 122, in accordance with some embodiments.

[0089] Fig. 11 illustrates a smart device or a computer system or a SoC (System-on-Chip) having interconnects and transistors with engineered corner regions for improving carrier flow, according to some embodiments. It is pointed out that those elements of Fig. 11 having the same reference numbers (or names) as the elements of any other figure can operate or function in any manner similar to that described, but are not limited to such.

[0090] Fig. 11 illustrates a block diagram of an embodiment of a mobile device in which flat surface interface connectors could be used. In some embodiments, computing device 2100 represents a mobile computing device, such as a computing tablet, a mobile phone or smart-phone, a wireless-enabled e-reader, or other wireless mobile device. It will be understood that certain components are shown generally, and not all components of such a device are shown in computing device 2100.

[0091] In some embodiments, computing device 2100 includes a first processor 21 10 having interconnects and transistors with engineered corner regions for improving carrier flow, according to some embodiments discussed. Other blocks of the computing device 2100 may also include interconnects and transistors with engineered corner regions for improving carrier flow of some embodiments. The various embodiments of the present disclosure may also comprise a network interface within 2170 such as a wireless interface so that a system embodiment may be incorporated into a wireless device, for example, cell phone or personal digital assistant.

[0092] In one embodiment, processor 21 10 (and/or processor 2190) can include one or more physical devices, such as microprocessors, application processors, microcontrollers, programmable logic devices, or other processing means. The processing operations performed by processor 2110 include the execution of an operating platform or operating system on which applications and/or device functions are executed. The processing operations include operations related to I/O (input/output) with a human user or with other devices, operations related to power management, and/or operations related to connecting the computing device 2100 to another device. The processing operations may also include operations related to audio I/O and/or display I/O.

[0093] In one embodiment, computing device 2100 includes audio subsystem 2120, which represents hardware (e.g., audio hardware and audio circuits) and software (e.g., drivers, codecs) components associated with providing audio functions to the computing device. Audio functions can include speaker and/or headphone output, as well as microphone input. Devices for such functions can be integrated into computing device 2100, or connected to the computing device 2100. In one embodiment, a user interacts with the computing device 2100 by providing audio commands that are received and processed by processor 21 10.

[0094] Display subsystem 2130 represents hardware (e.g., display devices) and software (e.g., drivers) components that provide a visual and/or tactile display for a user to interact with the computing device 2100. Display subsystem 2130 includes display interface 2132, which includes the particular screen or hardware device used to provide a display to a user. In one embodiment, display interface 2132 includes logic separate from processor 2110 to perform at least some processing related to the display. In one embodiment, display subsystem 2130 includes a touch screen (or touch pad) device that provides both output and input to a user.

[0095] I/O controller 2140 represents hardware devices and software components related to interaction with a user. I/O controller 2140 is operable to manage hardware that is part of audio subsystem 2120 and/or display subsystem 2130. Additionally, I/O controller 2140 illustrates a connection point for additional devices that connect to computing device 2100 through which a user might interact with the system. For example, devices that can be attached to the computing device 2100 might include microphone devices, speaker or stereo systems, video systems or other display devices, keyboard or keypad devices, or other I/O devices for use with specific applications such as card readers or other devices.

[0096] As mentioned above, I/O controller 2140 can interact with audio subsystem 2120 and/or display subsystem 2130. For example, input through a microphone or other audio device can provide input or commands for one or more applications or functions of the computing device 2100. Additionally, audio output can be provided instead of, or in addition to display output. In another example, if display subsystem 2130 includes a touch screen, the display device also acts as an input device, which can be at least partially managed by I O controller 2140. There can also be additional buttons or switches on the computing device 2100 to provide I/O functions managed by I/O controller 2140.

[0097] In one embodiment, I/O controller 2140 manages devices such as accelerometers, cameras, light sensors or other environmental sensors, or other hardware that can be included in the computing device 2100. The input can be part of direct user interaction, as well as providing environmental input to the system to influence its operations (such as filtering for noise, adjusting displays for brightness detection, applying a flash for a camera, or other features).

[0098] In one embodiment, computing device 2100 includes power management 2150 that manages battery power usage, charging of the battery, and features related to power saving operation. Memory subsystem 2160 includes memory devices for storing information in computing device 2100. Memory can include nonvolatile (state does not change if power to the memory device is interrupted) and/or volatile (state is indeterminate if power to the memory device is interrupted) memory devices. Memory subsystem 2160 can store application data, user data, music, photos, documents, or other data, as well as system data (whether long-term or temporary) related to the execution of the applications and functions of the computing device 2100.

[0099] Elements of embodiments are also provided as a machine-readable medium (e.g., memory 2160) for storing the computer-executable instructions (e.g., instructions to implement any other processes discussed herein). The machine-readable medium (e.g., memory 2160) may include, but is not limited to, flash memory, optical disks, CD-ROMs, DVD ROMs, RAMs, EPROMs, EEPROMs, magnetic or optical cards, phase change memory (PCM), or other types of machine-readable media suitable for storing electronic or computer- executable instructions. For example, embodiments of the disclosure may be downloaded as a computer program (e.g., BIOS) which may be transferred from a remote computer (e.g., a server) to a requesting computer (e.g., a client) by way of data signals via a communication link (e.g., a modem or network connection).

[00100] Connectivity 2170 includes hardware devices (e.g., wireless and/or wired connectors and communication hardware) and software components (e.g., drivers, protocol stacks) to enable the computing device 2100 to communicate with external devices. The computing device 2100 could be separate devices, such as other computing devices, wireless access points or base stations, as well as peripherals such as headsets, printers, or other devices.

[00101] Connectivity 2170 can include multiple different types of connectivity. To generalize, the computing device 2100 is illustrated with cellular connectivity 2172 and wireless connectivity 2174. Cellular connectivity 2172 refers generally to cellular network connectivity provided by wireless carriers, such as provided via GSM (global system for mobile communications) or variations or derivatives, CDMA (code division multiple access) or variations or derivatives, TDM (time division multiplexing) or variations or derivatives, or other cellular service standards. Wireless connectivity (or wireless interface) 2174 refers to wireless connectivity that is not cellular, and can include personal area networks (such as Bluetooth, Near Field, etc.), local area networks (such as Wi-Fi), and/or wide area networks (such as WiMax), or other wireless communication.

[00102] Peripheral connections 2180 include hardware interfaces and connectors, as well as software components (e.g., drivers, protocol stacks) to make peripheral connections. It will be understood that the computing device 2100 could both be a peripheral device ("to" 2182) to other computing devices, as well as have peripheral devices ("from" 2184) connected to it. The computing device 2100 commonly has a "docking" connector to connect to other computing devices for purposes such as managing (e.g., downloading and/or uploading, changing, synchronizing) content on computing device 2100. Additionally, a docking connector can allow computing device 2100 to connect to certain peripherals that allow the computing device 2100 to control content output, for example, to audiovisual or other systems.

[00103] In addition to a proprietary docking connector or other proprietary connection hardware, the computing device 2100 can make peripheral connections 1680 via common or standards-based connectors. Common types can include a Universal Serial Bus (USB) connector (which can include any of a number of different hardware interfaces), DisplayPort including MiniDisplayPort (MDP), High Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI), Firewire, or other types.

[00104] Reference in the specification to "an embodiment," "one embodiment," "some embodiments," or "other embodiments" means that a particular feature, structure, or characteristic described in connection with the embodiments is included in at least some embodiments, but not necessarily all embodiments. The various appearances of "an embodiment," "one embodiment," or "some embodiments" are not necessarily all referring to the same embodiments. If the specification states a component, feature, structure, or characteristic "may," "might," or "could" be included, that particular component, feature, structure, or characteristic is not required to be included. If the specification or claim refers to "a" or "an" element, that does not mean there is only one of the elements. If the specification or claims refer to "an additional" element, that does not preclude there being more than one of the additional element.

[00105] Furthermore, the particular features, structures, functions, or characteristics may be combined in any suitable manner in one or more embodiments. For example, a first embodiment may be combined with a second embodiment anywhere the particular features, structures, functions, or characteristics associated with the two embodiments are not mutually exclusive

[00106] While the disclosure has been described in conjunction with specific embodiments thereof, many alternatives, modifications and variations of such embodiments will be apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art in light of the foregoing description. The embodiments of the disclosure are intended to embrace all such alternatives, modifications, and variations as to fall within the broad scope of the appended claims.

[00107] In addition, well known power/ground connections to integrated circuit (IC) chips and other components may or may not be shown within the presented figures, for simplicity of illustration and discussion, and so as not to obscure the disclosure. Further, arrangements may be shown in block diagram form in order to avoid obscuring the disclosure, and also in view of the fact that specifics with respect to implementation of such block diagram arrangements are highly dependent upon the platform within which the present disclosure is to be implemented (i.e., such specifics should be well within purview of one skilled in the art). Where specific details (e.g., circuits) are set forth in order to describe example embodiments of the disclosure, it should be apparent to one skilled in the art that the disclosure can be practiced without, or with variation of, these specific details. The description is thus to be regarded as illustrative instead of limiting.

[00108] The following examples pertain to further embodiments. Specifics in the examples may be used anywhere in one or more embodiments. All optional features of the apparatus described herein may also be implemented with respect to a method or process.

[00109] For example, an apparatus is provided which comprises: a via formed of a first material; and a first interconnect, formed of a second material, with an end region coupled to the via, wherein the first interconnect has an angled sidewall at the end region. In some embodiments, the apparatus comprises a diffusion region coupled to the via such that the diffusion region has an angled sidewall facing the via. In some embodiments, the apparatus comprises a diffusion region coupled to the via such that a region under the diffusion region has an angled sidewall facing the via. In some embodiments, the apparatus comprises a diffusion region coupled to the via such that a region under the diffusion region has rougher surface facing the via compared to other surfaces of the region.

[00110] In some embodiments, the apparatus comprises a second interconnect, formed of a third material, with an end region coupled to the via, wherein the second interconnect has an angled sidewall at the end region. In some embodiments, the second and third materials are the same materials. In some embodiments, the apparatus comprises a second interconnect, formed of a third material having a Mean Free Path (MFP) of a first value, with an end region having a MFP of a second value, the end region being coupled to the via, wherein the second value is lower than the first value.

[00111] In some embodiments, the first material is W, wherein the second material is Cu, and wherein the third material is one of: Ta, TiN, TaN, Ru, W, or Co. In some embodiments, the first and second materials are different materials. In some embodiments, the first material is Cu and the second material is W. In some embodiments, the first and second materials are the same materials.

[00112] In another example, a system is provided which comprises: a memory; a processor coupled to the memory, the processor including an apparatus according to the apparatus described above; and a wireless interface for allowing the processor to communicate with another device.

[00113] In another example, an apparatus is provided which comprises: a via formed of a first material; and a first interconnect, formed of a second material, with an end region coupled to the via, wherein the first interconnect has a rougher interface for at least one wall of the first interconnect at the end region compared to at least another wall of the first interconnect. In some embodiments, the apparatus comprises a diffusion region coupled to the via such that a region under the diffusion region has an angled sidewall facing the via.

[00114] In some embodiments, the apparatus comprises a diffusion region coupled to the via such that a region under the diffusion region has an angled sidewall facing the via. In some embodiments, the apparatus comprises a diffusion region coupled to the via such that a region under the diffusion region has rougher surface facing the via compared to other surfaces of the region. In some embodiments, the apparatus comprises a second interconnect, formed of a third material, with an end region coupled to the via, wherein the second interconnect has an angled sidewall at the end region.

[00115] In some embodiments, the apparatus comprises a second interconnect, formed of a third material, with an end region coupled to the via, wherein the second interconnect has a rougher interface for a portion of at least one wall of the second interconnect at the end region compared to at least another wall of the second interconnect away from the end region. In some embodiments, the apparatus comprises a second interconnect, formed of a third material having a Mean Free Path (MFP) of a first value, with an end region having a MFP of a second value, the end region being coupled to the via, wherein the second value is lower than the first value. In some embodiments, the third material is one of: Ta, TiN, TaN, Ru, W, or Co.

[00116] In another example, a system is provided which comprises: a memory; a processor coupled to the memory, the processor including an apparatus according to the apparatus described above; and a wireless interface for allowing the processor to communicate with another device.

[00117] In another example, an apparatus is provided which comprises: a via formed of a first material; and a first interconnect, formed of a second material having a Mean Free Path (MFP) of a first value, with an end region having a MFP of a second value, the end region being coupled to the via, wherein the second value is lower than the first value. In some embodiments, the end region is formed of highly doped silicon. In some embodiments, the apparatus comprises a diffusion region coupled to the via such that a region under the diffusion region has an angled sidewall facing the via.

[00118] In some embodiments, the apparatus comprises a diffusion region coupled to the via such that a region under the diffusion region has an angled sidewall facing the via. In some embodiments, the apparatus comprises a diffusion region coupled to the via such that a region under the diffusion region has rougher surface facing the via compared to other surfaces of the region. In some embodiments, the apparatus comprises a diffusion region coupled to the via such that a region, under the diffusion region, facing the via is formed of a higher scattering material than material of the diffusion region.

[00119] In some embodiments, the higher scattering material is a highly doped Silicon. In some embodiments, the apparatus comprises: a second interconnect, formed of a third material, with an end region coupled to the via, wherein the second interconnect has an angled sidewall at the end region. In some embodiments, the apparatus comprises: a second interconnect, formed of a third material, with an end region coupled to the via, wherein the second interconnect has a rougher interface for a portion of at least one wall of the second interconnect at the end region compared to at least another wall of the second interconnect.

[00120] In some embodiments, the apparatus comprises a second interconnect, formed of a third material having a MFP of a third value, with an end region having a MFP of a fourth value, the end region being coupled to the via, wherein the fourth value is lower than the third value. In some embodiments, the first material is W, wherein the wherein the second material is Cu, and wherein the third material is one of: Ta, TiN, TaN, Ru, W, or Co.

[00121] In another example, a system is provided which comprises: a memory; a processor coupled to the memory, the processor including an apparatus according to the apparatus described above; and a wireless interface for allowing the processor to communicate with another device.

[00122] In another example, a method is provided which comprises: forming a a via of a first material; and forming a first interconnect of a second material, the first interconnect with an end region coupled to the via, wherein the first interconnect has an angled sidewall at the end region. In some embodiments, the method comprises: forming a diffusion region which is coupled to the via such that the diffusion region has an angled sidewall facing the via. In some embodiments, the method comprises forming a diffusion region which is coupled to the via such that a region under the diffusion region has an angled sidewall facing the via.

[00123] In some embodiments, the method comprises forming a diffusion region which is coupled to the via such that a region under the diffusion region has rougher surface facing the via compared to other surfaces of the region. In some embodiments, the method comprises: forming a second interconnect of a third material, the second interconnect with an end region coupled to the via, wherein the second interconnect has an angled sidewall at the end region. In some embodiments, the second and third materials are the same materials.

[00124] In some embodiments, the method comprises forming a second interconnect of a third material having a Mean Free Path (MFP) of a first value, the second interconnect with an end region having a MFP of a second value, the end region being coupled to the via, wherein the second value is lower than the first value. In some embodiments, the first material is W, wherein the second material is Cu, and wherein the third material is one of: Ta, TiN, TaN, Ru, W, or Co. In some embodiments, the first and second materials are different materials. In some embodiments, the first material is Cu and the second material is W. In some embodiments, the first and second materials are the same materials.

[00125] In another example, a method is provided which comprises: forming a via of a first material; and forming a first interconnect of a second material, the first interconnect with an end region coupled to the via, wherein the first interconnect has a rougher interface for at least one wall of the first interconnect at the end region compared to at least another wall of the first interconnect. In some embodiments, the method comprises: the method comprises forming a diffusion region which is coupled to the via such that a region under the diffusion region has an angled sidewall facing the via.

[00126] In some embodiments, the method comprises: forming a diffusion region coupled to the via such that a region under the diffusion region has an angled sidewall facing the via. In some embodiments, the method comprises forming a diffusion region coupled to the via such that a region under the diffusion region has rougher surface facing the via compared to other surfaces of the region. In some embodiments, the method comprises: forming a second interconnect of a third material, the second interconnect with an end region coupled to the via, wherein the second interconnect has an angled sidewall at the end region.

[00127] In some embodiments, the method comprises: forming a second interconnect formed of a third material, the second interconnect with an end region coupled to the via, wherein the second interconnect has a rougher interface for a portion of at least one wall of the second interconnect at the end region compared to at least another wall of the second interconnect away from the end region. In some embodiments, the method comprises:

forming a second interconnect of a third material having a Mean Free Path (MFP) of a first value, with an end region having a MFP of a second value, the end region being coupled to the via, wherein the second value is lower than the first value. In some embodiments, the third material is one of: Ta, TiN, TaN, Ru, W, or Co. [00128] An abstract is provided that will allow the reader to ascertain the nature and gist of the technical disclosure. The abstract is submitted with the understanding that it will not be used to limit the scope or meaning of the claims. The following claims are hereby incorporated into the detailed description, with each claim standing on its own as a separate embodiment.

Claims

CLAIMS We claim:
1. An apparatus comprising:
a via formed of a first material; and
a first interconnect, formed of a second material, with an end region coupled to the via, wherein the first interconnect has an angled sidewall at the end region.
2. The apparatus of claim 1 comprises a diffusion region coupled to the via such that the diffusion region has an angled sidewall facing the via.
3. The apparatus of claim 1 comprises a diffusion region coupled to the via such that a region under the diffusion region has an angled sidewall facing the via.
4. The apparatus of claim 1 comprises a diffusion region coupled to the via such that a region under the diffusion region has rougher surface facing the via compared to other surfaces of the region.
5. The apparatus of claim 1 comprises a second interconnect, formed of a third material, with an end region coupled to the via, wherein the second interconnect has an angled sidewall at the end region.
6. The apparatus of claim 5, wherein the second and third materials are the same materials.
7. The apparatus of claim 1 comprises a second interconnect, formed of a third material having a Mean Free Path (MFP) of a first value, with an end region having a MFP of a second value, the end region being coupled to the via, wherein the second value is lower than the first value.
8. The apparatus of claim 7, wherein the first material is W, wherein the second material is Cu, and wherein the third material is one of: Ta, TiN, TaN, Ru, W, or Co.
9. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the first and second materials are different materials.
10. The apparatus of claim 9, wherein the first material is Cu and the second material is W.
1 1. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the first and second materials are the same materials.
12. An apparatus comprising:
a via formed of a first material; and
a first interconnect, formed of a second material, with an end region coupled to the via, wherein the first interconnect has a rougher interface for at least one wall of the first interconnect at the end region compared to at least another wall of the first interconnect.
13. The apparatus of claim 12 comprises a diffusion region coupled to the via such that a region under the diffusion region has an angled sidewall facing the via.
14. The apparatus of claim 12 comprises a diffusion region coupled to the via such that a region under the diffusion region has an angled sidewall facing the via.
15. The apparatus of claim 12 comprises a diffusion region coupled to the via such that a region under the diffusion region has rougher surface facing the via compared to other surfaces of the region.
16. The apparatus of claim 12 comprises a second interconnect, formed of a third material, with an end region coupled to the via, wherein the second interconnect has an angled sidewall at the end region.
17. The apparatus of claim 12 comprises a second interconnect, formed of a third material, with an end region coupled to the via, wherein the second interconnect has a rougher interface for a portion of at least one wall of the second interconnect at the end region compared to at least another wall of the second interconnect away from the end region.
18. The apparatus of claim 12 comprises a second interconnect, formed of a third material having a Mean Free Path (MFP) of a first value, with an end region having a MFP of a second value, the end region being coupled to the via, wherein the second value is lower than the first value.
19. The apparatus of claim 18, wherein the third material is one of: Ta, TiN, TaN, Ru, W, or Co.
20. An apparatus comprising:
a via formed of a first material; and
a first interconnect, formed of a second material having a Mean Free Path (MFP) of a first value, with an end region having a MFP of a second value, the end region being coupled to the via, wherein the second value is lower than the first value.
21. The apparatus of claim 20, wherein the end region is formed of highly doped silicon.
22. The apparatus of claim 20 comprises a diffusion region coupled to the via such that a region under the diffusion region has an angled sidewall facing the via.
23. The apparatus of claim 20 comprises a diffusion region coupled to the via such that a region under the diffusion region has an angled sidewall facing the via.
24. The apparatus of claim 20 comprises a diffusion region coupled to the via such that a region under the diffusion region has rougher surface facing the via compared to other surfaces of the region.
25. The apparatus of claim 20 comprises a diffusion region coupled to the via such that a region, under the diffusion region, facing the via is formed of a higher scattering material than material of the diffusion region.
26. The apparatus of claim 25, wherein the higher scattering material is a highly doped Silicon.
27. The apparatus of claim 20 comprises a second interconnect, formed of a third material, with an end region coupled to the via, wherein the second interconnect has an angled sidewall at the end region.
28. The apparatus of claim 20 comprises a second interconnect, formed of a third material, with an end region coupled to the via, wherein the second interconnect has a rougher interface for a portion of at least one wall of the second interconnect at the end region compared to at least another wall of the second interconnect.
29. The apparatus of claim 20 comprises a second interconnect, formed of a third material having a MFP of a third value, with an end region having a MFP of a fourth value, the end region being coupled to the via, wherein the fourth value is lower than the third value.
30. The apparatus of claim 29, wherein the first material is W, wherein the wherein the second material is Cu, and wherein the third material is one of: Ta, TiN, TaN, Ru, W, or Co.
31. A system comprising:
a memory;
a processor coupled to the memory, the processor including an apparatus according to any one of apparatus claims 1 to 11 ; and
a wireless interface for allowing the processor to communicate with another device.
PCT/US2015/052483 2015-09-25 2015-09-25 Scaled interconnect via and transistor contact by adjusting scattering WO2017052654A1 (en)

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US20050110016A1 (en) * 1998-11-17 2005-05-26 Semiconductor Energy Laboratory Co., Ltd. Method of fabricating a semiconductor device
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