WO2016201761A1 - Device and method for machining materials by combining electrochemical discharging and laser - Google Patents

Device and method for machining materials by combining electrochemical discharging and laser Download PDF

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WO2016201761A1
WO2016201761A1 PCT/CN2015/084544 CN2015084544W WO2016201761A1 WO 2016201761 A1 WO2016201761 A1 WO 2016201761A1 CN 2015084544 W CN2015084544 W CN 2015084544W WO 2016201761 A1 WO2016201761 A1 WO 2016201761A1
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laser
sample
electrode
tool electrode
electrochemically
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PCT/CN2015/084544
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French (fr)
Chinese (zh)
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张朝阳
刘皋
黄磊
姜雨佳
陆海强
庄鸿武
聂昕
郭晓杰
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江苏大学
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Priority to CN201510338688.9A priority patent/CN104942388B/en
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23HWORKING OF METAL BY THE ACTION OF A HIGH CONCENTRATION OF ELECTRIC CURRENT ON A WORKPIECE USING AN ELECTRODE WHICH TAKES THE PLACE OF A TOOL; SUCH WORKING COMBINED WITH OTHER FORMS OF WORKING OF METAL
    • B23H5/00Combined machining
    • B23H5/02Electrical discharge machining combined with electrochemical machining
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23HWORKING OF METAL BY THE ACTION OF A HIGH CONCENTRATION OF ELECTRIC CURRENT ON A WORKPIECE USING AN ELECTRODE WHICH TAKES THE PLACE OF A TOOL; SUCH WORKING COMBINED WITH OTHER FORMS OF WORKING OF METAL
    • B23H5/00Combined machining
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23HWORKING OF METAL BY THE ACTION OF A HIGH CONCENTRATION OF ELECTRIC CURRENT ON A WORKPIECE USING AN ELECTRODE WHICH TAKES THE PLACE OF A TOOL; SUCH WORKING COMBINED WITH OTHER FORMS OF WORKING OF METAL
    • B23H11/00Auxiliary apparatus or details, not otherwise provided for
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23HWORKING OF METAL BY THE ACTION OF A HIGH CONCENTRATION OF ELECTRIC CURRENT ON A WORKPIECE USING AN ELECTRODE WHICH TAKES THE PLACE OF A TOOL; SUCH WORKING COMBINED WITH OTHER FORMS OF WORKING OF METAL
    • B23H5/00Combined machining
    • B23H5/04Electrical discharge machining combined with mechanical working
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K26/00Working by laser beam, e.g. welding, cutting or boring
    • B23K26/0093Working by laser beam, e.g. welding, cutting or boring combined with mechanical machining or metal-working covered by other subclasses than B23K
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K26/00Working by laser beam, e.g. welding, cutting or boring
    • B23K26/02Positioning or observing the workpiece, e.g. with respect to the point of impact; Aligning, aiming or focusing the laser beam
    • B23K26/06Shaping the laser beam, e.g. by masks or multi-focusing
    • B23K26/062Shaping the laser beam, e.g. by masks or multi-focusing by direct control of the laser beam
    • B23K26/0622Shaping the laser beam, e.g. by masks or multi-focusing by direct control of the laser beam by shaping pulses
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K26/00Working by laser beam, e.g. welding, cutting or boring
    • B23K26/36Removing material
    • B23K26/361Removing material for deburring or mechanical trimming
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K26/00Working by laser beam, e.g. welding, cutting or boring
    • B23K26/36Removing material
    • B23K26/38Removing material by boring or cutting
    • B23K26/382Removing material by boring or cutting by boring
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23HWORKING OF METAL BY THE ACTION OF A HIGH CONCENTRATION OF ELECTRIC CURRENT ON A WORKPIECE USING AN ELECTRODE WHICH TAKES THE PLACE OF A TOOL; SUCH WORKING COMBINED WITH OTHER FORMS OF WORKING OF METAL
    • B23H9/00Machining specially adapted for treating particular metal objects or for obtaining special effects or results on metal objects
    • B23H9/14Making holes
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K2101/00Articles made by soldering, welding or cutting
    • B23K2101/36Electric or electronic devices
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K2103/00Materials to be soldered, welded or cut
    • B23K2103/50Inorganic material, e.g. metals, not provided for in B23K2103/02 – B23K2103/26
    • B23K2103/54Glass

Abstract

A device and method for machining materials by combining electrochemical discharging and laser belong to the field of special combined machining. Combined machining through electrochemical discharging and laser is carried out on transparent crisp and hard materials; an electrochemical discharging circuit is formed in an electrolyte solution by means of an auxiliary electrode and a tool electrode; a laser beam generates a focus on a surface of a sample, when energy reaches a certain value, an impact stress and a cavitation stress are produced; and laser energy and spark discharging cooperatively act on a workpiece from an upper direction and a lower direction, so that effective combination of two kinds of energy is guaranteed, the energy density of a machining area is improved, and the corrosion removing speed of a machined sample is increased.

Description

电化学放电与激光复合加工材料的装置和方法Apparatus and method for electrochemically discharging and laser composite processing materials 技术领域Technical field
本发明属于特种复合加工领域,尤其是电化学放电与激光复合加工材料的装置和方法。The invention belongs to the field of special composite processing, in particular to an apparatus and method for electrochemical discharge and laser composite processing materials.
背景技术Background technique
以玻璃为代表的绝缘硬脆材料,具有高硬度、耐化学腐蚀、透明和良好的生物相容性等优良属性,在微机电系统中的微加速器、微反应器、微型泵、医疗器械和光学系统中应用越来越多。尤其是在一些复杂、恶劣或极端的工作环境中,对微小器件的耐腐蚀、耐高温、耐磨损等性能要求十分严格,如果部分换用绝缘硬脆材料加工的零件,就能很好的解决腐蚀问题。在日常生活中,对玻璃类零件的需求也越来越大,苹果手机上的Touch ID传感器和后置摄像头以及显示屏都使用了蓝宝石玻璃制造,其成分类似钢玉,比普通玻璃硬度更高,有着很好的热特性和介电特性,其在军用红外和空间技术装备方面也取得广泛地应用。虽然绝缘透明硬脆材料在MEMS领域的应用具有很大的优势,但由于它们的硬脆性使得加工工艺性低下,传统加工工艺很能难对其进行高效微细加工。Insulating hard and brittle materials represented by glass, with excellent properties such as high hardness, chemical resistance, transparency and good biocompatibility, micro-accelerators, micro-reactors, micro-pumps, medical instruments and optics in MEMS More and more applications are in the system. Especially in some complicated, harsh or extreme working environments, the corrosion resistance, high temperature resistance and wear resistance of micro devices are very strict. If some parts are replaced with insulating hard and brittle materials, it will be very good. Solve corrosion problems. In daily life, the demand for glass parts is also growing. The Touch ID sensor and rear camera and display on the Apple mobile phone are made of sapphire glass. The composition is similar to steel jade, which is harder than ordinary glass. It has good thermal and dielectric properties and is widely used in military infrared and space technology equipment. Although the insulating transparent hard and brittle materials have great advantages in the application of MEMS, due to their hard and brittleness, the processing technology is low, and the conventional processing technology is difficult to perform high-efficiency micro-processing.
目前对于绝缘透明硬脆材料加工技术及其应用的研究,主要有激光加工和电化学放电加工。激光加工和电化学放电加工都属于特种加工方式,又各有特点。激光加工以高能量的光束作为加工能源,脉冲宽度可以从纳秒级到飞秒量级;峰值功率可以达到数百兆瓦,它通过光路传输聚焦于工件表面时会产生独特的光、热、力等非线性效应。电化学放电加工是利用工具电极表面发生电化学反应形成气膜层,使电极与溶液之间短期绝缘;当工具电极和工作液之间电位差不断增大至击穿气膜的放电电压时,发生火花放电,所产生的瞬间高温和冲击波作用于玻璃类绝缘材料表面,使材料被热蚀去除。At present, research on the processing technology and application of insulating transparent hard and brittle materials mainly includes laser processing and electrochemical discharge machining. Both laser processing and electrochemical discharge machining are special processing methods, each with its own characteristics. Laser processing uses high-energy beams as processing energy, pulse widths can range from nanoseconds to femtoseconds; peak power can reach hundreds of megawatts, and it produces unique light, heat, and light when focused on the surface of the workpiece through optical path transmission. Nonlinear effects such as force. Electrochemical discharge machining uses an electrochemical reaction on the surface of the tool electrode to form a gas film layer, which short-term insulation between the electrode and the solution; when the potential difference between the tool electrode and the working fluid continuously increases to discharge the discharge voltage of the gas film, A spark discharge occurs, and the instantaneous high temperature and shock waves generated act on the surface of the glass-based insulating material, so that the material is removed by thermal erosion.
国内外对绝缘硬脆材料的微加工技术的研究,也提出了一些复合加工方法,主要是基于激光加工或电化学放电加工其中之一,再辅助旋转、振动、充气或磨削等方法。At home and abroad, research on micromachining technology of insulating hard and brittle materials has also proposed some composite processing methods, mainly based on one of laser processing or electrochemical discharge machining, and then assists in rotating, vibrating, aerating or grinding.
经过对现有的技术检索发现,公开号为CN2342925Y的中国专利公开了一种非导电材料超声电解放电复合加工装置,其在电化学放电加工系统中引入超声振动装置,实现电化学放电加工与超声加工的复合加工,该方法提高了加工效率,但是在其加工过程中由于机械力的频繁作用,容易导致被加工材料表面出现微裂纹以及加工工具的快速损耗。申请号为200410023547.X的中国专利提供了一种非导电超硬材料电火花磨削复合加工方 法,利用导电磨轮和一个辅助电极之间的火花放电蚀除材料,辅以机械磨削作用去除碳化和变质层。该方法提高了试样被加工表面的加工精度,但是由于导电磨轮尺寸的限制,该方法不适合于加工微孔等尺寸很小的形貌。学者郭永丰等在“非导电材料的电化学电火花复合加工工艺研究”一文中提出了一种采用物理充气辅助电化学放电加工的方法,通过物理充气在管形工具电极端面和电解液之间持续充入少量气体,以弥补仅靠电解产生气体的不足,该方法增强了生成气膜的稳定性,提高了加工效率,但是由于充气的需要,工具电极必须带有通孔,增大了电极的尺寸,因而限制了该方法在微小尺寸加工中的运用。After searching for the existing technology, the Chinese Patent Publication No. CN2342925Y discloses a non-conductive material ultrasonic electrolysis discharge composite processing device, which introduces an ultrasonic vibration device in an electrochemical discharge machining system to realize electrochemical discharge machining and ultrasonication. The processing of composite processing, the method improves the processing efficiency, but in the process of its processing, due to the frequent action of mechanical force, it is easy to cause micro-cracks on the surface of the material to be processed and the rapid loss of processing tools. The Chinese patent No. 200410023547.X provides a non-conductive superhard material EDM composite processing method. The method uses a spark discharge between the conductive grinding wheel and an auxiliary electrode to etch the material, and the mechanical grinding action removes the carbonization and metamorphic layer. The method improves the processing precision of the processed surface of the sample, but due to the limitation of the size of the conductive grinding wheel, the method is not suitable for processing small-sized structures such as micropores. Scholar Guo Yongfeng et al. proposed a method of physical aeration assisted electrochemical discharge machining in the article "Electrochemical EDM composite processing technology for non-conductive materials", which is continued between the end face of the tubular tool electrode and the electrolyte by physical aeration. A small amount of gas is charged to compensate for the shortage of gas generated by electrolysis alone. This method enhances the stability of the gas film formation and improves the processing efficiency. However, due to the need for inflation, the tool electrode must have a through hole, which increases the electrode. Dimensions, thus limiting the use of this method in micro-size machining.
发明内容Summary of the invention
针对现有技术中存在不足,本发明提供了一种电化学放电与激光复合加工材料的装置和方法,通过将激光和电化学放电两种能量复合,来增强加工区域能量密度,提高玻璃类绝缘透明硬脆材料的刻蚀加工效率和表面质量,可用于加工微小尺寸的试样。In view of the deficiencies in the prior art, the present invention provides an apparatus and method for electrochemically and laser composite processing materials, which combines laser and electrochemical discharge energy to enhance the energy density of the processing region and improve the glass insulation. The etching efficiency and surface quality of transparent hard and brittle materials can be used to process small size samples.
本发明是通过以下技术手段实现上述技术目的的。The present invention achieves the above technical objects by the following technical means.
一种电化学放电与激光复合加工材料的方法,包括如下步骤:A method for electrochemically and laser composite processing materials, comprising the following steps:
将透明硬脆的试样、辅助电极和工具电极下部置于电解液中,工具电极与电源负极相连、位于所述试样上方,辅助电极与电源正极相连,通电时,所述辅助电极与所述工具电极在电解液中形成电化学放电回路;The transparent hard and brittle sample, the auxiliary electrode and the lower part of the tool electrode are placed in the electrolyte, the tool electrode is connected to the negative electrode of the power source, is located above the sample, and the auxiliary electrode is connected to the positive electrode of the power source. The tool electrode forms an electrochemical discharge circuit in the electrolyte;
激光光束经聚焦后由试样下方经过试样在试样上表面产生焦点,进而形成冲击应力和空化应力作用于试样表面,所述工具电极下端位于所述焦点处;After the laser beam is focused, a focus is generated on the upper surface of the sample by passing the sample under the sample, thereby forming an impact stress and a cavitation stress acting on the surface of the sample, and the lower end of the tool electrode is located at the focus;
通过设定所述试样的运动路径对所述试样进行持续加工。The sample was continuously processed by setting a path of motion of the sample.
进一步,所述工具电极上方设有力传感器,所述力传感器用于实时检测所述工具电极与所述试样的接触力大小。Further, a force sensor is disposed above the tool electrode, and the force sensor is used to detect the contact force between the tool electrode and the sample in real time.
进一步,所述试样为玻璃,所述辅助电极为石墨电极,所述工具电极为碳化钨电极,所述电解液为碱性溶液。Further, the sample is glass, the auxiliary electrode is a graphite electrode, the tool electrode is a tungsten carbide electrode, and the electrolyte is an alkaline solution.
在上述方案中,所述激光光束的波长为532nm,脉宽为10ns,频率0-100KHz,单脉冲激光能量为0~1mJ。In the above solution, the laser beam has a wavelength of 532 nm, a pulse width of 10 ns, a frequency of 0-100 kHz, and a single-pulse laser energy of 0 to 1 mJ.
本发明还包括一种电化学放电与激光复合加工材料的装置,包括激光加工系统、运动控制系统和电化学放电加工系统;The invention also includes an apparatus for electrochemically and laser composite processing materials, including a laser processing system, a motion control system, and an electrochemical discharge machining system;
所述激光加工系统包括激光器、反射镜和聚焦透镜,所述反射镜用来改变激光器发出的脉冲激光光束的光路,所述聚焦透镜用来将脉冲激光光束聚焦产生焦点; The laser processing system includes a laser, a mirror for changing an optical path of a pulsed laser beam emitted by a laser, and a focusing lens for focusing a pulsed laser beam to generate a focus;
所述运动控制系统包括计算机、运动控制卡、电化学加工放电装置和三坐标数控平台,所述计算机与所述运动控制卡相连,所述运动控制卡与所述电化学加工放电装置和三坐标数控平台分别连接,所述计算机通过控制所述运动控制卡进而控制所述电化学加工放电装置和三坐标数控平台运动;The motion control system includes a computer, a motion control card, an electrochemical machining discharge device, and a three-axis numerical control platform, the computer is coupled to the motion control card, the motion control card and the electrochemical machining discharge device and three coordinates The numerical control platforms are respectively connected, and the computer controls the movement of the electrochemical machining discharge device and the three-axis numerical control platform by controlling the motion control card;
所述电化学放电加工系统包括辅助电极、工具电极、工作腔、示波器、电流探头和可调脉冲电源,所述工具电极固定安装在所述电化学加工装置上,所述工作腔内盛有电解液,所述工具电极的底部与辅助电极在电解液中,所述辅助电极与所述可调脉冲电源的正极相连,所述工具电极与所述可调脉冲电源的负极相连;The electrochemical discharge machining system includes an auxiliary electrode, a tool electrode, a working chamber, an oscilloscope, a current probe, and an adjustable pulse power source. The tool electrode is fixedly mounted on the electrochemical processing device, and the working chamber contains electrolysis. a liquid, a bottom of the tool electrode and the auxiliary electrode are in an electrolyte, the auxiliary electrode is connected to a positive electrode of the adjustable pulse power source, and the tool electrode is connected to a negative electrode of the adjustable pulse power source;
所述工作腔固定于所述三坐标数控平台上,所述工作腔底部及夹具设有通孔,试样固定于所述夹具的通孔处,所述试样和所述夹具位于电解液中,所述工具电极与所述激光加工系统分别位于所述试样的上方和下方,所述工具电极底端与所述激光光束在试样表面产生的焦点位置相对应。The working chamber is fixed on the three-axis numerical control platform, the bottom of the working chamber and the clamp are provided with through holes, the sample is fixed at the through hole of the clamp, and the sample and the clamp are located in the electrolyte The tool electrode and the laser processing system are respectively located above and below the sample, and the bottom end of the tool electrode corresponds to a focus position generated by the laser beam on the surface of the sample.
进一步,所述试样与所述夹具、所述夹具与所述工作腔之间分别设有密封圈。Further, a sealing ring is respectively disposed between the sample and the clamp, the clamp and the working cavity.
进一步,所述运动控制系统还包括力传感器,所述力传感器位于所述电化学放电加工装置与所述工具电极之间,所述力传感器与所述计算机相连,所述力传感器将力信号传递给计算机。Further, the motion control system further includes a force sensor located between the electrochemical discharge machining device and the tool electrode, the force sensor being coupled to the computer, the force sensor transmitting a force signal Give the computer.
进一步,所述装置还包括示波器和水听器,所述示波器分别与所述水听器和所述辅助电极相连,所述示波器用于显示所述水听器和所述辅助电极传递的信号。Further, the apparatus further includes an oscilloscope and a hydrophone connected to the hydrophone and the auxiliary electrode, respectively, the oscilloscope for displaying signals transmitted by the hydrophone and the auxiliary electrode.
进一步,所述装置还包括热成像仪和高速摄像机,所述热成像仪位于所述试样斜上方,所述热成像仪用于检测加工过程中试样表面温度,所述高速摄像机位于所述试样一侧。Further, the apparatus further includes a thermal imager located obliquely above the sample, the thermal imager for detecting a surface temperature of the sample during processing, the high speed camera being located One side of the sample.
在上述方案中,所述可调脉冲电源的电压0~60V,频率1~5000Hz,占空比0~100%。In the above solution, the adjustable pulse power supply has a voltage of 0 to 60 V, a frequency of 1 to 5000 Hz, and a duty ratio of 0 to 100%.
本发明的有益效果:The beneficial effects of the invention:
(1)将激光束从下方引入电化学放电刻蚀加工系统中,为电化学放电的电极进给提供了空间条件,使激光能量和火花放电分别从上下两个方向协同作用于工件上,保证了两种能量的高效复合,提高了加工区域的能量密度,加快了被加工试样的蚀除速度。(1) Introducing the laser beam into the electrochemical discharge etching processing system from below, providing space conditions for the electrode feeding of the electrochemical discharge, so that the laser energy and the spark discharge are synergistically applied to the workpiece from the upper and lower directions, respectively, to ensure The efficient combination of the two energies increases the energy density of the processing area and speeds up the erosion of the sample being processed.
(2)在加工过程中,由激光辐照作用可生成大量气泡,并与工具电极处电化学反应所产生的气泡融合,增大了工具电极外层形成气膜的速度和稳定性,使得电化学放电加工过程更加稳定,提高了加工速率。(2) During the processing, a large number of bubbles can be generated by laser irradiation, and fuse with the bubbles generated by the electrochemical reaction at the tool electrode, which increases the speed and stability of the gas film formed on the outer layer of the tool electrode, so that the electricity The chemical discharge process is more stable and increases the processing rate.
(3)引入力反馈系统,通过将工具电极和试样接触力与参考力进行比较,进而控制 试样的进给以及回退,避免了工具电极和试样接触力过大而造成工具电极变形或断裂,也可以保证加工时试样不会因为接触力过大而发生破裂或产生表面裂纹,提高了被加工试样的表面质量;工具电极的回退,使得工具电极和试样之间留有一定的间隙,有利于加工区域溶液的进入,保证了电化学放电的稳定性,提高了加工效率。(3) Introducing a force feedback system, which is controlled by comparing the contact force between the tool electrode and the sample with the reference force. The feeding and retracting of the sample avoids the deformation or breakage of the tool electrode caused by the excessive contact force between the tool electrode and the sample, and also ensures that the sample does not crack or cause surface cracking due to excessive contact force during processing. The surface quality of the sample to be processed is improved; the retraction of the tool electrode leaves a certain gap between the tool electrode and the sample, which is beneficial to the entry of the solution in the processing region, ensures the stability of the electrochemical discharge, and improves the processing. effectiveness.
附图说明DRAWINGS
图1为本发明所述电化学放电与激光复合加工材料的装置的结构示意图。1 is a schematic structural view of an apparatus for electrochemically and laser-compositing materials according to the present invention.
图2为本发明所述夹具局部放大图。Figure 2 is a partial enlarged view of the jig of the present invention.
附图标记说明如下:1-计算机,2-运动控制卡,3-辅助电极,4-水听器,5-工具电极,6-力传感器,7-电化学放电加工装置,8-热成像仪,9-试样,10-工作腔,11-高速摄像机,12-激光器,13-反射镜,14-聚焦透镜,15-夹具,16-三坐标数控平台,17-示波器,18-电流探头,19-可调脉冲电源,20-上密封圈,21-下密封圈。The reference numerals are as follows: 1-computer, 2-motion control card, 3-auxiliary electrode, 4-hydrophone, 5-tool electrode, 6-force sensor, 7-electrochemical discharge machining device, 8-thermal imager , 9-sample, 10-work chamber, 11-high speed camera, 12-laser, 13-mirror, 14-focus lens, 15-clamp, 16-three-axis CNC platform, 17-oscilloscope, 18-current probe, 19-adjustable pulse power supply, 20-upper seal, 21-lower seal.
具体实施方式detailed description
下面结合附图以及具体实施例对本发明作进一步的说明,但本发明的保护范围并不限于此。The present invention will be further described below in conjunction with the drawings and specific embodiments, but the scope of the present invention is not limited thereto.
如图1所示的电化学放电与激光复合加工材料的装置,包括激光加工系统、运动控制系统和电化学放电加工系统,将加工试样9固定于夹具15的通孔处,其中试样9与夹具15之间装有上密封圈20,夹具15下方与工作腔10之间装有下密封圈21,工作腔10内盛有碱性电解液,工作腔10固定于X-Y-Z三坐标数控平台16的Z轴上,试样9随三坐标数控平台16单轴或多轴联动。The apparatus for electrochemically and laser-compositing materials as shown in FIG. 1 includes a laser processing system, a motion control system, and an electrochemical discharge machining system, and the processed sample 9 is fixed at a through hole of the clamp 15, wherein the sample 9 An upper sealing ring 20 is disposed between the clamp 15 and a lower sealing ring 21 between the lower portion of the clamp 15 and the working chamber 10. The working chamber 10 contains an alkaline electrolyte, and the working chamber 10 is fixed on the XYZ three-axis numerical control platform 16 On the Z axis, the sample 9 is uniaxially or multi-axis linked with the three-axis numerical control platform 16.
激光器12输出的为脉冲激光,激光波长532nm,脉宽10ns,频率0-100kHz,单脉冲激光能量0~1mJ,脉冲激光光束经反射镜13改变方向后,由聚焦透镜14将能量汇聚,由试样9下方穿过试样9在试样与电解液界面聚焦,激光能量达到一定值后,击穿电解液产生等离子体,等离子体吸收激光能量向外膨胀,形成冲击应力和空化应力,直接作用于试样9表面,实现材料去除。The laser 12 outputs a pulsed laser with a laser wavelength of 532 nm, a pulse width of 10 ns, a frequency of 0-100 kHz, and a single-pulse laser energy of 0 to 1 mJ. After the pulsed laser beam is redirected by the mirror 13, the energy is concentrated by the focusing lens 14. Below the sample 9, the sample 9 is focused at the interface between the sample and the electrolyte. After the laser energy reaches a certain value, the electrolyte is broken down to generate plasma, and the plasma absorbs the laser energy to expand outward, forming impact stress and cavitation stress. Acting on the surface of the sample 9 to achieve material removal.
工具电极5夹紧在电化学放电加工装置7的主轴上,工具电极为钨电极,电化学放电加工装置7主轴转速为0~5000rpm可调,由电化学放电加工装置7带动工具电极5运动,工具电极5的底端浸于可导电的电解液中,并定位于激光焦点的正上方;将可调脉冲电源19负极连接工具电极5,正极连接辅助电极3,辅助电极3采用石墨电极,电极两端由可调脉冲电源19加载电压,可调脉冲电源的电压0~60V,频率1~5000Hz,占空 比0~100%,工具电极5表面由电解反应生成氢气泡,随着载入电压的升高,生成氢气泡的量随之增加,当载入电压达到或超过临界电压时,气泡就会相互结合形成气层并包裹住工具电极5,将工具电极5和电解液之间形成短时绝缘,因此工具电极5和电解液之间会产生电势差形成电场,当场强超过临界值时,引起点击穿,产生火花放电,作用于试样9表面,实现材料去除。激光能量和火花放电分别从上下两个方向协同作用于工件上,由激光辐照作用造成焦点处产生的大量气泡,与电化学反应所产生的气泡融合,增强了电化学放电形成气膜的稳定性,保证了两种能量的高效复合,提高了加工区域的能量密度,加快了被加工试样的蚀除速度。The tool electrode 5 is clamped on the main shaft of the electrochemical discharge machining device 7, the tool electrode is a tungsten electrode, and the spindle speed of the electrochemical discharge machining device 7 is adjustable from 0 to 5000 rpm, and the tool electrode 5 is driven by the electrochemical discharge machining device 7. The bottom end of the tool electrode 5 is immersed in the conductive electrolyte and positioned directly above the laser focus; the negative electrode of the adjustable pulse power source 19 is connected to the tool electrode 5, the positive electrode is connected to the auxiliary electrode 3, and the auxiliary electrode 3 is made of graphite electrode, electrode The two ends are loaded by the adjustable pulse power supply 19, the voltage of the adjustable pulse power supply is 0-60V, the frequency is 1~5000Hz, and the duty is occupied. The ratio of 0 to 100%, the surface of the tool electrode 5 is generated by the electrolytic reaction to generate hydrogen bubbles. As the loading voltage increases, the amount of hydrogen bubbles generated increases. When the loading voltage reaches or exceeds the threshold voltage, the bubbles will interact with each other. Combining the formation of the gas layer and encasing the tool electrode 5, short-time insulation is formed between the tool electrode 5 and the electrolyte, so that a potential difference is generated between the tool electrode 5 and the electrolyte to form an electric field, and when the field strength exceeds a critical value, the click wear is caused. , a spark discharge is generated, which acts on the surface of the sample 9 to achieve material removal. The laser energy and the spark discharge cooperate on the workpiece from the upper and lower directions respectively, and a large number of bubbles generated at the focus are caused by the laser irradiation, which is fused with the bubbles generated by the electrochemical reaction, thereby enhancing the stability of the electrochemical film to form a gas film. Sexuality ensures efficient compounding of the two energies, increases the energy density of the processed area, and speeds up the erosion of the sample being processed.
计算机1内载入数控程序,计算机1根据程序输出指令给运动控制卡2,运动控制卡2控制X-Y-Z三坐标数控平台16运行,加工过程中试样9随X-Y-Z三坐标数控平台16沿程序设定的路径运动,而保持激光焦点和工具电极位置不变,由激光和电化学放电复合作用刻蚀试样。The computer 1 loads the numerical control program, the computer 1 outputs the instruction to the motion control card 2 according to the program output, and the motion control card 2 controls the XYZ three-axis numerical control platform 16 to run. During the processing, the sample 9 is set along the XYZ three-axis numerical control platform 16 along the program. The path moves while keeping the laser focus and tool electrode position constant, and the sample is etched by laser and electrochemical discharge.
工具电极5和电化学放电加工装置7之间安装力传感器6,实时检测工具电极5和试样9接触力大小,由力传感器6将力信号传给计算机1,计算机将接触力与参考力进行比较,进而控制试样9的进给以及回退;当接触力小于所述参考力时,试样9按照设定程序进给;当所述接触力超过所述参考力时,试样9沿反方向回退,回退距离10~20μm,并停留0.5s,然后再次进给,重复上述步骤,直至程序结束。The force sensor 6 is installed between the tool electrode 5 and the electrochemical discharge machining device 7, and the contact force between the tool electrode 5 and the sample 9 is detected in real time, and the force signal is transmitted to the computer 1 by the force sensor 6, and the computer performs the contact force and the reference force. Comparing, further controlling the feeding and retreating of the sample 9; when the contact force is less than the reference force, the sample 9 is fed according to a setting procedure; when the contact force exceeds the reference force, the sample 9 is along Retreat in the opposite direction, the retraction distance is 10~20μm, and stay for 0.5s, then feed again, repeat the above steps until the end of the program.
加工过程中,水听器4检测加工区域激光和火花放电产生的热力冲击信号并传输到示波器17,显示波形状态;由热成像仪8检测加工区域的热场分布;由高速摄像机11观察工具电极5处气泡向气层转变的动态过程;同时电路中使用电流探头18采集加工过程中火花放电的脉冲信号并传输到示波器17,检测脉冲电流的大小、频率等信息。During the processing, the hydrophone 4 detects the thermal shock signal generated by the laser and spark discharge in the processing area and transmits it to the oscilloscope 17 to display the waveform state; the thermal imager 8 detects the thermal field distribution of the processing region; and the high speed camera 11 observes the tool electrode The dynamic process of the five bubbles changing to the gas layer; at the same time, the current probe 18 is used in the circuit to collect the pulse signal of the spark discharge during the process and transmitted to the oscilloscope 17, detecting the magnitude and frequency of the pulse current.
所述实施例为本发明的优选的实施方式,但本发明并不限于上述实施方式,在不背离本发明的实质内容的情况下,本领域技术人员能够做出的任何显而易见的改进、替换或变型均属于本发明的保护范围。 The embodiments are a preferred embodiment of the invention, but the invention is not limited to the embodiments described above, and any obvious improvements, substitutions or alternatives that can be made by those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit of the invention. Variations are within the scope of the invention.

Claims (10)

  1. 一种电化学放电与激光复合加工材料的方法,其特征在于,包括如下步骤:A method for electrochemically and laser composite processing materials, comprising the steps of:
    将透明硬脆的试样、工具电极下部和辅助电极置于电解液中,工具电极与电源负极相连、位于所述试样上方,辅助电极与电源正极相连,通电时,所述辅助电极与所述工具电极在电解液中形成电化学放电回路;The transparent hard and brittle sample, the lower part of the tool electrode and the auxiliary electrode are placed in the electrolyte, the tool electrode is connected to the negative pole of the power source, is located above the sample, and the auxiliary electrode is connected to the positive electrode of the power source. The tool electrode forms an electrochemical discharge circuit in the electrolyte;
    激光光束经聚焦后由试样下方穿过试样在试样上表面产生焦点,进而形成冲击应力和空化应力作用于试样表面,所述工具电极下端位于所述焦点处;After the laser beam is focused, a focus is generated from the sample under the sample, and a focus is generated on the upper surface of the sample, thereby forming an impact stress and a cavitation stress acting on the surface of the sample, and the lower end of the tool electrode is located at the focus;
    通过设定所述试样的运动路径对所述试样进行持续加工。The sample was continuously processed by setting a path of motion of the sample.
  2. 如权利要求1所述的电化学放电与激光复合加工材料的方法,其特征在于,所述工具电极上方设有力传感器,所述力传感器用于实时检测所述工具电极与所述试样的接触力大小。The method of electrochemically and laser-compositing a material according to claim 1, wherein a force sensor is disposed above the tool electrode, and the force sensor is used to detect the contact between the tool electrode and the sample in real time. Force size.
  3. 如权利要求2所述的电化学放电与激光复合加工材料的方法,其特征在于,所述试样为玻璃,所述辅助电极为石墨电极,所述工具电极为碳化钨电极,所述电解液为碱性溶液。The method of electrochemically and laser-compositing a material according to claim 2, wherein the sample is glass, the auxiliary electrode is a graphite electrode, the tool electrode is a tungsten carbide electrode, and the electrolyte It is an alkaline solution.
  4. 如权利要求1~3中任意一项所述的电化学放电与激光复合加工材料的方法,其特征在于,所述激光光束的波长为532nm,脉宽为10ns,频率0~100KHz,单脉冲激光能量为0~1mJ。The method for electrochemically and laser-compositing a material according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the laser beam has a wavelength of 532 nm, a pulse width of 10 ns, a frequency of 0 to 100 kHz, and a single pulse laser. The energy is 0 to 1 mJ.
  5. 一种电化学放电与激光复合加工材料的装置,其特征在于,包括激光加工系统、运动控制系统和电化学放电加工系统;An apparatus for electrochemically and laser composite processing materials, characterized by comprising a laser processing system, a motion control system and an electrochemical discharge machining system;
    所述激光加工系统包括激光器、反射镜和聚焦透镜,所述反射镜用来改变激光器发出的脉冲激光光束的光路,所述聚焦透镜用来将脉冲激光光束聚焦产生焦点;The laser processing system includes a laser, a mirror for changing an optical path of a pulsed laser beam emitted by a laser, and a focusing lens for focusing a pulsed laser beam to generate a focus;
    所述运动控制系统包括计算机、运动控制卡、电化学加工放电装置和三坐标数控平台,所述计算机与所述运动控制卡相连,所述运动控制卡与所述电化学加工放电装置和三坐标数控平台分别连接,所述计算机通过控制所述运动控制卡进而控制所述电化学加工放电装置和三坐标数控平台运动;The motion control system includes a computer, a motion control card, an electrochemical machining discharge device, and a three-axis numerical control platform, the computer is coupled to the motion control card, the motion control card and the electrochemical machining discharge device and three coordinates The numerical control platforms are respectively connected, and the computer controls the movement of the electrochemical machining discharge device and the three-axis numerical control platform by controlling the motion control card;
    所述电化学放电加工系统包括辅助电极、工具电极、工作腔、示波器、电流探头和可调脉冲电源,所述工具电极固定安装在所述电化学加工装置上,所述工作腔内盛有电解液,所述工具电极的底部与辅助电极在电解液中,所述辅助电极与所述可调脉冲电源的正极相连,所述工具电极与所述可调脉冲电源的负极相连; The electrochemical discharge machining system includes an auxiliary electrode, a tool electrode, a working chamber, an oscilloscope, a current probe, and an adjustable pulse power source. The tool electrode is fixedly mounted on the electrochemical processing device, and the working chamber contains electrolysis. a liquid, a bottom of the tool electrode and the auxiliary electrode are in an electrolyte, the auxiliary electrode is connected to a positive electrode of the adjustable pulse power source, and the tool electrode is connected to a negative electrode of the adjustable pulse power source;
    所述工作腔固定于所述三坐标数控平台上,所述工作腔底部及夹具设有通孔,试样固定于所述夹具的通孔处,所述试样和所述夹具位于电解液中,所述工具电极与所述激光加工系统分别位于所述试样的上方和下方,所述工具电极底端与所述激光光束在试样表面产生的焦点位置相对应。The working chamber is fixed on the three-axis numerical control platform, the bottom of the working chamber and the clamp are provided with through holes, the sample is fixed at the through hole of the clamp, and the sample and the clamp are located in the electrolyte The tool electrode and the laser processing system are respectively located above and below the sample, and the bottom end of the tool electrode corresponds to a focus position generated by the laser beam on the surface of the sample.
  6. 如权利要求5所述的电化学放电与激光复合加工材料的装置,其特征在于,所述试样与所述夹具、所述夹具与所述工作腔之间分别设有密封圈。The apparatus for electrochemically and laser-compositing a material according to claim 5, wherein a seal ring is disposed between the sample and the jig, the jig, and the working chamber.
  7. 如权利要求6所述的电化学放电与激光复合加工材料的装置,其特征在于,所述运动控制系统还包括力传感器,所述力传感器位于所述电化学放电加工装置与所述工具电极之间,所述力传感器与所述计算机相连,所述力传感器将力信号传递给计算机。The apparatus for electrochemically and laser-compositing a material according to claim 6, wherein said motion control system further comprises a force sensor, said force sensor being located at said electrochemical discharge machining device and said tool electrode The force sensor is coupled to the computer, and the force sensor transmits a force signal to the computer.
  8. 如权利要求7所述的电化学放电与激光复合加工材料的装置,其特征在于,所述装置还包括示波器和水听器,所述示波器分别与所述水听器和所述辅助电极相连,所述示波器与所述辅助电极之间设有电流探头,所述示波器用于显示所述水听器和所述辅助电极传递的信号。The apparatus for electrochemically and laser-compositing a material according to claim 7, wherein said apparatus further comprises an oscilloscope and a hydrophone, said oscilloscope being respectively connected to said hydrophone and said auxiliary electrode, A current probe is disposed between the oscilloscope and the auxiliary electrode, and the oscilloscope is used to display signals transmitted by the hydrophone and the auxiliary electrode.
  9. 如权利要求8所述的电化学放电与激光复合加工材料的装置,其特征在于,所述装置还包括热成像仪和高速摄像机,所述热成像仪位于所述试样斜上方,所述热成像仪用于检测加工过程区域的热场分布,所述高速摄像机位于所述试样一侧,用于观察电解过程。The apparatus for electrochemically and laser-compositing a material according to claim 8, wherein said apparatus further comprises a thermal imager and a high speed camera, said thermal imager being located obliquely above said sample, said heat An imager is used to detect the thermal field distribution of the process area, which is located on one side of the sample for viewing the electrolysis process.
  10. 如权利要求5~9中任意一项所述的电化学放电与激光复合加工材料的装置,其特征在于,所述可调脉冲电源的电压0~60V,频率1~5000Hz,占空比0~100%。 The apparatus for electrochemically and laser-compositing a material according to any one of claims 5 to 9, wherein the adjustable pulse power source has a voltage of 0 to 60 V, a frequency of 1 to 5000 Hz, and a duty ratio of 0 to 100%.
PCT/CN2015/084544 2015-06-17 2015-07-21 Device and method for machining materials by combining electrochemical discharging and laser WO2016201761A1 (en)

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