WO2016198151A1 - Combustion engine comprising a formaldehyde sensor - Google Patents

Combustion engine comprising a formaldehyde sensor Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2016198151A1
WO2016198151A1 PCT/EP2016/000899 EP2016000899W WO2016198151A1 WO 2016198151 A1 WO2016198151 A1 WO 2016198151A1 EP 2016000899 W EP2016000899 W EP 2016000899W WO 2016198151 A1 WO2016198151 A1 WO 2016198151A1
Authority
WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
arrangement
formaldehyde
combustion engine
internal combustion
sensor
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/EP2016/000899
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
Gerald Fast
Wolfgang Fimml
Christian Frey
Original Assignee
Mtu Friedrichshafen Gmbh
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to DE102015007474.1 priority Critical
Priority to DE102015007474.1A priority patent/DE102015007474A1/en
Application filed by Mtu Friedrichshafen Gmbh filed Critical Mtu Friedrichshafen Gmbh
Publication of WO2016198151A1 publication Critical patent/WO2016198151A1/en

Links

Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02DCONTROLLING COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F02D41/00Electrical control of supply of combustible mixture or its constituents
    • F02D41/0025Controlling engines characterised by use of non-liquid fuels, pluralities of fuels, or non-fuel substances added to the combustible mixtures
    • F02D41/0027Controlling engines characterised by use of non-liquid fuels, pluralities of fuels, or non-fuel substances added to the combustible mixtures the fuel being gaseous
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02DCONTROLLING COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F02D41/00Electrical control of supply of combustible mixture or its constituents
    • F02D41/02Circuit arrangements for generating control signals
    • F02D41/14Introducing closed-loop corrections
    • F02D41/1438Introducing closed-loop corrections using means for determining characteristics of the combustion gases; Sensors therefor
    • F02D41/1444Introducing closed-loop corrections using means for determining characteristics of the combustion gases; Sensors therefor characterised by the characteristics of the combustion gases
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N2430/00Influencing exhaust purification, e.g. starting of catalytic reaction, filter regeneration, or the like, by controlling engine operating characteristics
    • F01N2430/06Influencing exhaust purification, e.g. starting of catalytic reaction, filter regeneration, or the like, by controlling engine operating characteristics by varying fuel-air ratio, e.g. by enriching fuel-air mixture
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N2430/00Influencing exhaust purification, e.g. starting of catalytic reaction, filter regeneration, or the like, by controlling engine operating characteristics
    • F01N2430/08Influencing exhaust purification, e.g. starting of catalytic reaction, filter regeneration, or the like, by controlling engine operating characteristics by modifying ignition or injection timing
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N2560/00Exhaust systems with means for detecting or measuring exhaust gas components or characteristics
    • F01N2560/02Exhaust systems with means for detecting or measuring exhaust gas components or characteristics the means being an exhaust gas sensor
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N2570/00Exhaust treating apparatus eliminating, absorbing or adsorbing specific elements or compounds
    • F01N2570/20Formaldehyde
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N2900/00Details of electrical control or of the monitoring of the exhaust gas treating apparatus
    • F01N2900/06Parameters used for exhaust control or diagnosing
    • F01N2900/08Parameters used for exhaust control or diagnosing said parameters being related to the engine
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N3/00Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust
    • F01N3/08Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for rendering innocuous
    • F01N3/10Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for rendering innocuous by thermal or catalytic conversion of noxious components of exhaust
    • F01N3/103Oxidation catalysts for HC and CO only
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N9/00Electrical control of exhaust gas treating apparatus

Abstract

An arrangement (1) comprising a combustion engine (3), the arrangement (1) having a formaldehyde sensor (13) which senses formaldehyde in the exhaust gas of the combustion engine (3).

Description

 DESCRIPTION FUEL POWER MACHINE WITH FORMALDEHYDE SENSOR

The present invention is based on an arrangement with an internal combustion engine according to the preamble of claim 1. In order to reliably maintain a formaldehyde limit value with operating reception of a conventional internal combustion engine, a distance ("engineering target") to the limit at the initial engine tuning is based This is in view of the

Efficiency disadvantageous, especially as the formaldehyde emissions continue to decline with increasing aging.

Proceeding from this, the object of the present invention is to specify an arrangement with an internal combustion engine, which enables knowledge of the actual formaldehyde emissions, so that the internal combustion engine can be operated more efficiently or with higher efficiency.

This object is achieved with an arrangement having the features of claim 1.

Advantageous developments and embodiments of the invention are specified in the further claims.

According to the invention, an arrangement with an internal combustion engine is proposed, wherein the internal combustion engine is preferably a gas engine or, for example, also a diesel engine. The internal combustion engine is preferably designed as a large engine, for example, with a number of cylinders between 6 and 24, wherein the internal combustion engine may be provided by way of example for a commercial vehicle, a special vehicle, a ship or for industrial applications, for example in the context of cogeneration units or power generation units. Generally, the internal combustion engine is a gas engine, which is operated with gaseous fuel or fuel gas, for example in the form of biogas, landfill gas, synthesis gas,

Special gas or natural gas. In addition to the internal combustion engine, the arrangement preferably also includes an exhaust gas line, which is assigned to the internal combustion engine in particular. In such an exhaust line can be arranged an exhaust aftertreatment device, for example comprising a

Oxidation catalyst or e.g. an SCR facility. In the exhaust system exhaust gas is the

Internal combustion engine.

In the invention characterizing way, the arrangement further comprises a formaldehyde sensor which senses formaldehyde (HCHO) in the exhaust gas of the internal combustion engine. As a result, it is advantageously easy to obtain information about the actual actual formaldehyde emissions of the internal combustion engine, which information is used in the following - and in the context of the present invention - for a more efficient operation of the internal combustion engine.

For this purpose, the formaldehyde sensor is preferably connected to an engine management device of the internal combustion engine, in particular operatively connected. In the network signals of the formaldehyde sensor can be transmitted to the engine management device, which contain the information or sensor information about a - current - formaldehyde concentration in the exhaust gas. The formaldehyde sensor can be in or on

Be arranged exhaust line, for example after the oxidation catalyst, alternatively or additionally, for example, in front of the exhaust line or on the input side thereof.

In a corresponding development of the invention, the arrangement is preferably also arranged to adjust based on the sensor information of the formaldehyde sensor formaldehyde emission of the internal combustion engine during operation, especially over the entire life thereof, in particular the engine management device, for example a (central ) ECU (ECU: Electronic Control Unit), which makes or influences the setting in cooperation with the formaldehyde sensor.

The setting is preferably carried out within the scope of a control, for which the internal combustion engine or the arrangement in particular has a (closed) control loop (closed loop), which is formed by means of the formaldehyde sensor and the engine management device. In the context of such a scheme, the formaldehyde emission can be controlled continuously during operation of the internal combustion engine to a target value specification, which is preferably immediately - and always - below a limit to be observed. Generally For example, such a control circuit of the internal combustion engine formed with the formaldehyde sensor can work adaptively or predictively. Of course, a regulation can furthermore also be formed by means of at least one decentralized functional unit, eg a control unit, which communicates with the engine management unit.

In order to adjust the formaldehyde emission in particular over the entire service life of the arrangement, the arrangement is preferably set up, in particular via the engine management device, to influence at least one of the manipulated variables during operation of the internal combustion engine, i. depending on the current detected with the formaldehyde sensor formaldehyde emission: an ignition point, a combustion air ratio, a pre-chamber gas quantity, a (Multipoint Injection-) MPI injection window area.

With a suitable adjustment or tracking of at least one of these manipulated variables, the efficiency of the internal combustion engine over the life in the context of the present invention can be advantageously increased. As the inventors surprisingly recognized, the formaldehyde concentration in the exhaust gas would decrease over the life of conventional internal combustion engines, this decrease is probably based on the fact that gaps or dead volumes in the combustion chamber, for example on piston rings, are added over time, so that from this, no excess or unburned hydrocarbons (HC) can be released more (which hydrocarbons are relevant in particular for gas engines in terms of the amount accumulated and for the Formaldehyd emissions are the very cause)).

In contrast, the invention preferably sets or adjusts a constant formaldehyde emission value, ie preferably over the (entire) service life (operating hours), which is in particular close to the emission limit value. With such a setting, there is thus no loss of formaldehyde emission or reduction over the lifetime, whereas, however, the combustion over the lifetime (continuous) can be set more efficiently. Thus, it is provided in the context of the invention, corresponding to aging due to decreasing HC (unburned hydrocarbons in the combustion chamber, see above) and thus correspondingly lower (detected) formaldehyde concentrations in the exhaust gas to a reduced HC burn by adjusting or tracking the at least one Effecting the manipulated variable (so that the formaldehyde emissions remain constant by influencing the at least one manipulated variable, in particular according to the desired value).

For example, and, accordingly, lower exhaust gas temperatures are preferred with increasing

Set life, so that advantageously a better burning process or better

Combustion, thus a higher efficiency can be achieved. For this purpose, with increasing life of the ignition can be adjusted from "late" to "early". Furthermore, e.g. a combustion air ratio (lambda) from relatively richer combustion to a relatively leaner, more efficient combustion can be adjusted.

The formaldehyde sensor is preferably a sensor with a high or very high measuring sensitivity, insofar as it also low concentrations of formaldehyde in the exhaust gas can be detected. Such a formaldehyde sensor is disclosed, for example, in the document DE 10 2010027 070 Al, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference. Such a sensor for detecting gases has at least one gas-sensitive region containing IrLjSnsOn. It can be provided that the sensor is integrated in or combined with another sensor of the arrangement, e.g. with one

Cylinder pressure sensor, a NOx sensor or an NH3 sensor. With the invention and the indicated training opportunities it is thus possible, the

Improved potential of the internal combustion engine to improve, as can be controlled over the life of an improved efficiency while constantly maintaining a formaldehyde limit. In addition, a large "engineering target" no longer needs to be maintained, and aging effects of an oxidation catalytic converter (in the exhaust gas line), which over the runtime can lead to a (detectable) reduction of the HCHO conversion rate in the

Catalyst drove, advantageously by means of the formaldehyde sensor, i. the sensed formaldehyde concentration in the exhaust gas (after the oxidation catalyst), recognized and with the

Arrangement, in particular in the context of the closed loop, be compensated. Further features and advantages of the invention will become apparent from the following description of embodiments of the invention, with reference to the figures of the drawings, which show details essential to the invention, and from the claims. The individual features may be implemented individually for themselves or for a plurality of different combinations in a variant of the invention. Preferred embodiments of the invention are explained below with reference to the accompanying drawings. 1 shows an example and schematically an arrangement according to a first possible

 Embodiment of the invention.

2 shows an example and schematically an arrangement according to a second possible

 Embodiment of the invention.

Fig. 3 shows by way of example and schematically a diagram which shows the course of respective

 Formaldehyde concentrations according to the prior art and according to the invention by way of example. In the following description and the drawings, the same reference numerals correspond to elements of the same or comparable function.

1 shows by way of example and schematically an arrangement 1 with an internal combustion engine 3 in the form of a gas engine, wherein the gas engine is provided in particular for a lean operation. Connected to the gas engine 3 is an exhaust line 5 of the arrangement 1, which optionally may have an exhaust gas aftertreatment device 7, and which discharges downstream, for example, to the environment.

The engine operation is controlled by an engine management device 9 of the arrangement 1, which is provided as a central control unit or ECU (ECU: Electronics Control Unit). Specifications or manipulated variables for controlling the internal combustion engine operation are generated via the engine management device 9 (which are transmitted to actuators such as valves and connected control devices), Bz. 11. As further illustrated in FIG. 1, the arrangement 1 further comprises a formaldehyde sensor 13, for example also two or more formaldehyde sensors 13, wherein the formaldehyde sensor 13 senses formaldehyde (HCHO) in the exhaust gas of the internal combustion engine 3. Here, the formaldehyde sensor 13 is arranged on the input side of the exhaust system 5, for

Example before or after an exhaust gas turbocharger, eg also downstream of the at least one Combustion chamber of the internal combustion engine 3 or generally before the exhaust aftertreatment device 7. To sense a formaldehyde concentration in the exhaust gas, the formaldehyde sensor 13 with a sensing element immersed in the exhaust gas, which Sensierelement preferably Iri4Sn 3 0 12 contains. A suitable sensor receptacle is preferably formed directly on exhaust tract 5 for this purpose.

The formaldehyde sensor 13 is signaling connected to the engine management device 9 and supplies in the engine operation signals to the engine management device 9, which contain a formaldehyde (concentration) information, referred to herein also as sensor information 15.

With the thus configured active combination of formaldehyde sensor 13 and engine management device 9, a control loop is further formed, with which the formaldehyde emission of the internal combustion engine 3 - based on the sensor information 15 of the formaldehyde sensor 13 - set or regulated during operation of the internal combustion engine 3 , With the regulation, the

Formaldehyde emission continuously adjusted to a particular constant setpoint specification, which ensures compliance with a given emission limit value 17, but preferably only just below the threshold value 17. In order to adjust the formaldehyde emission over the entire service life, manipulated variables are generated by the engine management device 9 in FIG

Depending on the sensor information 15 is influenced suitably (will be discussed in more detail below with reference to FIG. 3). 2 illustrates a further embodiment of the arrangement 1 according to the invention, wherein the exhaust system 5 of the arrangement 1 has an oxidation catalytic converter 19 and wherein the formaldehyde sensor 13 is arranged downstream of the oxidation catalytic converter 19 in the exhaust gas system 5. In this embodiment, the formaldehyde sensor 13 detects formaldehyde values after oxidation by the oxidation catalyst 19, which formaldehyde concentrations are lower due to the "afterburning", insofar as a higher measurement sensitivity is required, but simple accommodation at the exhaust gas line 5 is advantageous Accommodation according to Fig. 1 in possibly space-constrained environments. As in the embodiment according to FIG. 1, a control circuit by means of formaldehyde sensor 13 and engine management device 9 is also formed in the embodiment according to FIG. 2, by means of which the formaldehyde emissions-via influencing manipulated variables by the engine management device 9 -so be set that a limit over the life of the device 1 is always maintained.

In the embodiments according to FIG. 1 and FIG. 2, a respective control loop can preferably be designed to be adaptive and / or predictive. FIG. 3 now shows a diagram which, by way of example, shows the course of the line A)

 Formaldehyde emissions according to the prior art shows. With initial operation of the internal combustion engine 3, the uncontrolled emissions of formaldehyde are maximum, since from dead volumes of the combustors massive formaldehyde emissions resulting from released HC deposits result, that is, from incomplete HC combustion. With clogging of the dead volumes, the unregulated formaldehyde emissions continue to increase

Operational progress then from, so that the compliance with the limit value 17 is no longer problematic. However, this results in an unfavorable efficiency, since the combustion still takes place with initial, not tracked manipulated variables, for example, along with unfavorably high exhaust gas temperature. Furthermore - in ignorance of the actually occurring emission values - a considerable safety distance to the limit is involved

 To select business reception, i. a considerable, efficiency-disadvantageous "engineering target" 21.

In contrast, the line B) in Fig. 3 exemplifies the course of the formaldehyde emissions, as can be achieved with the invention.

Over the entire service life, the manipulated variables influencing the combustion process are adjusted or regulated in such a way that the predetermined limit value 17 is always kept short, that is to say according to a desired value specification (just below the limit value 19). For this purpose, first the sensor information 15 is evaluated by the engine management device 9 and subsequently set or adjusted the desired value by influencing the manipulated variables.

Within the scope of the regulation, at least one of the control variables ignition point, combustion air ratio, pre-chamber gas quantity and blowing window area (or even more) is affected. flows, with the proviso to achieve the most efficient combustion process or engine operation while maintaining the setpoint specification as consistent as possible (so that the potential 23 is used over a formaldehyde decrease A) according to the prior art for an increase in efficiency). As the service life increases, for example, an ignition point can be increasingly advanced, so that the efficiency can be increased.

LIST OF REFERENCE NUMBERS

1 arrangement

 3 internal combustion engine (gas engine)

 5 exhaust system

 7 exhaust aftertreatment device

9 engine management device

 11 specifications

 13 formaldehyde sensor

 15 sensor information

 17 limit

 19 oxidation catalyst

 21 Engineering Target

 23 potential

 A emission curve according to the prior art

B emission curve according to the invention

Claims

1. Arrangement (1) with an internal combustion engine (3),
characterized in that
 - The arrangement (1) comprises a formaldehyde sensor (13), which formaldehyde in
Exhaust gas of the Brermkraftmaschine (3) senses.
2. Arrangement (1) according to claim 1,
characterized in that
 - The formaldehyde sensor (13) with an engine management device (9) of
 Internal combustion engine (3) connected, in particular operatively connected, is.
3. Arrangement (1) according to claim 2,
characterized in that
 - The arrangement (1) has a control loop, which by means of the formaldehyde sensor
(13) and the engine management device (9) is formed.
4. Arrangement (1) according to one of the preceding claims,
characterized in that
 - The arrangement (1) is arranged based on sensor information (15) of the
 Formaldehyde sensor (13) to set a formaldehyde emission of the internal combustion engine (3) during operation thereof.
5. Arrangement (1) according to one of claims 3 and 4,
characterized in that
 the arrangement (1) is arranged, the formaldehyde emission during operation of the
 Internal combustion engine (3) continuously to set or regulate a setpoint specification.
6. Arrangement (1) according to one of claims 3 to 5,
characterized in that
a control circuit of the arrangement (1) formed with the formaldehyde sensor (13) operates adaptively or predictively.
7. Arrangement (1) according to one of the preceding claims,
characterized in that
 the arrangement (1) is set up for adjusting a formaldehyde emission of the internal combustion engine (3) to influence at least one of the manipulated variables during operation of the internal combustion engine (3): an ignition point, a combustion air ratio, pre-chamber gas quantity, a Einblasefensterbereich.
8. Arrangement (1) according to one of the preceding claims,
characterized in that
 the internal combustion engine (3) is a gas engine or a diesel engine.
9. Arrangement (1) according to one of the preceding claims,
characterized in that
the formaldehyde sensor (13) is a sensor for the detection of gases, in particular formaldehyde, which has at least one gas-sensitive region which contains Iri 4 Sn 3 Oi 2 .
10. Arrangement (1) according to one of the preceding claims,
characterized in that
 - The arrangement (1) further comprises an exhaust line (5), which of the
 Internal combustion engine (3) is assigned, wherein the formaldehyde sensor (13) in the exhaust line (5) is arranged.
PCT/EP2016/000899 2015-06-10 2016-06-02 Combustion engine comprising a formaldehyde sensor WO2016198151A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE102015007474.1 2015-06-10
DE102015007474.1A DE102015007474A1 (en) 2015-06-10 2015-06-10 Arrangement with an internal combustion engine

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
WO2016198151A1 true WO2016198151A1 (en) 2016-12-15

Family

ID=56101418

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
PCT/EP2016/000899 WO2016198151A1 (en) 2015-06-10 2016-06-02 Combustion engine comprising a formaldehyde sensor

Country Status (2)

Country Link
DE (1) DE102015007474A1 (en)
WO (1) WO2016198151A1 (en)

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP1267071A1 (en) * 2001-06-12 2002-12-18 Deere & Company Engine control method and engine control system
DE102010027070A1 (en) 2010-07-13 2012-01-19 Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen Gas sensor and method for its production
US8371106B2 (en) * 2006-03-06 2013-02-12 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha Exhaust gas purification system of internal combustion engine

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP1267071A1 (en) * 2001-06-12 2002-12-18 Deere & Company Engine control method and engine control system
US8371106B2 (en) * 2006-03-06 2013-02-12 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha Exhaust gas purification system of internal combustion engine
DE102010027070A1 (en) 2010-07-13 2012-01-19 Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen Gas sensor and method for its production

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
DE102015007474A1 (en) 2016-12-15

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