WO2017045632A1 - Brassica napus farming method - Google Patents

Brassica napus farming method Download PDF

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WO2017045632A1
WO2017045632A1 PCT/CN2016/099152 CN2016099152W WO2017045632A1 WO 2017045632 A1 WO2017045632 A1 WO 2017045632A1 CN 2016099152 W CN2016099152 W CN 2016099152W WO 2017045632 A1 WO2017045632 A1 WO 2017045632A1
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rapeseed
plant
land
predetermined time
planting method
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PCT/CN2016/099152
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French (fr)
Chinese (zh)
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黄方元
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黄方元
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Priority to CN201510588482.1A priority Critical patent/CN105145087A/en
Priority to CN201510588482.1 priority
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Publication of WO2017045632A1 publication Critical patent/WO2017045632A1/en

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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for

Abstract

A brassica napus farming method comprising the following steps: mixing seeds and nutritive soil at a weight ratio of 1:3 to 1:5; sowing the mixed seeds and nutritive soil at a predetermined piece of land, where the sowing is performed in the form of either rows or columns, and the distance between the rows or columns is 15 to 25 cm; with the seeds developing into plants in a predetermined time, when the plants grow to a first predetermined season, removing the terminal buds of the plants for the first time; when the plants grow to a second predetermined season, removing the terminal buds for the second time; and harvesting rapeseeds when same mature. The brassica napus farming method increases the germination rate of brassica napus seeds.

Description

油菜种植方法Rape cultivation method 技术领域Technical field
本发明涉及农业种植领域,具体涉及一种油菜种植方法。The invention relates to the field of agricultural planting, in particular to a method for planting rapeseed.
背景技术Background technique
油菜对土壤在喜欢疏松、肥沃、有机质含量高、保水保肥性强的土壤上生子。油菜在生长的初期对氮、磷、钾的需求较大。因此大多数人在种植油菜之后会施大量的化肥进行养分补充。但是化肥容易使得土地结块,使得部分油菜芽难以破土而出从而影响油菜的发芽率。Rapeseed has children on soils that are loose, fertile, high in organic matter, and rich in water and fertilizer. In the early stage of growth, rapeseed has a greater demand for nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Therefore, most people will apply a large amount of fertilizer for nutrient supplementation after planting rapeseed. However, chemical fertilizers tend to cause agglomeration of the land, making it difficult for some rapeseed buds to break ground and affect the germination rate of rapeseed.
发明内容Summary of the invention
针对现有技术的不足,本发明的目的在于提供一种能够有效提高发芽率的油菜籽种植方法。In view of the deficiencies of the prior art, it is an object of the present invention to provide a rapeseed cultivation method capable of effectively increasing the germination rate.
为实现上述目的,本发明采用如下技术方案:To achieve the above object, the present invention adopts the following technical solutions:
一种油菜种植方法,包括如下步骤:A method for planting rapeseed, comprising the following steps:
将种子与营养土按照重量比例为1:3~1:5的比例混合;Mixing the seed and the nutrient soil in a ratio of 1:3 to 1:5 by weight;
将混合后的种子与营养土在预定的土地播种,以行或者列的排列形式进行播种,每行或者每列之间的距离为15-25cm;The mixed seed and the nutrient soil are sown in a predetermined land, and sown in a row or column arrangement, and the distance between each row or column is 15-25 cm;
在预定时间内所述种子发成植株,当植株长至第一预定时节时,第一次去除各植株的顶芽;The seed is planted into a plant within a predetermined time, and when the plant grows to the first predetermined time, the top bud of each plant is removed for the first time;
当植株长至第二预定时节时,第二次去除顶芽; When the plant grows to the second predetermined time period, the top bud is removed a second time;
待油菜籽成熟后收割。Harvest the rapeseed after it matures.
优选地,所述第一预定时节为植株的主枝干的长有5-6个分枝时。Preferably, the first predetermined time period is when the main branches of the plant have 5-6 branches.
优选地,所述第二预定时节为各分枝长有9-13片叶子时。Preferably, the second predetermined time period is when each branch has 9-13 leaves.
优选地,所述营养土包括草木灰、黑山泥及按照重量比为2:1的比例混合制成。Preferably, the nutritive soil comprises a mixture of ash, black mud and a ratio of 2:1 by weight.
优选地,在将混合后的种子与营养土在预定的土地播种之后,在播种的位置处分别覆盖落叶松。Preferably, the larch is separately covered at the seeding position after the mixed seed and the nutrient soil are sown in the predetermined land.
优选地,所述落叶松的厚度为1-5厘米。Preferably, the larch has a thickness of from 1 to 5 cm.
优选地,在覆盖落叶松之后,在各播种位置覆盖塑料薄膜;Preferably, after covering the larch, the plastic film is covered at each seeding position;
在第一次去除各植株的顶芽之前,将薄膜去除。The film was removed before the top buds of each plant were removed for the first time.
本发明的有益效果:The beneficial effects of the invention:
与现有技术相比,本发明在播种之前将种子与营养土按照重量比例为1:3~1:5的比例混合,可使得种子在发芽时得到足够的养料,并且营养土的土质较为松软,种子发芽之后可以顺利破土而出,从可有效的提高油菜种子的发芽率。Compared with the prior art, the present invention mixes the seed and the nutrient soil in a ratio of 1:3 to 1:5 by weight before seeding, so that the seed can obtain sufficient nutrients during germination, and the soil of the nutrient soil is relatively soft. After the seeds are germinated, they can be successfully broken out, which can effectively improve the germination rate of rapeseed seeds.
附图说明DRAWINGS
图1为本发明的实施例中一种油菜种植方法流程图;1 is a flow chart of a method for planting rapeseed in an embodiment of the present invention;
图2为本发明的实施例中一种灌溉系统示意图。2 is a schematic diagram of an irrigation system in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention.
具体实施方式detailed description
下面,结合附图以及具体实施方式,对本发明做进一步描述:The present invention will be further described below in conjunction with the drawings and specific embodiments.
参照图1与图2,本实施例所述的一种油菜种植方法,包括如下步骤: Referring to FIG. 1 and FIG. 2, a method for planting rapeseed according to the embodiment includes the following steps:
步骤S1,将种子与营养土按照重量比例为1:3~1:5的比例混合。所述营养土包括草木灰、黑山泥及按照重量比为2:1的比例混合制成。所述草木灰及富含丰富的氮、磷、钾等元素,因此将种子与营养土混合后在播种,可使得种子在发芽时得到足够的养料。并且草木灰、黑山泥土质较为松软,种子发芽之后可以顺利破土而出。In step S1, the seed and the nutrient soil are mixed in a ratio of 1:3 to 1:5 by weight. The nutrient soil is composed of grass ash, black mountain mud and mixed in a ratio of 2:1 by weight. The plant ash is rich in nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and the like, so that the seed is mixed with the nutrient soil and then sown, so that the seed can obtain sufficient nutrients when germinated. Moreover, the soil of the ash and black soil is relatively soft, and the seeds can be broken out after germination.
步骤S2,将混合后的种子与营养土在预定的土地播种,以行或者列的排列形式进行播种,每行或者每列之间的距离为15-25cm。所述预定的土地为已经耕过,并且在土地上用于播种的土堆呈列或者行的形状,相邻的土堆平行设置,相邻土堆之间的间距为15-25cm。将混合的后的种子与营养土以每次0.2g-0.5g的重量间隔的列形状或者行形状的土堆上播种。In step S2, the mixed seed and the nutrient soil are sown in a predetermined land, and seeded in a row or column arrangement, and the distance between each row or column is 15-25 cm. The predetermined land is in the shape of a mound that has been ploughed and used for sowing on the land, and adjacent mounds are arranged in parallel, and the spacing between adjacent mounds is 15-25 cm. The mixed seed and the nutrient soil are sown on a column of a column shape or a row shape at a weight of 0.2 g to 0.5 g each time.
步骤S3,在预定时间内所述种子发成植株,当植株长至第一预定时节时,第一次去除各植株的顶芽。所述预定时间可为3-5天左右。所述第一预定时节为植株的主枝干的长有5-6个分枝时。此时去除顶芽可促进植株分枝的增长。In step S3, the seed is planted into a plant within a predetermined time, and when the plant grows to the first predetermined time, the top bud of each plant is removed for the first time. The predetermined time may be about 3-5 days. The first predetermined time period is when the main stem of the plant has 5-6 branches. Removal of the top buds at this point can promote the growth of plant branches.
步骤S4,当植株长至第二预定时节时,第二次去除顶芽。所述第二预定时节为各分枝长有9-13片叶子时。此时可有效的促进个分枝及主枝上开花结果的数量。In step S4, the top bud is removed a second time when the plant grows to the second predetermined time. The second predetermined time period is when each branch has 9-13 leaves. At this time, the number of flowering results on the branches and the main branches can be effectively promoted.
步骤S5,待油菜籽成熟后收割。In step S5, the rapeseed is harvested after ripening.
作为优选的方案,在步骤S2与步骤S3之间,还可以包括步骤S6-步骤S8:步骤S6,在将混合后的种子与营养土在预定的土地播种之后,在播种的位置处分别覆盖落叶松。所述落叶松的厚度为1-5厘 米。所述落叶松的可用于保护刚发芽的油菜幼苗。由于刚发芽的油菜比较嫩容易受到风沙等杂质的损坏,通过铺设落叶松,可使得油菜的幼苗可以穿插在落叶松内,从而减少风沙等杂质的损害,当幼苗长出落叶松之后,其主干已经比较茁壮可以抗风沙等杂质的损害。另外落叶松还也富含氮磷钾等元素,可为油菜的生长提供养料。As a preferred solution, between step S2 and step S3, step S6-step S8 may be further included: step S6, after the mixed seed and nutrient soil are sown in the predetermined land, respectively, the leaf is covered at the seeding position. loose. The larch has a thickness of 1-5% Meter. The larch can be used to protect freshly germinated rapeseed seedlings. Since the newly germinated rapeseed is relatively tender and easily damaged by impurities such as sand and sand, the laying of larch can make the seedlings of rapeseed interspersed in the larch, thereby reducing the damage of impurities such as sand and sand. When the seedling grows larch, its trunk It has been relatively strong and can resist the damage of impurities such as sand and sand. In addition, larch is also rich in elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, which can provide nutrients for the growth of rapeseed.
步骤S7,在覆盖落叶松之后,在各播种位置覆盖塑料薄膜。所述塑料薄膜是为了保持土壤的水分及适合的温度。In step S7, after covering the larch, the plastic film is covered at each seeding position. The plastic film is intended to maintain soil moisture and a suitable temperature.
步骤S8,在第一次去除各植株的顶芽之前,将薄膜去除。具体的可为在幼苗的1-5片叶子穿出了落叶松的时候可将薄膜去除。In step S8, the film is removed before the top bud of each plant is removed for the first time. Specifically, the film can be removed when 1-5 leaves of the seedlings are worn out of the larch.
以下通过具体的例子对油菜的发芽率进行对比:将相同的土地平均分成,并进行标记为A和B。The germination rate of rapeseed is compared by a specific example: the same land is equally divided and labeled as A and B.
将0.25kg的种子与1kg的营养土搅拌均匀在A土地播种。将另外的0.25kg的种子按照传统的方式播种。0.25 kg of seeds were uniformly mixed with 1 kg of nutrient soil in A land. An additional 0.25 kg of seed was sown in a conventional manner.
A土地和B土地播种的行距均为40cm左右,误差可在±1cm。按照同样的方式进行施肥、灌溉及管理。The row spacing of A land and B land is about 40cm, and the error can be ±1cm. Fertilize, irrigate and manage in the same way.
在第3天A土地油菜幼苗数约为2573株,而B土地的幼苗数约为2343株。在第5天A土地油菜幼苗数约为3590株,而B土地的幼苗数约为3351株。在第8天A土地油菜幼苗数约为3890株,而B土地的幼苗数约为3441株。综上结果,通过将种子与营养土混合之后再播种,油菜的发芽率大于传统播种方式。On the third day, the number of seedlings in A land was about 2,573, while the number of seedlings in B land was about 2,343. On the fifth day, the number of seedlings in A land was about 3,590, while the number of seedlings in B land was about 3,351. On the 8th day, the number of seedlings in A land was about 3890, while the number of seedlings in B land was about 3441. In summary, the germination rate of rapeseed is greater than that of traditional seeding by mixing seeds with nutrient soil and then sowing.
另外在步骤S2之后还需要每隔预定时间对油菜进行施肥及并且不定期对土地进行灌溉。灌溉的方式可以采用滴灌法或漫灌法。 In addition, it is necessary to fertilize the rapeseed every predetermined time after the step S2 and to irrigate the land from time to time. The method of irrigation can be drip irrigation or flood irrigation.
作为一优选方案,本发明还提供一种为种有油菜的土地进行灌溉的系统及方法。该系统包括供水组件1、湿度检测器2及控制器3。所述供水组件1包括水泵11、供水管12及喷水头13。所述水泵11用于将水源的水供入至供水管12,通过供水管12将水输送着喷水头13。所述喷水头可将水呈扇形喷洒出去,使得土地上获得的水比较均匀。所述喷水头13的数量若干个,并且喷水头13均设置于行或者列的间隙处。例如可在行或者列的间隙处垂直设置多个供水管12,可在每个供水管12的顶端分别设置1至4个喷水头13。所述湿度检测器2可为土壤水分传感器,其用于采集土壤的湿度值。所述湿度检测器2的数量可为多个,例如每列或者行土堆上间隔1-5m左右设置一个湿度检测器2。各湿度检测器2分别以并联的方式连接至总线上,通过总线与所述控制器3连接。所述控制器3用于根据湿度检测传感器2的湿度值控制供水组件1是否工作。As a preferred aspect, the present invention also provides a system and method for irrigating land with rapeseed. The system includes a water supply assembly 1, a humidity detector 2, and a controller 3. The water supply assembly 1 includes a water pump 11, a water supply pipe 12, and a water spray head 13. The water pump 11 is for supplying water of a water source to the water supply pipe 12, and the water is supplied to the water spray head 13 through the water supply pipe 12. The water jet head can spray the water out in a fan shape, so that the water obtained on the land is relatively uniform. The number of the water jet heads 13 is several, and the water spray heads 13 are disposed at the gaps of the rows or columns. For example, a plurality of water supply pipes 12 may be vertically disposed at a gap of rows or columns, and one to four water spray heads 13 may be respectively disposed at the top end of each water supply pipe 12. The humidity detector 2 may be a soil moisture sensor for collecting moisture values of the soil. The number of the humidity detectors 2 may be plural, for example, a humidity detector 2 is disposed at intervals of about 1-5 m on each column or row of mounds. The humidity detectors 2 are respectively connected in parallel to the bus and connected to the controller 3 via a bus. The controller 3 is for controlling whether the water supply unit 1 operates based on the humidity value of the humidity detecting sensor 2.
所灌溉的控制步骤可以包括如下:The control steps for irrigation can include the following:
步骤A1实时获取土壤的湿度值;获取湿度值的过程可以包括,通过湿度检测器检测相应位置的湿度值,并将该湿度值发送至控制器。Step A1 acquires the humidity value of the soil in real time; the process of obtaining the humidity value may include detecting the humidity value of the corresponding position by the humidity detector and transmitting the humidity value to the controller.
步骤A2,判断所述湿度值是否处于预设范围内。所述湿度值为每立方米土壤中水分的重量与干土壤的重量比。所述预设范围可为20-60%。所述控制器在接收所述湿度值之后,判断是否65%以上的湿度检测器检测的湿度值满处于预设范围内,或者大于预设范围;或者小于预设范围。例如,若65%以上的湿度检测器检测的湿度值满处 于预设范围内,则说明土壤的湿度处于预设范围内,否则不处于预设范围内。In step A2, it is determined whether the humidity value is within a preset range. The humidity value is the weight ratio of the weight of water per cubic meter of soil to the dry soil. The preset range may be 20-60%. After receiving the humidity value, the controller determines whether the humidity value detected by the humidity detector above 65% is within a preset range, or is greater than a preset range; or is smaller than a preset range. For example, if more than 65% of the humidity detectors detect the humidity value is full Within the preset range, the soil moisture is within the preset range, otherwise it is not within the preset range.
步骤A3,若步骤A2的判断结果为是,控制器则不发送任何命令给供水组件,或者发送关闭供水组件的命令。具体是,当供水组件处于未工作状态,所述湿度值处于预设范围内,则控制器不发送任何命令给供水组件。当供水组件处于供水状态,而湿度值处于预设范围内时,则发送关闭供水组件的命令。In step A3, if the result of the determination in step A2 is YES, the controller does not send any command to the water supply component, or sends a command to close the water supply component. Specifically, when the water supply assembly is in an inoperative state and the humidity value is within a preset range, the controller does not send any command to the water supply assembly. When the water supply component is in the water supply state and the humidity value is within the preset range, a command to close the water supply component is sent.
步骤A3,若步骤A2的判断结果为否,则进一步判断所述湿度值是大于所述预设范围还是小于所述预设范围,若是小于,则控制器发送启动命令给供水组件,通过供水组件为土地进行灌溉;若大于,则发出警报,提醒工作人员对土壤进行排水。当检测到所述土壤湿度值大于预设范围时,所述控制器还检测所述供水组件是否处于工作状态,若是则发送关闭指令将供水组件关闭,否则不发送指令给供水组件。In step A3, if the result of the determination in step A2 is no, it is further determined whether the humidity value is greater than the preset range or less than the preset range, and if it is less than, the controller sends a start command to the water supply component through the water supply component. Irrigation of the land; if it is greater, an alarm is issued to remind the staff to drain the soil. When it is detected that the soil moisture value is greater than a preset range, the controller further detects whether the water supply component is in an operating state, and if so, sends a shutdown command to close the water supply component, otherwise no instruction is sent to the water supply component.
对本领域的技术人员来说,可根据以上描述的技术方案以及构思,做出其它各种相应的改变以及形变,而所有的这些改变以及形变都应该属于本发明权利要求的保护范围之内。 Various other changes and modifications may be made by those skilled in the art in light of the above-described technical solutions and concepts, and all such changes and modifications are intended to fall within the scope of the appended claims.

Claims (7)

  1. 一种油菜种植方法,其特征在于,包括如下步骤:A rapeseed planting method, comprising the steps of:
    将种子与营养土按照重量比例为1:3~1:5的比例混合;Mixing the seed and the nutrient soil in a ratio of 1:3 to 1:5 by weight;
    将混合后的种子与营养土在预定的土地播种,以行或者列的排列形式进行播种,每行或者每列之间的距离为15-25cm;The mixed seed and the nutrient soil are sown in a predetermined land, and sown in a row or column arrangement, and the distance between each row or column is 15-25 cm;
    在预定时间内所述种子发成植株,当植株长至第一预定时节时,第一次去除各植株的顶芽;The seed is planted into a plant within a predetermined time, and when the plant grows to the first predetermined time, the top bud of each plant is removed for the first time;
    当植株长至第二预定时节时,第二次去除顶芽;When the plant grows to the second predetermined time period, the top bud is removed a second time;
    待油菜籽成熟后收割。Harvest the rapeseed after it matures.
  2. 根据权利要求1所述的油菜种植方法,其特征在于:The rapeseed planting method according to claim 1, wherein:
    所述第一预定时节为植株的主枝干的长有5-6个分枝时。The first predetermined time period is when the main stem of the plant has 5-6 branches.
  3. 根据权利要求2所述的油菜种植方法,其特征在于:所述第二预定时节为各分枝长有9-13片叶子时。The rapeseed planting method according to claim 2, wherein the second predetermined time period is when each branch has 9-13 leaves.
  4. 根据权利要求1所述的油菜种植方法,其特征在于:所述营养土包括草木灰、黑山泥及按照重量比为2:1的比例混合制成。The rapeseed planting method according to claim 1, wherein the nutritive soil comprises a plant ash, a black mountain mud, and a mixture of 2:1 by weight.
  5. 根据权利要求1所述的油菜种植方法,其特征在于:在将混合后的种子与营养土在预定的土地播种之后,在播种的位置处分别覆盖落叶松。The rapeseed planting method according to claim 1, characterized in that the larch is covered at the seeding position after the mixed seed and the nutrient soil are sown in the predetermined land.
  6. 根据权利要求5所述的油菜种植方法,其特征在于:所述落叶松的厚度为1-5厘米。The rapeseed planting method according to claim 5, wherein the larch has a thickness of 1-5 cm.
  7. 根据权利要求6所述的油菜种植方法,其特征在于:在覆盖落叶松之后,在各播种位置覆盖塑料薄膜;The rapeseed planting method according to claim 6, wherein after covering the larch, the plastic film is covered at each seeding position;
    在第一次去除各植株的顶芽之前,将薄膜去除。 The film was removed before the top buds of each plant were removed for the first time.
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