WO2016164762A1 - Polynucleotides encoding low density lipoprotein receptor egf-a and intracellular domain mutants and methods of using the same - Google Patents

Polynucleotides encoding low density lipoprotein receptor egf-a and intracellular domain mutants and methods of using the same Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2016164762A1
WO2016164762A1 PCT/US2016/026703 US2016026703W WO2016164762A1 WO 2016164762 A1 WO2016164762 A1 WO 2016164762A1 US 2016026703 W US2016026703 W US 2016026703W WO 2016164762 A1 WO2016164762 A1 WO 2016164762A1
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ldlr
polynucleotide
mutation
polynucleotides
amino acid
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PCT/US2016/026703
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French (fr)
Inventor
Jeff Lynn Ellsworth
Joseph Beene BOLEN
Francine M. Gregoire
Justin Guild
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Moderna Therapeutics, Inc.
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Priority to US62/144,895 priority
Application filed by Moderna Therapeutics, Inc. filed Critical Moderna Therapeutics, Inc.
Publication of WO2016164762A1 publication Critical patent/WO2016164762A1/en

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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C07ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C07KPEPTIDES
    • C07K14/00Peptides having more than 20 amino acids; Gastrins; Somatostatins; Melanotropins; Derivatives thereof
    • C07K14/435Peptides having more than 20 amino acids; Gastrins; Somatostatins; Melanotropins; Derivatives thereof from animals; from humans
    • C07K14/705Receptors; Cell surface antigens; Cell surface determinants

Abstract

The invention relates to compositions and methods for the preparation, manufacture and therapeutic use of polynucleotide molecules encoding low density lipoprotein receptor comprising least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain and at least one or a single amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain.

Description

POLYNUCLEOTIDES ENCODING LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN RECEPTOR EGF-A AND INTRACELLULAR DOMAIN MUTANTS AND

METHODS OF USING THE SAME

REFERENCE TO SEQUENCE LISTING SUBMITTED ELECTRONICALLY

VIA EFS-WEB

[0001] The content of the electronically submitted sequence listing (Name: 3529_021PC01_SeqListing_ST25.txt"; Size: 2,607,509 bytes; and date of creation: April 07, 2016) filed herewith the application is incorporated by reference in its entirety.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0002] High cholesterol is one of a number of risk factors for heart attack and stroke. Although poor diet and lack of excise are common causes of high cholesterol, genetic changes can also influence cholesterol levels. For example, familiar hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disorder characterized by high cholesterol levels in the blood, specifically very high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). FH also leads to early cardiovascular disease.

[0003] Cholesterol targeting drugs on the market include statins, fibrates, niacin, bile acid sequestrants (resins), phytosterols, or other compounds that prevent absorption of fats, reduce absorption of cholesterol, or target genes in the cholesterol trafficking pathway. Cholesterol lowering drugs approved for the treatment of homozygous FH include mipomersen, an antisense oligonucleotide inhibitor which targets ApoB-100, and lomitapide, an inhibitor of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP or MTTP) which is necessary for very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) assembly and secretion in the liver.

[0004] Not all cholesterol targeting drugs can adequately lower LDL levels, particularly in FH patients. Liver related problems are commonly associated with cholesterol targeting drugs, particularly elevation in serum transaminases and accumulation of hepatic fat (or hepatic steatosis) have been reported. In addition, there are risks and contraindications associated with certain conditions or other medications.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0005] Certain aspects of the invention are directed to a polynucleotide comprising an open reading frame of linked nucleosides encoding a human low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) or functional fragment thereof comprising at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain and at least one or a single amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain, wherein the at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain abrogates binding of PCSK9 to the LDLR or functional fragment thereof, and wherein the open reading frame is optionally codon-optimized.

[0006] Another aspect of the invention is directed to a polynucleotide comprising an open reading frame of linked nucleosides encoding a human low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) or functional fragment thereof comprising at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain and at least one amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain, wherein the at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain abrogates binding of PCSK9 to the LDLR or functional fragment thereof and, optionally, at least one of the amino acids corresponding to K830 or C839 of human LDLR is intact, and wherein the open reading frame is optionally codon-optimized.

[0007] In some embodiments, the at least one mutation in the EGF-A domain is at an amino acid residue corresponding to N316, L339, or the combination of N316 and L339 of human LDLR (SEQ ID NO:43).

[0008] In some embodiments, the at least one mutation in the EGF-A domain comprises a deletion of the amino acid, an insertion of at least one amino acid, a conservative substitution, or a substitution.

[0009] In some embodiments, the at least one mutation in the EGF-A domain is a substitution from the N (asparagine) corresponding to amino acid residue 316 of SEQ ID NO:43 to an amino acid selected from the group consisting of glycine, alanine, valine, leucine, and isoleucine.

[0010] In some embodiments, the at least one mutation in the EGF-A domain is a substitution from the L (leucine) corresponding to amino acid residue 339 of SEQ ID NO:43 to an amino acid selected from the group consisting of aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, and asparagine.

[0011] In some embodiments, the single mutation or at least one mutation in the intracellular domain is at an amino acid residue corresponding to K816, K830, or C839 of human LDLR (SEQ ID NO:43).

[0012] In some embodiments, the single mutation or at least one mutation in the intracellular domain comprises a deletion of the amino acid, an insertion of at least one amino acid, a conservative substitution, or a substitution.

[0013] In some embodiments, the single mutation or at least one mutation in the intracellular domain is a substitution from the K (lysine) corresponding to an amino acid residue 816 or 830 of SEQ ID NO:43 to an amino acid selected from the group consisting of histidine or arginine. [0014] In some embodiments, the single mutation or at least one mutation in the intracellular domain is a substitution from the C (cysteine) corresponding to an amino acid residue 839 of SEQ ID NO:43 to an amino acid selected from the group consisting of glycine, alanine, valine, leucine, and isoleucine.

[0015] In some embodiments, the LDLR or functional fragment thereof comprises one mutation in the EGF-A domain and one mutation in the intracellular domain.

[0016] In some embodiments, the one mutation in the EGF-A domain corresponds to N316A of human LDLR and the one mutation in the intracellular domain corresponds to K830R of human LDLR.

[0017] In some embodiments, the polynucleotide comprises at least one chemically modified nucleoside. In some embodiments, the at least one chemically modified nucleoside is selected from any of those listed in Table 5. In some embodiments, the at least one chemically modified nucleoside is selected from the group consisting of pseudouridine, Nl-methylpseudouridine, 5- methylcytosine, 5-methoxyuridine, and a combination thereof. In some embodiments, the nucleosides in the open reading frame are chemically modified by at least 10%, at least 20%, at least 30%, at least 40%, at least 50%, at least 60%, at least 70%, at least 80%, at least 90%, at least 95%), at least 99%, or 100%. In some embodiments, the chemically modified nucleosides in the open reading frame are selected from the group consisting of uridine, adenine, cytosine, guanine, and any combination thereof.

[0018] In some embodiments, the uridine nucleosides in the open reading frame are chemically modified by at least 10%, at least 20%, at least 30%, at least 40%, at least 50%, at least 60%, at least 70%, at least 80%, at least 90%, at least 95%, at least 99%, or 100%.

[0019] In some embodiments, the adenine nucleosides in the open reading frame are chemically modified by at least 10%, at least 20%, at least 30%, at least 40%, at least 50%, at least 60%, at least 70%, at least 80%, at least 90%, at least 95%, at least 99%, or 100%.

[0020] In some embodiments, the cytosine nucleosides in the open reading frame are chemically modified by at least at least 10%, at least 20%, at least 30%, at least 40%, at least 50%, at least 60%, at least 70%, at least 80%, at least 90%, at least 95%, at least 99%, or 100%.

[0021] In some embodiments, the guanine nucleosides in the open reading frame are chemically modified by at least at least 10%, at least 20%, at least 30%, at least 40%, at least 50%, at least 60%, at least 70%, at least 80%, at least 90%, at least 95%, at least 99%, or 100%. [0022] In some embodiments, the open reading frame comprises a sequence at least 50%, at least 60%, at least 70%, at least 80%, at least 85%, at least 90%, at least 95%, at least 99%, or 100%) identical to a nucleic acid sequences listed in Table 3 A.

[0023] In some embodiments, the open reading frame is codon optimized. In some embodiments, at least 10%, at least 20%, at least 30%, at least 40%, at least 50%, at last 60%, at least 70%, at least 80%, at least 90%, at least 95%, at least 99%, or 100% of the open reading frame is codon optimized.

[0024] In some embodiments, the polynucleotide further comprises a 5' UTR. In some embodiments, the 5' UTR comprises a nucleic acid sequence at least 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%), or 100%) identical to a sequence selected from SEQ ID NOs: 3-19. In some embodiments, the 5' UTR comprises a nucleic acid sequence at least 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%, or 100% identical to a sequence listed in Table 1. In some embodiments, the 5' UTR is codon optimized.

[0025] In some embodiments, the polynucleotide further comprises a 3' UTR. In some embodiments, the 3' UTR comprises a nucleic acid sequence at least 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%), or 100%) identical to a sequence selected from SEQ ID NOs: 20-36. In some embodiments, the 3' UTR comprises a nucleic acid sequence at least 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%, or 100% identical to a sequence listed in Table 2. In some embodiments, the 3' UTR is codon optimized.

[0026] In some embodiments, the polynucleotide further comprises a 5' terminal cap. In some embodiments, the 5' terminal cap is a CapO, Capl, ARC A, inosine, Nl-methyl-guanosine, 2'fluoro-guanosine, 7-deaza-guanosine, 8-oxo-guanosine, 2-amino-guanosine, LNA-guanosine, 2-azidoguanosine, Cap2, Cap4, 5' methylG cap, or an analog thereof.

[0027] In some embodiments, the polynucleotide further comprises a 3' polyA tail.

[0028] In some embodiments, the polynucleotide is RNA, e.g., mRNA.

[0029] In some embodiments, the polynucleotide is in vitro transcribed (IVT), chimeric, or circular.

[0030] In some embodiments, the at least one mutation in the EGF-A domain reduces PCSK9-mediated degradation of the LDLR or functional fragment thereof.

[0031] In some embodiments, the single mutation in the intracellular domain reduces IDOL- mediated degradation of the LDLR or functional fragment thereof.

[0032] In some embodiments, the polynucleotide is purified by strong anion exchange HPLC, weak anion exchange HPLC, reverse phase HPLC (RP-HPLC), and hydrophobic interaction HPLC (HIC-HPLC), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS), capillary electrophoresis (CE) and capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE).

[0033] Another aspect of the invention is directed to a polypeptide comprising a human low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) or functional fragment thereof comprising at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain and at least one or a single amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain, wherein the at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain abrogates binding of PCSK9 to the LDLR or functional fragment thereof.

[0034] Another aspect of the invention is directed to a polypeptide comprising a human low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) or functional fragment thereof comprising at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain and at least one amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain, wherein the at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain abrogates binding of PCSK9 to the LDLR or functional fragment thereof and, optionally, at least one of the amino acids corresponding to K830 or C839 of human LDLR is intact.

[0035] In some embodiments, the polypeptide comprises the at least one mutation in the EGF-A domain is at an amino acid residue corresponding to N316, L339, or the combination of N316 and L339 of human LDLR (SEQ ID NO:43).

[0036] In some embodiments, the polypeptide comprises at least one mutation in the EGF-A domain comprises a deletion of the amino acid.

[0037] In some embodiments, the polypeptide comprises at least one mutation in the EGF-A domain further comprises an insertion of at least one amino acid.

[0038] In some embodiments, the polypeptide comprises at least one mutation in the EGF-A domain comprises a conservative substitution.

[0039] In some embodiments, the polypeptide comprises at least one mutation in the EGF-A domain is a substitution from the N (asparagine) corresponding to amino acid residue 316 of SEQ ID NO:43 to an amino acid selected from the group consisting of glycine, alanine, valine, leucine, and isoleucine.

[0040] In some embodiments, the polypeptide comprises at least one mutation in the EGF-A domain is a substitution from the L (leucine) corresponding to amino acid residue 339 of SEQ ID NO:43 to an amino acid selected from the group consisting of aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, and asparagine. [0041] In some embodiments, the polypeptide comprises a single mutation or at least one amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain is at an amino acid residue corresponding to K816, K830, or C839 of human LDLR (SEQ ID NO:43).

[0042] In some embodiments, the polypeptide comprises a single mutation or at least one amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain comprises a deletion of the amino acid.

[0043] In some embodiments, the polypeptide comprises a single mutation or at least one amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain further comprises an insertion of at least one amino acid.

[0044] In some embodiments, the polypeptide comprises a single mutation or at least one amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain comprises a conservative substitution.

[0045] In some embodiments, the polypeptide comprises a single mutation or at least one amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain is a substitution from the K (lysine) corresponding to an amino acid residue 816 or 830 of SEQ ID NO:43 to an amino acid selected from the group consisting of histidine or arginine.

[0046] In some embodiments, the polypeptide comprises a single mutation or at least one amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain is a substitution from the C (cysteine) corresponding to an amino acid residue 839 of SEQ ID NO:43 to an amino acid selected from the group consisting of glycine, alanine, valine, leucine, and isoleucine.

[0047] In some embodiments, the LDLR or functional fragment thereof comprises one mutation in the EGF-A domain and one mutation in the intracellular domain.

[0048] In some embodiments, the one mutation in the EGF-A domain corresponds to N316A of human LDLR and the one mutation in the intracellular domain corresponds to K830R of human LDLR.

[0049] In some embodiments, the polypeptide is encoded by a polynucleotide disclosed herein.

[0050] Another aspect of the invention is directed to a nucleic acid encoding a polypeptide disclosed herein.

[0051] Another aspect of the invention is directed to a composition comprising the RNA polynucleotide, the polypeptide, or the nucleic acid and a delivery agent disclosed herein.

[0052] In some embodiments, the composition comprises a lipid nanoparticle delivery agent.

[0053] In some embodiments, the lipid nanoparticle comprises the lipid selected from the group consisting of DLin-DMA, DLin-K-DMA, 98N12-5, C 12-200, DLin-MC3 -DMA, DLin- KC2-DMA, DODMA, PLGA, PEG, PEG-DMG, PEGylated lipids, amino alcohol lipids, KL22, and combinations thereof.

[0054] In some embodiments, the composition is formulated for in vivo delivery.

[0055] In some embodiments, the composition is formulated for intramuscular, subcutaneous, or intradermal delivery.

[0056] In some embodiments, the polynucleotide, nucleic acid, or the composition of the invention increases cellular expression of LDLR.

[0057] In some embodiments, the cellular expression of LDLR is increased by least 20%, at least 25%, at least 30%, at least 35%, at least 40%, at least 45%, or at least 50%.

[0058] Another aspect of the invention is directed to a method for increasing the expression of LDLR in a subject comprising contacting the subject with a pharmaceutical composition comprising any of the polynucleotides, the polypeptides, the nucleic acids, or the compositions of the invention.

[0059] In some embodiments, the expression of LDLR in the subject is at least at least 20%, at least 25%, at least 30%, at least 35%, at least 40%, at least 45%, or at least 50% greater than in a subject not contacted with the pharmaceutical composition.

[0060] Another aspect of the invention is directed to a method for modulating cholesterol levels in the plasma of a subject comprising contacting the subject with a pharmaceutical composition comprising any of the polynucleotides, the polypeptides, the nucleic acids, or the compositions of the invention.

[0061] In some embodiments, the LDL, cholesterol, and/or triglyceride level in the subject is at least 20%, at least 25%, at least 30%, at least 35%, at least 40%, at least 45%, or at least 50% lower than in a subject not contacted with the pharmaceutical composition.

[0062] Another aspect of the invention is directed to a method for treating familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) in a subject in need thereof comprising administering to the subject a pharmaceutical composition comprising any of the polynucleotides, the polypeptides, the nucleic acids, or the compositions of the invention.

[0063] Another aspect of the invention is directed to a method for making the polynucleotide or the nucleic acid, comprising:

[0064] (i) transcribing a mRNA from a template polynucleotide encoding the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) or functional fragment thereof in the presence of a polymerase, and optionally, incorporating a 5' terminal cap at the end of the mRNA; [0065] (ii) optionally, enzymatically adding a 5' terminal cap at the end of the mRNA transcribed in (i);

[0066] (iii) removing the template polynucleotide and enzymes from steps (i) and (ii); and

[0067] (iv) isolating the RNA polynucleotide.

[0068] Another aspect of the invention is directed to a method for producing a lipid nanoparticle (L P) pharmaceutical composition comprising:

[0069] (i) combining a RNA polynucleotide or the nucleic acid of the invention, and a solution comprising a positively-charged lipid;

[0070] (ii) mixing the combination formed in (i) to produce a nanoparticle dispersion;

[0071] (iii) diluting the nanoparticle dispersion in a buffer;

[0072] (iv) concentrating the nanoparticle dispersion of step (iii); and

[0073] (v) filter sterilizing the concentrated nanoparticle dispersion of step (iv),

[0074] wherein the resulting sterilized nanoparticle dispersion is a lipid nanoparticle (LNP) pharmaceutical composition.

[0075] Another aspect of the invention is directed to a method for making the polypeptide of the invention comprising culturing the host cell and producing the polypeptide from the host cell.

[0076] Another aspect of the invention is directed to a method for increasing the expression of LDLR in a subject comprising contacting the subject with a pharmaceutical composition comprising the polynucleotide of the invention and a delivery agent, wherein the expression of LDLR in the subject is at least 20%, at least 25%, at least 30%>, at least 35%, or at least 40% greater than in a subject not contacted with the pharmaceutical composition.

[0077] Another aspect of the invention is directed to a method for modulating cholesterol levels in the plasma of a subject comprising contacting the subject with a pharmaceutical composition comprising the polynucleotide of the invention and a delivery agent, wherein the cholesterol level in the subject is at least 20%, at least 25%, at least 30%, at least 35%, at least 40%), at least 45%, or at least 50% lower than in a subject not contacted with the pharmaceutical composition.

[0078] Another aspect of the invention is directed to a method for treating familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) in a subject in need thereof comprising administering to the subject a pharmaceutical composition comprising the polynucleotide of the invention, wherein the expression of LDLR in the subject is at least 20%, at least 25%, at least 30%, at least 35%, at least 40%, at least 45%, or at least 50% greater than in a subject not contacted with the pharmaceutical composition.

[0079] In some embodiments, the delivery agent is a lipid nanoparticle.

[0080] In some embodiments, the lipid nanoparticle comprises the lipid selected from the group consisting of DLin-DMA, DLin-K-DMA, 98N12-5, C 12-200, DLin-MC3 -DMA, DLin- KC2-DMA, DODMA, PLGA, PEG, PEG-DMG, PEGylated lipids, amino alcohol lipids, KL22, and combinations thereof.

[0081] In some embodiments, the lipid nanoparticle is KL22.

[0082] In some embodiments, the polynucleotide is purified by strong anion exchange HPLC, weak anion exchange HPLC, reverse phase HPLC (RP-HPLC), and hydrophobic interaction HPLC (HIC-HPLC), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS), capillary electrophoresis (CE) and capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE).

[0083] The details of various embodiments of the invention are set forth in the description below. Other features, objects, and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the description and the drawings, and from the claims.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0084] FIG. 1 is a schematic of a polynucleotide construct (also referred to as primary construct 100), which includes a first region of linked nucleotides 102 that is flanked by a first flanking region 104 and a second flaking region 106. This first region 102 can include, but is not limited to, linked nucleotides encoding a polypeptide of interest. The polypeptide of interest can comprise at its 5' terminus one or more signal sequences encoded by a signal sequence region 103. The first flanking region 104 can include a sequence of linked nucleosides which function as a 5' untranslated region (UTR), e.g, one or more complete or incomplete 5' UTRs sequences. The flanking region 104 can also comprise a 5' terminal cap 108. The second flanking region 106 can comprise a region of linked nucleotides comprising one or more complete or incomplete 3' UTRs. The flanking region 106 can also comprise a 3' tailing sequence 110. Bridging the 5' terminus of the first region 102 and the first flanking region 104 is a first operational region 105. Bridging the 3' terminus of the first region 102 and the second flanking region 106 is a second operational region 107.

[0085] FIG. 2 is a schematic of a polynucleotide construct (also referred to as primary construct 130), which includes a first region of linked nucleotides 132 that is flanked by a first flanking region 134 and a second flaking region 136. This first region 132 can include, but is not limited to, linked nucleotides encoding a polypeptide of interest. The flanking region 134 can comprise a region of linked nucleotides comprising one or more complete or incomplete 5' UTRs sequences. The flanking region 134 can include at least one nucleic acid sequence including, but not limited to, miR sequences, TERZAK™ sequences, translation control sequences, or any combination thereof. Before the flanking region 134, the polynucleotide primary construct can can comprise a 5' terminal cap 138. The second flanking region 136 can comprise a region of linked nucleotides comprising one or more complete or incomplete 3' UTRs. After the second flanking region 136 the polynucleotide primary construct can comprise a 3 ' tailing sequence 140. The 3' tailing sequence 140 can include a synthetic tailing region 142 and/or a chain terminating nucleoside 144. Bridging the 5' terminus of the first region 132 and the first flanking region 134 is a first operational region 146. Bridging the 3' terminus of the first region 132 and the second flanking region 136 is a second operational region 148.

[0086] FIG. 3 is a schematic of chimeric polynucleotides.

[0087] FIG. 4 is a schematic of chimeric polynucleotides illustrating various patterns of positional modifications and showing regions analogous to those regions of an mRNA polynucleotide.

[0088] FIG. 5 is a schematic of chimeric polynucleotides illustrating various patterns of positional modifications based on Formula I.

[0089] FIG. 6 is a is a schematic of chimeric polynucleotides illustrating various patterns of positional modifications based on Formula I and further illustrating a blocked or structured 3' terminus.

[0090] FIG. 7 is a schematic of a representative circular polynucleotide construct 200. The circular construct 200 comprises a first region of linked nucleotides 202 that is flanked by a first flanking region 204 and a second flanking region 206. This first region 202 can include, but is not limited to, linked nucleotides encoding a polypeptide of interest. The polypeptide of interest can comprise at its 5' terminus one or more signal peptide sequences encoded by a signal peptide sequence region 203. The first flanking region 204 can comprise a region of linked nucleosides or portion thereof which may act similarly to an untranslated region (UTR) in a mRNA and/or DNA sequence. The first flanking region can also comprise a region of polarity 208. The region of polarity 208 can include an IRES sequence or portion thereof. The second flanking region 206 can comprise a tailing sequence region 210 and can comprise a region of linked nucleotides or portion thereof 212, which may act similarly to a UTR in a mRNA and/or DNA. Bridging the 5' terminus of the first region 202 and the first flanking region 204 is a first operational region 205. Bridging the 3' terminus of the first region 202 and the second flanking region 206 is a second operational region 207.

[0091] FIG. 8 is a schematic of a circular polynucleotide construct 200, in which at least one non-nucleic acid moiety 201 can be used to prepare a circular construct 200 where the non- nucleic acid moiety 201 is used to bring the first flanking region 204 near the second flanking region 206.

[0092] FIG. 9 is a schematic of a circular polynucleotide construct 200 comprising at least one spacer region. The first region of linked nucleosides 202 can comprise a spacer region 214, which can be used to separate the first region of linked nucleosides 202 so that the circular construct can include more than one open reading frame, non-coding region or an open reading frame and a non-coding region.

[0093] FIG. 10 is a schematic of a circular polynucleotide construct 200 comprising at least one sensor region. The second flanking region 206 can comprise one or more sensor regions 216 in the 3'UTR 212. As shown in FIG. 9, the one or more sensor regions 216 can be separated by a spacer region 214.

[0094] FIG. 11 is a schematic of a circular polynucleotide construct comprising at least one sensor region and a spacer region. The circular construct 200, which includes one or more sensor regions 216, can also include a spacer region 214 in the first region of linked nucleosides 202.

[0095] FIG. 12 is a schematic of a non-coding circular polynucleotide construct 200. The circular construct 200 can be a non-coding construct known as a circSP comprising at least one non-coding region such as, but not limited to, a sensor region 216.

[0096] FIG. 13 is a schematic of a non-coding circular polynucleotide construct 200, in which at least one non-nucleic acid moiety 201 is used.

[0097] FIG. 14 is a flow cytometry plot of HEK293 cells transfected with various polynucleotides of the invention encoding LDLRs (wild type LDLR or LDLRs having various LDLR cell surface expression-enhancing mutations).

[0098] FIG. 15 is a flow cytometry plot HEK293 cells transfected with various polynucleotides of the invention encoding LDLRs (wild type LDLR or LDLRs having various LDLR cell surface expression-enhancing mutations) with or without PCSK9.

[0099] FIGs. 16A-16B are flow cytometry plots of cells transfected with various polynucleotides of the invention encoding LDLR, e.g., modified mRNAs encoding LDLRs having various LDLR cell surface expression-enhancing mutations. Figure 16A shows contour plots of the binding of BODIPY-LDL to LDLR mRNA transfected cells. Figure 16B shows the half-maximal cell association of BODIPY-LDL.

[0100] FIGs. 17A-17G shows the effect on half-life after transfection with LDLR mRNA. Figure 17A shows wild-type LDLR mRNA. Figure 17B shows a LDLR mRNA encoding a LDLR with 4 mutations (N316A, E317A, D331A and Y336A). Figure 17C shows a LDLR mRNA encoding a LDLR with 1 mutation, Y336A. Figure 17D shows a LDLR mRNA encoding a LDLR with 1 mutation, E317A. Figure 17E shows a LDLR mRNA encoding a LDLR with 1 mutation, N316A. Figure 17F shows a LDLR mRNA encoding a LDLR with 1 mutation, L339D. Figure 17G shows a LDLR mRNA encoding a LDLR with 1 mutation, D33 IE.

[0101] FIG. 18 shows the effect on cell surface LDLR expression when the amount of PCSK9 is varied.

[0102] FIG. 19 shows a gel profile of LDLR expression.

[0103] FIG. 20 shows in vitro expression of LDLR in LDLR-/- hepatocyte cells co- transfected with wild-type or mutant LDLR mRNA (or NT-FIX control) and LDLR negative regulator mRNA (IDOL, PCSK9, and IDOL + PCSK9) (or untreated control). LDLR expression was measured by capillary electrophoresis. LDLR mutants were more resistant to negative LDLR expression regulators compared to wild-type LDLR.

[0104] FIG. 21 shows a Lightcore blot detecting LDLR expression in LDLR-/- mice 24 hours after administration of mRNA encoding LDLR-773 or Luc control compared to wild-type mice.

[0105] FIG. 22 shows protein expression of LDLR in LDLR -/- mice observed 24 hours post-dosing with modified mRNA encoding LDLR-773 compared to wild-type mice. The expression of LDLR in LDLR -/- mice dosed with LDLR-773 was about 30-40% of wild-type. Expression was measured using capillary electrophoresis.

[0106] FIGs. 23A-23C shows administration of modified mRNA encoding LDLR-773 in LDLR -/- mice resulted in significant lowering of (A) cholesterol and (B) triglycerides. Cholesterol and triglycerides were measured using Skylight (gel-filtration UPLC). (C) Shows the decrease in LDL-C in LDLR -/- mice administered modified mRNA encoding LDLR-773 compared to Luc control. DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0107] In certain aspects, the present application addresses the problem of the degradation of LDLR by providing a polynucleotide, e.g., mRNA, which encodes a human low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) or functional fragment thereof comprising at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain (e.g., corresponding to N316, L339, or the combination of N316 and L339 of human LDLR) and at least one or a single amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain (e.g., corresponding to K816, K830, C839, or any combination thereof of human LDLR). In some embodiments, the mutation in the EGF-A domain corresponds to N316A of human LDLR and the mutation in the intracellular domain corresponds to K830R and/or C839A of human LDLR. In some embodiments, the polynuceotide increases LDLR expression (e.g., by 20- 50%, e.g., at least 20%, at least 25%, at least 30%, at least 35%, at least 40%, at least 45%, or at least 50%) and/or decreases LDL, cholesterol and/or triglyceride levels (e.g., by 20-50%, e.g., at least 20%, at least 25%, at least 30%, at least 35%, at least 40%, at least 45%, or at least 50%) compared to wild-type LDLR.

[0108] The present application provides nucleic acid based compounds or polynucleotides (both coding and non-coding and combinations thereof) which have structural and/or chemical features that avoid one or more of the problems in the art, for example, features which are useful for optimizing nucleic acid-based therapeutics while retaining structural and functional integrity, overcoming the threshold of expression, improving expression rates, half life and/or protein concentrations, optimizing protein localization, and avoiding deleterious bio-responses such as the immune response and/or degradation pathways. These barriers can be reduced or eliminated using embodiments of the present application.

[0109] Described herein are compositions (including pharmaceutical compositions) and methods for the design, preparation, manufacture and/or formulation of polynucleotides, e.g., in vitro transcription (IVT) polynucleotides, chimeric polynucleotides and/or circular polynucleotides encoding an LDLR mutant that is resistant to the PCSK9 and IDOL degradation pathway. Also provided are systems, processes, devices and kits for the selection, design and/or utilization of the polynucleotides described herein. In some embodiments, the polynucleotides are fully or partially modified (e.g., chemically and/or structurally) in a manner as to avoid the deficiencies of other molecules of the art. Modified polynucleotides of the application can be synthesized as an IVT polynucleotide, chimeric polynucleotide or a circular polynucleotide and such embodiments are contemplated. [0110] Polynucleotides encoding the mutant LDLR of the invention can be designed to improve one or more issues in the art such as stability and/or clearance in tissues, receptor uptake and/or kinetics, cellular access, engagement with translational machinery, mRNA half-life, translation efficiency, immune evasion, protein production capacity, secretion efficiency (when applicable), accessibility to circulation, protein half-life and/or modulation of a cell's status, function and/or activity.

[0111] In one aspect, the invention provides polynucleotides that encode mutant LDLRs. In some embodiments, the polynucleotides encode a LDLR comprising at least one LDLR cell surface expression-enhancing mutation (e.g., increasing the residence time of LDLR on the cell surface or increased levels of LDLR at the cell surface). As will be appreciated by the skilled artisan, modulation of cell surface receptors, e.g., modulation of activity and/or expression of cell surface receptors to achieve a desired biological or therapeutic outcome can be challenging. In particular, modulating (e.g., increasing) expression of complex cell surface receptors can be difficult, especially when trying to do so in vivo.

[0112] The instant invention features the use of compositions comprising polynucleotides, e.g., codon optimized and/or modified mRNAs, and a delivery agent, e.g., a lipid nanoparticle (e.g., KL22), particularly suited for in vivo delivery. The modified mRNAs are designed to facilitate, for example, increasing expression of biologically active LDLRs in a variety of biological and/or therapeutic settings. In some embodiments, the modified mRNA encodes a human low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) or functional fragment thereof comprising at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain (e.g., corresponding to N316, L339, or the combination of N316 and L339 of human LDLR) and at least one or a single amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain (e.g., corresponding to K816, K830, and/or C839 of human LDLR). In some embodiments, the mutation in the EGF-A domain corresponds to N316A of human LDLR and the mutation in the intracellular domain corresponds to K830R and/or C839A of human LDLR. In some embodiments, the modified mRNA increases LDLR expression (e.g., by at least 20-50%, e.g., at least 20%, at least 25%, at least 30%, at least 35%, at least 40%, at least 45%), or at least 50%>) and/or reduces plasma LDL, cholesterol and/or triglyceride levels (e.g., by at least 20-50%, e.g., at least 20%, at least 25%, at least 30%, at least 35%, at least 40%, at least 45%, or at least 50%) compared to wild-type LDLR.

I. Compositions

Polynucleotides [0113] In certain aspects, the present invention provides nucleic acid molecules, specifically polynucleotides which encode one or more human LDLR or functional fragment thereof comprising at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain and at least one or a single amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain. In certain embodiments, the polynuceotide increases LDLR expression (e.g., by at least 20-50%, e.g., at least 20%, at least 25%, at least 30%), at least 35%, at least 40%, at least 45%, or at least 50%) and/or decreases LDL, cholesterol and/or triglyceride levels (e.g., by at least 20-50%, e.g., at least 20%, at least 25%, at least 30%, at least 35%, at least 40%, at least 45%, or at least 50%) compared to wild-type LDLR. In some embodiments, the polynucleotide encoding the human LDLR or functional fragment thereof is a codon optimized sequuence, e.g., a codon optimized sequence from Table 3A (e.g., selected from SEQ ID NOs: 56-63 and 70-718), which further comprises nucleic acid changes at the sites that encode at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain (e.g., corresponding to N316, L339, or the combination of N316 and L339 of human LDLR) and at least one or a single amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain (e.g., corresponding to K816, K830, C839, or any combination thereof of human LDLR). In some embodiments, the nucleic acid changes result in a mutation in the EGF-A domain corresponding to N316A of human LDLR and a mutation in the intracellular domain corresponds to K830R and/or C839A of human LDLR.

[0114] The term "nucleic acid," in its broadest sense, includes any compound and/or substance that comprises a polymer of nucleotides. These polymers are often referred to as polynucleotides.

[0115] Exemplary nucleic acids or polynucleotides of the invention include, but are not limited to, ribonucleic acids (RNAs), deoxyribonucleic acids (DNAs), threose nucleic acids (TNAs), glycol nucleic acids (GNAs), peptide nucleic acids (PNAs), locked nucleic acids (LNAs, including LNA having a β- D-ribo configuration, a-LNA having an a-L-ribo configuration (a diastereomer of LNA), 2'-amino-LNA having a 2'-amino functionalization, and 2'-amino- a-LNA having a 2'-amino functionalization), ethylene nucleic acids (ENA), cyclohexenyl nucleic acids (CeNA) or hybrids or combinations thereof.

[0116] Polynucleotides which are made using only in vitro transcription (IVT) enzymatic synthesis methods are referred to as "IVT polynucleotides." Methods of making IVT polynucleotides are known in the art and are described, e.g., in International Publication Nos. WO2013151666, WO2013151667, WO2013151668, WO2013151663, WO2013151669, WO2013151670, WO2013151664, WO2013151665, WO2013151671, WO2013151672 and WO2013151736; the contents of each of which are herein incorporated by reference in their entireties.

[0117] The polynucleotides which have portions or regions which differ in size and/or chemical modification pattern, chemical modification position, chemical modification percent or chemical modification population and combinations of the foregoing are known as "chimeric polynucleotides." A "chimera" according to the present invention is an entity having two or more incongruous or heterogeneous parts or regions. As used herein a "part" or "region" of a polynucleotide is defined as any portion of the polynucleotide which is less than the entire length of the polynucleotide.

[0118] Polynucleotides that are circular are known as "circular polynucleotides" or "circP." As used herein, "circular polynucleotides" or "circP" means a single stranded circular polynucleotide which acts substantially like, and has the properties of, an RNA. The term "circular" is also meant to encompass any secondary or tertiary configuration of the circP.

[0119] In some embodiments, the polynucleotide includes from about 30 to about 100,000 nucleotides (e.g., from 30 to 50, from 30 to 100, from 30 to 250, from 30 to 500, from 30 to 1,000, from 30 to 1,500, from 30 to 3,000, from 30 to 5,000, from 30 to 7,000, from 30 to 10,000, from 30 to 25,000, from 30 to 50,000, from 30 to 70,000, from 100 to 250, from 100 to 500, from 100 to 1,000, from 100 to 1,500, from 100 to 3,000, from 100 to 5,000, from 100 to 7,000, from 100 to 10,000, from 100 to 25,000, from 100 to 50,000, from 100 to 70,000, from 100 to 100,000, from 500 to 1,000, from 500 to 1,500, from 500 to 2,000, from 500 to 3,000, from 500 to 5,000, from 500 to 7,000, from 500 to 10,000, from 500 to 25,000, from 500 to 50,000, from 500 to 70,000, from 500 to 100,000, from 1,000 to 1,500, from 1,000 to 2,000, from 1,000 to 3,000, from 1,000 to 5,000, from 1,000 to 7,000, from 1,000 to 10,000, from 1,000 to 25,000, from 1,000 to 50,000, from 1,000 to 70,000, from 1,000 to 100,000, from 1,500 to 3,000, from 1,500 to 5,000, from 1,500 to 7,000, from 1,500 to 10,000, from 1,500 to 25,000, from 1,500 to 50,000, from 1,500 to 70,000, from 1,500 to 100,000, from 2,000 to 3,000, from 2,000 to 5,000, from 2,000 to 7,000, from 2,000 to 10,000, from 2,000 to 25,000, from 2,000 to 50,000, from 2,000 to 70,000, and from 2,000 to 100,000).

[0120] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides can encode at least one low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) mutant, a fragment, or variant thereof, e.g., a LDLR or functional fragment thereof comprising at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain and at least one or a single amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain. In some embodiments, the polynucleotide encodes a mutant LDLR disclosed in Table 3B, 10 and/or 11.

[0121] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides encode a LDLR mutant variant, i.e., a LDLR mutant having at least one amino acid mutation in the EFG-A domain and at least one or a single amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain and further having one or more amino acid differences, insertions or deletions from a wild-type LDLR. In some embodiments, the LDLR mutant can comprise a polymorphism, e.g., a naturally-occurring polymorphism. In some embodiments, the LDLR mutant further comprises a mutation e.g., a naturally occurring mutation or a non-naturally occurring mutation or both.

[0122] In some embodiments, the mutations in the LDL mutant, e.g., at least one amino acid mutation in the EFG-A domain and at least one or a single amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain alter a biological property of a LDLR protein. In some embodiments, the mutations alter expression, in particular, cell-surface expression, of the LDLR. Such mutations can be referred to herein as "cell-surface expression-enhancing mutations," and can inhibit or reduce, LDLR degradation, thus leading to increase expression, e.g., cell surface expression of LDLR or LDLR proteins, or increased levels of LDLR at the cell surface. In some embodiments, a cell-surface expression-enhancing mutations occur in a LDLR domain associated with LDLR degradation {e.g., in the PCSK9 interacting domain, the IDOL interacting domain, or both).

[0123] The mutation in the EGF-A domain, e.g., PCSK9 interacting domain, e.g., corresponding to N316, L339, or the combination of N316 and L339 of human LDLR, can reduce or prevent interaction of the LDLR with PCSK9. PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) is proteinase K enzyme that binds to an epidermal growth factor-like repeat A (EGF-A) domain of LDLR (also referred to herein as the PCSK9 interacting domain), inducing LDLR degradation. In some embodiments, the alteration of the PCSK9 interacting domain, e.g., by introducing mutations therein, leads to an inhibition of PCSK9-mediated LDLR degradation causing an increase in LDLR protein expression. In some embodiments, the alteration of the PCSK9 interacting domain, e.g., by introducing mutations therein, leads to an inhibition of PCSK9-mediated LDLR degradation and promotes low density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake.

[0124] In some embodiments, the polynucleotide encodes a LDLR protein comprising a mutation in the EGF-A domain (PCSK9 interacting domain). In some embodiments, the EGF-A domain corresponds to amino acid 314 - amino acid 353 of human LDLR {e.g., as represented by SEQ ID NO:43). In some embodiments, the polynucleotide encodes a human LDLR or functional fragment thereof comprising at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain (e.g., corresponding to N316, L339, or the combination of N316 and L339 of human LDLR). In some embodiments, the mutation in the EGF-A domain corresponds to N316A, L339D, or N316A/L339D of human LDLR. In some embodiments, the mutation in the EGF-A domain corresponds to N316A of SEQ ID NO:43. In some embodiments, the polynucleotide encoding the human LDLR or functional fragment thereof is a codon optimized sequuence, e.g., a codon optimized sequence from Table 3 A (e.g., selected from SEQ ID NOs: 56-63 and 70-718) which further comprises nucleic acid changes at the sites that encode at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain (e.g., corresponding to N316, L339, or the combination of N316 and L339 of human LDLR). In some embodiments, the nucleic acid changes result in a mutation in the EGF- A domain corresponding to N316A of human LDLR (e.g., as represented by SEQ ID NO:43).

[0125] The single mutation in the intracellular domain (also referred to herein as the IDOL interacting domain) can reduce or prevent interaction of the LDLR mutant with IDOL. IDOL (inducible degrader of LDLR) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase known to be induced following activation of liver X receptors and subsequently interacts with a cytoplasmic domain within LDLR (the IDOL interacting domain) mediating receptor ubiquitination and degradation. In some embodiments, the alteration of the IDOL interacting domain, e.g., by introducing mutations therein, leads to an inhibition of IDOL-mediated LDLR degradation and causes an increase in LDLR protein expression. In some embodiments, the alteration of the IDOL interacting domain, e.g., by introducing mutations therein, leads to IDOL-mediated LDLR degradation and promotes low density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake.

[0126] In some embodiments, the polynucleotide encodes a LDLR protein comprising a mutation in the intracellular domain. In some embodiments, the intracellular domain corresponds to amino acid 81 1 - amino acid 860 of human LDLR (e.g., as represented by SEQ ID NO:43). In some embodiments, the polynucleotide encodes a human LDLR or functional fragment thereof comprising at least one or a single amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain (e.g., corresponding to K816, K830, C839, or any combination thereof of human LDLR). In some embodiments, the single mutation in the intracellular domain corresponds to K816R, K830R, or C839A of human LDLR. In some embodiments, the at least one or single mutation in the intracellular domain corresponds to K830R and/or C839A of SEQ ID NO:43. In some embodiments, the polynucleotide encoding the human LDLR or functional fragment thereof is a codon optimized sequence, e.g., a codon optimized sequence from Table 3A (e.g., selected from SEQ ID NOs: 56-63 and 70-718) which further comprises nucleic acid changes at the sites that encode at least one or a single amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain (e.g., corresponding to K816, K830, C839, or any combination thereof of human LDLR). In some embodiments, the nucleic acid change results in a mutation in the intracellular domain corresponds to K830R and/or C839A of human LDLR.

[0127] In certain aspects, the polynucleotides encode a LDLR protein where the LDLR protein comprises at least one alteration to the EGF-A domain (PCSK9 interacting domain) and a single alternation in the intracellular domain (IDOL interacting domain). In some embodiments, the polynucleotide encodes a human LDLR or functional fragment thereof comprising at least one mutation in the EGF-A domain (e.g., corresponding to N316, L339, or the combination of N316 and L339 of human LDLR) and at least one or a single amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain (e.g., corresponding to K816, K830, C839, or any combination thereof of human LDLR). In some embodiments, the mutation in the EGF-A domain corresponds to N316A, L339D, or N316A/L339D and the mutation in the intracellular domain corresponds to K816R, K830R, C839A, or any combination thereof of human LDLR. In some embodiments, the mutation in the EGF-A domain corresponds to N316A of SEQ ID NO:43 and the mutation in the intracellular domain corresponds to K830R and/or C839A of SEQ ID NO:43. In some embodiments, the alterations, e.g., mutations, of the PCSK9 interacting domain and the IDOL interacting domain lead to an increase in LDLR protein expression. In some embodiments, the alteration, e.g., mutations, of the PCSK9 interacting domain and IDOL interacting domain promotes low density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake or lower LDL, cholesterol, and/or triglyceride plasma levels. In some embodiments, the polynuceotide increases LDLR expression (e.g., by 20- 50%, e.g., at least 20%, at least 25%, at least 30%, at least 35%, at least 40%, at least 45%, or at least 50%) and/or decreases LDL, cholesterol and/or triglyceride levels (e.g., by 20-50%, e.g., at least 20%, at least 25%, at least 30%, at least 35%, at least 40%, at least 45%, or at least 50%) compared to wild-type LDLR.

[0128] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides encode a LDLR protein or variant thereof which full length or mature. In some embodiments, the polynucleotides encode a mature human LDLR mutant or variant thereof which is 839 amino acids in length. In another embodiment, the polynucleotides encode a full length human LDLR protein or variant thereof which is 860 amino acids in length. In other embodiments, the polynucleotides encode a mature human LDLR mutant or variant thereof and a heterologous signal peptide.

[0129] As used herein, a "reference polynucleotide sequence" refers to a starting polynucleotide sequence. Reference sequences can be wild type sequences or any sequence to which reference is made in the design of another sequence. As a non-limiting example, the reference polynucleotide sequence can encode a low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), functional fragments or variants thereof. A reference polynucleotide sequence can encode, e.g., a LDLR protein such as wild-type LDLR or a LDLR comprising at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain (e.g., corresponding to N316, L339, or the combination of N316 and L339 of human LDLR) and at least one or a single amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain (e.g., corresponding to K816, K830, C839, or any combination thereof of human LDLR). In some embodiments, the reference polynucleotide sequence is codon optimized and/or chemically modified.

[0130] In some embodiments, the reference polynucleotide sequence is shown in Table 3B, Table 10 and/or Table 1 1 herein.

[0131] Exemplary reference amino acid and nucleic acid sequences for a wild-type human low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) are described in >gi|4504975|ref|NP_000518.1 | low- density lipoprotein receptor isoform 1 precursor [Homo sapiens] (SEQ ID NO: 744) and >gi|307775410|ref]NM_000527.4| Homo sapiens low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), transcript variant 1, mRNA (SEQ ID NO: 745), respectively. Exemplary reference amino acid and nucleic acid sequences for a wild-type mouse low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) are described in >gi| 1 13195700|ref|NP_034830.2| low-density lipoprotein receptor isoform 1 precursor [Mus musculus] (SEQ ID NO: 746) and >gi|358030302|ref]NM_010700.3 | Mus musculus low density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr), transcript variant 1, mRNA (SEQ ID NO: 747), respectively. Non-limiting examples of the wild-type LDLR, wild-type variants, and codon optimized sequences of the same are listed in Table 3A. Accession numbers are found at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) website. In some embodiments, the polynucleotides of the invention include any one of the human LDLR nucleic acid sequences listed in Table 3A (e.g., selected from SEQ ID NO: 37-43, 56-63, and 70-718) altered to encode a human low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) or functional fragment thereof comprising at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain (e.g., corresponding to N316, L339, or the combination of N316 and L339 of human LDLR) and at least one or a single amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain (e.g., corresponding to K816, K830, C839, or any combination thereof of human LDLR). In some embodiments, the mutation in the EGF-A domain corresponds to N316A of human LDLR and the mutation in the intracellular domain corresponds to K830R and/or C839A of human LDLR. In some embodiments, the polynuclotide encodes a polypeptide of Tables 3B, 10 or 11 herein.

[0132] In another embodiment, the polynucleotides of the present invention can further comprise at least one nucleic acid sequence which is non-coding.

[0133] In some embodiments, the length of a region encoding at least one polypeptide of interest is greater than about 30 nucleotides in length (e.g., at least or greater than about 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1,000, 1,100, 1,200, 1,300, 1,400, 1,500, 1,600, 1,700, 1,800, 1,900, 2,000, 2,500, 3,000, 4,000, 4,100, 4,200, 4,300, 4,400, 4,500, 4,600, 4,700, 4,800, 4,900, 5,000, 5,100, 5,200, 5,300, 5,400, 5,500, 5,600, 5,700, 5,800, 5,900, 6,000, 7,000, 8,000, 9,000, 10,000, 20,000, 30,000, 40,000, 50,000, 60,000, 70,000, 80,000, 90,000 or up to and including 100,000 nucleotides). As used herein, such a region can be referred to as a "coding region" or "region encoding."

[0134] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides of the present invention is or functions as a messenger RNA (mRNA). As used herein, the term "messenger RNA" (mRNA) refers to any polynucleotide which encodes at least one polypeptide of interest and which is capable of being translated to produce the encoded polypeptide of interest in vitro, in vivo, in situ or ex vivo.

[0135] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides of the present invention is structurally modified or chemically modified. As used herein, a "structural" modification is one in which two or more linked nucleosides are inserted, deleted, duplicated, inverted or randomized in a polynucleotide without significant chemical modification to the nucleotides themselves. Because chemical bonds will necessarily be broken and reformed to effect a structural modification, structural modifications are of a chemical nature and hence are chemical modifications. However, structural modifications will result in a different sequence of nucleotides. For example, the polynucleotide "ATCG" can be chemically modified to "AT-5meC-G". The same polynucleotide can be structurally modified from "ATCG" to "ATCCCG". Here, the dinucleotide "CC" has been inserted, resulting in a structural modification to the polynucleotide.

[0136] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides of the present invention, such as IVT polynucleotides or circular polynucleotides, can have a uniform chemical modification of all or any of the same nucleoside type or a population of modifications produced by mere downward titration of the same starting modification in all or any of the same nucleoside type, or a measured percent of a chemical modification of all any of the same nucleoside type but with random incorporation, such as where all uridines are replaced by a uridine analog, e.g., pseudouridine or 5-methoxyuridine. In another embodiment, the polynucleotides can have a uniform chemical modification of two, three, or four of the same nucleoside type throughout the entire polynucleotide (such as all uridines and all cytosines, etc. are modified in the same way).

[0137] When the polynucleotides of the present invention are chemically and/or structurally modified the polynucleotides can be referred to as "modified polynucleotides."

[0138] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides of the present invention can include a sequence encoding a self-cleaving peptide. The self-cleaving peptide can be, but is not limited to, a 2A peptide. As a non-limiting example, the 2A peptide can have the protein sequence: GSGAT F SLLKQ AGDVEE PGP (SEQ ID NO: 1), fragments or variants thereof. In some embodiments, the 2A peptide cleaves between the last glycine and last proline. As another non- limiting example, the polynucleotides of the present invention can include a polynucleotide sequence encoding the 2A peptide having the protein sequence GSGATNF SLLKQ AGDVEENPGP (SEQ ID NO: 1) fragments or variants thereof.

[0139] One such polynucleotide sequence encoding the 2A peptide is GGAAGCGGAGCTACTAACTTCAGCCTGCTGAAGCAGGCTGGAGACGTGGAGGAGAA CCCTGGACCT (SEQ ID NO: 2). The polynucleotide sequence of the 2A peptide can be modified or codon optimized by the methods described herein and/or are known in the art.

[0140] In some embodiments, this sequence can be used to separate the coding region of two or more polypeptides of interest. As a non-limiting example, the sequence encoding the 2A peptide can be between a first coding region A and a second coding region B (A-2Apep-B). The presence of the 2A peptide would result in the cleavage of one long protein into protein A, protein B and the 2A peptide. Protein A and protein B can be the same or different peptides or polypeptides of interest. In another embodiment, the 2A peptide can be used in the polynucleotides of the present invention to produce two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten or more proteins.

IVT Polynucleotide Architecture

[0141] Traditionally, the basic components of an mRNA molecule include at least a coding region, a 5'UTR, a 3'UTR, a 5' cap and a poly-A tail. The IVT polynucleotides of the present invention can function as mRNA but are distinguished from wild-type mRNA in their functional and/or structural design features which serve, e.g., to overcome existing problems of effective polypeptide production using nucleic-acid based therapeutics.

[0142] Figure 1 shows an exemplary primary construct 100 of an IVT polynucleotide. As used herein, "primary construct" refers to a polynucleotide of the present invention which encodes one or more polypeptides of interest, e.g., LDLR mutants and which retains sufficient structural and/or chemical features to allow the polypeptide of interest, e.g., LDLR mutants encoded therein to be translated.

[0143] According to FIG.1, the primary construct 100 of an IVT polynucleotide comprises a first region of linked nucleotides 102 that is flanked by a first flanking region 104 and a second flaking region 106. This first region 102 can include, but is not limited to, the encoded polypeptide of interest. The first flanking region 104 can include a sequence of linked nucleosides which function as a 5' untranslated region (UTR) such as the 5' UTR of any of the nucleic acids encoding the native 5'UTR of the polypeptide or a non-native 5'UTR such as, but not limited to, a heterologous 5'UTR or a synthetic 5'UTR. The polypeptide of interest can comprise at its 5' terminus one or more signal sequences encoded by a signal sequence region 103. The flanking region 104 can comprise a region of linked nucleotides comprising one or more complete or incomplete 5' UTRs sequences. The flanking region 104 can also comprise a 5' terminal cap 108. The second flanking region 106 can comprise a region of linked nucleotides comprising one or more complete or incomplete 3' UTRs which can encode the native 3' UTR of the polypeptide or a non-native 3'UTR such as, but not limited to, a heterologous 3'UTR or a synthetic 3' UTR. The flanking region 106 can also comprise a 3' tailing sequence 110. The 3' tailing sequence can be, but is not limited to, a polyA tail, a polyA-G quartet and/or a stem loop sequence.

[0144] Bridging the 5' terminus of the first region 102 and the first flanking region 104 is a first operational region 105. Traditionally, this operational region comprises a Start codon. The operational region can alternatively comprise any translation initiation sequence or signal including a Start codon.

[0145] Bridging the 3' terminus of the first region 102 and the second flanking region 106 is a second operational region 107. Traditionally this operational region comprises a Stop codon. The operational region can alternatively comprise any translation initiation sequence or signal including a Stop codon. Multiple serial stop codons can also be used in the IVT polynucleotide. In some embodiments, the operation region of the present invention can comprise two stop codons. The first stop codon can be "TGA" or "UGA" and the second stop codon can be selected from the group consisting of "TAA," "TGA," "TAG," "UAA," "UGA" or "UAG."

[0146] Figure 2 shows a representative IVT polynucleotide primary construct 130. The IVT polynucleotide primary construct 130 comprises a first region of linked nucleotides 132 that is flanked by a first flanking region 134 and a second flaking region 136. As used herein, the "first region" can be referred to as a "coding region" or "region encoding" or simply the "first region." This first region can include, but is not limited to, the encoded polypeptide of interest. In one aspect, the first region 132 can include, but is not limited to, the open reading frame encoding at least one polypeptide of interest. The open reading frame can be codon optimized in whole or in part. The flanking region 134 can comprise a region of linked nucleotides comprising one or more complete or incomplete 5' UTRs sequences which can be completely codon optimized or partially codon optimized. The flanking region 134 can include at least one nucleic acid sequence including, but not limited to, miR sequences, TERZAK™ sequences and translation control sequences. The flanking region 134 can also comprise a 5' terminal cap 138. The 5' terminal capping region 138 can include a naturally occurring cap, a synthetic cap or an optimized cap. Non-limiting examples of optimized caps include the caps taught by Rhoads in US Patent No. US7074596 and International Patent Publication No. WO2008157668, WO2009149253 and WO2013103659. The second flanking region 136 can comprise a region of linked nucleotides comprising one or more complete or incomplete 3' UTRs. The second flanking region 136 can be completely codon optimized or partially codon optimized. The flanking region 136 can include at least one nucleic acid sequence including, but not limited to, miR sequences and translation control sequences. After the second flanking region 136 the polynucleotide primary construct can comprise a 3' tailing sequence 140. The 3' tailing sequence 140 can include a synthetic tailing region 142 and/or a chain terminating nucleoside 144. Non-liming examples of a synthetic tailing region include a polyA sequence, a polyC sequence, a polyA-G quartet. Non-limiting examples of chain terminating nucleosides include 2'-0 methyl, F and locked nucleic acids (LNA).

[0147] Bridging the 5' terminus of the first region 132 and the first flanking region 134 is a first operational region 146. Traditionally this operational region comprises a Start codon. The operational region may alternatively comprise any translation initiation sequence or signal including a Start codon. [0148] Bridging the 3 ' terminus of the first region 132 and the second flanking region 136 is a second operational region 148. Traditionally this operational region comprises a Stop codon. The operational region may alternatively comprise any translation initiation sequence or signal including a Stop codon. According to the present invention, multiple serial stop codons may also be used.

[0149] The shortest length of the first region of the primary construct of the IVT polynucleotide can be the length of a nucleic acid sequence that is sufficient to encode for an LDLR mutant, fragment, or variant thereof. The length of the first region of the primary construct of the IVT polynucleotide encoding the polypeptide of interest can be greater than about 30 nucleotides in length (e.g., at least or greater than about 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1,000, 1, 100, 1,200, 1,300, 1,400, 1,500, 1,600, 1,700, 1,800, 1,900, 2,000, 2,500, and 3,000, 4,000, 4, 100, 4,200, 4,300, 4,400, 4,500, 4,600, 4,700, 4,800, 4,900, 5,000, 5, 100, 5,200, 5,300, 5,400, 5,500, 6,000, 7,000, 8,000, 9,000, 10,000, 20,000, 30,000, 40,000, 50,000, 60,000, 70,000, 80,000, 90,000 or up to and including 100,000 nucleotides).

[0150] In some embodiments, the first and second flanking regions of the IVT polynucleotide can range independently from 15-1,000 nucleotides in length (e.g., greater than 30, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1,000, 1,500, 2,000, 2,500, 3,000, 3,500, 4,000, 4,500, 5,000, 5,500 nucleotides or at least 30, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1,000, 1,500, 2,000, 2,500, 3,000, 3,500, 4,000, 4,500, 5,000, 5,500 nucleotides).

[0151] In some embodiments, the tailing sequence of the IVT polynucleotide can range from absent to 500 nucleotides in length (e.g., at least 60, 70, 80, 90, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, or 500 nucleotides). Where the tailing region is a polyA tail, the length can be determined in units of or as a function of polyA Binding Protein binding. In this embodiment, the polyA tail is long enough to bind at least 4 monomers of PolyA Binding Protein. PolyA Binding Protein monomers bind to stretches of approximately 38 nucleotides. As such, it has been observed that polyA tails of about 80 nucleotides and 160 nucleotides are functional.

[0152] In some embodiments, the capping region of the IVT polynucleotide can comprise a single cap or a series of nucleotides forming the cap. In this embodiment the capping region can be from 1 to 10, e.g. 2-9, 3-8, 4-7, 1-5, 5-10, or at least 2, or 10 or fewer nucleotides in length. In some embodiments, the cap is absent.

[0153] In some embodiments, the first and second operational regions of the IVT polynucleotide can range from 3 to 40, e.g., 5-30, 10-20, 15, or at least 4, or 30 or fewer nucleotides in length and can comprise, in addition to a Start and/or Stop codon, one or more signal and/or restriction sequences.

[0154] In some embodiments, the IVT polynucleotides can be structurally modified or chemically modified. When the IVT polynucleotides are chemically and/or structurally modified the polynucleotides can be referred to as "modified IVT polynucleotides."

[0155] In some embodiments, if the IVT polynucleotides are chemically modified they can have a uniform chemical modification of all or any of the same nucleoside type or a population of modifications produced by mere downward titration of the same starting modification in all or any of the same nucleoside type, or a measured percent of a chemical modification of all any of the same nucleoside type but with random incorporation, such as where all uridines are replaced by a uridine analog, e.g., pseudouridine or 5-methoxyuridine. In another embodiment, the IVT polynucleotides can have a uniform chemical modification of two, three, or four of the same nucleoside type throughout the entire polynucleotide (such as all uridines and all cytosines, etc. are modified in the same way).

[0156] In some embodiments, the IVT polynucleotides can include a sequence encoding a self-cleaving peptide, described herein, such as but not limited to the 2A peptide. The polynucleotide sequence of the 2A peptide in the IVT polynucleotide can be modified or codon optimized by the methods described herein and/or are known in the art. In some embodiments, this sequence can be used to separate the coding region of two or more polypeptides of interest in the IVT polynucleotide.

[0157] In some embodiments, the IVT polynucleotide can encode an LDLR mutant and at least one additional peptide or polypeptide of interest. In another embodiment, the IVT polynucleotide can encode an LDLR mutant and two or more peptides or polypeptides of interest. Non-limiting examples of peptides or polypeptides of interest include heavy and light chains of antibodies, an enzyme and its substrate, a label and its binding molecule, a second messenger and its enzyme or the components of multimeric proteins or complexes.

[0158] IVT polynucleotides (such as, but not limited to, primary constructs), formulations and compositions comprising IVT polynucleotides, and methods of making, using and administering IVT polynucleotides are disclosed in International Publication Nos. WO2013151666, WO2013151667, WO2013151668, WO2013151663, WO2013151669, WO2013151670, WO2013151664, WO2013151665, WO2013151671, WO2013151672 and WO2013151736; the contents of each of which are herein incorporated by reference in their entireties.

[0159] In some embodiments, the IVT polynucleotide encodes a LDLR mutant or functional fragment thereof comprising at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain (e.g., corresponding to N316A, L339D, or N316A/L339D of SEQ ID NO:43) and at least one or a single amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain (e.g., corresponding to K816R, K830R, C839A, or any combination thereof of SEQ ID NO:43). In some embodiments, the IVT polynucleotides of the invention comprise any one of the human LDLR nucleic acid sequences listed in Table 3A (e.g., selected from SEQ ID NO: 37-43, 56-63, and 70-718) altered to encode a human low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) or functional fragment thereof comprising at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain (e.g., corresponding to N316, L339, or the combination of N316 and L339 of human LDLR) and at least one or a single amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain (e.g., corresponding to K816, K830, C839, or any combination thereof of human LDLR). In some embodiments, the mutation in the EGF-A domain corresponds to N316A of human LDLR and the mutation in the intracellular domain corresponds to K830R and/or C839A of human LDLR. In some embodiments, the expression of the encoded polypeptide is increased and/or the LDL, cholesterol, and/or triglyceride levels are decreased. In some embodiments, the IVT polynuceotide increases LDLR expression (e.g., by 20-50%, e.g., at least 20%, at least 25%, at least 30%, at least 35%, at least 40%, at least 45%, or at least 50%) and/or decreases LDL, cholesterol and/or triglyceride levels (e.g., by 20-50%, e.g., at least 20%, at least 25%, at least 30%, at least 35%, at least 40%, at least 45%, or at least 50%) compared to wild-type LDLR.

Chimeric Polynucleotide Architecture

[0160] The chimeric polynucleotides or RNA constructs disclosed herein maintain a modular organization similar to IVT polynucleotides, but the chimeric polynucleotides comprise one or more structural and/or chemical modifications or alterations which impart useful properties to the polynucleotide. As such, the chimeric polynucleotides which are modified mRNA molecules of the present invention are termed "chimeric modified mRNA" or "chimeric mRNA." [0161] Chimeric polynucleotides have portions or regions which differ in size and/or chemical modification pattern, chemical modification position, chemical modification percent or chemical modification population and combinations of the foregoing.

[0162] Examples of parts or regions, where the chimeric polynucleotide functions as an mRNA and encodes a polypeptide of interest include, but are not limited to, untranslated regions (UTRs, such as the 5' UTR or 3' UTR), coding regions, cap regions, poly A tail regions, start regions, stop regions, signal sequence regions, and combinations thereof. Figure 3 illustrates certain embodiments of the chimeric polynucleotides which can be used as mRNA. Figure 4 illustrates a schematic of a series of chimeric polynucleotides identifying various patterns of positional modifications and showing regions analogous to those regions of an mRNA polynucleotide. Regions or parts that join or lie between other regions can also be designed to have subregions. Some embodiment of these are shown in the figures.

[0163] In some embodiments, the chimeric polynucleotides of the invention have a structure comprising Formula I.

5' [An]x-Ll-[B0]y-L2-[Cp]z-L3 3'

Formula I

wherein:

each of A and B independently comprise a region of linked nucleosides;

either A or B or both A and B encode an LDLR mutant described elsewhere herein;

C is an optional region of linked nucleosides;

at least one of regions A, B, or C is positionally modified, wherein said positionally modified region comprises at least two chemically modified nucleosides of one or more of the same nucleoside type of adenosine, thymidine, guanosine, cytidine, or uridine, and wherein at least two of the chemical modifications of nucleosides of the same type are different chemical modifications;

n, o and p are independently an integer between 15-1000;

x and y are independently 1-20;

z is 0-5;

LI and L2 are independently optional linker moieties, said linker moieties being either nucleic acid based or non-nucleic acid based; and

L3 is an optional conjugate or an optional linker moiety, said linker moiety being either nucleic acid based or non-nucleic acid based. [0164] In some embodiments, at least one of the regions of linked nucleosides of A can comprise a sequence of linked nucleosides which can function as a 5' untranslated region (UTR). The sequence of linked nucleosides can be a natural or synthetic 5' UTR. As a non-limiting example, the chimeric polynucleotide can encode an LDLR mutant and the sequence of linked nucleosides of A can encode the native 5' UTR of the LDLR protein or a non-heterologous 5' UTR such as, but not limited to a synthetic UTR.

[0165] In another embodiment, at least one of the regions of linked nucleosides of A can be a cap region. The cap region can be located 5' to a region of linked nucleosides of A functioning as a 5'UTR. The cap region can comprise at least one cap such as, but not limited to, CapO, Capl, ARC A, inosine, Nl-methyl-guanosine, 2'fluoro-guanosine, 7-deaza-guanosine, 8-oxo-guanosine, 2-amino-guanosine, LNA-guanosine, 2-azido-guanosine, Cap2 and Cap4.

[0166] In some embodiments, the polynucleotide of the invention comprises a Capl 5'UTR. In some embodiments, a polynucleotide comprising 5'UTR sequence, e.g., Capl, for encoding a mutant LDLR disclosed herein increases expression of LDLR compared to polynucleotides encoding the mutant LDLR comprising a different 5'UTR (e.g., CapO, ARC A, inosine, Nl- methyl-guanosine, 2'fluoro-guanosine, 7-deaza-guanosine, 8-oxo-guanosine, 2-amino-guanosine, LNA-guanosine, 2-azido-guanosine, Cap2 or Cap4). In some embodiments, a polynucleotide comprises the Capl 5'UTR, wherein the polynucleotide encodes a human low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) or functional fragment thereof comprising at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain (e.g., corresponding to N316, L339, or the combination of N316 and L339 of human LDLR) and at least one or a single amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain (e.g., corresponding to K816, K830, C839, or any combination thereof of human LDLR). In some embodiments, the mutation in the EGF-A domain corresponds to N316A of human LDLR and the mutation in the intracellular domain corresponds to K830R and/or C839A of human LDLR. In some embodiments, polynucleotide comprising the Capl 5'UTR, increases LDLR expression (e.g., by at least 20%, e.g., at least 20%, at least 25%, at least 35%, or at least 40%) and/or decreases LDL, cholesterol and/or triglyceride levels (e.g., by at least 20%, e.g., at least 20%, at least 25%, at least 35%, or at least 40%) compared to wild-type LDLR.

[0167] In some embodiments, at least one of the regions of linked nucleosides of B can comprise at least one open reading frame of a nucleic acid sequence encoding an LDLR mutant. The nucleic acid sequence can be codon optimized and/or comprise at least one modification. [0168] In some embodiments, at least one of the regions of linked nucleosides of C can comprise a sequence of linked nucleosides which can function as a 3' UTR. The sequence of linked nucleosides can be a natural or synthetic 3' UTR. As a non-limiting example, the chimeric polynucleotide can encode an LDLR mutant and the sequence of linked nucleosides of C can encode the native 3' UTR of an LDLR protein or a non-heterologous 3' UTR such as, but not limited to a synthetic UTR.

[0169] In some embodiments, at least one of the regions of linked nucleosides of A comprises a sequence of linked nucleosides which functions as a 5' UTR and at least one of the regions of linked nucleosides of C comprises a sequence of linked nucleosides which functions as a 3' UTR. In some embodiments, the 5' UTR and the 3' UTR can be from the same or different species. In another embodiment, the 5' UTR and the 3' UTR can encode the native untranslated regions from different proteins from the same or different species.

[0170] Figures 5 and 6 provide schematics of a series of chimeric polynucleotides illustrating various patterns of positional modifications based on Formula I as well as those having a blocked or structured 3' terminus.

[0171] Chimeric polynucleotides, including the parts or regions thereof, of the present invention can be classified as hemimers, gapmers, wingmers, or blockmers.

[0172] As used herein, a "hemimer" is a chimeric polynucleotide comprising a region or part which comprises half of one pattern, percent, position or population of a chemical modification(s) and half of a second pattern, percent, position or population of a chemical modification(s). Chimeric polynucleotides of the present invention can also comprise hemimer subregions. In some embodiments, a part or region is 50% of one and 50% of another.

[0173] In some embodiments, the entire chimeric polynucleotide can be 50% of one and 50% of the other. Any region or part of any chimeric polynucleotide of the invention can be a hemimer. Types of hemimers include pattern hemimers, population hemimers or position hemimers. By definition, hemimers are 50:50 percent hemimers.

[0174] As used herein, a "gapmer" is a chimeric polynucleotide having at least three parts or regions with a gap between the parts or regions. The "gap" can comprise a region of linked nucleosides or a single nucleoside which differs from the chimeric nature of the two parts or regions flanking it. The two parts or regions of a gapmer can be the same or different from each other. [0175] As used herein, a "wingmer" is a chimeric polynucleotide having at least three parts or regions with a gap between the parts or regions. Unlike a gapmer, the two flanking parts or regions surrounding the gap in a wingmer are the same in degree or kind. Such similiarity can be in the length of number of units of different modifications or in the number of modifications. The wings of a wingmer can be longer or shorter than the gap. The wing parts or regions can be 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 70, 80, 90 or 95% greater or shorter in length than the region which comprises the gap-

[0176] As used herein, a "blockmer" is a patterned polynucleotide where parts or regions are of equivalent size or number and type of modifications. Regions or subregions in a blockmer can be 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262, 263, 264, 265, 266, 267, 268, 269, 270, 271, 272, 273, 274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 281, 282, 283, 284, 285, 286, 287, 288, 289, 290, 291, 292, 293, 294, 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 310, 320, 330, 340, 350, 360, 370, 380, 390, 400, 410, 420, 430, 440, 450, 460, 470, 480, 490 or 500, nucleosides long.

[0177] Chimeric polynucleotides, including the parts or regions thereof, of the present invention having a chemical modification pattern are referred to as "pattern chimeras." Pattern chimeras can also be referred to as blockmers. Pattern chimeras are those polynucleotides having a pattern of modifications within, across or among regions or parts.

[0178] Patterns of modifications within a part or region are those which start and stop within a defined region. Patterns of modifications across a part or region are those patterns which start in on part or region and end in another adjacent part or region. Patterns of modifications among parts or regions are those which begin and end in one part or region and are repeated in a different part or region, which is not necessarily adjacent to the first region or part. [0179] The regions or subregions of pattern chimeras or blockmers can have simple alternating patterns such as ABAB[AB]n where each "A" and each "B" represent different chemical modifications (at least one of the base, sugar or backbone linker), different types of chemical modifications (e.g., naturally occurring and non-naturally occurring), different percentages of modifications or different populations of modifications. The pattern can repeat n number of times where n=3-300. Further, each A or B can represent from 1-2500 units (e.g., nucleosides) in the pattern. Patterns can also be alternating multiples such as AABBAABB[AABB]n (an alternating double multiple) or AAABBBAAABBB [AAABBB]n (an alternating triple multiple) pattern. The pattern can repeat n number of times where n=3-300.

[0180] Different patterns can also be mixed together to form a second order pattern. For example, a single alternating pattern can be combined with a triple alternating pattern to form a second order alternating pattern A'B' . One example would be [ABABAB] [AAABBBAAABBB] [ABABAB][AAABBBAAABBB] [ABABAB] [AAABBBAAABBB], where [ABABAB] is A' and [AAABBBAAABBB] is B' . In like fashion, these patterns can be repeated n number of times, where n=3-300.

[0181] Patterns can include three or more different modifications to form an

ABCABC[ABC]n pattern. These three component patterns can also be multiples, such as

AABBCCAABBCC[AABBCC]n and can be designed as combinations with other patterns such as ABCABCAABBCCABCABCAABBCC, and can be higher order patterns.

[0182] Regions or subregions of position, percent, and population modifications need not reflect an equal contribution from each modification type. They can form series such as " 1-2-3-

4", " 1-2-4-8", where each integer represents the number of units of a particular modification type. Alternatively, they can be odd only, such as Ί -3-3-1-3-1-5" or even only "2-4-2-4-6-4-8" or a mixture of both odd and even number of units such as " 1-3-4-2-5-7-3-3-4".

[0183] Pattern chimeras can vary in their chemical modification by degree (such as those described above) or by kind (e.g., different modifications).

[0184] Chimeric polynucleotides, including the parts or regions thereof, of the present invention having at least one region with two or more different chemical modifications of two or more nucleoside members of the same nucleoside type (A, C, G, T, or U) are referred to as "positionally modified" chimeras. Positionally modified chimeras are also referred to herein as "selective placement" chimeras or "selective placement polynucleotides". As the name implies, selective placement refers to the design of polynucleotides which, unlike polynucleotides in the art where the modification to any A, C, G, T or U is the same by virtue of the method of synthesis, can have different modifications to the individual As, Cs, Gs, Ts or Us in a polynucleotide or region thereof. For example, in a positionally modified chimeric polynucleotide, there van be two or more different chemical modifications to any of the nucleoside types of As, Cs, Gs, Ts, or Us. There can also be combinations of two or more to any two or more of the same nucleoside type. For example, a positionally modified or selective placement chimeric polynucleotide can comprise 3 different modifications to the population of adenines in the molecucle and also have 3 different modifications to the population of cytosines in the construct— all of which can have a unique, non-random, placement.

[0185] Chimeric polynucleotides, including the parts or regions thereof, of the present invention having a chemical modification percent are referred to as "percent chimeras." Percent chimeras can have regions or parts which comprise at least 1%, at least 2%, at least 5%, at least 8%, at least 10%, at least 20%, at least 30%, at least 40%, at least 50%, at least 60%, at least 70%), at least 80%>, at least 90%, at least 95%, or at least 99% positional, pattern or population of modifications. Alternatively, the percent chimera can be completely modified as to modification position, pattern, or population. The percent of modification of a percent chimera can be split between naturally occurring and non-naturally occurring modifications.

[0186] Chimeric polynucleotides, including the parts or regions thereof, of the present invention having a chemical modification population are referred to as "population chimeras." A population chimera can comprise a region or part where nucleosides (their base, sugar or backbone linkage, or combination thereof) have a select population of modifications. Such modifications can be selected from functional populations such as modifications which induce, alter or modulate a phenotypic outcome. For example, a functional population can be a population or selection of chemical modifications which increase the level of a cytokine. Other functional populations can individually or collectively function to decrease the level of one or more cytokines. Use of a selection of these like-function modifications in a chimeric polynucleotide would therefore constitute a "functional population chimera." As used herein, a "functional population chimera" can be one whose unique functional feature is defined by the population of modifications as described above or the term may apply to the overall function of the chimeric polynucleotide itself. For example, as a whole the chimeric polynucleotide can function in a different or superior way as compared to an unmodified or non-chimeric polynucleotide. [0187] It should be noted that polynucleotides which have a uniform chemical modification of all of any of the same nucleoside type or a population of modifications produced by mere downward titration of the same starting modification in all of any of the same nucleoside type, or a measured percent of a chemical modification of all any of the same nucleoside type but with random incorporation, such as where all uridines are replaced by a uridine analog, e.g., pseudouridine or 5-methoxyuridine, are not considered chimeric polynucleotides. Likewise, polynucleotides having a uniform chemical modification of two, three, or four of the same nucleoside type throughout the entire polynucleotide (such as all uridines and all cytosines, etc. are modified in the same way) are not considered chimeric polynucleotides. One example of a polynucleotide which is not chimeric is the canonical pseudouridine/5-methyl cytosine modified polynucleotide. These uniform polynucleotides are arrived at entirely via in vitro transcription (IVT) enzymatic synthesis; and due to the limitations of the synthesizing enzymes, they contain only one kind of modification at the occurrence of each of the same nucleoside type, i.e., adenosine (A), thymidine (T), guanosine (G), cytidine (C) or uridine (U), found in the polynucleotide. Such polynucleotides can be characterized as IVT polynucleotides.

[0188] The chimeric polynucleotides of the present invention can be structurally modified or chemically modified. When the chimeric polynucleotides of the present invention are chemically and/or structurally modified the polynucleotides can be referred to as "modified chimeric polynucleotides."

[0189] In some embodiments, the chimeric polynucleotides can encode two or more peptides or polypeptides of interest. Such peptides or polypeptides of interest include the heavy and light chains of antibodies, an enzyme and its substrate, a label and its binding molecule, a second messenger and its enzyme or the components of multimeric proteins or complexes.

[0190] The regions or parts of the chimeric polynucleotides can be separated by a linker or spacer moiety. Such linkers or spaces can be nucleic acid based or non-nucleosidic.

[0191] In some embodiments, the chimeric polynucleotides can include a sequence encoding a self-cleaving peptide described herein, such as, but not limited to, a 2A peptide. The polynucleotide sequence of the 2A peptide in the chimeric polynucleotide can be modified or codon optimized by the methods described herein and/or are known in the art.

[0192] Notwithstanding the foregoing, the chimeric polynucleotides of the present invention can comprise a region or part which is not positionally modified or not chimeric as defined herein. For example, a region or part of a chimeric polynucleotide can be uniformly modified at one or more A, T, C, G, or U, but the polynucleotides will not be uniformly modified throughout the entire region or part.

[0193] Regions or parts of chimeric polynucleotides can be from 15-1000 nucleosides in length and a polynucleotide may have from 2-100 different regions or patterns of regions as described herein.

[0194] In some embodiments, chimeric polynucleotides encode one or more polypeptides of interest. In another embodiment, the chimeric polynucleotides are substantially non-coding. In another embodiment, the chimeric polynucleotides have both coding and non-coding regions and parts.

[0195] Figure 3 illustrates the design of certain chimeric polynucleotides of the present invention when based on the scaffold of the polynucleotide of Figure 1. Shown in the Figure 3 are regions or parts of the chimeric polynucleotides where patterned regions represent those regions which are positionally modified and open regions illustrate regions which may or may not be modified but which are, when modified, uniformly modified. Chimeric polynucleotides of the present invention can be completely positionally modified or partially positionally modified. They can also have subregions which can be of any pattern or design. Shown in Figure 3 are a chimeric subregion and a hemimer subregion.

[0196] In some embodiments, the shortest length of a region of the chimeric polynucleotide is the polynucleotide length encoding an LDLR mutant. The polynucleotide encoding the LDLR mutant can further encode a dipeptide, a tripeptide, a tetrapeptide, a pentapeptide, a hexapeptide, a heptapeptide, an octapeptide, a nonapeptide, or a decapeptide.

[0197] In some embodiments, regions or subregions of the polynucleotides can range from absent to 500 nucleotides in length (e.g., at least 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 1 10, 120, 130, 140, 150, 160, 170, 180, 190, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, or 500 nucleotides). Where the region is a polyA tail, the length can be determined in units of or as a function of polyA Binding Protein binding. In this embodiment, the polyA tail is long enough to bind at least 4 monomers of PolyA Binding Protein. PolyA Binding Protein monomers bind to stretches of approximately 38 nucleotides. As such, it has been observed that polyA tails of about 80 nucleotides to about 160 nucleotides are functional. The chimeric polynucleotides of the present invention which function as an mRNA need not comprise a polyA tail.

[0198] According to the present invention, chimeric polynucleotides which function as an mRNA may have a capping region. The capping region can comprise a single cap or a series of nucleotides forming the cap. In this embodiment the capping region can be from 1 to 10, e.g. 2-9, 3-8, 4-7, 1-5, 5-10, or at least 2, or 10 or fewer nucleotides in length. In some embodiments, the cap is absent.

[0199] The present invention contemplates chimeric polynucleotides which are circular or cyclic. As the name implies circular polynucleotides are circular in nature meaning that the termini are joined in some fashion, whether by ligation, covalent bond, common association with the same protein or other molecule or complex or by hybridization.

[0200] Chimeric polynucleotides, formulations and compositions comprising chimeric polynucleotides, and methods of making, using and administering chimeric polynucleotides are also described in International Patent Application No. PCT/US2014/53907, the contents of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0201] In some embodiments, the chimeric polynucleotide encodes a LDLR mutant or functional fragment thereof comprising at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain (e.g., corresponding to N316A, L339D, or N316A/L339D of SEQ ID NO:43) and at least one or a single amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain (e.g., corresponding to K816R, K830R, and/or C839A of SEQ ID NO:43). In some embodiments, the chimeric polynucleotides of the invention comprise any one of the human LDLR nucleic acid sequences listed in Table 3A (e.g., selected from SEQ ID NO: 37-43, 56-63, and 70-718) altered to encode a human low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) or functional fragment thereof comprising at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain (e.g., corresponding to N316, L339, or the combination of N316 and L339 of human LDLR) and at least one or a single amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain (e.g., corresponding to K816, K830, C839, or any combination thereof of human LDLR). In some embodiments, the mutation in the EGF-A domain corresponds to N316A of human LDLR and the mutation in the intracellular domain corresponds to K830R and/or C839A of human LDLR. In some embodiments, the expression of LDLR is increased and/or the LDL, cholesterol and/or triglyceride levels are decreased. In some embodiments, the chimeric polynuceotide increases LDLR expression (e.g., by 20-50%, e.g., at least 20%, at least 25%, at least 30%), at least 35%>, at least 40%>, at least 45%>, or at least 50%>) and/or decreases LDL, cholesterol and/or triglyceride levels (e.g., by 20-50%>, e.g., at least 20%>, at least 25%>, at least 30%), at least 35%>, at least 40%>, at least 45%>, or at least 50%>) compared to wild-type LDLR. Circular Polynucleotide Architecture

[0202] The present invention contemplates polynucleotides which are circular or cyclic. As the name implies circular polynucleotides are circular in nature meaning that the termini are joined in some fashion, whether by ligation, covalent bond, common association with the same protein or other molecule or complex or by hybridization.

[0203] Circular polynucleotides of the present invention can be designed according to the circular RNA construct scaffolds shown in Figures 7-13. Such polynucleotides are circular polynucleotides or circular constructs.

[0204] The circular polynucleotides or circPs which encode at least one peptide or polypeptide of interest are known as circular RNAs or circRNA. As used herein, "circular RNA" or "circRNA" means a circular polynucleotide that can encode at least one peptide or polypeptide of interest.

[0205] The circPs which comprise at least one sensor sequence and do not encode a peptide or polypeptide of interest are known as circular sponges or circSP. As used herein, "circular sponges," "circular polynucleotide sponges" or "circSP" means a circular polynucleotide which comprises at least one sensor sequence and does not encode a polypeptide of interest.

[0206] As used herein, "sensor sequence" means a receptor or pseudo-receptor for endogenous nucleic acid binding molecules. Non-limiting examples of sensor sequences include, microRNA binding sites, microRNA seed sequences, microRNA binding sites without the seed sequence, transcription factor binding sites and artificial binding sites engineered to act as pseudo-receptors and portions and fragments thereof.

[0207] The circPs which comprise at least one sensor sequence and encode at least one peptide or polypeptide of interest are known as circular RNA sponges or circRNA-SP. As used herein, "circular RNA sponges" or "circRNA- SP" means a circular polynucleotide which comprises at least one sensor sequence and at least one region encoding at least one peptide or polypeptide of interest.

[0208] As used herein, the term "circular construct" refers to a circular polynucleotide transcript which can act substantially similar to and have properties of a RNA molecule. In some embodiments, the circular construct acts as an mRNA. If the circular construct encodes one or more peptides or polypeptides of interest {e.g., a circRNA or circRNA-SP) then the polynucleotide transcript retains sufficient structural and/or chemical features to allow the polypeptide of interest encoded therein to be translated. Circular constructs can be polynucleotides of the invention. When structurally or chemically modified, the construct can be referred to as a modified circP, modified circSP, modified circRNA or modified circRNA-SP.

[0209] Figure 7 shows a representative circular construct 200 of the circular polynucleotides of the present invention. The circular construct 200 comprises a first region of linked nucleotides 202 that is flanked by a first flanking region 204 and a second flanking region 206. As used herein, the "first region" can be referred to as a "coding region," a "non-coding region" or "region encoding" or simply the "first region." In some embodiments, this first region can comprise nucleotides such as, but is not limited to, encoding at least one peptide or polypeptide of interest and/or nucleotides encoding a sensor region. The peptide or polypeptide of interest can comprise at its 5' terminus one or more signal peptide sequences encoded by a signal peptide sequence region 203. The first flanking region 204 can comprise a region of linked nucleosides or portion thereof which may act similarly to an untranslated region (UTR) in a mRNA and/or DNA sequence. The first flanking region may also comprise a region of polarity 208. The region of polarity 208 can include an IRES sequence or portion thereof. As a non-limiting example, when linearlized this region can be split to have a first portion be on the 5' terminus of the first region 202 and second portion be on the 3' terminus of the first region 202. The second flanking region 206 can comprise a tailing sequence region 210 and can comprise a region of linked nucleotides or portion thereof 212 which may act similarly to a UTR in a mRNA and/or DNA.

[0210] Bridging the 5' terminus of the first region 202 and the first flanking region 204 is a first operational region 205. In some embodiments, this operational region can comprise a start codon. The operational region may alternatively comprise any translation initiation sequence or signal including a start codon.

[0211] Bridging the 3' terminus of the first region 202 and the second flanking region 206 is a second operational region 207. Traditionally this operational region comprises a stop codon. The operational region may alternatively comprise any translation initiation sequence or signal including a stop codon. According to the present invention, multiple serial stop codons may also be used. In some embodiments, the operation region of the present invention can comprise two stop codons. The first stop codon can be "TGA" or "UGA" and the second stop codon can be selected from the group consisting of "TAA," "TGA," "TAG," "UAA," "UGA" or "UAG."

[0212] Turning to Figure 8, at least one non-nucleic acid moiety 201 can be used to prepare a circular construct 200 where the non-nucleic acid moiety 201 is used to bring the first flanking region 204 near the second flanking region 206. Non-limiting examples of non-nucleic acid moieties which can be used in the present invention are described herein. The circular construct 200 can comprise more than one non-nucleic acid moiety wherein the additional non-nucleic acid moieties can be heterologous or homologous to the first non-nucleic acid moiety.

[0213] Turning to Figure 9, the first region of linked nucleosides 202 can comprise a spacer region 214. This spacer region 214 can be used to separate the first region of linked nucleosides 202 so that the circular construct can include more than one open reading frame, non-coding region or an open reading frame and a non-coding region.

[0214] Turning to Figure 10, the second flanking region 206 can comprise one or more sensor regions 216 in the 3'UTR 212. These sensor sequences as discussed herein operate as pseudo-receptors (or binding sites) for ligands of the local microenvironment of the circular construct. For example, microRNA binding sites or miRNA seeds can be used as sensors such that they function as pseudoreceptors for any microRNAs present in the environment of the circular polynucleotide. As shown in Figure 9, the one or more sensor regions 216 can be separated by a spacer region 214.

[0215] As shown in Figure 11, a circular construct 200, which includes one or more sensor regions 216, may also include a spacer region 214 in the first region of linked nucleosides 202. As discussed above for Figure 7, this spacer region 214 can be used to separate the first region of linked nucleosides 202 so that the circular construct can include more than one open reading frame and/or more than one non-coding region.

[0216] Turning to Figure 12, a circular construct 200 can be a non-coding construct known as a circSP comprising at least one non-coding region such as, but not limited to, a sensor region 216. Each of the sensor regions 216 can include, but are not limited to, a miR sequence, a miR seed, a miR binding site and/or a miR sequence without the seed.

[0217] Turning to Figure 13, at least one non-nucleic acid moiety 201 can be used to prepare a circular construct 200 which is a non-coding construct. The circular construct 200 which is a non-coding construct can comprise more than one non-nucleic acid moiety wherein the additional non-nucleic acid moieties can be heterologous or homologous to the first non-nucleic acid moiety.

[0218] Circular polynucleotides, formulations and compositions comprising circular polynucleotides, and methods of making, using and administering circular polynucleotides are also disclosed in International Patent Application No. PCT/US2014/53904 the contents of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety. [0219] In some embodiments, the circular polynucleotide encodes a LDLR protein such as, but not limited to, a low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) or functional fragment thereof comprising at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain (e.g., corresponding to N316A, L339D, or N316A/L339D of SEQ ID NO:43) and at least one or a single amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain (e.g., corresponding to K816R, K830R, C839A, K816R/K830R, K816R/C839A, K830R/C839A, or K816R/K830R/C839A of SEQ ID NO:43). In some embodiments, the circular polynucleotides of the invention comprise any one of the human LDLR nucleic acid sequences listed in Table 3A (e.g., selected from SEQ ID NO: 37-43, 56-63, and 70-718) altered to encode a human low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) or functional fragment thereof comprising at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain (e.g., corresponding to N316, L339, or the combination of N316 and L339 of human LDLR) and at least one or a single amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain (e.g., corresponding to K816, K830, C839, or any combination thereof of human LDLR). In some embodiments, the mutation in the EGF-A domain corresponds to N316A of human LDLR and the mutation in the intracellular domain corresponds to K830R and/or C839A of human LDLR. In some embodiments, the expression of LDLR is increased and/or the LDL, cholesterol and/or triglyceride levels are decreased. In some embodiments, the circular polynuceotide increases LDLR expression (e.g., by 20-50%, e.g., at least 20%, at least 25%, at least 30%, at least 35%, at least 40%), at least 45%, or at least 50%>) and/or decreases LDL, cholesterol and/or triglyceride levels (e.g., by 20-50%, e.g., at least 20%, at least 25%, at least 30%, at least 35%, at least 40%, at least 45%, or at least 50%) compared to wild-type LDLR.

Multimers of Polynucleotides

[0220] In some embodiments, multiple distinct chimeric polynucleotides and/or IVT polynucleotides can be linked together through the 3 '-end using nucleotides which are modified at the 3 '-terminus. Chemical conjugation can be used to control the stoichiometry of delivery into cells. For example, the glyoxylate cycle enzymes, isocitrate lyase and malate synthase, can be supplied into cells at a 1 : 1 ratio to alter cellular fatty acid metabolism. This ratio can be controlled by chemically linking chimeric polynucleotides and/or IVT polynucleotides using a 3'- azido terminated nucleotide on one polynucleotides species and a C5-ethynyl or alkynyl- containing nucleotide on the opposite polynucleotide species. The modified nucleotide is added post-transcriptionally using terminal transferase (New England Biolabs, Ipswich, MA) according to the manufacturer's protocol. After the addition of the 3 '-modified nucleotide, the two polynucleotides species can be combined in an aqueous solution, in the presence or absence of copper, to form a new covalent linkage via a click chemistry mechanism as described in the literature.

[0221] In another example, more than two chimeric polynucleotides and/or IVT polynucleotides can be linked together using a functionalized linker molecule. For example, a functionalized saccharide molecule can be chemically modified to contain multiple chemical reactive groups (SH-, H2-, N3, etc . . ) to react with the cognate moiety on a 3 '-functionalized mRNA molecule (i.e., a 3 '-maleimide ester, 3 '- HS-ester, alkynyl). The number of reactive groups on the modified saccharide can be controlled in a stoichiometric fashion to directly control the stoichiometric ratio of conjugated chimeric polynucleotides and/or IVT polynucleotides.

[0222] In some embodiments, the chimeric polynucleotides and/or IVT polynucleotides can be linked together in a pattern. The pattern can be a simple alternating pattern such as CD[CD]X where each "C" and each "D" represent a chimeric polynucleotide, IVT polynucleotide, different chimeric polynucleotides or different IVT polynucleotides. The pattern can repeat x number of times, where x= 1-300. Patterns can also be alternating multiples such as CCDD[CCDD] x (an alternating double multiple) or CCCDDD[CCCDDD] x (an alternating triple multiple) pattern. The alternating double multiple or alternating triple multiple can repeat x number of times, where x= 1-300.

Conjugates and Combinations of Polynucleotides

[0223] In order to further enhance protein production, polynucleotides of the present invention can be designed to be conjugated to other polynucleotides, dyes, intercalating agents (e.g. acridines), cross-linkers (e.g. psoralene, mitomycin C), porphyrins (TPPC4, texaphyrin, Sapphyrin), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., phenazine, dihydrophenazine), artificial endonucleases (e.g. EDTA), alkylating agents, phosphate, amino, mercapto, PEG (e.g., PEG- 40K), MPEG, [MPEG]2, polyamino, alkyl, substituted alkyl, radiolabeled markers, enzymes, haptens (e.g. biotin), transport/absorption facilitators (e.g., aspirin, vitamin E, folic acid), synthetic ribonucleases, proteins, e.g., glycoproteins, or peptides, e.g., molecules having a specific affinity for a co-ligand, or antibodies e.g., an antibody, that binds to a specified cell type such as a cancer cell, endothelial cell, or bone cell, hormones and hormone receptors, non- peptidic species, such as lipids, lectins, carbohydrates, vitamins, cofactors, or a drug. [0224] Conjugation can result in increased stability and/or half life and can be particularly useful in targeting the polynucleotides to specific sites in the cell, tissue or organism.

[0225] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides can be administered with, conjugated to or further encode one or more of RNAi agents, siRNAs, shRNAs, miRNAs, miRNA binding sites, antisense RNAs, ribozymes, catalytic DNA, tRNA, RNAs that induce triple helix formation, aptamers or vectors, and the like.

[0226] In some embodiments, the nanoparticle formulations can comprise a phosphate conjugate. The phosphate conjugate can increase in vivo circulation times and/or increase the targeted delivery of the nanoparticle. Phosphate conjugates for use with the present invention can be made by the methods described in International Application No. WO2013033438 or US Patent Publication No. US20130196948, the contents of each of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. As a non-limiting example, the phosphate conjugates can include a compound of any one of the formulas described in International Application No. WO2013033438, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0227] In some embodiments, the nanoparticle formulation can comprise a polymer conjugate. The polymer conjugate can be a water soluble conjugate. The polymer conjugate can have a structure as described in U.S. Patent Application No. 20130059360, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. In some embodiments, polymer conjugates with the polynucleotides of the present invention can be made using the methods and/or segmented polymeric reagents described in U.S. Patent Application No. 20130072709, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. In some embodiments, the polymer conjugate can have pendant side groups comprising ring moieties such as, but not limited to, the polymer conjugates described in US Patent Publication No. US20130196948, the contents of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0228] In some embodiments, the nanoparticle formulations can comprise a conjugate to enhance the delivery of nanoparticles of the present invention in a subject. Further, the conjugate can inhibit phagocytic clearance of the nanoparticles in a subject. In one aspect, the conjugate can be a "self peptide designed from the human membrane protein CD47 {e.g., the "self particles described by Rodriguez et al (Science 2013 339, 971-975), herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). As shown by Rodriguez et al. the self peptides delayed macrophage- mediated clearance of nanoparticles which enhanced delivery of the nanoparticles. In another aspect, the conjugate can be the membrane protein CD47 {e.g., see Rodriguez et al . Science 2013 339, 971-975, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). Rodriguez et al. showed that, similarly to "self peptides, CD47 can increase the circulating particle ratio in a subject as compared to scrambled peptides and PEG coated nanoparticles.

[0229] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides of the present invention are formulated in nanoparticles which comprise a conjugate to enhance the delivery of the nanoparticles of the present invention in a subject. The conjugate can be the CD47 membrane or the conjugate can be derived from the CD47 membrane protein, such as the "self peptide described previously. In another aspect, the nanoparticle can comprise PEG and a conjugate of CD47 or a derivative thereof. In yet another aspect, the nanoparticle can comprise both the "self peptide described above and the membrane protein CD47.

[0230] In another aspect, a "self peptide and/or CD47 protein can be conjugated to a viruslike particle or pseudovirion, as described herein for delivery of the polynucleotides of the present invention.

[0231] In another embodiment, pharmaceutical compositions comprising the polynucleotides of the present invention and a conjugate which can have a degradable linkage. Non-limiting examples of conjugates include an aromatic moiety comprising an ionizable hydrogen atom, a spacer moiety, and a water-soluble polymer. As a non-limiting example, pharmaceutical compositions comprising a conjugate with a degradable linkage and methods for delivering such pharmaceutical compositions are disclosed in US Patent Publication No. US20130184443, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

Bifunctional Polynucleotides

[0232] In some embodiments of the invention are bifunctional polynucleotides (e.g., bifunctional IVT polynucleotides, bifunctional chimeric polynucleotides or bifunctional circular polynucleotides). As the name implies, bifunctional polynucleotides are those having or capable of at least two functions. These molecules may also by convention be referred to as multifunctional.

[0233] The multiple functionalities of bifunctional polynucleotides can be encoded by the RNA (the function can not manifest until the encoded product is translated) or can be a property of the polynucleotide itself. It can be structural or chemical. Bifunctional modified polynucleotides can comprise a function that is covalently or electrostatically associated with the polynucleotides. Further, the two functions can be provided in the context of a complex of a chimeric polynucleotide and another molecule. [0234] Bifunctional polynucleotides can encode peptides which are anti-proliferative. These peptides can be linear, cyclic, constrained or random coil. They can function as aptamers, signaling molecules, ligands or mimics or mimetics thereof. Anti-proliferative peptides can, as translated, be from 3 to 50 amino acids in length. They can be 5-40, 10-30, or approximately 15 amino acids long. They can be single chain, multichain or branched and can form complexes, aggregates or any multi-unit structure once translated.

Noncoding Polynucleotides

[0235] The polynucleotides described herein can further comprise sequences that are partially or substantially not translatable, e.g., having a noncoding region. As one non-limiting example, the noncoding region can be the first region of the IVT polynucleotide or the circular polynucleotide. Alternatively, the noncoding region can be a region other than the first region. As another non-limiting example, the noncoding region can be the A, B and/or C region of the chimeric polynucleotide.

[0236] Such molecules are generally not translated, but can exert an effect on protein production by one or more of binding to and sequestering one or more translational machinery components such as a ribosomal protein or a transfer RNA (tRNA), thereby effectively reducing protein expression in the cell or modulating one or more pathways or cascades in a cell which in turn alters protein levels. The polynucleotide can contain or encode one or more long noncoding RNA (IncRNA, or lincRNA) or portion thereof, a small nucleolar RNA (sno-RNA), micro RNA (miRNA), small interfering RNA (siRNA) or Pi wi -interacting RNA (piRNA). Examples of such IncRNA molecules and RNAi constructs designed to target such IncRNA any of which can be encoded in the polynucleotides are disclosed in International Publication, WO2012/018881 A2, the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

Polypeptides of Interest

[0237] The polypeptides of interest comprises an LDLR mutant which comprises at least one mutation in the EGF-A domain (e.g., corresponding to N316, L339, or the combination of N316 and L339 of human LDLR) and at least one or a single amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain (e.g., corresponding to K816, K830, C839, or any combination thereof of human LDLR). In some embodiments, the mutation in the EGF-A domain corresponds to N316A, L339D, or N316A/L339D and the mutation in the intracellular domain corresponds to K816R, K830R, C839A, K816R/K830R, K816R/C839A, K830R/C839A, or K816R/K830R/C839A of human LDLR. In some embodiments, the mutation in the EGF-A domain corresponds to N316A of SEQ ID NO:43 and the mutation in the intracellular domain corresponds to K830R and/or C839A of SEQ ID NO:43. In some embodiments, the alterations, e.g., mutations, of the PCSK9 interacting domain and the IDOL interacting domain lead to an increase in LDLR protein expression. In some embodiments, the alteration, e.g., mutations, of the PCSK9 interacting domain and IDOL interacting domain promotes low density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake or lower LDL, cholesterol, and/or triglyceride plasma levels.

[0238] As a non-limiting example, the peptides or polypeptides of interest can be a LDLR protein comprising at least two mutations, e.g., a LDLR cell surface expression-enhancing mutation, a mutation increasing the residence time of LDLR at the cell surface or a mutation resulting in increased levels of LDLR at the cell surface. The polynucleotides of the present invention can also affect the levels, signaling or function of one or more peptides or polypeptides. In some embodiments, the polypeptides of interest include LDLR mutants shown in Tables 3B, 10 and/or 11 herein.

[0239] In some embodiments, the polynucleotide can be designed to encode one or more LDLR mutants or fragments thereof. Such LDLR mutants can include, but is not limited to, whole LDLR mutants, a plurality of LDLR mutants or fragments of LDLR mutants, which independently can be encoded by one or more regions or parts or the whole of a LDLR mutants.

[0240] As used herein, "polypeptide" means a polymer of amino acid residues (natural or unnatural) linked together most often by peptide bonds. The term, as used herein, refers to proteins, polypeptides, and peptides of any size, structure, or function. In some instances the polypeptide encoded is smaller than about 50 amino acids and the polypeptide is then termed a peptide. If the polypeptide is a peptide, it will be at least about 2, 3, 4, or at least 5 amino acid residues long. Thus, polypeptides include gene products, naturally occurring polypeptides, synthetic polypeptides, homologs, orthologs, paralogs, fragments and other equivalents, variants, and analogs of the foregoing. A polypeptide can be a single molecule or can be a multi-molecular complex such as a dimer, trimer or tetramer. They can also comprise single chain or multichain polypeptides such as antibodies or insulin and can be associated or linked. Most commonly disulfide linkages are found in multichain polypeptides. The term polypeptide can also apply to amino acid polymers in which one or more amino acid residues are an artificial chemical analogue of a corresponding naturally occurring amino acid. [0241] The term "polypeptide variant" refers to molecules which differ in their amino acid sequence from a native or reference sequence. The amino acid sequence variants can possess substitutions, deletions, and/or insertions at certain positions within the amino acid sequence, as compared to a native or reference sequence. Ordinarily, variants will possess at least about 50% identity (homology), at least about 60% identity, at least about 70% identity, at least about 80% identity, at least about 90% identity, at least about 95% identity, at least about 99% identity to a native or reference sequence. Preferably, they will be at least about 80%, more preferably at least about 90% identical (homologous) to a native or reference sequence.

[0242] In some embodiments, "variant mimics" are provided. As used herein, the term "variant mimic" is one which contains one or more amino acids which would mimic an activated sequence. For example, glutamate may serve as a mimic for phosphoro-threonine and/or phosphoro-serine. Alternatively, variant mimics can result in deactivation or in an inactivated product containing the mimic, e.g., phenylalanine can act as an inactivating substitution for tyrosine; or alanine can act as an inactivating substitution for serine.

[0243] "Homology" as it applies to amino acid sequences is defined as the percentage of residues in the candidate amino acid sequence that are identical with the residues in the amino acid sequence of a second sequence after aligning the sequences and introducing gaps, if necessary, to achieve the maximum percent homology. Methods and computer programs for the alignment are well known in the art. It is understood that homology depends on a calculation of percent identity but may differ in value due to gaps and penalties introduced in the calculation.

[0244] By "homologs" as it applies to polypeptide sequences means the corresponding sequence of other species having substantial identity to a second sequence of a second species.

[0245] "Analogs" is meant to include polypeptide variants which differ by one or more amino acid alterations, e.g., substitutions, additions or deletions of amino acid residues that still maintain one or more of the properties of the parent or starting polypeptide.

[0246] The present invention contemplates several types of compositions which are polypeptide based including variants and derivatives. These include substitutional, insertional, deletion and covalent variants and derivatives. The term "derivative" is used synonymously with the term "variant" but generally refers to a molecule that has been modified and/or changed in any way relative to a reference molecule or starting molecule.

[0247] As such, polynucleotides encoding peptides or polypeptides containing substitutions, insertions and/or additions, deletions and covalent modifications with respect to reference sequences, in particular the polypeptide sequences disclosed herein, are included within the scope of this invention. For example, sequence tags or amino acids, such as one or more lysines, can be added to the peptide sequences of the invention (e.g., at the N-terminal or C-terminal ends). Sequence tags can be used for peptide purification or localization. Lysines can be used to increase peptide solubility or to allow for biotinylation. Alternatively, amino acid residues located at the carboxy and amino terminal regions of the amino acid sequence of a peptide or protein may optionally be deleted providing for truncated sequences. Certain amino acids (e.g., C-terminal or N-terminal residues) may alternatively be deleted depending on the use of the sequence, as for example, expression of the sequence as part of a larger sequence which is soluble, or linked to a solid support.

[0248] "Substitutional variants" when referring to polypeptides are those that have at least one amino acid residue in a native or starting sequence removed and a different amino acid inserted in its place at the same position. The substitutions can be single, where only one amino acid in the molecule has been substituted, or they can be multiple, where two or more amino acids have been substituted in the same molecule.

[0249] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides described herein encode a substitutional variant of a LDLR protein. The substitutional variant can comprise one, two, three or more than three substitutions.

[0250] In certain embodiments, one, two, three, or more than three substitutions can be located in the EGF-A domain of a LDLR protein, and a single substitution can be located in the intracellular domain of the LDLR protein. In some embodiments, substitution or substitutions can be located in the PCSK9 interacting domain of a LDLR protein, and a single substitution can be located in the IDOL interacting domain of the LDLR protein. In some embodiments, substitution or substutions can be located in the EGF-A domain, and a single substitution can be in the IDOL interacting domain of the protein. In some embodiments, the substitution or substitutions can be located in the PCSK9 interacting domain of a LDLR protein, and a single substitution can be located in the intracellular domain of the LDLR protein. In some embodiments, the substutions are located in the EGF-A domain (or PCSK9 interacting domain) and the intracellular domain (or IDOL interacting domain).

[0251] In some embodiments, a polynucleotide of the invention encodes a human low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) or functional fragment thereof comprising at least one amino acid substitution in the EGF-A domain (e.g., corresponding to N316, L339, or the combination of N316 and L339 of human LDLR) and at least one or a single amino acid substitution in the intracellular domain (e.g., corresponding to K816, K830, C839, or any combination thereof of human LDLR). In some embodiments, the substitution in the EGF-A domain corresponds to N316A, L339D, or N316A/L339D and the at least one or single substitution in the intracellular domain corresponds to K816R, K830R, C839A, K816R/K830R, K816R/C839A, K830R/C839A, or K816R/K830R/C839A of human LDLR. In some embodiments, the substitution in the EGF-A domain corresponds to N316A of human LDLR and the substitution in the intracellular domain corresponds to K830R and/or C839A of human LDLR.

[0252] In some embodiments, the substitutional variant is referred to as a mutation, e.g., an amino acid mutation. The polynucleotides described herein can comprise one, two, three, or more than three mutations in addition to the mutation in the EGF-A domain of a LDLR protein and a single mutation in the intracellular domain of the LDLR protein.

[0253] In some embodiments, the additional mutation or mutations can be located in the PCSK9 interacting domain of a LDLR protein. In some embodiments, the mutation or mutations can be located in the regions other than the PCSK9 interacting domain of a LDLR protein and the intracellular domain of the LDLR protein.

[0254] In some embodiments, a polynucleotide of the invention encodes a human low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) or functional fragment thereof comprising at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain (e.g., corresponding to N316, L339, or the combination of N316 and L339 of human LDLR) and at least one or a single amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain (e.g., corresponding to K816, K830, C839, or any combination thereof of human LDLR). In some embodiments, the mutation in the EGF-A domain corresponds to N316A, L339D, or N316A/L339D and the single mutation in the intracellular domain corresponds to K830R, C839A, K816R/K830R, K816R/C839A, K830R/C839A, or K816R/K830R/C839A of human LDLR. In some embodiments, the mutation in the EGF-A domain corresponds to N316A of human LDLR and the mutation in the intracellular domain corresponds to K830R and/or C839A of human LDLR.

[0255] As used herein the term "conservative amino acid substitution" refers to the substitution of an amino acid that is normally present in the sequence with a different amino acid of similar size, charge, or polarity. Examples of conservative substitutions include the substitution of a non-polar (hydrophobic) residue such as isoleucine, valine and leucine for another non-polar residue. Likewise, examples of conservative substitutions include the substitution of one polar (hydrophilic) residue for another such as between arginine and lysine, between glutamine and asparagine, and between glycine and serine. Additionally, the substitution of a basic residue such as lysine, arginine or histidine for another, or the substitution of one acidic residue such as aspartic acid or glutamic acid for another acidic residue are additional examples of conservative substitutions. Examples of non-conservative substitutions include the substitution of a non-polar (hydrophobic) amino acid residue such as isoleucine, valine, leucine, alanine, methionine for a polar (hydrophilic) residue such as cysteine, glutamine, glutamic acid or lysine and/or a polar residue for a non-polar residue.

[0256] "Insertional variants" when referring to polypeptides are those with one or more amino acids inserted immediately adjacent to an amino acid at a particular position in a native or starting sequence. "Immediately adjacent" to an amino acid means connected to either the alpha- carboxy or alpha-amino functional group of the amino acid.

[0257] "Deletional variants" when referring to polypeptides are those with one or more amino acids in the native or starting amino acid sequence removed. Ordinarily, deletional variants will have one or more amino acids deleted in a particular region of the molecule.

[0258] "Covalent derivatives" when referring to polypeptides include modifications of a native or starting protein with an organic proteinaceous or non-proteinaceous derivatizing agent, and/or post-translational modifications. Covalent modifications are traditionally introduced by reacting targeted amino acid residues of the protein with an organic derivatizing agent that is capable of reacting with selected side-chains or terminal residues, or by harnessing mechanisms of post-translational modifications that function in selected recombinant host cells. The resultant covalent derivatives are useful in programs directed at identifying residues important for biological activity, for immunoassays, or for the preparation of anti-protein antibodies for immunoaffinity purification of the recombinant glycoprotein. Such modifications are within the ordinary skill in the art and are performed without undue experimentation.

[0259] Certain post-translational modifications are the result of the action of recombinant host cells on the expressed polypeptide. Glutaminyl and asparaginyl residues are frequently post- translationally deamidated to the corresponding glutamyl and aspartyl residues. Alternatively, these residues are deamidated under mildly acidic conditions. Either form of these residues can be present in the polypeptides produced in accordance with the present invention.

[0260] Other post-translational modifications include hydroxylation of proline and lysine, phosphorylation of hydroxyl groups of seryl or threonyl residues, methylation of the alpha-amino groups of lysine, arginine, and histidine side chains (T. E. Creighton, Proteins: Structure and Molecular Properties, W.H. Freeman & Co., San Francisco, pp. 79-86 (1983)).

[0261] "Features", when referring to polypeptides, are defined as distinct amino acid sequence-based components of a molecule. Features of the polypeptides encoded by the polynucleotides of the present invention include surface manifestations, local conformational shape, folds, loops, half-loops, domains, half-domains, sites, termini or any combination thereof.

[0262] As used herein, when referring to polypeptides, the term "domain" refers to a motif of a polypeptide having one or more identifiable structural or functional characteristics or properties (e.g., binding capacity, serving as a site for protein-protein interactions).

[0263] As used herein, when referring to polypeptides, the terms "site" as it pertains to amino acid based embodiments is used synonymously with "amino acid residue" and "amino acid side chain." A site represents a position within a peptide or polypeptide that can be modified, manipulated, altered, derivatized or varied within the polypeptide based molecules of the present invention.

[0264] As used herein the terms "termini" or "terminus", when referring to polypeptides, refers to an extremity of a peptide or polypeptide. Such extremity is not limited only to the first or final site of the peptide or polypeptide but can include additional amino acids in the terminal regions. The polypeptide based molecules of the present invention can be characterized as having both an N-terminus (terminated by an amino acid with a free amino group ( H2)) and a C- terminus (terminated by an amino acid with a free carboxyl group (COOH)). Proteins of the invention are in some cases made up of multiple polypeptide chains brought together by disulfide bonds or by non-covalent forces (multimers, oligomers). These sorts of proteins will have multiple N- and C-termini. Alternatively, the termini of the polypeptides can be modified such that they begin or end, as the case can be, with a non-polypeptide based moiety such as an organic conjugate.

[0265] Once any of the features have been identified or defined as a desired component of a polypeptide to be encoded by the polynucleotide of the invention, any of several manipulations and/or modifications of these features can be performed by moving, swapping, inverting, deleting, randomizing or duplicating. Furthermore, it is understood that manipulation of features can result in the same outcome as a modification to the molecules of the invention. For example, a manipulation which involved deleting a domain would result in the alteration of the length of a molecule just as modification of a nucleic acid to encode less than a full length molecule would. [0266] Modifications and manipulations can be accomplished by methods known in the art such as, but not limited to, site directed mutagenesis or a priori incorporation during chemical synthesis. The resulting modified molecules may then be tested for activity using in vitro or in vivo assays such as those described herein or any other suitable screening assay known in the art.

[0267] According to the present invention, the polypeptides can comprise a consensus sequence which is discovered through rounds of experimentation. As used herein a "consensus" sequence is a single sequence which represents a collective population of sequences allowing for variability at one or more sites.

[0268] As recognized by those skilled in the art, protein fragments, functional protein domains, and homologous proteins are also considered to be within the scope of polypeptides of interest of this invention. For example, provided herein is any protein fragment (meaning a polypeptide sequence at least one amino acid residue shorter than a reference polypeptide sequence but otherwise identical) of a reference protein 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100 or greater than 100 amino acids in length. In another example, any protein that includes a stretch of about 20, about 30, about 40, about 50, or about 100 amino acids which are about 40%, about 50%, about 60%, about 70%, about 80%, about 90%, about 95%, or about 100% identical to any of the sequences described herein can be utilized in accordance with the invention.

[0269] In certain embodiments, a polypeptide to be utilized in accordance with the invention includes 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, or more mutations as shown in any of the sequences provided or referenced herein.

[0270] In certain embodiments, polynucleotides can encode variant polypeptides which have a certain sequence identity with a reference polypeptide sequence.

[0271] As used herein, a "reference polypeptide sequence" refers to a starting polypeptide sequence. Reference sequences can be wild type sequences or any sequence to which reference is made in the design of another sequence. As a non-limiting example, the reference polypeptide sequence can include a low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), functional fragments or variants thereof. A reference polypeptide sequence can be, e.g., a LDLR protein such as wild-type LDLR or a LDLR comprising at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain (e.g., corresponding to N316, L339, or the combination of N316 and L339 of human LDLR) and at least one or a single amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain (e.g., corresponding to K816, K830, C839, or any combination thereof of human LDLR). In some embodiments, the mutation in the EGF-A domain corresponds to N316A, L339D, or N316A/L339D and the single mutation in the intracellular domain corresponds to K816R, K830R, C839A, K816R/K830R, K816R/C839A, K830R/C839A, or K816R/K830R/C839A of human LDLR. In some embodiments, the mutation in the EGF-A domain corresponds to N316A of human LDLR and the mutation in the intracellular domain corresponds to K830R and/or C839A of human LDLR.

[0272] In some embodiments, the reference polypeptide comprises any one of the human LDLR nucleic acid sequences listed in Table 3A (e.g., selected from SEQ ID NO: 37-43, 56-63, and 70-718). In some embodiments, the reference polypeptide is altered to comprise at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain (e.g., corresponding to N316, L339, or the combination of N316 and L339 of human LDLR) and at least one or a single amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain (e.g., corresponding to K816, K830, C839, or any combination thereof of human LDLR). In some embodiments, the mutation in the EGF-A domain corresponds to N316A of human LDLR and the mutation in the intracellular domain corresponds to K830R and/or C839A of human LDLR. In some embodiments, the reference polypeptide sequence is shown in Table 3B, Table 10 and/or Table 11 herein.

[0273] Reference molecules (polypeptides or polynucleotides) can share a certain sequence identity with the designed molecules (polypeptides or polynucleotides).

[0274] The term "identity", refers to a relationship between the sequences of two or more peptides, polypeptides or polynucleotides, as determined by comparing the sequences. In the art, identity also means the degree of sequence relatedness between them as determined by the number of matches between strings of two or more amino acid residues or nucleosides. Identity measures the percent of identical matches between the smaller of two or more sequences with gap alignments (if any) addressed by a particular mathematical model or computer program (i.e., "algorithms"). Identity of related peptides can be readily calculated by known methods. Such methods include, but are not limited to, those described in Computational Molecular Biology, Lesk, A. M., ed., Oxford University Press, New York, 1988; Biocomputing: Informatics and Genome Projects, Smith, D. W., ed., Academic Press, New York, 1993; Computer Analysis of Sequence Data, Part 1, Griffin, A. M., and Griffin, H. G., eds., Humana Press, New Jersey, 1994; Sequence Analysis in Molecular Biology, von Heinje, G., Academic Press, 1987; Sequence Analysis Primer, Gribskov, M. and Devereux, J., eds., M. Stockton Press, New York, 1991; and Carillo et al., SIAM J. Applied Math. 48, 1073 (1988).

[0275] In some embodiments, the encoded polypeptide variant may have the same or a similar activity as the reference polypeptide. Alternatively, the variant may have an altered activity (e.g., increased or decreased) relative to a reference polypeptide. Generally, variants of a particular polynucleotide or polypeptide of the invention will have at least about 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%), 99% but less than 100% sequence identity to that particular reference polynucleotide or polypeptide as determined by sequence alignment programs and parameters described herein and known to those skilled in the art. Such tools for alignment include those of the BLAST suite (Stephen F. Altschul, Thomas L. Madden, Alejandro A. Schaffer, Jinghui Zhang, Zheng Zhang, Webb Miller, and David J. Lipman (1997), "Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs", Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402.) Other tools are described herein, specifically in the definition of "Identity."

[0276] Default parameters in the BLAST algorithm include, for example, an expect threshold of 10, Word size of 28, Match/Mismatch Scores 1, -2, Gap costs Linear. Any filter can be applied as well as a selection for species specific repeats, e.g., Homo sapiens.

Targeting Moieties

[0277] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides further express a targeting moiety. These include a protein-binding partner or a receptor on the surface of the cell, which functions to target the cell to a specific tissue space or to interact with a specific moiety, either in vivo or in vitro. Suitable protein-binding partners include, but are not limited to, antibodies and functional fragments thereof, scaffold proteins, or peptides. Additionally, polynucleotides can be employed to direct the synthesis and extracellular localization of lipids, carbohydrates, or other biological moieties or biomolecules.

Cytotoxic Nucleosides

[0278] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides of the present invention can further incorporate one or more cytotoxic nucleosides.

Polynucleotides having Untranslated Regions (UTRs)

[0279] The polynucleotides of the present invention can further comprise one or more regions or parts which act or function as an untranslated region. Where polynucleotides are designed to encode at least one polypeptide of interest, the polynucleotides can comprise one or more of these untranslated regions.

[0280] By definition, wild type untranslated regions (UTRs) of a gene are transcribed but not translated. In mRNA, the 5'UTR starts at the transcription start site and continues to the start codon but does not include the start codon; whereas, the 3'UTR starts immediately following the stop codon and continues until the transcriptional termination signal. There is growing body of evidence about the regulatory roles played by the UTRs in terms of stability of the nucleic acid molecule and translation. The regulatory features of a UTR can be incorporated into the polynucleotides of the present invention to, among other things, enhance the stability of the molecule. The specific features can also be incorporated to ensure controlled down-regulation of the transcript in case they are misdirected to undesired organs sites.

[0281] Tables 1 and 2 provide a listing of exemplary UTRs which can be utilized in the polynucleotides of the present invention. Shown in Table 1 is a listing of a 5 '-untranslated region of the invention. Variants of 5' UTRs can be utilized wherein one or more nucleotides are added or removed to the termini, including A, T, C or G.

Table 1. 5 '-Untranslated Regions

5' UTR Name/ SEQ ID

Sequence

Identifier Description NO.

GGGAAATAAGAGAGAAAAGAAGAGTAAGAAG

5UTR-001 Upstream UTR 3

AAATATAAGAGCCACC

GGGAGATCAGAGAGAAAAGAAGAGTAAGAAG

5UTR-002 Upstream UTR 4

AAATATAAGAGCCACC

GGAATAAAAGTCTCAACACAACATATACAAAA

CAAACGAATCTCAAGCAATCAAGCATTCTACT

5UTR-003 Upstream UTR TCTATTGCAGCAATTTAAATCATTTCTTTTAAA 5

GCAAAAGCAATTTTCTGAAAATTTTCACCATTT

ACGAACGATAGCAAC

GGGAGACAAGCUUGGCAUUCCGGUACUGUUG

5UTR-004 Upstream UTR 6

GUAAAGCCACC

GGGAGATCAGAGAGAAAAGAAGAGTAAGAAG

5UTR-005 Upstream UTR 7

AAATATAAGAGCCACC

GGAATAAAAGTCTCAACACAACATATACAAAA

CAAACGAATCTCAAGCAATCAAGCATTCTACT

5UTR-006 Upstream UTR TCTATTGCAGCAATTTAAATCATTTCTTTTAAA 8

GCAAAAGCAATTTTCTGAAAATTTTCACCATTT

ACGAACGATAGCAAC

GGGAGACAAGCUUGGCAUUCCGGUACUGUUG

5UTR-007 Upstream UTR 9

GUAAAGCCACC

GGGAATTAACAGAGAAAAGAAGAGTAAGAAG

5UTR-008 Upstream UTR 10

AAATATAAGAGCCACC

GGGAAATTAGACAGAAAAGAAGAGTAAGAAG

5UTR-009 Upstream UTR 11

AAATATAAGAGCCACC

GGGAAATAAGAGAGTAAAGAACAGTAAGAAG

5UTR-010 Upstream UTR 12

AAATATAAGAGCCACC

GGGAAAAAAGAGAGAAAAGAAGACTAAGAAG

5UTR-011 Upstream UTR 13

AAATATAAGAGCCACC

GGGAAATAAGAGAGAAAAGAAGAGTAAGAAG

5UTR-012 Upstream UTR 14

ATATATAAGAGCCACC

GGGAAATAAGAGACAAAACAAGAGTAAGAAG

5UTR-013 Upstream UTR 15

AAATATAAGAGCCACC

5UTR-014 Upstream UTR GGGAAATTAGAGAGTAAAGAACAGTAAGTAG 16 AATTAAAAGAGCCACC

GGGAAATAAGAGAGAATAGAAGAGTAAGAAG

5UTR-015 Upstream UTR 17

AAATATAAGAGCCACC

GGGAAATAAGAGAGAAAAGAAGAGTAAGAAG

5UTR-016 Upstream UTR 18

AAAATTAAGAGCCACC

GGGAAATAAGAGAGAAAAGAAGAGTAAGAAG

5UTR-017 Upstream UTR 19

AAATTTAAGAGCCACC

[0282] Shown in Table 2 is a listing of 3 '-untranslated regions of the invention. Variants of 3' UTRs can be utilized wherein one or more nucleotides are added or removed to the termini, including A, T, C or G.

Table 2. 3 '-Untranslated Regions

SEQ

3' UTR Name/

Sequence ID Identifier Description

NO.

GCGCCTGCCCACCTGCCACCGACTGCTGGAACCCAGC

CAGTGGGAGGGCCTGGCCCACCAGAGTCCTGCTCCCT

CACTCCTCGCCCCGCCCCCTGTCCCAGAGTCCCACCTG

GGGGCTCTCTCCACCCTTCTCAGAGTTCCAGTTTCAAC

Creatine CAGAGTTCCAACCAATGGGCTCCATCCTCTGGATTCTG

3UTR-001 20

Kinase GCCAATGAAATATCTCCCTGGCAGGGTCCTCTTCTTTT

CCCAGAGCTCCACCCCAACCAGGAGCTCTAGTTAATG

GAGAGCTCCCAGCACACTCGGAGCTTGTGCTTTGTCTC

CACGCAAAGCGATAAATAAAAGCATTGGTGGCCTTTG

GTCTTTGAATAAAGCCTGAGTAGGAAGTCTAGA

GCCCCTGCCGCTCCCACCCCCACCCATCTGGGCCCCGG

GTTCAAGAGAGAGCGGGGTCTGATCTCGTGTAGCCAT

ATAGAGTTTGCTTCTGAGTGTCTGCTTTGTTTAGTAGA

GGTGGGCAGGAGGAGCTGAGGGGCTGGGGCTGGGGT

GTTGAAGTTGGCTTTGCATGCCCAGCGATGCGCCTCCC

TGTGGGATGTCATCACCCTGGGAACCGGGAGTGGCCC

TTGGCTCACTGTGTTCTGCATGGTTTGGATCTGAATTA

ATTGTCCTTTCTTCTAAATCCCAACCGAACTTCTTCCA

3UTR-002 Myoglobin 21

ACCTCCAAACTGGCTGTAACCCCAAATCCAAGCCATT

AACTACACCTGACAGTAGCAATTGTCTGATTAATCACT

GGCCCCTTGAAGACAGCAGAATGTCCCTTTGCAATGA

GGAGGAGATCTGGGCTGGGCGGGCCAGCTGGGGAAG

CATTTGACTATCTGGAACTTGTGTGTGCCTCCTCAGGT

ATGGCAGTGACTCACCTGGTTTTAATAAAACAACCTG

CAACATCTCATGGTCTTTGAATAAAGCCTGAGTAGGA

AGTCTAGA

ACACACTCCACCTCCAGCACGCGACTTCTCAGGACGA

CGAATCTTCTCAATGGGGGGGCGGCTGAGCTCCAGCC

ACCCCGCAGTCACTTTCTTTGTAACAACTTCCGTTGCT

a-actin GCCATCGTAAACTGACACAGTGTTTATAACGTGTACAT

3UTR-003 22

ACATTAACTTATTACCTCATTTTGTTATTTTTCGAAACA

AAGCCCTGTGGAAGAAAATGGAAAACTTGAAGAAGC

ATTAAAGTCATTCTGTTAAGCTGCGTAAATGGTCTTTG

AATAAAGCCTGAGTAGGAAGTCTAGA

CATCACATTTAAAAGCATCTCAGCCTACCATGAGAAT

AAGAGAAAGAAAATGAAGATCAAAAGCTTATTCATCT

Albumin

3UTR-004 GTTTTTCTTTTTCGTTGGTGTAAAGCCAACACCCTGTCT 23

AAAAAACATAAATTTCTTTAATCATTTTGCCTCTTTTCT

CTGTGCTTCAATTAATAAAAAATGGAAAGAATCTAAT AGAGTGGTACAGCACTGTTATTTTTCAAAGATGTGTTG

CTATCCTGAAAATTCTGTAGGTTCTGTGGAAGTTCCAG

TGTTCTCTCTTATTCCACTTCGGTAGAGGATTTCTAGTT

TCTTGTGGGCTAATTAAATAAATCATTAATACTCTTCT

AATGGTCTTTGAATAAAGCCTGAGTAGGAAGTCTAGA

GCTGCCTTCTGCGGGGCTTGCCTTCTGGCCATGCCCTT

α-globin CTTCTCTCCCTTGCACCTGTACCTCTTGGTCTTTGAATAUTR-005 24

AAGCCTGAGTAGGAAGGCGGCCGCTCGAGCATGCATC TAGA

GCCAAGCCCTCCCCATCCCATGTATTTATCTCTATTTA

ATATTTATGTCTATTTAAGCCTCATATTTAAAGACAGG

GAAGAGCAGAACGGAGCCCCAGGCCTCTGTGTCCTTC

CCTGCATTTCTGAGTTTCATTCTCCTGCCTGTAGCAGT

GAGAAAAAGCTCCTGTCCTCCCATCCCCTGGACTGGG

AGGTAGATAGGTAAATACCAAGTATTTATTACTATGA

CTGCTCCCCAGCCCTGGCTCTGCAATGGGCACTGGGAT

GAGCCGCTGTGAGCCCCTGGTCCTGAGGGTCCCCACC

TGGGACCCTTGAGAGTATCAGGTCTCCCACGTGGGAG

ACAAGAAATCCCTGTTTAATATTTAAACAGCAGTGTTC

CCCATCTGGGTCCTTGCACCCCTCACTCTGGCCTCAGC

CGACTGCACAGCGGCCCCTGCATCCCCTTGGCTGTGAUTR-006 G-CSF GGCCCCTGGACAAGCAGAGGTGGCCAGAGCTGGGAG 25

GCATGGCCCTGGGGTCCCACGAATTTGCTGGGGAATC

TCGTTTTTCTTCTTAAGACTTTTGGGACATGGTTTGACT

CCCGAACATCACCGACGCGTCTCCTGTTTTTCTGGGTG

GCCTCGGGACACCTGCCCTGCCCCCACGAGGGTCAGG

ACTGTGACTCTTTTTAGGGCCAGGCAGGTGCCTGGAC

ATTTGCCTTGCTGGACGGGGACTGGGGATGTGGGAGG

GAGCAGACAGGAGGAATCATGTCAGGCCTGTGTGTGA

AAGGAAGCTCCACTGTCACCCTCCACCTCTTCACCCCC

CACTCACCAGTGTCCCCTCCACTGTCACATTGTAACTG

AACTTCAGGATAATAAAGTGTTTGCCTCCATGGTCTTT

GAATAAAGCCTGAGTAGGAAGGCGGCCGCTCGAGCAT

GCATCTAGA

ACTCAATCTAAATTAAAAAAGAAAGAAATTTGAAAAA

ACTTTCTCTTTGCCATTTCTTCTTCTTCTTTTTTAACTGA

AAGCTGAATCCTTCCATTTCTTCTGCACATCTACTTGC

TTAAATTGTGGGCAAAAGAGAAAAAGAAGGATTGATC

AGAGCATTGTGCAATACAGTTTCATTAACTCCTTCCCC

CGCTCCCCCAAAAATTTGAATTTTTTTTTCAACACTCTT

ACACCTGTTATGGAAAATGTCAACCTTTGTAAGAAAA

CCAAAATAAAAATTGAAAAATAAAAACCATAAACATT

TGCACCACTTGTGGCTTTTGAATATCTTCCACAGAGGG

AAGTTTAAAACCCAAACTTCCAAAGGTTTAAACTACC

Colla2;

TCAAAACACTTTCCCATGAGTGTGATCCACATTGTTAG

collagen,

UTR-007 GTGCTGACCTAGACAGAGATGAACTGAGGTCCTTGTT 26 type I, alpha

TTGTTTTGTTCATAATACAAAGGTGCTAATTAATAGTA

2

TTTCAGATACTTGAAGAATGTTGATGGTGCTAGAAGA

ATTTGAGAAGAAATACTCCTGTATTGAGTTGTATCGTG

TGGTGTATTTTTTAAAAAATTTGATTTAGCATTCATAT

TTTCCATCTTATTCCCAATTAAAAGTATGCAGATTATT

TGCCCAAATCTTCTTCAGATTCAGCATTTGTTCTTTGCC

AGTCTCATTTTCATCTTCTTCCATGGTTCCACAGAAGC

TTTGTTTCTTGGGCAAGCAGAAAAATTAAATTGTACCT

ATTTTGTATATGTGAGATGTTTAAATAAATTGTGAAAA

AAATGAAATAAAGCATGTTTGGTTTTCCAAAAGAACA

TATUTR-008 Col6a2; CGCCGCCGCCCGGGCCCCGCAGTCGAGGGTCGTGAGC 27 collagen, CCACCCCGTCCATGGTGCTAAGCGGGCCCGGGTCCCA type VI, CACGGCCAGCACCGCTGCTCACTCGGACGACGCCCTG alpha 2 GGCCTGCACCTCTCCAGCTCCTCCCACGGGGTCCCCGT

AGCCCCGGCCCCCGCCCAGCCCCAGGTCTCCCCAGGC

CCTCCGCAGGCTGCCCGGCCTCCCTCCCCCTGCAGCCA

TCCCAAGGCTCCTGACCTACCTGGCCCCTGAGCTCTGG

AGCAAGCCCTGACCCAATAAAGGCTTTGAACCCAT

GGGGCTAGAGCCCTCTCCGCACAGCGTGGAGACGGGG

CAAGGAGGGGGGTTATTAGGATTGGTGGTTTTGTTTTG

CTTTGTTTAAAGCCGTGGGAAAATGGCACAACTTTACC

TCTGTGGGAGATGCAACACTGAGAGCCAAGGGGTGGG

AGTTGGGATAATTTTTATATAAAAGAAGTTTTTCCACT

TTGAATTGCTAAAAGTGGCATTTTTCCTATGTGCAGTC

ACTCCTCTCATTTCTAAAATAGGGACGTGGCCAGGCA

CGGTGGCTCATGCCTGTAATCCCAGCACTTTGGGAGG

RPN1;

UTR-009 CCGAGGCAGGCGGCTCACGAGGTCAGGAGATCGAGA 28 ribophorin I

CTATCCTGGCTAACACGGTAAAACCCTGTCTCTACTAA

AAGTACAAAAAATTAGCTGGGCGTGGTGGTGGGCACC

TGTAGTCCCAGCTACTCGGGAGGCTGAGGCAGGAGAA

AGGCATGAATCCAAGAGGCAGAGCTTGCAGTGAGCTG

AGATCACGCCATTGCACTCCAGCCTGGGCAACAGTGT

TAAGACTCTGTCTCAAATATAAATAAATAAATAAATA

AATAAATAAATAAATAAAAATAAAGCGAGATGTTGCC

CTCAAA

GGCCCTGCCCCGTCGGACTGCCCCCAGAAAGCCTCCT

GCCCCCTGCCAGTGAAGTCCTTCAGTGAGCCCCTCCCC

AGCCAGCCCTTCCCTGGCCCCGCCGGATGTATAAATGT

AAAAATGAAGGAATTACATTTTATATGTGAGCGAGCA

AGCCGGCAAGCGAGCACAGTATTATTTCTCCATCCCCT

CCCTGCCTGCTCCTTGGCACCCCCATGCTGCCTTCAGG

GAGACAGGCAGGGAGGGCTTGGGGCTGCACCTCCTAC

CCTCCCACCAGAACGCACCCCACTGGGAGAGCTGGTG

LRP1; low

GTGCAGCCTTCCCCTCCCTGTATAAGACACTTTGCCAA

density

GGCTCTCCCCTCTCGCCCCATCCCTGCTTGCCCGCTCC

lipoprotein

UTR-010 CACAGCTTCCTGAGGGCTAATTCTGGGAAGGGAGAGT 29 receptor-

TCTTTGCTGCCCCTGTCTGGAAGACGTGGCTCTGGGTG

related

AGGTAGGCGGGAAAGGATGGAGTGTTTTAGTTCTTGG

protein 1

GGGAGGCCACCCCAAACCCCAGCCCCAACTCCAGGGG

CACCTATGAGATGGCCATGCTCAACCCCCCTCCCAGA

CAGGCCCTCCCTGTCTCCAGGGCCCCCACCGAGGTTCC

CAGGGCTGGAGACTTCCTCTGGTAAACATTCCTCCAGC

CTCCCCTCCCCTGGGGACGCCAAGGAGGTGGGCCACA

CCCAGGAAGGGAAAGCGGGCAGCCCCGTTTTGGGGAC

GTGAACGTTTTAATAATTTTTGCTGAATTCCTTTACAA

CTAAATAACACAGATATTGTTATAAATAAAATTGT

ATATTAAGGATCAAGCTGTTAGCTAATAATGCCACCTC

TGCAGTTTTGGGAACAGGCAAATAAAGTATCAGTATA

CATGGTGATGTACATCTGTAGCAAAGCTCTTGGAGAA

AATGAAGACTGAAGAAAGCAAAGCAAAAACTGTATA

Nntl; GAGAGATTTTTCAAAAGCAGTAATCCCTCAATTTTAAA cardiotrophi AAAGGATTGAAAATTCTAAATGTCTTTCTGTGCATATTUTR-011 n-like TTTTGTGTTAGGAATCAAAAGTATTTTATAAAAGGAG 30 cytokine AAAGAACAGCCTCATTTTAGATGTAGTCCTGTTGGATT factor 1 TTTTATGCCTCCTCAGTAACCAGAAATGTTTTAAAAAA

CTAAGTGTTTAGGATTTCAAGACAACATTATACATGGC

TCTGAAATATCTGACACAATGTAAACATTGCAGGCAC

TTGAAACTTTTATGAACTTCTGAGCTGTCCCCTTGCAA TTCAACCGCAGTTTGAATTAATCATATCAAATCAGTTT

TAATTTTTTAAATTGTACTTCAGAGTCTATATTTCAAG

GGCACATTTTCTCACTACTATTTTAATACATTAAAGGA

CTAAATAATCTTTCAGAGATGCTGGAAACAAATCATTT

GCTTTATATGTTTCATTAGAATACCAATGAAACATACA

ACTTGAAAATTAGTAATAGTATTTTTGAAGATCCCATT

TCTAATTGGAGATCTCTTTAATTTCGATCAACTTATAA

TGTGTAGTACTATATTAAGTGCACTTGAGTGGAATTCA

ACATTTGACTAATAAAATGAGTTCATCATGTTGGCAA

GTGATGTGGCAATTATCTCTGGTGACAAAAGAGTAAA

ATCAAATATTTCTGCCTGTTACAAATATCAAGGAAGA

CCTGCTACTATGAAATAGATGACATTAATCTGTCTTCA

TGTGTTTTGAGGTCTTATGTAATTGATGACATTTGAGA

GAAATGGTGGCTTTTTTTAGCTACCTCTTTGTTCATTTA

AGCACCAGTAAAGATCATGTCTTTTTATAGAAGTGTA

GATTTTCTTTGTGACTTTGCTATCGTGCCTAAAGCTCT

AAATATAGGTGAATGTGTGATGAATACTCAGATTATTT

GTCTCTCTATATAATTAGTTTGGTACTAAGTTTCTCAA

AAAATTATTAACACATGAAAGACAATCTCTAAACCAG

AAAAAGAAGTAGTACAAATTTTGTTACTGTAATGCTC

GCGTTTAGTGAGTTTAAAACACACAGTATCTTTTGGTT

TTATAATCAGTTTCTATTTTGCTGTGCCTGAGATTAAG

ATCTGTGTATGTGTGTGTGTGTGTGTGTGCGTTTGTGT

GTTAAAGCAGAAAAGACTTTTTTAAAAGTTTTAAGTG

ATAAATGCAATTTGTTAATTGATCTTAGATCACTAGTA

AACTCAGGGCTGAATTATACCATGTATATTCTATTAGA

AGAAAGTAAACACCATCTTTATTCCTGCCCTTTTTCTT

CTCTCAAAGTAGTTGTAGTTATATCTAGAAAGAAGCA

ATTTTGATTTCTTGAAAAGGTAGTTCCTGCACTCAGTT

TAAACTAAAAATAATCATACTTGGATTTTATTTATTTT

TGTCATAGTAAAAATTTTAATTTATATATATTTTTATTT

AGTATTATCTTATTCTTTGCTATTTGCCAATCCTTTGTC

ATCAATTGTGTTAAATGAATTGAAAATTCATGCCCTGT

TCATTTTATTTTACTTTATTGGTTAGGATATTTAAAGG

ATTTTTGTATATATAATTTCTTAAATTAATATTCCAAA

AGGTTAGTGGACTTAGATTATAAATTATGGCAAAAAT

CTAAAAACAACAAAAATGATTTTTATACATTCTATTTC

ATTATTCCTCTTTTTCCAATAAGTCATACAATTGGTAG

TATGATATTTAAGTATAAATAATTAAAAAAATTTATTG

TACCTTATAGTCTGTCACCAAAAAAAAAAAATTATCT

GTAGGTAGTGAAATGCTAATGTTGATTTGTCTTTAAGG

GCTTGTTAACTATCCTTTATTTTCTCATTTGTCTTAAAT

TAGGAGTTTGTGTTTAAATTACTCATCTAAGCAAAAAA

TGTATATAAATCCCATTACTGGGTATATACCCAAAGG

ATTATAAATCATGCTGCTATAAAGACACATGCACACG

TATGTTTATTGCAGCACTATTCACAATAGCAAAGACTT

GGAACCAACCCAAATGTCCATCAATGATAGACTTGAT

TAAGAAAATGTGCACATATACACCATGGAATACTATG

CAGCCATAAAAAAGGATGAGTTCATGTCCTTTGTAGG

GACATGGATAAAGCTGGAAACCATCATTCTGAGCAAA

CTATTGCAAGGACAGAAAACCAAACACTGCATGTTCT

CACTCATAGGTGGGAATTGAACAATGAGAACACTTGG

ACACAAGGTGGGGAACACCACACACCAGGGCCTGTCA

TGGGGTGGGGGGAGTGGGGAGGGATAGCATTAGGAG

ATATACCTAATGTAAATGATGAGTTAATGGGTGCAGC

ACACCAACATGGCACATGTATACATATGTAGCAAACC TGCACGTTGTGCACATGTACCCTAGAACTTAAAGTATA

ATTAAAAAAAAAAAGAAAACAGAAGCTATTTATAAA

GAAGTTATTTGCTGAAATAAATGTGATCTTTCCCATTA

AAAAAATAAAGAAATTTTGGGGTAAAAAAACACAAT

ATATTGTATTCTTGAAAAATTCTAAGAGAGTGGATGTG

AAGTGTTCTCACCACAAAAGTGATAACTAATTGAGGT

AATGCACATATTAATTAGAAAGATTTTGTCATTCCACA

ATGTATATATACTTAAAAATATGTTATACACAATAAAT

ACATACATTAAAAAATAAGTAAATGTA

CCCACCCTGCACGCCGGCACCAAACCCTGTCCTCCCAC

CCCTCCCCACTCATCACTAAACAGAGTAAAATGTGAT

GCGAATTTTCCCGACCAACCTGATTCGCTAGATTTTTT

TTAAGGAAAAGCTTGGAAAGCCAGGACACAACGCTGC

TGCCTGCTTTGTGCAGGGTCCTCCGGGGCTCAGCCCTG

AGTTGGCATCACCTGCGCAGGGCCCTCTGGGGCTCAG

CCCTGAGCTAGTGTCACCTGCACAGGGCCCTCTGAGG

CTCAGCCCTGAGCTGGCGTCACCTGTGCAGGGCCCTCT

GGGGCTCAGCCCTGAGCTGGCCTCACCTGGGTTCCCC

ACCCCGGGCTCTCCTGCCCTGCCCTCCTGCCCGCCCTC

CCTCCTGCCTGCGCAGCTCCTTCCCTAGGCACCTCTGT

GCTGCATCCCACCAGCCTGAGCAAGACGCCCTCTCGG

Col6al; GGCCTGTGCCGCACTAGCCTCCCTCTCCTCTGTCCCCA collagen, TAGCTGGTTTTTCCCACCAATCCTCACCTAACAGTTACUTR-012 31 type VI, TTTACAATTAAACTCAAAGCAAGCTCTTCTCCTCAGCT alpha 1 TGGGGCAGCCATTGGCCTCTGTCTCGTTTTGGGAAACC

AAGGTCAGGAGGCCGTTGCAGACATAAATCTCGGCGA

CTCGGCCCCGTCTCCTGAGGGTCCTGCTGGTGACCGGC

CTGGACCTTGGCCCTACAGCCCTGGAGGCCGCTGCTG

ACCAGCACTGACCCCGACCTCAGAGAGTACTCGCAGG

GGCGCTGGCTGCACTCAAGACCCTCGAGATTAACGGT

GCTAACCCCGTCTGCTCCTCCCTCCCGCAGAGACTGGG

GCCTGGACTGGACATGAGAGCCCCTTGGTGCCACAGA

GGGCTGTGTCTTACTAGAAACAACGCAAACCTCTCCTT

CCTCAGAATAGTGATGTGTTCGACGTTTTATCAAAGGC

CCCCTTTCTATGTTCATGTTAGTTTTGCTCCTTCTGTGT

TTTTTTCTGAACCATATCCATGTTGCTGACTTTTCCAAA

TAAAGGTTTTCACTCCTCTC

AGAGGCCTGCCTCCAGGGCTGGACTGAGGCCTGAGCG CTCCTGCCGCAGAGCTGGCCGCGCCAAATAATGTCTCT GTGAGACTCGAGAACTTTCATTTTTTTCCAGGCTGGTT CGGATTTGGGGTGGATTTTGGTTTTGTTCCCCTCCTCC

TTTTAAACTGGTATTTTATCTTTGATTCTCCTTCAGCCC

TCACCCCTGGTTCTCATCTTTCTTGATCAACATCTTTTC

Calr; TTGCCTCTGTCCCCTTCTCTCATCTCTTAGCTCCCCTCCUTR-013 32 calreticulin AACCTGGGGGGCAGTGGTGTGGAGAAGCCACAGGCCT

GAGATTTCATCTGCTCTCCTTCCTGGAGCCCAGAGGAG

GGCAGCAGAAGGGGGTGGTGTCTCCAACCCCCCAGCA

CTGAGGAAGAACGGGGCTCTTCTCATTTCACCCCTCCC

TTTCTCCCCTGCCCCCAGGACTGGGCCACTTCTGGGTG

GGGCAGTGGGTCCCAGATTGGCTCACACTGAGAATGT

AAGAACTACAAACAAAATTTCTATTAAATTAAATTTTG

TGTCTCC

CTCCCTCCATCCCAACCTGGCTCCCTCCCACCCAACCA

Collal;

ACTTTCCCCCCAACCCGGAAACAGACAAGCAACCCAA

collagen,

UTR-014 ACTGAACCCCCTCAAAAGCCAAAAAATGGGAGACAAT 33 type I, alpha

TTCACATGGACTTTGGAAAATATTTTTTTCCTTTGCATT

1

CATCTCTCAAACTTAGTTTTTATCTTTGACCAACCGAA CATGACCAAAAACCAAAAGTGCATTCAACCTTACCAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAGAATAAATAAATAACTTTTT

AAAAAAGGAAGCTTGGTCCACTTGCTTGAAGACCCAT

GCGGGGGTAAGTCCCTTTCTGCCCGTTGGGCTTATGAA

ACCCCAATGCTGCCCTTTCTGCTCCTTTCTCCACACCC

CCCTTGGGGCCTCCCCTCCACTCCTTCCCAAATCTGTC

TCCCCAGAAGACACAGGAAACAATGTATTGTCTGCCC

AGCAATCAAAGGCAATGCTCAAACACCCAAGTGGCCC

CCACCCTCAGCCCGCTCCTGCCCGCCCAGCACCCCCAG

GCCCTGGGGGACCTGGGGTTCTCAGACTGCCAAAGAA

GCCTTGCCATCTGGCGCTCCCATGGCTCTTGCAACATC

TCCCCTTCGTTTTTGAGGGGGTCATGCCGGGGGAGCCA

CCAGCCCCTCACTGGGTTCGGAGGAGAGTCAGGAAGG

GCCACGACAAAGCAGAAACATCGGATTTGGGGAACGC

GTGTCAATCCCTTGTGCCGCAGGGCTGGGCGGGAGAG

ACTGTTCTGTTCCTTGTGTAACTGTGTTGCTGAAAGAC

TACCTCGTTCTTGTCTTGATGTGTCACCGGGGCAACTG

CCTGGGGGCGGGGATGGGGGCAGGGTGGAAGCGGCT

CCCCATTTTATACCAAAGGTGCTACATCTATGTGATGG

GTGGGGTGGGGAGGGAATCACTGGTGCTATAGAAATT

CAAAGTCTATTTTTATTCCTTGATATTTTTCTTTTTTTTT

TTTTTTTTTTGTGGATGGGGACTTGTGAATTTTTCTAAA

GGTGCTATTTAACATGGGAGGAGAGCGTGTGCGGCTC

CAGCCCAGCCCGCTGCTCACTTTCCACCCTCTCTCCAC

CTGCCTCTGGCTTCTCAGGCCTCTGCTCTCCGACCTCT

CTCCTCTGAAACCCTCCTCCACAGCTGCAGCCCATCCT

CCCGGCTCCCTCCTAGTCTGTCCTGCGTCCTCTGTCCC

CGGGTTTCAGAGACAACTTCCCAAAGCACAAAGCAGT

TTTTCCCCCTAGGGGTGGGAGGAAGCAAAAGACTCTG

AATTATTTTGATTGCTGGAATAAAGCATGTGGAAATG

ACCCAAACATAATCCGCAGTGGCCTCCTAATTTCCTTC

TTTGGAGTTGGGGGAGGGGTAGACATGGGGAAGGGG

CTTTGGGGTGATGGGCTTGCCTTCCATTCCTGCCCTTT

CCCTCCCCACTATTCTCTTCTAGATCCCTCCATAACCC

CACTCCCCTTTCTCTCACCCTTCTTATACCGCAAACCTT

TCTACTTCCTCTTTCATTTTCTATTCTTGCAATTTCCTT

GCACCTTTTCCAAATCCTCTTCTCCCCTGCAATACCAT

ACAGGCAATCCACGTGCACAACACACACACACACTCT

TCACATCTGGGGTTGTCCAAACCTCATACCCACTCCCC

TTCAAGCCCATCCACTCTCCACCCCCTGGATGCCCTGC

ACTTGGTGGCGGTGGGATGCTCATGGATACTGGGAGG

GTGAGGGGAGTGGAACCCGTGAGGAGGACCTGGGGG

CCTCTCCTTGAACTGACATGAAGGGTCATCTGGCCTCT

GCTCCCTTCTCACCCACGCTGACCTCCTGCCGAAGGAG

CAACGCAACAGGAGAGGGGTCTGCTGAGCCTGGCGAG

GGTCTGGGAGGGACCAGGAGGAAGGCGTGCTCCCTGC

TCGCTGTCCTGGCCCTGGGGGAGTGAGGGAGACAGAC

ACCTGGGAGAGCTGTGGGGAAGGCACTCGCACCGTGC

TCTTGGGAAGGAAGGAGACCTGGCCCTGCTCACCACG

GACTGGGTGCCTCGACCTCCTGAATCCCCAGAACACA

ACCCCCCTGGGCTGGGGTGGTCTGGGGAACCATCGTG

CCCCCGCCTCCCGCCTACTCCTTTTTAAGCTT

Plodl; TTGGCCAGGCCTGACCCTCTTGGACCTTTCTTCTTTGC procollagen- CGACAACCACTGCCCAGCAGCCTCTGGGACCTCGGGGUTR-015 34 lysine, 2- TCCCAGGGAACCCAGTCCAGCCTCCTGGCTGTTGACTT oxoglutarate CCCATTGCTCTTGGAGCCACCAATCAAAGAGATTCAA 5- AGAGATTCCTGCAGGCCAGAGGCGGAACACACCTTTA dioxygenase TGGCTGGGGCTCTCCGTGGTGTTCTGGACCCAGCCCCT

1 GGAGACACCATTCACTTTTACTGCTTTGTAGTGACTCG

TGCTCTCCAACCTGTCTTCCTGAAAAACCAAGGCCCCC

TTCCCCCACCTCTTCCATGGGGTGAGACTTGAGCAGAA

CAGGGGCTTCCCCAAGTTGCCCAGAAAGACTGTCTGG

GTGAGAAGCCATGGCCAGAGCTTCTCCCAGGCACAGG

TGTTGCACCAGGGACTTCTGCTTCAAGTTTTGGGGTAA

AGACACCTGGATCAGACTCCAAGGGCTGCCCTGAGTC

TGGGACTTCTGCCTCCATGGCTGGTCATGAGAGCAAA

CCGTAGTCCCCTGGAGACAGCGACTCCAGAGAACCTC

TTGGGAGACAGAAGAGGCATCTGTGCACAGCTCGATC

TTCTACTTGCCTGTGGGGAGGGGAGTGACAGGTCCAC

ACACCACACTGGGTCACCCTGTCCTGGATGCCTCTGAA

GAGAGGGACAGACCGTCAGAAACTGGAGAGTTTCTAT

TAAAGGTCATTTAAACCA

TCCTCCGGGACCCCAGCCCTCAGGATTCCTGATGCTCC

AAGGCGACTGATGGGCGCTGGATGAAGTGGCACAGTC

AGCTTCCCTGGGGGCTGGTGTCATGTTGGGCTCCTGGG

GCGGGGGCACGGCCTGGCATTTCACGCATTGCTGCCA

CCCCAGGTCCACCTGTCTCCACTTTCACAGCCTCCAAG

TCTGTGGCTCTTCCCTTCTGTCCTCCGAGGGGCTTGCC

TTCTCTCGTGTCCAGTGAGGTGCTCAGTGATCGGCTTA

ACTTAGAGAAGCCCGCCCCCTCCCCTTCTCCGTCTGTC

CCAAGAGGGTCTGCTCTGAGCCTGCGTTCCTAGGTGG

CTCGGCCTCAGCTGCCTGGGTTGTGGCCGCCCTAGCAT

Nucbl; CCTGTATGCCCACAGCTACTGGAATCCCCGCTGCTGCT

3UTR-016 nucleobindi CCGGGCCAAGCTTCTGGTTGATTAATGAGGGCATGGG 35

n l GTGGTCCCTCAAGACCTTCCCCTACCTTTTGTGGAACC

AGTGATGCCTCAAAGACAGTGTCCCCTCCACAGCTGG

GTGCCAGGGGCAGGGGATCCTCAGTATAGCCGGTGAA

CCCTGATACCAGGAGCCTGGGCCTCCCTGAACCCCTG

GCTTCCAGCCATCTCATCGCCAGCCTCCTCCTGGACCT

CTTGGCCCCCAGCCCCTTCCCCACACAGCCCCAGAAG

GGTCCCAGAGCTGACCCCACTCCAGGACCTAGGCCCA

GCCCCTCAGCCTCATCTGGAGCCCCTGAAGACCAGTC

CCACCCACCTTTCTGGCCTCATCTGACACTGCTCCGCA

TCCTGCTGTGTGTCCTGTTCCATGTTCCGGTTCCATCCA

AATACACTTTCTGGAACAAA

GCTGGAGCCTCGGTGGCCATGCTTCTTGCCCCTTGGGC

a-globin

3UTR-017 CTCCCCCCAGCCCCTCCTCCCCTTCCTGCACCCGTACC 36

CCCGTGGTCTTTGAATAAAGTCTGAGTGGGCGGC

5' UTR and Translation Initiation

[0283] Natural 5'UTRs bear features which play roles in translation initiation. They harbor signatures like Kozak sequences which are commonly known to be involved in the process by which the ribosome initiates translation of many genes. Kozak sequences have the consensus CCR(A/G)CCAUGG, where R is a purine (adenine or guanine) three bases upstream of the start codon (AUG), which is followed by another 'G. 5'UTR also have been known to form secondary structures which are involved in elongation factor binding. [0284] By engineering the features typically found in abundantly expressed genes of specific target organs, one can enhance the stability and protein production of the polynucleotides of the invention. For example, introduction of 5' UTR of liver-expressed mRNA, such as albumin, serum amyloid A, Apolipoprotein A/B/E, transferrin, alpha fetoprotein, erythropoietin, or Factor VIII, could be used to enhance expression of a nucleic acid molecule, such as a polynucleotides, in hepatic cell lines or liver. Likewise, use of 5' UTR from other tissue-specific mRNA to improve expression in that tissue is possible for muscle (MyoD, Myosin, Myoglobin, Myogenin, Herculin), for endothelial cells (Tie-1, CD36), for myeloid cells (C/EBP, AML1, G-CSF, GM- CSF, CDl lb, MSR, Fr-1, i-NOS), for leukocytes (CD45, CD18), for adipose tissue (CD36, GLUT4, ACRP30, adiponectin) and for lung epithelial cells (SP-A/B/C/D). Untranslated regions useful in the design and manufacture of polynucleotides include, but are not limited, to those disclosed in co-pending, International Patent Application No. PCT/US2014/021522 (Attorney Docket Number M42), the contents of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

[0285] Other non-UTR sequences can also be used as regions or subregions within the polynucleotides. For example, introns or portions of introns sequences can be incorporated into regions of the polynucleotides of the invention. Incorporation of intronic sequences may increase protein production as well as polynucleotide levels.

[0286] Combinations of features can be included in flanking regions and can be contained within other features. For example, the ORF can be flanked by a 5' UTR which can contain a strong Kozak translational initiation signal and/or a 3' UTR which can include an oligo(dT) sequence for templated addition of a poly-A tail. 5'UTR can comprise a first polynucleotide fragment and a second polynucleotide fragment from the same and/or different genes such as the 5'UTRs described in US Patent Application Publication No. 20100293625, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0287] Co-owned International Patent Application No. PCT/US2014/021522 provides a listing of exemplary UTRs which can be utilized in the polynucleotide of the present invention as flanking regions. Variants of 5' or 3' UTRs can be utilized wherein one or more nucleotides are added or removed to the termini, including A, T, C or G.

[0288] It should be understood that any UTR from any gene can be incorporated into the regions of the polynucleotide. Furthermore, multiple wild-type UTRs of any known gene can be utilized. It is also within the scope of the present invention to provide artificial UTRs which are not variants of wild type regions. These UTRs or portions thereof can be placed in the same orientation as in the transcript from which they were selected or can be altered in orientation or location. Hence a 5' or 3 ' UTR can be inverted, shortened, lengthened, made with one or more other 5' UTRs or 3' UTRs.

[0289] As used herein, the term "altered", as it relates to a UTR sequence, means that the UTR has been changed in some way in relation to a reference sequence. For example, a 3' or 5' UTR can be altered relative to a wild type or native UTR by the change in orientation or location as taught above or can be altered by the inclusion of additional nucleotides, deletion of nucleotides, swapping or transposition of nucleotides. Any of these changes producing an "altered" UTR (whether 3 ' or 5') comprise a variant UTR.

[0290] In some embodiments, a double, triple or quadruple UTR such as a 5' or 3' UTR can be used. As used herein, a "double" UTR is one in which two copies of the same UTR are encoded either in series or substantially in series. For example, a double beta-globin 3' UTR can be used as described in US Patent publication 20100129877, the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

[0291] It is also within the scope of the present invention to have patterned UTRs. As used herein "patterned UTRs" are those UTRs which reflect a repeating or alternating pattern, such as ABABAB or AABBAABBAABB or ABCABCABC or variants thereof repeated once, twice, or more than 3 times. In these patterns, each letter, A, B, or C represent a different UTR at the nucleotide level.

[0292] In some embodiments, flanking regions are selected from a family of transcripts whose proteins share a common function, structure, feature of property. For example, polypeptides of interest can belong to a family of proteins which are expressed in a particular cell, tissue or at some time during development. The UTRs from any of these genes can be swapped for any other UTR of the same or different family of proteins to create a new polynucleotide.

[0293] As used herein, a "family of proteins" is used in the broadest sense to refer to a group of two or more polypeptides of interest which share at least one function, structure, feature, localization, origin, or expression pattern.

[0294] In some embodiments, flanking regions can be heterologous. In some embodiments, the 5' untranslated region can be derived from a different species than the 3' untranslated region. The untranslated region can also include translation enhancer elements (TEE). As a non-limiting example, the TEE can include those described in US Application No. 20090226470, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety, and those known in the art.

3' UTR and the AU Rich Elements

[0295] Natural or wild type 3 ' UTRs are known to have stretches of Adenosines and Uridines embedded in them. These AU rich signatures are particularly prevalent in genes with high rates of turnover. Based on their sequence features and functional properties, the AU rich elements (AREs) can be separated into three classes (Chen et al, 1995): Class I AREs contain several dispersed copies of an AUUUA motif within U-rich regions. C-Myc and MyoD contain class I AREs. Class II AREs possess two or more overlapping UUAUUUA(U/A)(U/A) nonamers. Molecules containing this type of AREs include GM-CSF and TNF-a. Class III ARES are less well defined. These U rich regions do not contain an AUUUA motif. c-Jun and Myogenin are two well-studied examples of this class. Most proteins binding to the AREs are known to destabilize the messenger, whereas members of the ELAV family, most notably HuR, have been documented to increase the stability of mRNA. HuR binds to AREs of all the three classes. Engineering the HuR specific binding sites into the 3' UTR of nucleic acid molecules will lead to HuR binding and thus, stabilization of the message in vivo.

[0296] Introduction, removal or modification of 3' UTR AU rich elements (AREs) can be used to modulate the stability of polynucleotides of the invention. When engineering specific polynucleotides, one or more copies of an ARE can be introduced to make polynucleotides of the invention less stable and thereby curtail translation and decrease production of the resultant protein. Likewise, AREs can be identified and removed or mutated to increase the intracellular stability and thus increase translation and production of the resultant protein. Transfection experiments can be conducted in relevant cell lines, using polynucleotides of the invention and protein production can be assayed at various time points post-transfection. For example, cells can be transfected with different ARE-engineering molecules and by using an ELISA kit to the relevant protein and assaying protein produced at 6 hour, 12 hour, 24 hour, 48 hour, and 7 days post-transfection. microRNA Binding Sites

[0297] microRNAs (or miRNA) are 19-25 nucleotide long noncoding RNAs that bind to the 3 'UTR of nucleic acid molecules and down-regulate gene expression either by reducing nucleic acid molecule stability or by inhibiting translation. The polynucleotides of the invention can further comprise one or more microRNA target sequences, microRNA seqences, or microRNA seeds. Such sequences can correspond to any known microRNA such as those taught in US Publication US2005/0261218 and US Publication US2005/0059005, the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

[0298] A microRNA sequence comprises a "seed" region, i.e., a sequence in the region of positions 2-8 of the mature microRNA, which sequence has perfect Watson-Crick complementarity to the miRNA target sequence. A microRNA seed can comprise positions 2-8 or 2-7 of the mature microRNA. In some embodiments, a microRNA seed can comprise 7 nucleotides (e.g., nucleotides 2-8 of the mature microRNA), wherein the seed-complementary site in the corresponding miRNA target is flanked by an adenine (A) opposed to microRNA position 1. In some embodiments, a microRNA seed can comprise 6 nucleotides (e.g., nucleotides 2-7 of the mature microRNA), wherein the seed-complementary site in the corresponding miRNA target is flanked byan adenine (A) opposed to microRNA position 1. See for example, Grimson A, Farh KK, Johnston WK, Garrett-Engele P, Lim LP, Bartel DP; Mol Cell. 2007 Jul 6;27(1):91-105; each of which is herein incorporated by reference in their entirety. The bases of the microRNA seed have complete complementarity with the target sequence. By engineering microRNA target sequences into the polynucleotides (e.g., in a 3 'UTR like region or other region) of the invention one can target the molecule for degradation or reduced translation, provided the microRNA in question is available. This process will reduce the hazard of off target effects upon nucleic acid molecule delivery. Identification of microRNA, microRNA target regions, and their expression patterns and role in biology have been reported (Bonauer et al., Curr Drug Targets 2010 1 1 :943-949; Anand and Cheresh Curr Opin Hematol 201 1 18: 171-176; Contreras and Rao Leukemia 2012 26:404-413 (201 1 Dec 20. doi: 10.1038/leu.201 1.356); Bartel Cell 2009 136:215-233; Landgraf et al, Cell, 2007 129: 1401-1414; each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0299] For example, if the nucleic acid molecule is a mRNA and is not intended to be delivered to the liver but ends up there, then miR-122, a microRNA abundant in liver, can inhibit the expression of the gene of interest if one or multiple target sites of miR-122 are engineered into the 3 ' UTR region of the polynucleotides. Introduction of one or multiple binding sites for different microRNA can be engineered to further decrease the longevity, stability, and protein translation of polynucleotides. [0300] As used herein, the term "microRNA site" refers to a microRNA target site or a microRNA recognition site, or any nucleotide sequence to which a microRNA binds or associates. It should be understood that "binding" may follow traditional Watson-Crick hybridization rules or may reflect any stable association of the microRNA with the target sequence at or adjacent to the microRNA site.

[0301] Conversely, for the purposes of the polynucleotides of the present invention, microRNA binding sites can be engineered out of (i.e. removed from) sequences in which they occur, e.g., in order to increase protein expression in specific tissues. For example, miR-122 binding sites can be removed to improve protein expression in the liver. Regulation of expression in multiple tissues can be accomplished through introduction or removal or one or several microRNA binding sites.

[0302] Examples of tissues where microRNA are known to regulate mRNA, and thereby protein expression, include, but are not limited to, liver (miR-122), muscle (miR-133, miR-206, miR-208), endothelial cells (miR-17-92, miR-126), myeloid cells (miR-142-3p, miR-142-5p, miR-16, miR-21, miR-223, miR-24, miR-27), adipose tissue (let-7, miR-30c), heart (miR-ld, miR-149), kidney (miR-192, miR-194, miR-204), and lung epithelial cells (let-7, miR-133, miR- 126). MicroRNA can also regulate complex biological processes such as angiogenesis (miR-132) (Anand and Cheresh Curr Opin Hematol 2011 18: 171-176; herein incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0303] Expression profiles, microRNA and cell lines useful in the present invention include those taught in for example, in International Patent Publication Nos. WO2014113089 and WO2014081507, the contents of each of which are incorporated by reference in their entirety.

[0304] In the polynucleotides of the present invention, binding sites for microRNAs that are involved in such processes can be removed or introduced, in order to tailor the expression of the polynucleotides expression to biologically relevant cell types or to the context of relevant biological processes.

[0305] Examples of use of microRNA to drive tissue or disease-specific gene expression are listed (Getner and Naldini, Tissue Antigens. 2012, 80:393-403; herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). In addition, microRNA seed sites can be incorporated into mRNA to decrease expression in certain cells which results in a biological improvement. An example of this is incorporation of miR-142 sites into a UGT1A1 -expressing lentiviral vector. The presence of miR-142 seed sites reduced expression in hematopoietic cells, and as a consequence reduced expression in antigen-presenting cells, leading to the absence of an immune response against the virally expressed UGT1A1 (Schmitt et al., Gastroenterology 2010; 139:999-1007; Gonzalez- Asequinolaza et al. Gastroenterology 2010, 139:726-729; both herein incorporated by reference in its entirety) . Incorporation of miR- 142 sites into modified mRNA could not only reduce expression of the encoded protein in hematopoietic cells, but could also reduce or abolish immune responses to the mRNA-encoded protein. Incorporation of miR- 142 seed sites (one or multiple) into mRNA would be important in the case of treatment of patients with complete protein deficiencies (UGT1A1 type I, LDLR-deficient patients, CRIM-negative Pompe patients, etc.)

[0306] Lastly, through an understanding of the expression patterns of microRNA in different cell types, polynucleotides can be engineered for more targeted expression in specific cell types or only under specific biological conditions. Through introduction of tissue-specific microRNA binding sites, polynucleotides could be designed that would be optimal for protein expression in a tissue or in the context of a biological condition.

[0307] Transfection experiments can be conducted in relevant cell lines, using engineered polynucleotides and protein production can be assayed at various time points post-transfection. For example, cells can be transfected with different microRNA binding site-engineering polynucleotides and by using an ELISA kit to the relevant protein and assaying protein produced at 6 hour, 12 hour, 24 hour, 48 hour, 72 hour and 7 days post-transfection. In vivo experiments can also be conducted using microRNA-binding site-engineered molecules to examine changes in tissue-specific expression of formulated polynucleotides.

[0308] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides can comprise at least one miR sequence or variant thereof. A non-exhaustive listing of miR sequences for use in polynucleotides is described in International Patent Application No. PCT/US 13/62531, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0309] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides can comprise at least one miR sequence that bind and inhibit the untranslated region of HMG-CoA reductase or PCSK9. Non-limiting examples of the miR sequences that bind and inhibit the untranslated region of HMG-CoA reductase or PCSK9 are described in International Patent Publication No. WO2013154766, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. As a non-limiting example, the polynucleotides can comprise a miR sequence that comprises miR-520d-5p, miR-224 or variants thereof (see, e.g., International Patent Publication No. WO2013154766, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). As another non-limiting example, the polynucleotides can comprise a miR sequence of International Patent Publication No. WO2013154766, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. As yet another non-limiting example, the polynucleotides can comprise a miR sequence that comprises miR-224 or variants thereof (see e.g., International Patent Publication No. WO2013154766, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). As another non-limiting example, the polynucleotides can comprise a miR sequence that comprises miR-520d-5p and miR-224 or variants thereof (see e.g., International Patent Publication No. WO2013154766, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety).

Regions having a 5' Cap

[0310] The 5' cap structure of a natural mRNA is involved in nuclear export, increasing mRNA stability and binds the mRNA Cap Binding Protein (CBP), which is responsible for mRNA stability in the cell and translation competency through the association of CBP with poly(A) binding protein to form the mature cyclic mRNA species. The cap further assists the removal of 5' proximal introns removal during mRNA splicing.

[0311] Endogenous mRNA molecules can be 5 '-end capped generating a 5'-ppp-5'- triphosphate linkage between a terminal guanosine cap residue and the 5 '-terminal transcribed sense nucleotide of the mRNA molecule. This 5'-guanylate cap can then be methylated to generate an N7-methyl-guanylate residue. The ribose sugars of the terminal and/or anteterminal transcribed nucleotides of the 5' end of the mRNA can optionally also be 2'-0-methylated. 5'- decapping through hydrolysis and cleavage of the guanylate cap structure can target a nucleic acid molecule, such as an mRNA molecule, for degradation.

[0312] In some embodiments, polynucleotides can be designed to incorporate a cap moiety. Modifications to the polynucleotides of the present invention can generate a non-hydrolyzable cap structure preventing decapping and thus increasing mRNA half-life. Because cap structure hydrolysis requires cleavage of 5'-ppp-5' phosphorodiester linkages, modified nucleotides can be used during the capping reaction. For example, a Vaccinia Capping Enzyme from New England Biolabs (Ipswich, MA) can be used with a-thio-guanosine nucleotides according to the manufacturer's instructions to create a phosphorothioate linkage in the 5'-ppp-5' cap. Additional modified guanosine nucleotides can be used such as a-methyl-phosphonate and seleno-phosphate nucleotides. [0313] Additional modifications include, but are not limited to, 2'-0-methylation of the ribose sugars of 5 '-terminal and/or 5'-anteterminal nucleotides of the polynucleotide (as mentioned above) on the 2'-hydroxyl group of the sugar ring. Multiple distinct 5 '-cap structures can be used to generate the 5 '-cap of a nucleic acid molecule, such as a polynucleotide which functions as an mRNA molecule.

[0314] Cap analogs, which herein are also referred to as synthetic cap analogs, chemical caps, chemical cap analogs, or structural or functional cap analogs, differ from natural (i.e. endogenous, wild-type or physiological) 5 '-caps in their chemical structure, while retaining cap function. Cap analogs can be chemically (i.e. non-enzymatically) or enzymatically synthesized and/or linked to the polynucleotides of the invention.

[0315] For example, the Anti-Reverse Cap Analog (ARCA) cap contains two guanines linked by a 5 '-5 '-triphosphate group, wherein one guanine contains an N7 methyl group as well as a 3'- O-methyl group (i.e., N7,3'-0-dimethyl-guanosine-5'-triphosphate-5'-guanosine (m7G-3 'mppp-G; which may equivalently be designated 3' 0-Me-m7G(5')ppp(5')G). The 3'-0 atom of the other, unmodified, guanine becomes linked to the 5 '-terminal nucleotide of the capped polynucleotide. The N7- and 3 '-O-methlyated guanine provides the terminal moiety of the capped polynucleotide.

[0316] Another exemplary cap is mCAP, which is similar to ARCA but has a 2'-0-methyl group on guanosine (i.e., N7,2'-0-dimethyl-guanosine-5'-triphosphate-5'-guanosine, m7Gm-ppp- G).

[0317] In some embodiments, the cap is a dinucleotide cap analog. As a non-limiting example, the dinucleotide cap analog can be modified at different phosphate positions with a boranophosphate group or a phophoroselenoate group such as the dinucleotide cap analogs described in US Patent No. US 8,519, 110, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0318] In another embodiment, the cap is a cap analog is a N7-(4-chlorophenoxyethyl) substituted dicucleotide form of a cap analog known in the art and/or described herein. Non- limiting examples of a N7-(4-chlorophenoxyethyl) substituted dicucleotide form of a cap analog include a N7-(4-chlorophenoxyethyl)-G(5')ppp(5')G and a N7-(4-chlorophenoxyethyl)-m3 " °G(5')ppp(5')G cap analog (See, e.g., the various cap analogs and the methods of synthesizing cap analogs described in Kore et al. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 2013 21 :4570-4574; the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). In another embodiment, a cap analog of the present invention is a 4-chloro/bromophenoxy ethyl analog.

[0319] While cap analogs allow for the concomitant capping of a polynucleotide or a region thereof, in an in vitro transcription reaction, up to 20% of transcripts can remain uncapped. This, as well as the structural differences of a cap analog from an endogenous 5 '-cap structures of nucleic acids produced by the endogenous, cellular transcription machinery, can lead to reduced translational competency and reduced cellular stability.

[0320] Polynucleotides of the invention can also be capped post-manufacture (whether IVT or chemical synthesis), using enzymes, in order to generate more authentic 5 '-cap structures. As used herein, the phrase "more authentic" refers to a feature that closely mirrors or mimics, either structurally or functionally, an endogenous or wild type feature. That is, a "more authentic" feature is better representative of an endogenous, wild-type, natural or physiological cellular function and/or structure as compared to synthetic features or analogs, etc., of the prior art, or which outperforms the corresponding endogenous, wild-type, natural or physiological feature in one or more respects. Non-limiting examples of more authentic 5 'cap structures of the present invention are those which, among other things, have enhanced binding of cap binding proteins, increased half life, reduced susceptibility to 5' endonucleases and/or reduced 5'decapping, as compared to synthetic 5 'cap structures known in the art (or to a wild-type, natural or physiological 5 'cap structure). For example, recombinant Vaccinia Virus Capping Enzyme and recombinant 2'-0-methyltransferase enzyme can create a canonical 5 '-5 '-triphosphate linkage between the 5 '-terminal nucleotide of a polynucleotide and a guanine cap nucleotide wherein the cap guanine contains an N7 methylation and the 5 '-terminal nucleotide of the mRNA contains a 2'-0-methyl. Such a structure is termed the Capl structure. This cap results in a higher translational-competency and cellular stability and a reduced activation of cellular proinflammatory cytokines, as compared, e.g., to other 5 'cap analog structures known in the art. Cap structures include, but are not limited to, 7mG(5')ppp(5')N,pN2p (cap 0), 7mG(5')ppp(5')NlmpNp (cap 1), and 7mG(5')-ppp(5')NlmpN2mp (cap 2).

[0321] As a non-limiting example, capping chimeric polynucleotides post-manufacture can be more efficient as nearly 100% of the chimeric polynucleotides can be capped. This is in contrast to -80% when a cap analog is linked to a chimeric polynucleotide in the course of an in vitro transcription reaction. [0322] According to the present invention, 5' terminal caps can include endogenous caps or cap analogs. According to the present invention, a 5' terminal cap can comprise a guanine analog. Useful guanine analogs include, but are not limited to, inosine, Nl-methyl-guanosine, 2'fluoro- guanosine, 7-deaza-guanosine, 8-oxo-guanosine, 2-amino-guanosine, LNA-guanosine, and 2- azido-guanosine.

Viral Sequences

[0323] Additional viral sequences such as, but not limited to, the translation enhancer sequence of the barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV-PAV), the Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) and/or the Enzootic nasal tumor virus (See, e.g., International Pub. No. WO2012129648; herein incorporated by reference in its entirety) can be engineered and inserted in the polynucleotides of the invention and can stimulate the translation of the construct in vitro and in vivo. Transfection experiments can be conducted in relevant cell lines at and protein production can be assayed by ELISA at 12hr, 24hr, 48hr, 72 hr and day 7 post-transfection.

IRES Sequences

[0324] Further, provided are polynucleotides which can contain an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). First identified as a feature Picorna virus RNA, IRES plays an important role in initiating protein synthesis in absence of the 5' cap structure. An IRES can act as the sole ribosome binding site, or can serve as one of multiple ribosome binding sites of an mRNA. Polynucleotides containing more than one functional ribosome binding site may encode several peptides or polypeptides that are translated independently by the ribosomes ("multicistronic nucleic acid molecules"). When polynucleotides are provided with an IRES, further optionally provided is a second translatable region. Examples of IRES sequences that can be used according to the invention include without limitation, those from picornaviruses (e.g. FMDV), pest viruses (CFFV), polio viruses (PV), encephalomyocarditis viruses (ECMV), foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDV), hepatitis C viruses (HCV), classical swine fever viruses (CSFV), murine leukemia virus (MLV), simian immune deficiency viruses (SIV) or cricket paralysis viruses (CrPV).

Poly-A tails

[0325] During RNA processing, a long chain of adenine nucleotides (poly-A tail) can be added to a polynucleotide such as an mRNA molecule in order to increase stability. Immediately after transcription, the 3' end of the transcript can be cleaved to free a 3' hydroxyl. Then poly-A polymerase adds a chain of adenine nucleotides to the RNA. The process, called polyadenylation, adds a poly-A tail that can be between, for example, approximately 80 to approximately 250 residues long, including approximately 80, 90, 100, 1 10, 120, 130, 140, 150, 160, 170, 180, 190, 200, 210, 220, 230, 240 or 250 residues long.

[0326] PolyA tails can also be added after the construct is exported from the nucleus.

[0327] According to the present invention, terminal groups on the poly A tail can be incorporated for stabilization. Polynucleotides of the present invention can incude des-3' hydroxyl tails. They can also include structural moieties or 2'-Omethyl modifications as taught by Junjie Li, et al. (Current Biology, Vol. 15, 1501-1507, August 23, 2005, the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in its entirety).

[0328] The polynucleotides of the present invention can be desiged to encode transcripts with alternative polyA tail structures including histone mRNA. According to Norbury, "Terminal uridylation has also been detected on human replication-dependent histone mRNAs. The turnover of these mRNAs is thought to be important for the prevention of potentially toxic histone accumulation following the completion or inhibition of chromosomal DNA replication. These mRNAs are distinguished by their lack of a 3 ' poly(A) tail, the function of which is instead assumed by a stable stem-loop structure and its cognate stem-loop binding protein (SLBP); the latter carries out the same functions as those of PABP on polyadenylated mRNAs" (Norbury, "Cytoplasmic RNA: a case of the tail wagging the dog," Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology; AOP, published online 29 August 2013; doi: 10.1038/nrm3645) the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

[0329] Unique poly-A tail lengths provide certain advantages to the polynucleotides of the present invention.

[0330] Generally, the length of a poly-A tail, when present, is greater than 30 nucleotides in length. In another embodiment, the poly-A tail is greater than 35 nucleotides in length (e.g., at least or greater than about 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1,000, 1, 100, 1,200, 1,300, 1,400, 1,500, 1,600, 1,700, 1,800, 1,900, 2,000, 2,500, and 3,000 nucleotides). In some embodiments, the polynucleotide or region thereof includes from about 30 to about 3,000 nucleotides (e.g., from 30 to 50, from 30 to 100, from 30 to 250, from 30 to 500, from 30 to 750, from 30 to 1,000, from 30 to 1,500, from 30 to 2,000, from 30 to 2,500, from 50 to 100, from 50 to 250, from 50 to 500, from 50 to 750, from 50 to 1,000, from 50 to 1,500, from 50 to 2,000, from 50 to 2,500, from 50 to 3,000, from 100 to 500, from 100 to 750, from 100 to 1,000, from 100 to 1,500, from 100 to 2,000, from 100 to 2,500, from 100 to 3,000, from 500 to 750, from 500 to 1,000, from 500 to 1,500, from 500 to 2,000, from 500 to 2,500, from 500 to 3,000, from 1,000 to 1,500, from 1,000 to 2,000, from 1,000 to 2,500, from 1,000 to 3,000, from 1,500 to 2,000, from 1,500 to 2,500, from 1,500 to 3,000, from 2,000 to 3,000, from 2,000 to 2,500, and from 2,500 to 3,000).

[0331] In some embodiments, the poly-A tail is designed relative to the length of the overall polynucleotide or the length of a particular region of the polynucleotide. This design can be based on the length of a coding region, the length of a particular feature or region or based on the length of the ultimate product expressed from the polynucleotides.

[0332] In this context, the poly-A tail can be 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, or 100% greater in length than the polynucleotide or feature thereof. The poly-A tail can also be designed as a fraction of the polynucleotides to which it belongs. In this context, the poly-A tail can be 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, or 90% or more of the total length of the construct, a construct region or the total length of the construct minus the poly-A tail. Further, engineered binding sites and conjugation of polynucleotides for Poly-A binding protein can enhance expression.

[0333] Additionally, multiple distinct polynucleotides can be linked together via the PABP (Poly-A binding protein) through the 3 '-end using modified nucleotides at the 3 '-terminus of the poly-A tail. Transfection experiments can be conducted in relevant cell lines at and protein production can be assayed by ELISA at 12hr, 24hr, 48hr, 72 hr and day 7 post-transfection.

[0334] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides of the present invention are designed to include a polyA-G Quartet region. The G-quartet is a cyclic hydrogen bonded array of four guanine nucleotides that can be formed by G-rich sequences in both DNA and RNA. In this embodiment, the G-quartet is incorporated at the end of the poly-A tail. The resultant polynucleotide is assayed for stability, protein production and other parameters including half- life at various time points. It has been discovered that the polyA-G quartet results in protein production from an mRNA equivalent to at least 75% of that seen using a poly-A tail of 120 nucleotides alone.

Start codon region

[0335] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides of the present invention can have regions that are analogous to or function like a start codon region.

[0336] In some embodiments, the translation of a polynucleotide can initiate on a codon which is not the start codon AUG. Translation of the polynucleotide can initiate on an alternative start codon such as, but not limited to, ACG, AGG, AAG, CTG/CUG, GTG/GUG, ATA/AUA, ATT/AUU, TTG/UUG (see Touriol et al. Biology of the Cell 95 (2003) 169-178 and Matsuda and Mauro PLoS ONE, 2010 5: 11; the contents of each of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). As a non-limiting example, the translation of a polynucleotide begins on the alternative start codon ACG. As another non-limiting example, polynucleotide translation begins on the alternative start codon CTG or CUG. As yet another non-limiting example, the translation of a polynucleotide begins on the alternative start codon GTG or GUG.

[0337] Nucleotides flanking a codon that initiates translation such as, but not limited to, a start codon or an alternative start codon, are known to affect the translation efficiency, the length and/or the structure of the polynucleotide. (See, e.g., Matsuda and Mauro PLoS ONE, 2010 5: 11; the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). Masking any of the nucleotides flanking a codon that initiates translation can be used to alter the position of translation initiation, translation efficiency, length and/or structure of a polynucleotide.

[0338] In some embodiments, a masking agent can be used near the start codon or alternative start codon in order to mask or hide the codon to reduce the probability of translation initiation at the masked start codon or alternative start codon. Non-limiting examples of masking agents include antisense locked nucleic acids (LNA) polynucleotides and exon-junction complexes (EJCs) (See, e.g., Matsuda and Mauro describing masking agents LNA polynucleotides and EJCs (PLoS ONE, 2010 5: 11); the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0339] In another embodiment, a masking agent can be used to mask a start codon of a polynucleotide in order to increase the likelihood that translation will initiate on an alternative start codon.

[0340] In some embodiments, a masking agent can be used to mask a first start codon or alternative start codon in order to increase the chance that translation will initiate on a start codon or alternative start codon downstream to the masked start codon or alternative start codon.

[0341] In some embodiments, a start codon or alternative start codon can be located within a perfect complement for a miR binding site. The perfect complement of a miR binding site can help control the translation, length and/or structure of the polynucleotide similar to a masking agent. As a non-limiting example, the start codon or alternative start codon can be located in the middle of a perfect complement for a miR-122 binding site. The start codon or alternative start codon can be located after the first nucleotide, second nucleotide, third nucleotide, fourth nucleotide, fifth nucleotide, sixth nucleotide, seventh nucleotide, eighth nucleotide, ninth nucleotide, tenth nucleotide, eleventh nucleotide, twelfth nucleotide, thirteenth nucleotide, fourteenth nucleotide, fifteenth nucleotide, sixteenth nucleotide, seventeenth nucleotide, eighteenth nucleotide, nineteenth nucleotide, twentieth nucleotide or twenty -first nucleotide.

[0342] In another embodiment, the start codon of a polynucleotide can be removed from the polynucleotide sequence in order to have the translation of the polynucleotide begin on a codon which is not the start codon. Translation of the polynucleotide can begin on the codon following the removed start codon or on a downstream start codon or an alternative start codon. In a non- limiting example, the start codon ATG or AUG is removed as the first 3 nucleotides of the polynucleotide sequence in order to have translation initiate on a downstream start codon or alternative start codon. The polynucleotide sequence where the start codon was removed can further comprise at least one masking agent for the downstream start codon and/or alternative start codons in order to control or attempt to control the initiation of translation, the length of the polynucleotide and/or the structure of the polynucleotide.

Stop Codon Region

[0343] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides of the present invention can include at least two stop codons before the 3' untranslated region (UTR). The stop codon can be selected from TGA, TAA and TAG. In some embodiments, the polynucleotides of the present invention include the stop codon TGA and one additional stop codon. In a further embodiment the addition stop codon can be TAA. In another embodiment, the polynucleotides of the present invention include three stop codons.

Signal Sequences

[0344] The polynucleotides can also encode additional features which facilitate trafficking of the polypeptides to therapeutically relevant sites. One such feature which aids in protein trafficking is the signal sequence. As used herein, a "signal sequence" or "signal peptide" is a polynucleotide or polypeptide, respectively, which is from about 9 to 200 nucleotides (3-60 amino acids) in length which is incorporated at the 5' (or N-terminus) of the coding region or polypeptide encoded, respectively. Addition of these sequences result in trafficking of the encoded polypeptide to the endoplasmic reticulum through one or more secretory pathways. Some signal peptides are cleaved from the protein by signal peptidase after the proteins are transported. [0345] Additional signal sequences which can be utilized in the present invention include those taught in, for example, databases such as those found at http://www.signalpeptide.de/ or http://proline.bic.nus.edu.sg/spdb/. Those described in US Patents 8, 124,379; 7,413,875 and 7,385,034 are also within the scope of the invention and the contents of each are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

Target Selection

[0346] According to the present invention, the polynucleotide can comprise at least a first region of linked nucleosides encoding at least one polypeptide of interest. Some polypeptides of interest or "targets" of the present invention are listed in Table 3A-B below. Shown in Table 3 A- B, in addition to the name and description of the gene encoding the polypeptide of interest, are the ENSEMBL Transcript ID (ENST), the ENSEMBL Protein ID (ENSP) and when available the optimized sequence ID (OPT SEQ ID). For any particular gene there can exist one or more variants or isoforms. It will be appreciated by those of skill in the art that disclosed in the Table 3A-B are potential flanking regions. These are encoded in each ENST transcript either to the 5' (upstream) or 3 ' (downstream) of the ORF or coding region. The coding region is definitively and specifically disclosed by teaching the ENSP sequence. Consequently, the sequences taught flanking that encoding the protein are considered flanking regions. It is also possible to further characterize the 5' and 3' flanking regions by utilizing one or more available databases or algorithms. Databases have annotated the features contained in the flanking regions of the ENST transcripts and these are available in the art.

Table 3A. LDLR Polypeptides and Polynucleotides

Figure imgf000077_0001
6 LDLR low density lipoprotein 454147 42 561343 61, 80, 87,

receptor 94, 101, 108

7 LDLR low density lipoprotein 454071 43 558518 62, 74, 81,

receptor 88, 95, 102,

109-718

8 LDLR low density lipoprotein none ~ 63

receptor

Table 3B. Mutant Polypeptides of Interests

9 LDLR1 D331E low density lipoprotein none 44 none 64

PCSK9 mutant receptor PCSK9 mutant

10 LDLR1 L339D low density lipoprotein none 45 none 65

PCSK9 mutant receptor PCSK9 mutant

11 LDLR1 N316A low density lipoprotein none 46 none 66

PCSK9 Mutant receptor PCSK9 mutant

12 LDLR1 E317A low density lipoprotein none 47 none 67

PCSK9 Mutant receptor PCSK9 mutant

13 LDLR1 Y336A low density lipoprotein none 48 none 68

PCSK9 Mutant receptor PCSK9 mutant

14 LDLR1 4A low density lipoprotein none 49 none 69

receptor PCSK9 mutant

15 LDLR N316A, low density lipoprotein none 50 none

K830R, C839A receptor PCSK9/

ubiquitation mutant

16 LDLR N316A, low density lipoprotein none 51 none

K816R, K830R, receptor PCSK9/

C839A ubiquitation mutant

17 LDLR L339D, low density lipoprotein none 52 none

K830R, C839A receptor PCSK9/

ubiquitation mutant

18 LDLR L339D, low density lipoprotein none 53 none

K816R, K830R, receptor PCSK9/

C839A ubiquitation mutant

19 LDLR K830R, low density lipoprotein none 54 none

C839A receptor/ubiquitation

mutant

20 LDLR K816R, low density lipoprotein none 55 none

K830R, C839A receptor/ubiquitation

mutant

21 LDLR N316A, low density lipoprotein none none

K830R (LDLR- receptor/PCSK9/

773) ubiquitation mutant

22 LDLR N339A, low density lipoprotein none none

K830R (LDLR- receptor/PCSK9/

774) ubiquitation mutant

[0347] Table 3B shows human LDLR mutant sequences comprising at least two mutations and the corresponding DNA and/or mRNA constructs. Protein Cleavage Signals and Sites

[0348] In some embodiments, the polypeptides of the present invention can include at least one protein cleavage signal containing at least one protein cleavage site. The protein cleavage site can be located at the N-terminus, the C-terminus, at any space between the N- and the C- termini such as, but not limited to, half-way between the N- and C-termini, between the N- terminus and the half way point, between the half way point and the C-terminus, and combinations thereof.

[0349] The polypeptides of the present invention can include, but are not limited to, a proprotein convertase (or prohormone convertase), thrombin or Factor Xa protein cleavage signal. Proprotein convertases are a family of nine proteinases, comprising seven basic amino acid-specific subtili sin-like serine proteinases related to yeast kexin, known as prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC 1/3), PC2, furin, PC4, PC5/6, paired basic amino-acid cleaving enzyme 4 (PACE4) and PC7, and two other subtilases that cleave at non-basic residues, called subtilisin kexin isozyme 1 (SKI-1) and proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 (PCSK9).

[0350] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides of the present invention can be engineered such that the polynucleotide contains at least one encoded protein cleavage signal. The encoded protein cleavage signal can be located in any region including but not limited to before the start codon, after the start codon, before the coding region, within the coding region such as, but not limited to, half way in the coding region, between the start codon and the half way point, between the half way point and the stop codon, after the coding region, before the stop codon, between two stop codons, after the stop codon and combinations thereof.

[0351] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides of the present invention can include at least one encoded protein cleavage signal containing at least one protein cleavage site. The encoded protein cleavage signal can include, but is not limited to, a proprotein convertase (or prohormone convertase), thrombin and/or Factor Xa protein cleavage signal.

[0352] As a non-limiting example, U.S. Pat. No. 7,374,930 and U.S. Pub. No. 20090227660, herein incorporated by reference in their entireties, use a furin cleavage site to cleave the N- terminal methionine of GLP-1 in the expression product from the Golgi apparatus of the cells. In some embodiments, the polypeptides of the present invention include at least one protein cleavage signal and/or site with the proviso that the polypeptide is not GLP-1. Insertions and Substitutions

[0353] In some embodiments, the 5'UTR of the polynucleotide can be replaced by the insertion of at least one region and/or string of nucleosides of the same base. The region and/or string of nucleotides can include, but is not limited to, at least 3, at least 4, at least 5, at least 6, at least 7 or at least 8 nucleotides and the nucleotides can be natural and/or unnatural. As a non- limiting example, the group of nucleotides can include 5-8 adenine, cytosine, thymine, a string of any of the other nucleotides disclosed herein and/or combinations thereof.

[0354] In some embodiments, the 5'UTR of the polynucleotide can be replaced by the insertion of at least two regions and/or strings of nucleotides of two different bases such as, but not limited to, adenine, cytosine, thymine, any of the other nucleotides disclosed herein and/or combinations thereof. For example, the 5'UTR can be replaced by inserting 5-8 adenine bases followed by the insertion of 5-8 cytosine bases. In another example, the 5'UTR can be replaced by inserting 5-8 cytosine bases followed by the insertion of 5-8 adenine bases.

[0355] In some embodiments, the polynucleotide can include at least one substitution and/or insertion downstream of the transcription start site which can be recognized by an RNA polymerase. As a non-limiting example, at least one substitution and/or insertion can occur downstream the transcription start site by substituting at least one nucleic acid in the region just downstream of the transcription start site (such as, but not limited to, +1 to +6). Changes to region of nucleotides just downstream of the transcription start site can affect initiation rates, increase apparent nucleotide triphosphate (NTP) reaction constant values, and increase the dissociation of short transcripts from the transcription complex curing initial transcription (Brieba et al, Biochemistry (2002) 41 : 5144-5149; herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). The modification, substitution and/or insertion of at least one nucleoside can cause a silent mutation of the sequence or can cause a mutation in the amino acid sequence.

[0356] In some embodiments, the polynucleotide can include the substitution of at least 1, at least 2, at least 3, at least 4, at least 5, at least 6, at least 7, at least 8, at least 9, at least 10, at least 11, at least 12 or at least 13 guanine bases downstream of the transcription start site.

[0357] In some embodiments, the polynucleotide can include the substitution of at least 1, at least 2, at least 3, at least 4, at least 5 or at least 6 guanine bases in the region just downstream of the transcription start site. As a non-limiting example, if the nucleotides in the region are GGGAGA, the guanine bases can be substituted by at least 1, at least 2, at least 3 or at least 4 adenine nucleotides. In another non-limiting example, if the nucleotides in the region are GGGAGA the guanine bases can be substituted by at least 1, at least 2, at least 3 or at least 4 cytosine bases. In another non-limiting example, if the nucleotides in the region are GGGAGA the guanine bases can be substituted by at least 1, at least 2, at least 3 or at least 4 thymine, and/or any of the nucleotides described herein.

[0358] In some embodiments, the polynucleotide can include at least one substitution and/or insertion upstream of the start codon. For the purpose of clarity, one of skill in the art would appreciate that the start codon is the first codon of the protein coding region whereas the transcription start site is the site where transcription begins. The polynucleotide can include, but is not limited to, at least 1, at least 2, at least 3, at least 4, at least 5, at least 6, at least 7 or at least 8 substitutions and/or insertions of nucleotide bases. The nucleotide bases can be inserted or substituted at 1, at least 1, at least 2, at least 3, at least 4 or at least 5 locations upstream of the start codon. The nucleotides inserted and/or substituted can be the same base (e.g., all A or all C or all T or all G), two different bases (e.g., A and C, A and T, or C and T), three different bases (e.g., A, C and T or A, C and T) or at least four different bases. As a non-limiting example, the guanine base upstream of the coding region in the polynucleotide can be substituted with adenine, cytosine, thymine, or any of the nucleotides described herein. In another non-limiting example the substitution of guanine bases in the polynucleotide can be designed so as to leave one guanine base in the region downstream of the transcription start site and before the start codon (see Esvelt et al. Nature (2011) 472(7344):499-503; the contents of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). As a non-limiting example, at least 5 nucleotides can be inserted at 1 location downstream of the transcription start site but upstream of the start codon and the at least 5 nucleotides can be the same base type.

Incorporating Post Transcriptional Control Modulators

[0359] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides of the present invention can include at least one post transcriptional control modulator. These post transcriptional control modulators can be, but are not limited to, small molecules, compounds and regulatory sequences. As a non- limiting example, post transcriptional control can be achieved using small molecules identified by PTC Therapeutics Inc. (South Plainfield, NJ) using their GEMS™ (Gene Expression Modulation by Small-Moleclues) screening technology.

[0360] The post transcriptional control modulator can be a gene expression modulator which is screened by the method detailed in or a gene expression modulator described in International Publication No. WO2006022712, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. Methods identifying RNA regulatory sequences involved in translational control are described in International Publication No. WO2004067728, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety; methods identifying compounds that modulate untranslated region dependent expression of a gene are described in International Publication No. WO2004065561, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0361] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides of the present invention can include at least one post transcriptional control modulator is located in the 5' and/or the 3' untranslated region of the polynucleotides of the present invention.

[0362] In another embodiment, the polynucleotides of the present invention can include at least one post transcription control modulator to modulate premature translation termination. The post transcription control modulators can be compounds described in or a compound found by methods outlined in International Publication Nos. WO2004010106, WO2006044456, WO2006044682, WO2006044503 and WO2006044505, each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. As a non-limiting example, the compound can bind to a region of the 28S ribosomal RNA in order to modulate premature translation termination (See e.g., WO2004010106, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0363] In some embodiments, polynucleotides of the present invention can include at least one post transcription control modulator to alter protein expression. As a non-limiting example, the expression of VEGF can be regulated using the compounds described in or a compound found by the methods described in International Publication Nos. WO2005118857, WO2006065480, WO2006065479 and WO2006058088, each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0364] The polynucleotides of the present invention can include at least one post transcription control modulator to control translation. In some embodiments, the post transcription control modulator can be a RNA regulatory sequence. As a non-limiting example, the RNA regulatory sequence can be identified by the methods described in International Publication No. WO2006071903, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

II. Design, Synthesis and Quantitation of Polynucleotides

Design-Codon Optimization

[0365] The polynucleotides of the invention, their regions or parts or subregions can be codon optimized. Codon optimization methods are known in the art and can be useful in efforts to achieve one or more of several goals. These goals include to match codon frequencies in target and host organisms to ensure proper folding, bias GC content to increase mRNA stability or reduce secondary structures, minimize tandem repeat codons or base runs that may impair gene construction or expression, customize transcriptional and translational control regions, insert or remove protein trafficking sequences, remove/add post translation modification sites in encoded protein (e.g. glycosylation sites), add, remove or shuffle protein domains, insert or delete restriction sites, modify ribosome binding sites and mRNA degradation sites, to adjust translational rates to allow the various domains of the protein to fold properly, or to reduce or eliminate problem secondary structures within the polynucleotide. Codon optimization tools, algorithms and services are known in the art, non-limiting examples include services from GeneArt (Life Technologies), DNA2.0 (Menlo Park CA) and/or proprietary methods. In some embodiments, the ORF sequence is optimized using optimization algorithms. Codon options for each amino acid are given in Table 4.

Table 4. Codon Options

Figure imgf000083_0001

[0366] Features, which can be considered beneficial in some embodiments of the present invention, can be encoded by regions of the polynucleotide and such regions can be upstream (5') or downstream (3') to a region which encodes a polypeptide. These regions can be incorporated into the polynucleotide before and/or after codon optimization of the protein encoding region or open reading frame (ORF). It is not required that a polynucleotide contain both a 5' and 3' flanking region. Examples of such features include, but are not limited to, untranslated regions (UTRs), Kozak sequences, an oligo(dT) sequence, and detectable tags and can include multiple cloning sites which may have Xbal recognition.

[0367] In some embodiments, a 5' UTR and/or a 3 ' UTR region can be provided as flanking regions. Multiple 5' or 3' UTRs can be included in the flanking regions and can be the same or of different sequences. Any portion of the flanking regions, including none, can be codon optimized and any may independently contain one or more different structural or chemical modifications, before and/or after codon optimization.

[0368] After optimization (if desired), the polynucleotides components are reconstituted and transformed into a vector such as, but not limited to, plasmids, viruses, cosmids, and artificial chromosomes. For example, the optimized polynucleotide can be reconstituted and transformed into chemically competent E. coli, yeast, neurospora, maize, drosophila, etc. where high copy plasmid-like or chromosome structures occur by methods described herein.

[0369] Synthetic polynucleotides and their nucleic acid analogs play an important role in the research and studies of biochemical processes. Various enzyme-assisted and chemical-based methods have been developed to synthesize polynucleotides and nucleic acids.

[0370] Enzymatic methods include in vitro transcription which uses RNA polymerases to synthesize the polynucleotides of the present invention. Enzymatic methods and RNA polymerases for transcription are described in International Patent Application No. PCT/US2014/53907, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0371] Solid-phase chemical synthesis can be used to manufacture the polynucleotides described herein or portions thereof. Solid-phase chemical synthesis manufacturing of the polynucleotides described herein are described in International Patent Application No. PCT/US2014/53907, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0372] Liquid phase chemical synthesis can be used to manufacture the polynucleotides described herein or portions thereof. Liquid phase chemical synthesis manufacturing of the polynucleotides described herein are described in International Patent Application No. PCT/US2014/53907, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. [0373] Combinations of different synthetic methods can be used to manufacture the polynucleotides described herein or portions thereof. These combinations are described in International Patent Application No. PCT/US2014/53907, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0374] Small region synthesis which can be used for regions or subregions of the polynucleotides of the present invention. These synthesis methods are described in International Patent Application No. PCT/US2014/53907, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0375] Ligation of polynucleotide regions or subregions can be used to prepare the polynucleotides described herein. These ligation methods are described in International Patent Application No. PCT/US2014/53907, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0376] In some embodiments, an optimized polynucleotide, e.g., mRNA, of the invention encodes a human low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) or functional fragment thereof comprising at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain (e.g., corresponding to N316, L339, or the combination of N316 and L339 of human LDLR) and at least one or a single amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain (e.g., corresponding to K816, K830, C839, or any combination thereof of human LDLR). In some embodiments, the optimized polynucleotide, e.g., mRNA, encodes a human LDLR or functional fragment thereof comprising at least one mutation in the EGF-A domain corresponding to N316 A, L339D, or N316A/L339D and the at least one or single mutation in the intracellular domain corresponding to K816R, K830R, C839A, K816R/K830R, K816R/C839A, K830R/C839A, or K816R/K830R/C839A of human LDLR. In some embodiments, the optimized polynucleotide, e.g., encodes a human LDLR or functional fragment thereof comprising a mutation in the EGF-A domain corresponding to N316A of human LDLR and the mutation in the intracellular domain corresponding to K830R and/or C839A of human LDLR.

[0377] In some embodiments, the optimized polynucleotide, e.g., mRNA, comprises a human LDLR nucleic acid sequences listed in Table 3A (e.g., selected from SEQ ID NO: 56-63, and 70- 718) altered to encode a human low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) or functional fragment thereof comprising at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain (e.g., corresponding to N316, L339, or the combination of N316 and L339 of human LDLR) and at least one or a single amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain (e.g., corresponding to K816, K830, C839, or any combination thereof of human LDLR). In some embodiments, the mutation in the EGF-A domain corresponds to N316A of human LDLR and the mutation in the intracellular domain corresponds to K830R and/or C839A of human LDLR.

Modified and Conjugated Polynucleotides

[0378] Non-natural modified nucleotides can be introduced to polynucleotides or nucleic acids during synthesis or post-synthesis of the chains to achieve desired functions or properties. The modifications can be on internucleotide lineage, the purine or pyrimidine bases, or sugar. The modification can be introduced at the terminal of a chain or anywhere else in the chain; with chemical synthesis or with a polymerase enzyme. For example, hexitol nucleic acids (HNAs) are nuclease resistant and provide strong hybridization to RNA. Short messenger RNAs (mRNAs) with hexitol residues in two codons have been constructed (Lavrik et al., Biochemistry, 40, 11777-11784 (2001), the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety). The antisense effects of a chimeric HNA gapmer oligonucleotide comprising a phosphorothioate central sequence flanked by 5' and 3' HNA sequences have also been studied (See e.g., Kang et al., Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 32(4), 4411-4419 (2004), the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety). The preparation and uses of modified nucleotides comprising 6-member rings in RNA interference, antisense therapy or other applications are disclosed in US Pat. Application No. 2008/0261905, US Pat. Application No. 2010/0009865, and PCT Application No. WO97/30064 to Herdewijn et al.; the contents of each of which are herein incorporated by reference in their entireties). Modified nucleic acids and their synthesis are disclosed in co-pending International Patent Publication No. WO2013052523, the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference for their entirety. The synthesis and strategy of modified polynucleotides is reviewed by Verma and Eckstein in Annual Review of Biochemistry, vol. 76, 99-134 (1998), the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

[0379] Either enzymatic or chemical ligation methods can be used to conjugate polynucleotides or their regions with different functional blocks, such as fluorescent labels, liquids, nanoparticles, delivery agents, etc. The conjugates of polynucleotides and modified polynucleotides are reviewed by Goodchild in Bioconjugate Chemistry, vol. 1(3), 165-187 (1990), the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety. US Pat. No. 6,835,827 and US Pat. No. 6,525, 183 to Vinayak et al. (the contents of each of which are herein incorporated by reference in their entireties) teach synthesis of labeled oligonucleotides using a labeled solid support.

[0380] In some embodiments, a modified and/or conjugated polynucleotide, e.g., mRNA, of the invention encodes a human low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) or functional fragment thereof comprising at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain (e.g., corresponding to N316, L339, or the combination of N316 and L339 of human LDLR) and at least one or a single amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain (e.g., corresponding to K816, K830, C839, or a combination thereof of human LDLR). In some embodiments, the modified and/or conjugated polynucleotide, e.g,. mRNA, encodes a human LDLR or functional fragment thereof comprising at least one mutation in the EGF-A domain corresponding to N316A, L339D, or N316A/L339D and the single mutation in the intracellular domain corresponding to K816R, K830R, C839A, K816R/K830R, K816R/C839A, K830R/C839A, or K816R/K830R/C839A of human LDLR. In some embodiments, the modified and/or conjugated polynucleotide, e.g., encodes a human LDLR or functional fragment thereof comprising a mutation in the EGF-A domain corresponding to N316A of human LDLR and the mutation in the intracellular domain corresponding to K830R and/or C839A of human LDLR.

Quantification

[0381] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides of the present invention can be quantified in exosomes or when derived from one or more bodily fluid. As used herein "bodily fluids" include peripheral blood, serum, plasma, ascites, urine, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), sputum, saliva, bone marrow, synovial fluid, aqueous humor, amniotic fluid, cerumen, breast milk, broncheoalveolar lavage fluid, semen, prostatic fluid, cowper's fluid or pre-ejaculatory fluid, sweat, fecal matter, hair, tears, cyst fluid, pleural and peritoneal fluid, pericardial fluid, lymph, chyme, chyle, bile, interstitial fluid, menses, pus, sebum, vomit, vaginal secretions, mucosal secretion, stool water, pancreatic juice, lavage fluids from sinus cavities, bronchopulmonary aspirates, blastocyl cavity fluid, and umbilical cord blood. Alternatively, exosomes can be retrieved from an organ selected from the group consisting of lung, heart, pancreas, stomach, intestine, bladder, kidney, ovary, testis, skin, colon, breast, prostate, brain, esophagus, liver, and placenta.

[0382] In the exosome quantification method, a sample of not more than 2mL is obtained from the subject and the exosomes isolated by size exclusion chromatography, density gradient centrifugation, differential centrifugation, nanomembrane ultrafiltration, immunoabsorbent capture, affinity purification, microfluidic separation, or combinations thereof. In the analysis, the level or concentration of a polynucleotide can be an expression level, presence, absence, truncation or alteration of the administered construct. It is advantageous to correlate the level with one or more clinical phenotypes or with an assay for a human disease biomarker. The assay can be performed using construct specific probes, cytometry, qRT-PCR, real-time PCR, PCR, flow cytometry, electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, or combinations thereof while the exosomes can be isolated using immunohistochemical methods such as enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods. Exosomes may also be isolated by size exclusion chromatography, density gradient centrifugation, differential centrifugation, nanomembrane ultrafiltration, immunoabsorbent capture, affinity purification, microfluidic separation, or combinations thereof.

[0383] These methods afford the investigator the ability to monitor, in real time, the level of polynucleotides remaining or delivered. This is possible because the polynucleotides of the present invention differ from the endogenous forms due to the structural or chemical modifications.

[0384] In some embodiments, the polynucleotide can be quantified using methods such as, but not limited to, ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV/Vis). A non-limiting example of a UV/Vis spectrometer is a NANODROP® spectrometer (Therm oFisher, Waltham, MA). The quantified polynucleotide can be analyzed in order to determine if the polynucleotide can be of proper size, check that no degradation of the polynucleotide has occurred. Degradation of the polynucleotide can be checked by methods such as, but not limited to, agarose gel electrophoresis, HPLC based purification methods such as, but not limited to, strong anion exchange HPLC, weak anion exchange HPLC, reverse phase HPLC (RP-HPLC), and hydrophobic interaction HPLC (HIC-HPLC), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS), capillary electrophoresis (CE) and capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE).

Purification

[0385] Purification of the polynucleotides described herein can include, but is not limited to, polynucleotide clean-up, quality assurance and quality control. Clean-up can be performed by methods known in the arts such as, but not limited to, AGENCOURT® beads (Beckman Coulter Genomics, Danvers, MA), poly-T beads, LNA™ oligo-T capture probes (EXIQON® Inc, Vedbaek, Denmark) or HPLC based purification methods such as, but not limited to, strong anion exchange HPLC, weak anion exchange HPLC, reverse phase HPLC (RP-HPLC), and hydrophobic interaction HPLC (HIC-HPLC). The term "purified" when used in relation to a polynucleotide such as a "purified polynucleotide" refers to one that is separated from at least one contaminant. As used herein, a "contaminant" is any substance which makes another unfit, impure or inferior. Thus, a purified polynucleotide (e.g., DNA and RNA) is present in a form or setting different from that in which it is found in nature, or a form or setting different from that which existed prior to subjecting it to a treatment or purification method.

[0386] In some embodiments, purification of a polynucleotide of the invention removes impurities that can reduce or remove an unwanted immune response, e.g., reduing cytokine activity.

[0387] In some embodiments, the polynucleotide of the invention is purified prior to administration using column chromatography (e.g., strong anion exchange HPLC, weak anion exchange HPLC, reverse phase HPLC (RP-HPLC), and hydrophobic interaction HPLC (HIC- HPLC), or (LCMS)). In some embodiments, a column chromatography (e.g., strong anion exchange HPLC, weak anion exchange HPLC, reverse phase HPLC (RP-HPLC), and hydrophobic interaction HPLC (HIC-HPLC), or (LCMS)) purified polynucleotide, which encodes a mutant LDLR disclosed herein increases expression of LDLR compared to polynucleotides encoding the mutant LDLR purified by a different purification method. In some embodiments, a column chromatography (e.g., strong anion exchange HPLC, weak anion exchange HPLC, reverse phase HPLC (RP-HPLC), and hydrophobic interaction HPLC (HIC- HPLC), or (LCMS)) purified polynucleotide encodes a human low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) or functional fragment thereof comprising at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF- A domain (e.g., corresponding to N316, L339, or the combination of N316 and L339 of human LDLR) and at least one or a single amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain (e.g., corresponding to K816, K830, C839, or any combination thereof of human LDLR). In some embodiments, the mutation in the EGF-A domain corresponds to N316A of human LDLR and the mutation in the intracellular domain corresponds to K830R and/or C839A of human LDLR. In some embodiments, the RP-HPLC purified polynucleotide increases LDLR expression (e.g., by at least 20%) and/or decreases LDL, cholesterol and/or triglyceride levels (e.g., by at least 20%) compared to wild-type LDLR. In some embodiments, the purified polynuceotide increases LDLR expression (e.g., by 20-50%, e.g., at least 20%, at least 25%, at least 30%, at least 35%, at least 40%), at least 45%, or at least 50%) and/or decreases LDL, cholesterol and/or triglyceride levels (e.g., by 20-50%, e.g., at least 20%, at least 25%, at least 30%, at least 35%, at least 40%, at least 45%, or at least 50%) compared to wild-type LDLR. [0388] A quality assurance and/or quality control check can be conducted using methods such as, but not limited to, gel electrophoresis, UV absorbance, or analytical HPLC.

[0389] In another embodiment, the polynucleotides can be sequenced by methods including, but not limited to reverse-transcriptase-PCR.

III. Modifications

[0390] As used herein in a polynucleotide (such as a chimeric polynucleotide, IVT polynucleotide or a circular polynucleotide), the terms "chemical modification" or, as appropriate, "chemically modified" refer to modification with respect to adenosine (A), guanosine (G), uridine (U), thymidine (T) or cytidine (C) ribo- or deoxyribnucleosides in one or more of their position, pattern, percent or population. Generally, herein, these terms are not intended to refer to the ribonucleotide modifications in naturally occurring 5 '-terminal mRNA cap moieties.

[0391] In a polypeptide, the term "modification" refers to a modification as compared to the canonical set of 20 amino acids.

[0392] The modifications can be various distinct modifications. In some embodiments, the regions may contain one, two, or more (optionally different) nucleoside or nucleotide modifications. In some embodiments, a modified polynucleotide, introduced to a cell may exhibit reduced degradation in the cell, as compared to an unmodified polynucleotide.

[0393] Modifications which are useful in the present invention include, but are not limited to those in Table 5. Noted in the table are the symbol of the modification, the nucleobase type and whether the modification is naturally occurring or not.

Table 5. Modifications

Name Symbol Base Naturally

Occurring

2-methylthio-N6-(cis-hydroxyisopentenyl)adenosine ms2i6A A YES

2 -methy lthio -N6 -methy lade no sine ms2m6A A YES

2-methylthio-N6-threonyl carbamoyladenosine ms2t6A A YES

N6-glycinylcarbamoyladenosine g6A A YES

N6-isopentenyladenosine i6A A YES

N6 -methy lade no sine m6A A YES

N6-threonylcarbamoyladenosine t6A A YES

l,2'-0-dimethyladenosine mlAm A YES

1 -methy ladenosine mlA A YES

2'-0-methyladenosine Am A YES

2'-0-ribosyladenosine (phosphate) Ar(p) A YES 2-methyladenosine m2A A YES

2-methylthio-N6 isopentenyladenosine ms2i6A A YES

2-methylthio-N6-hydroxynorvalyl carbamoyladenosine ms2hn6A A YES

2'-0-methyladenosine m6A A YES

2'-0-ribosyladenosine (phosphate) Ar(p) A YES isopentenyladenosine Iga A YES

N6-(cis-hydroxyisopentenyl)adenosine io6A A YES

N6,2'-0-dimethyladenosine m6Am A YES

N6,2'-0-dimethyladenosine m6Am A YES

N6,N6,2'-0-trimethyladenosine m62Am A YES

N6 ,N6 -dime thy lade no sine m62A A YES

N6-acetyladenosine ac6A A YES

N6-hydroxynorvalylcarbamoyladenosine hn6A A YES

N6-methyl-N6-threonylcarbamoyladenosine m6t6A A YES

2-methyladenosine m2A A YES

2-methylthio-N6 -isopentenyladenosine ms2i6A A YES

7-deaza-adenosine ~ A NO

Nl-methyl-adenosine ~ A NO

N6, N6 (dimethyl)adenine ~ A NO

N6-cis-hydroxy-isopentenyl-adenosine ~ A NO a-thio-adenosine ~ A NO

2 (amino)adenine ~ A NO

2 (aminopropyl)adenine ~ A NO

2 (methylthio) N6 (isopentenyl)adenine ~ A NO

2-(alkyl)adenine ~ A NO

2-(aminoalkyl)adenine ~ A NO

2-(aminopropyl)adenine ~ A NO

2-(halo)adenine ~ A NO

2-(halo)adenine ~ A NO

2-(propyl)adenine ~ A NO

2 ' - Amino-2 ' -deoxy- ATP ~ A NO

2 ' - Azido-2 ' -deoxy- ATP ~ A NO

2'-Deoxy-2'-a-aminoadenosine TP ~ A NO

2'-Deoxy-2'-a-azidoadenosine TP ~ A NO

6 (alkyl)adenine ~ A NO

6 (methyl)adenine ~ A NO

6-(alkyl)adenine ~ A NO

6-(methyl)adenine ~ A NO

7 (deaza)adenine ~ A NO

8 (alkenyl)adenine ~ A NO

8 (alkynyl)adenine ~ A NO

8 (amino)adenine ~ A NO

8 (thioalkyl)adenine ~ A NO

8-(alkenyl)adenine ~ A NO

8-(alkyl)adenine ~ A NO 8-(alkynyl)adenine ~ A NO

8-(amino)adenine ~ A NO

8-(halo)adenine ~ A NO

8-(hydroxyl)adenine ~ A NO

8-(thioalkyl)adenine ~ A NO

8-(thiol)adenine ~ A NO

8-azido-adenosine ~ A NO aza adenine ~ A NO deaza adenine ~ A NO

N6 (methyl)adenine ~ A NO

N6-(isopentyl)adenine ~ A NO

7-deaza-8-aza-adenosine ~ A NO

7-methyladenine ~ A NO

1-Deazaadenosine TP ~ A NO

2'Fluoro-N6-Bz-deoxyadenosine TP ~ A NO

2'-OMe-2-Amino-ATP ~ A NO

2'0-methyl-N6-Bz-deoxyadenosine TP ~ A NO

2'-a-Ethynyladenosine TP ~ A NO

2-aminoadenine ~ A NO

2-Aminoadenosine TP ~ A NO

2-Amino-ATP ~ A NO

2'-a-Trifluoromethyladenosine TP ~ A NO

2-Azidoadenosine TP ~ A NO

2'-b-Ethynyladenosine TP ~ A NO

2-Bromoadenosine TP ~ A NO

2'-b-Trifluoromethyladenosine TP ~ A NO

2-Chloroadenosine TP ~ A NO

2'-Deoxy-2',2'-difluoroadenosine TP ~ A NO

2'-Deoxy-2'-a-mercaptoadenosine TP ~ A NO

2'-Deoxy-2'-a-thiomethoxyadenosine TP ~ A NO

2'-Deoxy-2'-b-aminoadenosine TP ~ A NO

2'-Deoxy-2'-b-azidoadenosine TP ~ A NO

2'-Deoxy-2'-b-bromoadenosine TP ~ A NO

2'-Deoxy-2'-b-chloroadenosine TP ~ A NO

2'-Deoxy-2'-b-fluoroadenosine TP ~ A NO

2'-Deoxy-2'-b-iodoadenosine TP ~ A NO

2'-Deoxy-2'-b-mercaptoadenosine TP ~ A NO

2'-Deoxy-2'-b-thiomethoxyadenosine TP ~ A NO

2-Fluoroadenosine TP ~ A NO

2-Iodoadenosine TP ~ A NO

2-Mercaptoadenosine TP ~ A NO

2-methoxy-adenine ~ A NO

2 -methy lthio -adenine ~ A NO

2-Trifluoromethyladenosine TP ~ A NO

3-Deaza-3-bromoadenosine TP ~ A NO 3-Deaza-3-chloroadenosine TP ~ A NO

3-Deaza-3-fluoroadenosine TP ~ A NO

3-Deaza-3-iodoadenosine TP ~ A NO

3-Deazaadenosine TP ~ A NO

4'-Azidoadenosine TP ~ A NO

4'-Carbocyclic adenosine TP ~ A NO

4'-Ethynyladenosine TP ~ A NO

5'-Homo-adenosine TP ~ A NO

8-Aza-ATP ~ A NO

8-bromo-adenosine TP ~ A NO

8-Trifluoromethyladenosine TP ~ A NO

9-Deazaadenosine TP ~ A NO

2-aminopurine ~ A/G NO

7-deaza-2,6-diaminopurine ~ A/G NO

7-deaza-8-aza-2,6-diaminopurine ~ A/G NO

7-deaza-8-aza-2-aminopurine ~ A/G NO

2,6-diaminopurine ~ A/G NO

7-deaza-8-aza-adenine, 7-deaza-2-aminopurine ~ A/G NO

2-thiocytidine s2C C YES

3 -methylcytidine m3C C YES

5 -formy Icy tidine f5C c YES

5 -hydro xymethy Icy tidine hm5C c YES

5 -methylcytidine m5C c YES

N4-acetylcytidine ac4C c YES

2 '-O-methy Icy tidine Cm c YES

2'-0-methylcy tidine Cm c YES

5 ,2 '-O-dimethy Icy tidine m5 Cm c YES

5 -formy 1-2 '-O-methy lcytidine f5Cm c YES lysidine k2C c YES

N4,2'-0-dimethylcytidine m4Cm c YES

N4-acetyl-2'-0-methylcytidine ac4Cm c YES

N4-methylcytidine m4C c YES

N4,N4-Dimethyl-2'-OMe-Cytidine TP ~ c YES

4 -methylcytidine ~ c NO

5 -aza-cy tidine ~ c NO

Pseudo-iso-cy tidine ~ c NO pyrrolo-cytidine ~ c NO a-thio-cytidine ~ c NO

2-(thio)cytosine ~ c NO

2 ' - Amino-2 ' -deoxy-CTP ~ c NO

2'-Azido-2'-deoxy-CTP ~ c NO

2'-Deoxy-2'-a-aminocytidine TP ~ c NO

2'-Deoxy-2'-a-azidocytidine TP ~ c NO

3 (deaza) 5 (aza)cytosine ~ c NO

3 (methyl)cytosine ~ c NO 3-(alkyl)cytosine ~ C NO

3-(deaza) 5 (aza)cytosine ~ C NO

3 -(methyl)cy tidine ~ c NO

4,2'-0-dimethylcytidine ~ c NO

5 (halo)cytosine ~ c NO

5 (methyl)cytosine ~ c NO

5 (propynyl)cytosine ~ c NO

5 (trifluoromethyl)cytosine ~ c NO

5-(alkyl)cytosine ~ c NO

5-(alkynyl)cytosine ~ c NO

5-(halo)cytosine ~ c NO

5-(propynyl)cytosine ~ c NO

5-(trifluoromethyl)cytosine ~ c NO

5-bromo-cytidine ~ c NO

5-iodo-cy tidine ~ c NO

5-propynyl cytosine ~ c NO

6-(azo)cytosine ~ c NO

6-aza-cy tidine ~ c NO aza cytosine ~ c NO deaza cytosine ~ c NO

N4 (acetyl)cytosine ~ c NO

1 -methyl- 1 -deaza-pseudoisocy tidine ~ c NO

1 -methyl-pseudoisocytidine ~ c NO

2-methoxy-5-methyl-cytidine ~ c NO

2-methoxy-cytidine ~ c NO

2-thio-5-methyl-cy tidine ~ c NO

4-methoxy- 1 -methyl-pseudoisocytidine ~ c NO

4-methoxy-pseudoisocy tidine ~ c NO

4-thio- 1 -methyl- 1-deaza-pseudoisocytidine ~ c NO

4-thio- 1 -methyl-pseudoisocytidine ~ c NO

4-thio-pseudoisocytidine ~ c NO

5-aza-zebularine ~ c NO

5 -methyl-zebularine ~ c NO pyrrolo-pseudoisocy tidine ~ c NO zebularine ~ c NO

(E)-5-(2-Bromo-vinyl)cytidine TP ~ c NO

2,2 '-anhydro-cytidine TP hydrochloride ~ c NO

2'Fluor-N4-Bz-cytidine TP ~ c NO

2'Fluoro-N4-Acetyl-cytidine TP ~ c NO

2 '-0-Methyl-N4-Acetyl-cy tidine TP ~ c NO

2'0-methyl-N4-Bz-cytidine TP ~ c NO

2'-a-Ethynylcytidine TP ~ c NO

2'-a-Trifluoromethylcytidine TP ~ c NO

2'-b-Ethynylcytidine TP ~ c NO

2'-b-Trifluoromethylcytidine TP ~ c NO 2'-Deoxy-2',2'-difluorocytidine TP ~ C NO

2'-Deoxy-2'-a-mercaptocytidine TP ~ C NO

2'-Deoxy-2'-a-thiomethoxycytidine TP ~ C NO

2'-Deoxy-2'-b-aminocytidine TP ~ C NO

2'-Deoxy-2'-b-azidocytidine TP ~ C NO

2'-Deoxy-2'-b-bromocytidine TP ~ C NO

2'-Deoxy-2'-b-chlorocytidine TP ~ C NO

2'-Deoxy-2'-b-fluorocytidine TP ~ C NO

2'-Deoxy-2'-b-iodocytidine TP ~ C NO

2'-Deoxy-2'-b-mercaptocytidine TP ~ C NO

2'-Deoxy-2'-b-thiomethoxycytidine TP ~ C NO

2'-0-Methyl-5-(l-propynyl)cytidine TP ~ c NO

3'-Ethynylcytidine TP ~ c NO

4'-Azidocytidine TP ~ c NO

4'-Carbocyclic cytidine TP ~ c NO

4'-Ethynylcytidine TP ~ c NO

5-(l-Propynyl)ara-cytidine TP ~ c NO

5-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-2-thiocytidine TP ~ c NO

5-(4-Amino-phenyl)-2-thiocytidine TP ~ c NO

5-Aminoallyl-CTP ~ c NO

5-Cyanocytidine TP ~ c NO

5-Ethynylara-cytidine TP ~ c NO

5-Ethynylcytidine TP ~ c NO

5'-Homo-cytidine TP ~ c NO

5 -Methoxy cytidine TP ~ c NO

5-Trifluoromethyl-Cytidine TP ~ c NO

N4 -Amino -cytidine TP ~ c NO

N4-Benzoyl-cytidine TP ~ c NO pseudoisocytidine ~ c NO

7-methylguanosine m7G G YES

N2,2'-0-dimethylguanosine m2Gm G YES

N2-methylguanosine m2G G YES wyosine imG G YES l,2'-0-dimethylguanosine mlGm G YES

1 -methylguanosine mlG G YES

2'-0-methylguanosine Gm G YES

2'-0-ribosylguanosine (phosphate) Gr(p) G YES

2'-0-methylguanosine Gm G YES

2'-0-ribosylguanosine (phosphate) Gr(p) G YES

7-aminomethyl-7-deazaguanosine preQl G YES

7-cyano-7-deazaguanosine preQO G YES archaeosine G+ G YES methylwyosine mimG G YES

N2,7-dimethylguanosine m2,7G G YES

N2,N2,2'-0-trimethylguanosine m22Gm G YES N2,N2,7-trimethylguanosine m2,2,7G G YES

N2,N2-dimethylguanosine m22G G YES

N2,7,2'-0-trimethylguanosine m2 7Gm G YES

6-thio-guanosine ~ G NO

7-deaza-guanosine ~ G NO

8-oxo-guanosine ~ G NO

Nl-methyl-guanosine ~ G NO a-thio-guanosine ~ G NO

2 (propyl)guanine ~ G NO

2-(alkyl)guanine ~ G NO

2 ' - Amino-2 ' -deoxy-GTP ~ G NO

2 ' - Azido-2 ' -deoxy-GTP ~ G NO

2'-Deoxy-2'-a-aminoguanosine TP ~ G NO

2'-Deoxy-2'-a-azidoguanosine TP ~ G NO

6 (methyl)guanine ~ G NO

6-(alkyl)guanine ~ G NO

6-(methyl)guanine ~ G NO

6-methyl-guanosine ~ G NO

7 (alkyl)guanine ~ G NO

7 (deaza)guanine ~ G NO

7 (methyl)guanine ~ G NO

7-(alkyl)guanine ~ G NO

7-(deaza)guanine ~ G NO

7-(methyl)guanine ~ G NO

8 (alkyl)guanine ~ G NO

8 (alkynyl)guanine ~ G NO

8 (halo)guanine ~ G NO

8 (thioalkyl)guanine ~ G NO

8-(alkenyl)guanine ~ G NO

8-(alkyl)guanine ~ G NO

8-(alkynyl)guanine ~ G NO

8-(amino)guanine ~ G NO

8-(halo)guanine ~ G NO

8-(hydroxyl)guanine ~ G NO

8-(thioalkyl)guanine ~ G NO

8-(thiol)guanine ~ G NO aza guanine ~ G NO deaza guanine ~ G NO

N (methyl)guanine ~ G NO

N-(methyl)guanine ~ G NO

1 -methyl-6-thio-guanosine ~ G NO

6-methoxy-guanosine ~ G NO

6-thio-7-deaza-8-aza-guanosine ~ G NO

6-thio-7-deaza-guanosine ~ G NO

6-thio-7-methyl-guanosine ~ G NO 7-deaza-8-aza-guanosine ~ G NO

7-methyl-8-oxo-guanosine ~ G NO

N2,N2-dimethyl-6-thio-guanosine ~ G NO

N2 -methy 1-6 -thio -guano sine ~ G NO

1-Me-GTP ~ G NO

2'Fluoro-N2-isobutyl-guanosine TP ~ G NO

2'0-methyl-N2-isobutyl-guanosine TP ~ G NO

2'-a-Ethynylguanosine TP ~ G NO

2'-a-Trifluoromethylguanosine TP ~ G NO

2'-b-Ethynylguanosine TP ~ G NO

2'-b-Trifluoromethylguanosine TP ~ G NO

2'-Deoxy-2',2'-difluoroguanosine TP ~ G NO

2'-Deoxy-2'-a-mercaptoguanosine TP ~ G NO

2'-Deoxy-2'-a-thiomethoxyguanosine TP ~ G NO

2'-Deoxy-2'-b-aminoguanosine TP ~ G NO

2'-Deoxy-2'-b-azidoguanosine TP ~ G NO

2'-Deoxy-2'-b-bromoguanosine TP ~ G NO

2'-Deoxy-2'-b-chloroguanosine TP ~ G NO

2'-Deoxy-2'-b-fluoroguanosine TP ~ G NO

2'-Deoxy-2'-b-iodoguanosine TP ~ G NO

2'-Deoxy-2'-b-mercaptoguanosine TP ~ G NO

2'-Deoxy-2'-b-thiomethoxyguanosine TP ~ G NO

4'-Azidoguanosine TP ~ G NO

4'-Carbocyclic guanosine TP ~ G NO

4'-Ethynylguanosine TP ~ G NO

5'-Homo-guanosine TP ~ G NO

8-bromo-guanosine TP ~ G NO

9-Deazaguanosine TP ~ G NO

N2-isobutyl-guanosine TP ~ G NO

1 -methy linosine mil I YES inosine I I YES l,2'-0-dimethy linosine mllm I YES

2'-0-methylinosine Im I YES

7-methy linosine I NO

2'-0-methy linosine Im I YES epoxyqueuosine oQ Q YES galactosyl-queuosine galQ Q YES mannosylqueuosine manQ Q YES queuosine Q Q YES ally amino-thymidine ~ T NO aza thymidine ~ T NO deaza thymidine ~ T NO deoxy-thymidine ~ T NO

2 ' -O-methyluridine ~ u YES

2-thiouridine s2U u YES 3-methyluridine m3U U YES

5 -carboxy methy luridine cm5U U YES

5-hydroxyuridine ho5U u YES

5 -methy luridine m5U u YES

5-taurinomethyl-2-thiouridine xm5s2U u YES

5 -taurinomethy luridine xm5U u YES dihydrouridine D u YES pseudouridine Ψ u YES

(3 -(3 -amino-3 -carboxypropy l)uridine acp3U u YES

1 -methy 1-3 -(3 -amino-5 -carboxypropy l)pseudouridine mlacp3Ψ u YES

1 -methy lpseduouridine ΓΠΙΨ u YES

1 -methyl-pseudouridine ~ u YES

2 '-O-methy luridine Um u YES

2'-0-methylpseudouridine Ψιη u YES

2'-0-methyluridine Um u YES

2-thio-2'-0-methyluridine s2Um u YES

3 -(3 -amino-3 -carboxypropy l)uridine acp3U u YES

3 ,2 '-O-dimethy luridine m3Um u YES

3-Methyl-pseudo-Uridine TP ~ u YES

4-thiouridine s4U u YES

5 -(carboxy hy droxymethyl)uridine chm5U u YES

5 -(carboxy hydroxymethyl)uridine methyl ester mchm5U u YES

5 ,2 '-O-dimethy luridine m5Um u YES

5,6-dihydro-uridine ~ u YES

5-aminomethyl-2-thiouridine nm5s2U u YES

5 -carbamoylmethyl-2 '-O-methy luridine ncm5Um u YES

5 -carbamoy Imethy luridine ncm5U u YES

5 -carboxy hydroxy methy luridine ~ u YES

5 -carboxy hydroxy methy luridine methyl ester ~ u YES

5 -carboxy methy lamino methy 1-2 '-O-methy luridine cmnm5Um u YES

5-carboxymethylaminomethyl-2-thiouridine cmnm5s2U u YES

5-carboxymethylaminomethyl-2-thiouridine ~ u YES

5 -carboxy methy lamino methy luridine cmnm5U u YES

5 -carboxy methy lamino methy luridine ~ u YES

5 -Carbamoy Imethy luridine TP ~ u YES

5 -methoxycarbony Imethy 1-2 '-O-methy luridine mcm5Um u YES

5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-2-thiouridine mcm5s2U u YES

5 -methoxycarbony Imethy luridine mcm5U u YES

5 -methoxyuridine mo5U u YES

5-methyl-2-thiouridine m5s2U u YES

5-methylaminomethyl-2-selenouridine mnm5se2U u YES

5-methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridine mnm5s2U u YES

5 -methy lamino methy luridine mnm5U u YES

5 -Methy ldihy drouridine ~ u YES

5 -Oxy acetic acid- Uridine TP ~ u YES 5-Oxyacetic acid-methyl ester-Uridine TP ~ U YES

Nl-methyl-pseudo-uridine ~ U YES uridine 5-oxyacetic acid cmo5U u YES uridine 5-oxyacetic acid methyl ester mcmo5U u YES

3 -(3 -Amino-3-carboxypropyl)-Uridine TP ~ u YES

5-(iso-Pentenylaminomethyl)- 2-thiouridine TP ~ u YES

5-(iso-Pentenylaminomethyl)-2'-0-methyluridine TP ~ u YES

5-(iso-Pentenylaminomethyl)uridine TP ~ u YES

5-propynyl uracil ~ u NO a-thio-uridine ~ u NO

1 (aminoalkylamino-carbonylethylenyl)-2(thio)- ~ u NO pseudouracil

1 (aminoalkylaminocarbonylethylenyl)-2,4- ~ u NO (dithio)pseudouracil

1 (aminoalkylaminocarbonylethylenyl)-4 (thio)pseudouracil ~ u NO

1 (arninoalkylaminocarbonylethylenyl)-pseudouracil ~ u NO

1 (aminocarbonylethylenyl)-2(thio)-pseudouracil ~ u NO

1 (aminocarbonylethylenyl)-2,4-(dithio)pseudouracil ~ u NO

1 (aminocarbonylethylenyl)-4 (thio)pseudouracil ~ u NO

1 (aminocarbonylethylenyl)-pseudouracil ~ u NO

1 substituted 2(thio)-pseudouracil ~ u NO

1 substituted 2,4-(dithio)pseudouracil ~ u NO

1 substituted 4 (thio)pseudouracil ~ u NO

1 substituted pseudouracil ~ u NO l-(aminoalkylamino-carbonylethylenyl)-2-(thio)- ~ u NO pseudouracil

l-Methyl-3-(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl) pseudouridine TP ~ u NO

1 -Methyl-3 -(3 -amino-3 -carboxypropyl)pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1-Methyl-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

2 (thio)pseudouracil ~ u NO

2' deoxy uridine ~ u NO

2' fluorouridine ~ u NO

2-(thio)uracil ~ u NO

2,4-(dithio)psuedouracil ~ u NO

2' methyl, 2'amino, 2'azido, 2'fluro-guanosine ~ u NO

2 ' - Amino-2 ' -deoxy-UTP ~ u NO

2 ' - Azido-2 ' -deoxy-UTP ~ u NO

2'-Azido-deoxyuridine TP ~ u NO

2 ' -O-methylpseudouridine ~ u NO

2' deoxy uridine 2' dU u NO

2' fluorouridine ~ u NO

2'-Deoxy-2'-a-aminouridine TP ~ u NO

2'-Deoxy-2'-a-azidouridine TP ~ u NO

2-methylpseudouridine πι3Ψ u NO

3 (3 amino-3 carboxypropyl)uracil ~ u NO

4 (thio)pseudouracil ~ u NO -(thio )pseudouracil ~ U NO-(thio)uracil ~ U NO-thiouracil ~ u NO (l,3-diazole-l-alkyl)uracil ~ u NO (2-aminopropyl)uracil ~ u NO (aminoalkyl)uracil ~ u NO (dimethylaminoalkyl)uracil ~ u NO (guanidiniumalkyl)uracil ~ u NO (methoxycarbonylmethyl)-2-(thio)uracil ~ u NO (methoxycarbonyl-methyl)uracil ~ u NO (methyl) 2 (thio)uracil ~ u NO (methyl) 2,4 (dithio)uracil ~ u NO (methyl) 4 (thio)uracil ~ u NO (methylaminomethyl)-2 (thio)uracil ~ u NO (methylaminomethyl)-2,4 (dithio)uracil ~ u NO (methylaminomethyl)-4 (thio)uracil ~ u NO (propynyl)uracil ~ u NO (trifluoromethyl)uracil ~ u NO-(2-aminopropyl)uracil ~ u NO-(alkyl)-2-(thio)pseudouracil ~ u NO-(alkyl)-2,4 (dithio)pseudouracil ~ u NO-(alkyl)-4 (thio)pseudouracil ~ u NO -(alkyl)pseudouracil ~ u NO-(alkyl)uracil ~ u NO-(alkynyl)uracil ~ u NO -(ally lamino)uracil ~ u NO -(cy anoalky l)uracil ~ u NO -(dialky laminoalky l)uracil ~ u NO -(dimethy laminoalky l)uracil ~ u NO -(guanidiniumalkyl)uracil ~ u NO-(halo)uracil ~ u NO-(l,3-diazole-l-alkyl)uracil ~ u NO -(methoxy )uracil ~ u NO-(methoxycarbonylmethyl)-2-(thio)uracil ~ u NO -(methoxy carbonyl-methy l)uracil ~ u NO-(methyl) 2(thio)uracil ~ u NO-(methyl) 2,4 (dithio )uracil ~ u NO -(methyl) 4 (thio)uracil ~ u NO-(methyl)-2-(thio)pseudouracil ~ u NO-(methyl)-2,4 (dithio)pseudouracil ~ u NO-(methyl)-4 (thio)pseudouracil ~ u NO -(methy l)pseudouracil ~ u NO-(methylaminomethyl)-2 (thio)uracil ~ u NO-(methylaminomethyl)-2,4(dithio )uracil ~ u NO-(methylaminomethyl)-4-(thio)uracil ~ u NO 5 -(propyny l)uracil ~ U NO

5 -(trifluoromethyl)uracil ~ U NO

5 -aminoally 1-uridine ~ u NO

5-bromo-uridine ~ u NO

5-iodo-uridine ~ u NO

5 -uracil ~ u NO

6 (azo)uracil ~ u NO

6-(azo)uracil ~ u NO

6-aza-uridine ~ u NO ally amino-uracil ~ u NO aza uracil ~ u NO deaza uracil ~ u NO

N3 (methyl)uracil ~ u NO

P seudo-UTP-l-2-ethanoic acid ~ u NO pseudouracil ~ u NO

4-Thio-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -carboxy methy 1-pseudouridine ~ u NO

1 -methyl- 1 -deaza-pseudouridine ~ u NO

1 -propy nyl-uridine ~ u NO

1 -taurino methy 1- 1 -methy 1-uridine ~ u NO

1 -taurinomethyl-4-thio-uridine ~ u NO

1 -taurinomethyl-pseudouridine ~ u NO

2-methoxy-4-thio-pseudouridine ~ u NO

2-thio- 1 -methyl- 1 -deaza-pseudouridine ~ u NO

2-thio- 1 -methy 1-pseudouridine ~ u NO

2-thio-5-aza-uridine ~ u NO

2-thio-dihydropseudouridine ~ u NO

2-thio-dihydrouridine ~ u NO

2-thio-pseudouridine ~ u NO

4-methoxy-2-thio-pseudouridine ~ u NO

4-methoxy-pseudouridine ~ u NO

4-thio- 1 -methy 1-pseudouridine ~ u NO

4-thio-pseudouridine ~ u NO

5-aza-uridine ~ u NO dihydropseudouridine ~ u NO

(±) l-(2-Hydroxypropyl)pseudouridine TP ~ u NO

(2R)- 1 -(2-Hydroxypropyl)pseudouridine TP ~ u NO

(2S)-l-(2-Hydroxypropyl)pseudouridine TP ~ u NO

(E)-5-(2-Bromo-vinyl)ara-uridine TP ~ u NO

(E)-5-(2-Bromo-vinyl)uridine TP ~ u NO

(Z)-5-(2-Bromo-vinyl)ara-uridine TP ~ u NO

(Z)-5-(2-Bromo-vinyl)uridine TP ~ u NO l-(2,2,2-Trifluoroethyl)-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -(2,2,3 ,3 ,3 -Pentafluoropropyl)pseudouridine TP ~ u NO l-(2,2-Diethoxyethyl)pseudouridine TP ~ u NO 1 -(2,4,6-Trimethylbenzyl)pseudouridine TP ~ U NO l-(2,4,6-Trimethyl-benzyl)pseudo-UTP ~ U NO l-(2,4,6-Trimethyl-phenyl)pseudo-UTP ~ u NO l-(2-Amino-2-carboxyethyl)pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -(2-Amino-ethyl)pseudo-UTP ~ u NO l-(2-Hydroxyethyl)pseudouridine TP ~ u NO l-(2-Methoxyethyl)pseudouridine TP ~ u NO

1 -(3 ,4-Bis-trifluoromethoxybenzyl)pseudouridine TP ~ u NO

1 -(3 ,4-Dimethoxybenzyl)pseudouridine TP ~ u NO

1 -(3 - Amino-3 -carboxypropy l)pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -(3 -Amino-propyl)pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -(3 -Cy clopropy l-prop-2-y ny l)pseudouridine TP ~ u NO

1 -(4-Amino-4-carboxybutyl)pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -(4-Amino-benzyl)pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -(4-Amino-butyl)pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -(4-Amino-phenyl)pseudo-UTP ~ u NO l-(4-Azidobenzyl)pseudouridine TP ~ u NO l-(4-Bromobenzyl)pseudouridine TP ~ u NO l-(4-Chlorobenzyl)pseudouridine TP ~ u NO l-(4-Fluorobenzyl)pseudouridine TP ~ u NO l-(4-Iodobenzyl)pseudouridine TP ~ u NO

1 -(4-Methanesulfonylbenzyl)pseudouridine TP ~ u NO l-(4-Methoxybenzyl)pseudouridine TP ~ u NO

1 -(4-Methoxy-benzyl)pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -(4-Methoxy-phenyl)pseudo-UTP ~ u NO l-(4-Methylbenzyl)pseudouridine TP ~ u NO

1 -(4-Methy 1-benzy l)pseudo-UTP ~ u NO l-(4-Nitrobenzyl)pseudouridine TP ~ u NO

1 -(4-Nitro-benzyl)pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 (4-Nitro-phenyl)pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -(4-Thiomethoxybenzyl)pseudouridine TP ~ u NO

1 -(4-Trifluoromethoxybenzyl)pseudouridine TP ~ u NO

1 -(4-Trifluoromethylbenzyl)pseudouridine TP ~ u NO l-(5-Amino-pentyl)pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -(6-Amino-hexyl)pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 ,6-Dimethyl-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -[3 -(2-{2-[2-(2-Aminoethoxy)-ethoxy] -ethoxy }-ethoxy)- ~ u NO propionyljpseudouridine TP

l-{3-[2-(2-Aminoethoxy)-ethoxy]-propionyl } ~ u NO pseudouridine TP

1-Acetylpseudouridine TP ~ u NO

1 -Alkyl-6-( 1 -propynyl)-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -Alkyl-6-(2-propynyl)-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -Alkyl-6-allyl-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -Alkyl-6-ethynyl-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -Alkyl-6-homoallyl-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO 1 -Alkyl-6-vinyl-pseudo-UTP ~ U NO

1-Allylpseudouridine TP ~ U NO

1 -Aminomethyl-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1-Benzoylpseudouridine TP ~ u NO

1-Benzyloxymethylpseudouridine TP ~ u NO

1 -Benzyl-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO l-Biotinyl-PEG2-pseudouridine TP ~ u NO

1-Biotinylpseudouridine TP ~ u NO

1 -Butyl-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1-Cyanomethylpseudouridine TP ~ u NO

1 -Cy clobuty lmethy 1-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -Cyclobutyl-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -Cycloheptylmethyl-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -Cyclohepty 1-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -Cyclohexy lmethy 1-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -Cyclohexyl-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -Cycloocty lmethy 1-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -Cycloocty 1-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -Cyclopentylmethyl-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -Cyclopenty 1-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -Cyclopropy lmethy 1-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -Cyclopropyl-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -Ethyl-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -Hexy 1-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1-Homoallylpseudouridine TP ~ u NO

1 -Hydroxy methylpseudouridine TP ~ u NO

1 -iso-propyl-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -Me-2-thio-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -Me-4-thio-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -Me-alpha-thio-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -Methanesulfonylmethylpseudouridine TP ~ u NO

1-Methoxy methylpseudouridine TP ~ u NO l-Methyl-6-(2,2,2-Trifluoroethyl)pseudo-UTP ~ u NO l-Methyl-6-(4-moφholino)-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO l-Methyl-6-(4-thiomoφholino)-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -Methyl-6-(substituted phenyl)pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -Methyl-6-amino-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -Methyl-6-azido-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -Methyl-6-bromo-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -Methyl-6-butyl-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -Methyl-6-chloro-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -Methyl-6-cyano-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO l-Methyl-6-dimethylamino-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -Methyl-6-ethoxy-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO l-Methyl-6-ethylcarboxylate-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO 1 -Methyl-6-ethyl-pseudo-UTP ~ U NO

1 -Methyl-6-fluoro-pseudo-UTP ~ U NO

1 -Methyl-6-formyl-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO l-Methyl-6-hydroxyamino-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -Methyl-6-hydroxy-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -Methyl-6-iodo-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -Methyl-6-iso-propyl-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -Methyl-6-methoxy-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -Methyl-6-methylamino-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -Methyl-6-phenyl-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -Methyl-6-propyl-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -Methyl-6-tert-butyl-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -Methyl-6-trifluoromethoxy-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO l-Methyl-6-trifluoromethyl-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO l-Moφholinomethylpseudouridine TP ~ u NO

1 -Pentyl-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -Pheny 1-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1-Pivaloylpseudouridine TP ~ u NO

1-Propargylpseudouridine TP ~ u NO

1 -Propy 1-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -propy nyl-pseudouridine ~ u NO

1 -p-toly 1-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1 -tert-Butyl-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1-Thiomethoxymethylpseudouridine TP ~ u NO

1 -Thiomoφholinomethy lpseudouridine TP ~ u NO

1-Trifluoroacetylpseudouridine TP ~ u NO

1 -Trifluoromethyl-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

1-Viny lpseudouridine TP ~ u NO

2,2'-anhydro-uridine TP ~ u NO

2'-bromo-deoxyuridine TP ~ u NO

2 ' -F-5 -Methy 1-2 ' -deoxy-UTP ~ u NO

2'-OMe-5-Me-UTP ~ u NO

2'-OMe-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

2'-a-Ethynyluridine TP ~ u NO

2'-a-Trifluoromethyluridine TP ~ u NO

2'-b-Ethynyluridine TP ~ u NO

2'-b-Trifluoromethyluridine TP ~ u NO

2'-Deoxy-2',2'-difluorouridine TP ~ u NO

2'-Deoxy-2'-a-mercaptouridine TP ~ u NO

2'-Deoxy-2'-a-thiomethoxyuridine TP ~ u NO

2'-Deoxy-2'-b-aminouridine TP ~ u NO

2'-Deoxy-2'-b-azidouridine TP ~ u NO

2'-Deoxy-2'-b-bromouridine TP ~ u NO

2'-Deoxy-2'-b-chlorouridine TP ~ u NO

2'-Deoxy-2'-b-fluorouridine TP ~ u NO '-Deoxy-2'-b-iodouridine TP ~ U NO '-Deoxy-2'-b-mercaptouridine TP ~ U NO '-Deoxy-2'-b-thiomethoxyuridine TP ~ u NO -methoxy-4 -thio -uridine ~ u NO-methoxyuridine ~ u NO '-0-Methy 1-5 -( 1 -propyny l)uridine TP ~ u NO-Alkyl-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO '-Azidouridine TP ~ u NO '-Carbocyclic uridine TP ~ u NO '-Ethynyluridine TP ~ u NO -(1 -Propyny l)ara-uridine TP ~ u NO-(2-Furanyl)uridine TP ~ u NO-Cyanouridine TP ~ u NO-Dimethylaminouridine TP ~ u NO '-Homo-uridine TP ~ u NO-iodo-2'-fluoro-deoxyuridine TP ~ u NO-Phenylethynyluridine TP ~ u NO-Trideuteromethyl-6-deuterouridine TP ~ u NO-Trifluoromethyl-Uridine TP ~ u NO-Vinylarauridine TP ~ u NO-(2,2,2-Trifluoroethyl)-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO-(4-Moφholino)-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO-(4-Thiomorpholino)-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO-(Substituted-Phenyl)-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO-Amino-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO-Azido-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO-Bromo-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO-Butyl-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO-Chloro-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO-Cyano-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO-Dimethylamino-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO-Ethoxy-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO-Ethylcarboxylate-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO-Ethyl-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO-Fluoro-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO-Formyl-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO-Hydroxyamino-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO-Hydroxy-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO-Iodo-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO-iso-Propyl-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO-Methoxy-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO-Methylamino-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO-Methyl-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO-Phenyl-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO-Phenyl-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO 6-Propyl-pseudo-UTP ~ U NO

6-tert-Butyl-pseudo-UTP ~ U NO

6-Trifluoromethoxy-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

6-Trifluoromethyl-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

Alpha-thio-pseudo-UTP ~ u NO

Pseudoundine l-(4-methylbenzenesulfonic acid) TP ~ u NO

Pseudoundine l-(4-methylbenzoic acid) TP ~ u NO

Pseudoundine TP l-[3-(2-ethoxy)]propionic acid ~ u NO

Pseudoundine TP l-[3-{2-(2-[2-(2-ethoxy )-ethoxy]-ethoxy ~ u NO

)-ethoxy}]propionic acid

Pseudoundine TP l-[3-{2-(2-[2-{2(2-ethoxy )-ethoxy}- ~ u NO

ethoxy]-ethoxy )-ethoxy}]propionic acid

Pseudoundine TP l-[3-{2-(2-[2-ethoxy ]-ethoxy)- ~ u NO

ethoxy}]propionic acid

Pseudoundine TP l-[3-{2-(2-ethoxy)-ethoxy}] propionic ~ u NO

acid

Pseudoundine TP 1-methylphosphonic acid ~ u NO

Pseudoundine TP 1-methylphosphonic acid diethyl ester ~ u NO

Pseudo-UTP-Nl-3-propionic acid ~ u NO

Pseudo-UTP-Nl-4-butanoic acid ~ u NO

Pseudo-UTP-Nl-5-pentanoic acid ~ u NO

Pseudo-UTP-Nl-6-hexanoic acid ~ u NO

Pseudo-UTP-Nl-7-heptanoic acid ~ u NO

Pseudo-UTP-Nl-methyl-p-benzoic acid ~ u NO

Pseudo-UTP-Nl-p-benzoic acid ~ u NO

wybutosine yW w YES

hydroxywybutosine OHyW w YES

isowyosine imG2 w YES

peroxywybutosine o2yW w YES

undermodified hydroxywybutosine OHyW* w YES

4-demethylwyosine imG-14 w YES

[0394] Other modifications which can be useful in the polynucleotides of the present invention are listed in Table 6.

Table 6. Additional Modification types

Name Type

2,6-(diamino)purine Other

1 -(aza)-2-(thio)-3 -(aza)-phenoxazin- 1 -yl Other

l,3-( diaza)-2-( oxo )-phenthiazin-l-yl Other

1 ,3 -(diaza)-2-(oxo)-phenoxazin- 1 -yl Other

l,3,5-(triaza)-2,6-(dioxa)-naphthalene Other

2 (amino)purine Other

2,4,5-(trimethyl)phenyl Other ' methyl, 2'amino, 2'azido, 2'fluro-cytidine Other ' methyl, 2'amino, 2'azido, 2'fluro-adenine Other 'methyl, 2'amino, 2'azido, 2 'fluro -uridine Other '-amino-2'-deoxyribose Other -amino -6 -Chloro -purine Other-aza-inosinyl Other '-azido-2'-deoxyribose Other 'fluoro-2'-deoxyribose Other '-fluoro-modified bases Other '-0-methyl-ribose Other-0X0-7 -aminopyridopyrimidin-3 -yl Other-oxo-pyridopyrimidine-3 -yl Other-pyridinone Other nitropyrrole Other-(methyl)-7-(propynyl)isocarbostyrilyl Other -(methyl)isocarbostyrilyl Other-(fluoro)-6-(methyl)benzimidazole Other-(methyl)benzimidazole Other-(methyl)indolyl Other,6-(dimethyl)indolyl Other nitroindole Other substituted pyrimidines Other-(methyl)isocarbostyrilyl Other -nitroindole Other-(aza)pyrimidine Other-(azo)thymine Other-(methyl)-7-(aza)indolyl Other-chloro-purine Other-phenyl-pyrrolo-pyrimidin-2-on-3-yl Other-(aminoalkylhydroxy)- 1 -(aza)-2-(thio )-3 -(aza)-phenthiazin-l-yl Other-(aminoalkylhydroxy)- 1 -(aza)-2-(thio)-3 -(aza)-phenoxazin- 1 -yl Other-(aminoalkylhydroxy)- 1 ,3 -(diaza)-2-(oxo)-phenoxazin- 1 -yl Other-(aminoalkylhydroxy)-l,3-( diaza)-2-( oxo )-phenthiazin-l-yl Other-(aminoalkylhydroxy)-l,3-( diaza)-2-(oxo)-phenoxazin-l-yl Other-(aza)indolyl Other-(guanidiniumalkylhydroxy)- 1 -(aza)-2-(thio )-3 -(aza)-phenoxazinl-yl Other-(guanidiniumalkylhydroxy)- 1 -(aza)-2-(thio )-3 -(aza)-phenthiazin-l-yl Other-(guanidiniumalkylhydroxy)- 1 -(aza)-2-(thio)-3 -(aza)-phenoxazin- 1 -yl Other-(guanidiniumalkylhydroxy)- 1 ,3 -(diaza)-2-(oxo)-phenoxazin- 1 -yl Other-(guanidiniumalkyl-hydroxy)-l,3-( diaza)-2-( oxo )-phenthiazin-l-yl Other-(guanidiniumalkylhydroxy)-l,3-(diaza)-2-( oxo )-phenoxazin-l-yl Other-(propynyl)isocarbostyrilyl Other-(propynyl)isocarbostyrilyl, propynyl-7-(aza)indolyl Other-deaza-inosinyl Other-substituted 1 -(aza)-2-(thio)-3 -(aza)-phenoxazin- 1 -yl Other 7-substituted 1 ,3 -(diaza)-2-(oxo)-phenoxazin-l -yl Other

9-(methyl)-imidizopyridinyl Other aminoindolyl Other anthracenyl Other bis-ortho-(aminoalkylhydroxy)-6-phenyl-pyrrolo-pyrimidin-2-on-3-yl Other bis-ortho-substituted-6-phenyl-pyrrolo-pyrimidin-2-on-3-yl Other difluorotolyl Other hypoxanthine Other imidizopyridinyl Other inosinyl Other isocarbostyrilyl Other isoguanisine Other

N2-substituted purines Other

N6 -me thy 1-2 -amino -purine Other

N6-substituted purines Other

N-alkylated derivative Other napthalenyl Other nitiobenzimidazolyl Other nitioimidazolyl Other nitioindazolyl Other nitropyrazolyl Other nubularine Other

06-substituted purines Other

O-alkylated derivative Other ortho-(aminoalkylhydroxy)-6-phenyl-pyrrolo-pyrimidin-2-on-3-yl Other ortho-substituted-6-phenyl-pyrrolo-pyrimidin-2-on-3-yl Other

Oxoformycin TP Other para-(aminoalkylhydroxy)-6-phenyl-pyrrolo-pyrimidin-2-on-3-yl Other para-substituted-6-phenyl-pyrrolo-pyrimidin-2-on-3-yl Other pentacenyl Other phenanthracenyl Other phenyl Other propynyl-7-(aza)indolyl Other pyrenyl Other py ridopy rimidin-3 -y 1 Other pyridopyrimidin-3 -yl, 2-oxo-7-amino-pyridopyrimidin-3 -yl Other pyrrolo-pyrimidin-2-on-3-yl Other pyrrolopyrimidinyl Other pyrrolopyrizinyl Other stilbenzyl Other substituted 1,2,4-triazoles Other tetracenyl Other tubercidine Other xanthine Other

Xanthosine-5'-TP Other 2 -thio -zebularine Other

5-aza-2-thio-zebularine Other

7-deaza-2 -amino-purine Other

pyridin-4-one ribonucleoside Other

2 - Amino -ribo side -TP Other

Formycin A TP Other

Formycin B TP Other

Pyrrolosine TP Other

2'-OH-ara-adenosine TP Other

2'-OH-ara-cytidine TP Other

2'-OH-ara-uridine TP Other

2'-OH-ara-guanosine TP Other

5-(2-carbomethoxyvinyl)uridine TP Other

N6-( 19-Amino-pentaoxanonadecyl)adenosine TP Other

[0395] The polynucleotides can include any useful linker between the nucleosides. Such linkers, including backbone modifications are given in Table 7.

Table 7. Linker modifications

Name TYPE

3'-alkylene phosphonates Linker

3 '-amino phosphoramidate Linker

alkene containing backbones Linker

aminoalkylphosphoramidates Linker

aminoalkylphosphotriesters Linker

boranophosphates Linker

-CH2-0-N(CH3)-CH2- Linker

-CH2-N(CH3)-N(CH3)-CH2- Linker

-CH2-NH-CH2- Linker

chiral phosphonates Linker

chiral phosphorothioates Linker

formacetyl and thioformaceryl backbones Linker

methylene (methylimino) Linker

methylene formacetyl and thioformaceryl backbones Linker

methyleneimino and methylenehydrazino backbones Linker

morpholino linkages Linker

-N(CH3)-CH2-CH2- Linker

oligonucleosides with heteroatom intemucleoside linkage Linker

phosphinates Linker

phosphoramidates Linker

phosphorodithioates Linker phosphorothioate internucleoside linkages Linker phosphorothioates Linker

phosphotriesters Linker

PNA Linker

siloxane backbones Linker

sulfamate backbones Linker

sulfide sulfoxide and sulfone backbones Linker

sulfonate and sulfonamide backbones Linker

thionoalkylphosphonates Linker

thionoalkylphosphotriesters Linker

thionophosphoramidates Linker

[0396] The polynucleotides can include any useful modification, such as to the sugar, the nucleobase, or the internucleoside linkage (e.g. to a linking phosphate / to a phosphodiester linkage / to the phosphodiester backbone). One or more atoms of a pyrimidine nucleobase can be replaced or substituted with optionally substituted amino, optionally substituted thiol, optionally substituted alkyl (e.g., methyl or ethyl), or halo (e.g., chloro or fluoro). In certain embodiments, modifications (e.g., one or more modifications) are present in each of the sugar and the internucleoside linkage. Modifications according to the present invention can be modifications of ribonucleic acids (RNAs) to deoxyribonucleic acids (DNAs), threose nucleic acids (TNAs), glycol nucleic acids (GNAs), peptide nucleic acids (PNAs), locked nucleic acids (LNAs) or hybrids thereof). Additional modifications are described herein.

[0397] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides of the invention do not substantially induce an innate immune response of a cell into which the mRNA is introduced. Features of an induced innate immune response include 1) increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, 2) activation of intracellular PRRs (RIG-I, MDA5, etc, and/or 3) termination or reduction in protein translation.

[0398] In certain embodiments, it may desirable to intracellularly degrade a polynucleotide introduced into the cell. For example, degradation of a polynucleotide can be preferable if precise timing of protein production is desired. Thus, in some embodiments, the invention provides a polynucleotide containing a degradation domain, which is capable of being acted on in a directed manner within a cell. [0399] Any of the regions of the polynucleotides can be chemically modified as taught herein or as taught in International Application Number PCT/2012/058519 filed October 3, 2012, the contents of each of which are incoroporated herein by reference in its entirety.

[0400] In some embodiments, an modified polynucleotide, e.g., mRNA comprising at least one modification listed in Table 5, 6, and/or 7, of the invention encodes a human low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) or functional fragment thereof comprising at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain (e.g., corresponding to N316, L339, or the combination of N316 and L339 of human LDLR) and at least one or a single amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain (e.g., corresponding to K816, K830, C839, or any combination thereof of human LDLR). In some embodiments, the modified polynucleotide, e.g,. mRNA, encodes a human LDLR or functional fragment thereof comprising at least one mutation in the EGF-A domain corresponding to N316 A, L339D, or N316A/L339D and the at least one or single mutation in the intracellular domain corresponding to K816R, K830R, C839A, K816R/K830R, K816R/C839A, K830R/C839A, or K816R/K830R/C839A of human LDLR. In some embodiments, the modified polynucleotide encodes a human LDLR or functional fragment thereof comprising a mutation in the EGF-A domain corresponding to N316A of human LDLR and a mutation in the intracellular domain corresponding to K830R and/or C839Aof human LDLR.

[0401] In some embodiments, the modified polynucleotide, e.g., mRNA comprising a human LDLR nucleic acid sequences listed in Table 3A (e.g., selected from SEQ ID NO: 56-63, and 70- 718) altered to encode a human low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) or functional fragment thereof comprising at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain (e.g., corresponding to N316, L339, or the combination of N316 and L339 of human LDLR) and at least one or a single amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain (e.g., corresponding to K816, K830, C839, or any combination thereof of human LDLR) which further comprises at least one modification listed in Table 5, 6, and/or 7. In some embodiments, the mutation in the EGF-A domain corresponds to N316A of human LDLR and a mutation in the intracellular domain corresponds to K830R and/or C839Aof human LDLR.

Modified Polynucleotide Molecules

[0402] The present invention also includes building blocks, e.g., modified ribonucleosides, and modified ribonucleotides, of polynucleotide molecules. For example, these building blocks can be useful for preparing the polynucleotides of the invention. Such building blocks are taught in International Patent Publication No. WO2013052523 and International Patent Application No. - I l l -

PCT/US2013/75177, the contents of each of which are incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

Modifications on the Sugar

[0403] The modified nucleosides and nucleotides (e.g., building block molecules), which can be incorporated into a polynucleotide (e.g., RNA or mRNA, as described herein), can be modified on the sugar of the ribonucleic acid. For example, the 2' hydroxyl group (OH) can be modified or replaced with a number of different substituents. Exemplary substitutions at the 2'- position include, but are not limited to, H, halo, optionally substituted Ci-6 alkyl; optionally substituted Ci-6 alkoxy; optionally substituted C6-io aryloxy; optionally substituted C3-8 cycloalkyl; optionally substituted C3-8 cycloalkoxy; optionally substituted C6-io aryloxy; optionally substituted C6-io aryl-Ci-6 alkoxy, optionally substituted Ci-i2 (heterocyclyl)oxy; a sugar (e.g., ribose, pentose, or any described herein); a polyethyleneglycol (PEG), - 0(CH2CH20)nCH2CH2OR, where R is H or optionally substituted alkyl, and n is an integer from 0 to 20 (e.g., from 0 to 4, from 0 to 8, from 0 to 10, from 0 to 16, from 1 to 4, from 1 to 8, from 1 to 10, from 1 to 16, from 1 to 20, from 2 to 4, from 2 to 8, from 2 to 10, from 2 to 16, from 2 to 20, from 4 to 8, from 4 to 10, from 4 to 16, and from 4 to 20); "locked" nucleic acids (LNA) in which the 2'-hydroxyl is connected by a Ci-6 alkylene or Ci-6 heteroalkylene bridge to the 4'- carbon of the same ribose sugar, where exemplary bridges included methylene, propylene, ether, or amino bridges; aminoalkyl, as defined herein; aminoalkoxy, as defined herein; amino as defined herein; and amino acid, as defined herein

[0404] Generally, RNA includes the sugar group ribose, which is a 5-membered ring having an oxygen. Exemplary, non-limiting modified nucleotides include replacement of the oxygen in ribose (e.g., with S, Se, or alkylene, such as methylene or ethylene); addition of a double bond (e.g., to replace ribose with cyclopentenyl or cyclohexenyl); ring contraction of ribose (e.g., to form a 4-membered ring of cyclobutane or oxetane); ring expansion of ribose (e.g., to form a 6- or 7-membered ring having an additional carbon or heteroatom, such as for anhydrohexitol, altritol, mannitol, cyclohexanyl, cyclohexenyl, and morpholino that also has a phosphoramidate backbone); multi cyclic forms (e.g., tricyclo; and "unlocked" forms, such as glycol nucleic acid (GNA) (e.g., R-GNA or S-GNA, where ribose is replaced by glycol units attached to phosphodiester bonds), threose nucleic acid (TNA, where ribose is replace with a-L- threofuranosyl-(3 '→2')) , and peptide nucleic acid (PNA, where 2-amino-ethyl-glycine linkages replace the ribose and phosphodiester backbone). The sugar group can also contain one or more carbons that possess the opposite stereochemical configuration than that of the corresponding carbon in ribose. Thus, a polynucleotide molecule can include nucleotides containing, e.g., arabinose, as the sugar. Such sugar modifications are taught International Patent Publication No. WO2013052523 and International Patent Application No. PCT/US2013/75177, the contents of each of which are incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

Modifications on the Nucleobase

[0405] The present disclosure provides for modified nucleosides and nucleotides. As described herein "nucleoside" is defined as a compound containing a sugar molecule (e.g., a pentose or ribose) or a derivative thereof in combination with an organic base (e.g., a purine or pyrimidine) or a derivative thereof (also referred to herein as "nucleobase"). As described herein, "nucleotide" is defined as a nucleoside including a phosphate group. The modified nucleotides may by synthesized by any useful method, as described herein (e.g., chemically, enzymatically, or recombinantly to include one or more modified or non-natural nucleosides). The polynucleotides can comprise a region or regions of linked nucleosides. Such regions may have variable backbone linkages. The linkages can be standard phosphoester linkages, in which case the polynucleotides would comprise regions of nucleotides.

[0406] The modified nucleotide base pairing encompasses not only the standard adenosine- thymine, adenosine-uracil, or guanosine-cytosine base pairs, but also base pairs formed between nucleotides and/or modified nucleotides comprising non-standard or modified bases, wherein the arrangement of hydrogen bond donors and hydrogen bond acceptors permits hydrogen bonding between a non-standard base and a standard base or between two complementary non-standard base structures. One example of such non-standard base pairing is the base pairing between the modified nucleotide inosine and adenine, cytosine or uracil.

[0407] The modified nucleosides and nucleotides can include a modified nucleobase. Examples of nucleobases found in RNA include, but are not limited to, adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil. Examples of nucleobase found in DNA include, but are not limited to, adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine. Such modified nucleobases (including the distinctions between naturally occurring and non-naturally occurring) are taught in International Patent Publication No. WO2013052523 and International Patent Application No. PCT/US2013/75177, the contents of each of which are incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

[0408] Combinations of Modified Sugars, Nucleobases, and Internucleoside Linkages [0409] The polynucleotides of the invention can include a combination of modifications to the sugar, the nucleobase, and/or the internucleoside linkage. These combinations can include any one or more modifications described herein.

[0410] Examples of modified nucleotides and modified nucleotide combinations are provided below in Table 8. These combinations of modified nucleotides can be used to form the polynucleotides of the invention. Unless otherwise noted, the modified nucleotides can be completely substituted for the natural nucleotides of the polynucleotides of the invention. As a non-limiting example, the natural nucleotide uridine can be substituted with a modified nucleoside described herein. In another non-limiting example, the natural nucleotide uridine can be partially substituted (e.g., about 0.1%, 1%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95% or 99.9%) with at least one of the modified nucleoside disclosed herein. Any combination of base/sugar or linker can be incorporated into the polynucleotides of the invention and such modifications are taught in International Patent Publication No. WO2013052523 and International Patent Application No. PCT/US2013/75177, the contents of each of which are incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

Table 8. Combinations

Modified Nucleotide Modified Nucleotide Combination

a-thio-cytidine a-thio-cytidine/5 -iodo-uridine

a-thio-cytidine/N 1 -methyl-pseudouridine

a-thio-cytidine/a-thio-uridine

a-thio-cytidine/5 -methyl -uridine

a-thio-cytidine/pseudo-uridine

about 50% of the cytosines are a-thio-cytidine

pseudoisocytidine pseudoisocytidine/5 -iodo-uridine

pseudoisocytidine/N 1 -methyl-pseudouridine

pseudoisocytidine/a-thio-uridine

pseudoisocytidine/5-methyl-uridine

pseudoisocytidine/pseudouridine

about 25% of cytosines are pseudoisocytidine

pseudoisocytidine/about 50% of uridines are Nl- methyl-pseudouridine and about 50% of uridines are

pseudouridine

pseudoisocytidine/about 25% of uridines are Nl- methyl -pseudouridine and about 25% of uridines are

pseudouridine

pyrrolo-cytidine pyrrolo-cytidine/5 -iodo-uridine

pyrrolo-cytidine/N 1 -methyl-pseudouridine

pyrrolo-cytidine/a-thio-uridine

pyrrolo-cytidine/5 -methyl -uridine

pyrrolo-cytidine/pseudouridine about 50% of the cytosines are pyrrolo-cytidine

5 -methyl -cytidine 5-methyl-cytidine/5-iodo-uridine

5 -methyl -cytidine/N 1 -methyl-pseudouridine

5 -methyl -cytidine/a-thio-uridine

5 -methyl -cytidine/5 -methyl -uridine

5 -methyl -cytidine/pseudouridine

about 25% of cytosines are 5 -methyl -cytidine

about 50% of cytosines are 5 -methyl -cytidine

5 -methyl -cytidine/5 -methoxy-uridine

5 -methyl -cytidine/5 -bromo-uridine

5 -methyl -cytidine/2-thio-uridine

5 -methyl -cytidine/about 50% of uridines are 2-thio- uridine

about 50% of uridines are 5 -methyl -cytidine/ about

50% of uridines are 2-thio-uridine

N4-acetyl-cytidine N4-acetyl -cytidine /5-iodo-uridine

N4-acetyl -cytidine /N 1 -methyl-pseudouridine

N4-acetyl-cytidine /a-thio-uridine

N4-acetyl -cytidine 15 -methyl -uridine

N4-acetyl-cytidine /pseudouridine

about 50% of cytosines are N4-acetyl-cytidine

about 25% of cytosines are N4-acetyl -cytidine

N4-acetyl -cytidine 15 -methoxy-uridine

N4-acetyl-cytidine /5-bromo-uridine

N4-acetyl-cytidine /2-thio-uridine

about 50% of cytosines are N4-acetyl-cytidine/ about

50% of uridines are 2-thio-uridine

Pharmaceutical Compositions

Formulation, Administration, Delivery and Dosing

[0411] The present invention provides polynucleotides compositions and complexes in combination with one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients. Pharmaceutical compositions may optionally comprise one or more additional active substances, e.g. therapeutically and/or prophylactically active substances. Pharmaceutical compositions of the present invention can be sterile and/or pyrogen-free. General considerations in the formulation and/or manufacture of pharmaceutical agents can be found, for example, in Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy 21 st ed., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005 (incorporated herein by reference in its entirety).

[0412] In some embodiments, compositions are administered to humans, human patients or subjects. For the purposes of the present disclosure, the phrase "active ingredient" generally refers to polynucleotides to be delivered as described herein. [0413] Although the descriptions of pharmaceutical compositions provided herein are principally directed to pharmaceutical compositions which are suitable for administration to humans, it will be understood by the skilled artisan that such compositions are generally suitable for administration to any other animal, e.g., to non-human animals, e.g. non-human mammals. Modification of pharmaceutical compositions suitable for administration to humans in order to render the compositions suitable for administration to various animals is well understood, and the ordinarily skilled veterinary pharmacologist can design and/or perform such modification with merely ordinary, if any, experimentation. Subjects to which administration of the pharmaceutical compositions is contemplated include, but are not limited to, humans and/or other primates; mammals, including commercially relevant mammals such as cattle, pigs, horses, sheep, cats, dogs, mice, and/or rats; and/or birds, including commercially relevant birds such as poultry, chickens, ducks, geese, and/or turkeys.

[0414] Formulations of the pharmaceutical compositions described herein can be prepared by any method known or hereafter developed in the art of pharmacology. In general, such preparatory methods include the step of bringing the active ingredient into association with an excipient and/or one or more other accessory ingredients, and then, if necessary and/or desirable, dividing, shaping and/or packaging the product into a desired single- or multi-dose unit.

[0415] Relative amounts of the active ingredient, the pharmaceutically acceptable excipient, and/or any additional ingredients in a pharmaceutical composition in accordance with the invention will vary, depending upon the identity, size, and/or condition of the subject treated and further depending upon the route by which the composition is to be administered. By way of example, the composition can comprise between 0.1% and 100%, e.g., between .5 and 50%, between 1-30%, between 5-80%, at least 80% (w/w) active ingredient.

Formulations

[0416] The polynucleotides of the invention can be formulated using one or more excipients to: (1) increase stability; (2) increase cell transfection; (3) permit the sustained or delayed release (e.g., from a depot formulation of the polynucleotide); (4) alter the biodistribution (e.g., target the polynucleotide to specific tissues or cell types); (5) increase the translation of encoded protein in vivo; and/or (6) alter the release profile of encoded protein in vivo. In addition to traditional excipients such as any and all solvents, dispersion media, diluents, or other liquid vehicles, dispersion or suspension aids, surface active agents, isotonic agents, thickening or emulsifying agents, preservatives, excipients of the present invention can include, without limitation, lipidoids, liposomes, lipid nanoparticles, polymers, lipoplexes, core-shell nanoparticles, peptides, proteins, cells transfected with polynucleotides (e.g., for transplantation into a subject), hyaluronidase, nanoparticle mimics and combinations thereof. Accordingly, the formulations of the invention can include one or more excipients, each in an amount that together increases the stability of the polynucleotide, increases cell transfection by the polynucleotide, increases the expression of polynucleotides encoded protein, and/or alters the release profile of polynucleotide encoded proteins. Further, the polynucleotides of the present invention can be formulated using self-assembled nucleic acid nanoparticles.

[0417] Formulations of the pharmaceutical compositions described herein can be prepared by any method known or hereafter developed in the art of pharmacology. In general, such preparatory methods include the step of associating the active ingredient with an excipient and/or one or more other accessory ingredients.

[0418] A pharmaceutical composition in accordance with the present disclosure can be prepared, packaged, and/or sold in bulk, as a single unit dose, and/or as a plurality of single unit doses. As used herein, a "unit dose" refers to a discrete amount of the pharmaceutical composition comprising a predetermined amount of the active ingredient. The amount of the active ingredient is generally equal to the dosage of the active ingredient which would be administered to a subject and/or a convenient fraction of such a dosage such as, for example, one- half or one-third of such a dosage.

[0419] Relative amounts of the active ingredient, the pharmaceutically acceptable excipient, and/or any additional ingredients in a pharmaceutical composition in accordance with the present disclosure may vary, depending upon the identity, size, and/or condition of the subject being treated and further depending upon the route by which the composition is to be administered. For example, the composition can comprise between 0.1% and 99% (w/w) of the active ingredient. By way of example, the composition can comprise between 0.1% and 100%, e.g., between .5 and 50%), between 1-30%, between 5-80%>, at least 80%> (w/w) active ingredient.

[0420] In some embodiments, the formulations described herein may contain at least one polynucleotide. As a non-limiting example, the formulations may contain 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 polynucleotides.

[0421] In some embodiments, the formulations described herein can comprise more than one type of polynucleotide. In some embodiments, the formulation can comprise a polynucleotide in linear and circular form. In another embodiment, the formulation can comprise a circular polynucleotide and an IVT polynucleotide. In yet another embodiment, the formulation can comprise an IVT polynucleotide, a chimeric polynucleotide and a circular polynucleotide.

[0422] In some embodiments the formulation may contain polynucleotide encoding a LDLR protein or a LDLR protein comprising at least one mutation (e.g., a LDLR cell surface expression-enhancing mutation, a mutation increasing the residence time of LDLR at the cell surface or a mutation resulting in increased levels of LDLR at the cell surface).

[0423] Pharmaceutical formulations may additionally comprise a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient, which, as used herein, includes, but is not limited to, any and all solvents, dispersion media, diluents, or other liquid vehicles, dispersion or suspension aids, surface active agents, isotonic agents, thickening or emulsifying agents, preservatives, and the like, as suited to the particular dosage form desired. Various excipients for formulating pharmaceutical compositions and techniques for preparing the composition are known in the art (see Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 21st Edition, A. R. Gennaro, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD, 2006; incorporated herein by reference in its entirety). The use of a conventional excipient medium can be contemplated within the scope of the present disclosure, except insofar as any conventional excipient medium can be incompatible with a substance or its derivatives, such as by producing any undesirable biological effect or otherwise interacting in a deleterious manner with any other component(s) of the pharmaceutical composition.

[0424] In some embodiments, the particle size of the lipid nanoparticle can be increased and/or decreased. The change in particle size can be able to help counter biological reaction such as, but not limited to, inflammation or may increase the biological effect of the modified mRNA delivered to mammals.

[0425] Pharmaceutically acceptable excipients used in the manufacture of pharmaceutical compositions include, but are not limited to, inert diluents, surface active agents and/or emulsifiers, preservatives, buffering agents, lubricating agents, and/or oils. Such excipients may optionally be included in the pharmaceutical formulations of the invention.

[0426] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides can be administered in or with, formulated in or delivered with nanostructures that can sequester molecules such as cholesterol. Non- limiting examples of these nanostructures and methods of making these nanostructures are described in US Patent Publication No. US20130195759, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. Exemplary structures of these nanostructures are shown in US Patent Publication No. US20130195759, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety, and can include a core and a shell surrounding the core

Lipidoids

[0427] The synthesis of lipidoids has been extensively described and formulations containing these compounds are particularly suited for delivery of polynucleotides (see Mahon et al., Bioconjug Chem. 2010 21 : 1448-1454; Schroeder et al., J Intern Med. 2010 267:9-21; Akinc et al., Nat Biotechnol. 2008 26:561-569; Love et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 107: 1864- 1869; Siegwart et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 108: 12996-3001; all of which are incorporated herein in their entireties).

[0428] While these lipidoids have been used to effectively deliver double stranded small interfering RNA molecules in rodents and non-human primates (see Akinc et al., Nat Biotechnol. 2008 26:561-569; Frank-Kamenetsky et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 105: 11915-11920; Akinc et al., Mol Ther. 2009 17:872-879; Love et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 107: 1864- 1869; Leuschner et al., Nat Biotechnol. 2011 29: 1005-1010; all of which is incorporated herein in their entirety), the present disclosure describes their formulation and use in delivering polynucleotides.

[0429] Complexes, micelles, liposomes or particles can be prepared containing these lipidoids and therefore, can result in an effective delivery of the polynucleotide, as judged by the production of an encoded protein, following the injection of a lipidoid formulation via localized and/or systemic routes of administration. Lipidoid complexes of polynucleotides can be administered by various means including, but not limited to, intravenous, intramuscular, or subcutaneous routes.

[0430] In vivo delivery of nucleic acids can be affected by many parameters, including, but not limited to, the formulation composition, nature of particle PEGylation, degree of loading, polynucleotide to lipid ratio, and biophysical parameters such as, but not limited to, particle size (Akinc et al., Mol Ther. 2009 17:872-879; herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). As an example, small changes in the anchor chain length of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) lipids can result in significant effects on in vivo efficacy. Formulations with the different lipidoids, including, but not limited to penta[3-(l-laurylaminopropionyl)]-triethylenetetramine hydrochloride (TETA-5LAP; aka 98N12-5, see Murugaiah et al., Analytical Biochemistry, 401 :61 (2010); herein incorporated by reference in its entirety), CI 2-200 (including derivatives and variants), and MD1, can be tested for in vivo activity. [0431] The lipidoid referred to herein as "98N12-5" is disclosed by Akinc et al., Mol Ther. 2009 17:872-879 and is incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0432] The lipidoid referred to herein as "C12-200" is disclosed by Love et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 107: 1864-1869 and Liu and Huang, Molecular Therapy. 2010 669-670; both of which are herein incorporated by reference in their entirety. The lipidoid formulations can include particles comprising either 3 or 4 or more components in addition to polynucleotides.

[0433] Lipidoids and polynucleotide formulations comprising lipidoids are described in International Patent Application No. PCT/US2014/097077, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

Liposomes, Lipoplexes, and Lipid Nanoparticles

[0434] The polynucleotides of the invention can be formulated using one or more liposomes, lipoplexes, or lipid nanoparticles. In some embodiments, pharmaceutical compositions of polynucleotides include liposomes. Liposomes are artificially-prepared vesicles which may primarily be composed of a lipid bilayer and can be used as a delivery vehicle for the administration of nutrients and pharmaceutical formulations. Liposomes can be of different sizes such as, but not limited to, a multilamellar vesicle (MLV) which can be hundreds of nanometers in diameter and may contain a series of concentric bilayers separated by narrow aqueous compartments, a small unicellular vesicle (SUV) which can be smaller than 50 nm in diameter, and a large unilamellar vesicle (LUV) which can be between 50 and 500 nm in diameter. Liposome design can include, but is not limited to, opsonins or ligands in order to improve the attachment of liposomes to unhealthy tissue or to activate events such as, but not limited to, endocytosis. Liposomes may contain a low or a high pH in order to improve the delivery of the pharmaceutical formulations.

[0435] The formation of liposomes may depend on the physicochemical characteristics such as, but not limited to, the pharmaceutical formulation entrapped and the liposomal ingredients , the nature of the medium in which the lipid vesicles are dispersed, the effective concentration of the entrapped substance and its potential toxicity, any additional processes involved during the application and/or delivery of the vesicles, the optimization size, polydispersity and the shelf-life of the vesicles for the intended application, and the batch-to-batch reproducibility and possibility of large-scale production of safe and efficient liposomal products.

[0436] As a non-limiting example, liposomes such as synthetic membrane vesicles can be prepared by the methods, apparatus and devices described in US Patent Publication No. US20130177638, US20130177637, US20130177636, US20130177635, US20130177634, US20130177633, US20130183375, US20130183373 and US20130183372, the contents of each of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0437] In some embodiments, pharmaceutical compositions described herein can include, without limitation, liposomes such as those formed from l,2-dioleyloxy-N,N- dimethylaminopropane (DODMA) liposomes, DiLa2 liposomes from Marina Biotech (Bothell, WA), l,2-dilinoleyloxy-3-dimethylaminopropane (DLin-DMA), 2,2-dilinoleyl-4-(2- dimethylaminoethyl)-[l,3]-dioxolane (DLin-KC2-DMA), and MC3 (US20100324120; herein incorporated by reference in its entirety) and liposomes which may deliver small molecule drugs such as, but not limited to, DOXIL® from Janssen Biotech, Inc. (Horsham, PA).

[0438] In some embodiments, pharmaceutical compositions described herein can include, without limitation, liposomes such as those formed from the synthesis of stabilized plasmid-lipid particles (SPLP) or stabilized nucleic acid lipid particle (SNALP) that have been previously described and shown to be suitable for oligonucleotide delivery in vitro and in vivo (see Wheeler et al. Gene Therapy. 1999 6:271-281; Zhang et al. Gene Therapy. 1999 6: 1438-1447; Jeffs et al. Pharm Res. 2005 22:362-372; Morrissey et al., Nat Biotechnol. 2005 2: 1002-1007; Zimmermann et al., Nature. 2006 441 : 111-114; Heyes et al. J Contr Rel. 2005 107:276-287; Semple et al. Nature Biotech. 2010 28: 172-176; Judge et al. J Clin Invest. 2009 119:661-673; deFougerolles Hum Gene Ther. 2008 19: 125-132; U.S. Patent Publication No US20130122104; all of which are incorporated herein in their entireties). The original manufacture method by Wheeler et al. was a detergent dialysis method, which was later improved by Jeffs et al. and is referred to as the spontaneous vesicle formation method. The liposome formulations are composed of 3 to 4 lipid components in addition to the polynucleotide. As an example a liposome can contain, but is not limited to, 55% cholesterol, 20% disteroylphosphatidyl choline (DSPC), 10% PEG-S-DSG, and 15%) l,2-dioleyloxy-N,N-dimethylaminopropane (DODMA), as described by Jeffs et al. As another example, certain liposome formulations may contain, but are not limited to, 48%> cholesterol, 20% DSPC, 2% PEG-c-DMA, and 30% cationic lipid, where the cationic lipid can be l,2-distearloxy-N,N-dimethylaminopropane (DSDMA), DODMA, DLin-DMA, or 1,2- dilinolenyloxy-3-dimethylaminopropane (DLenDMA), as described by Heyes et al.

[0439] In some embodiments, liposome formulations can comprise from about about 25.0%> cholesterol to about 40.0%> cholesterol, from about 30.0%> cholesterol to about 45.0%> cholesterol, from about 35.0%> cholesterol to about 50.0%> cholesterol and/or from about 48.5%> cholesterol to about 60% cholesterol. In a preferred embodiment, formulations can comprise a percentage of cholesterol selected from the group consisting of 28.5%, 31.5%, 33.5%, 36.5%, 37.0%, 38.5%, 39.0%) and 43.5%. In some embodiments, formulations can comprise from about 5.0% to about 10.0% DSPC and/or from about 7.0% to about 15.0% DSPC.

[0440] In some embodiments, pharmaceutical compositions can include liposomes which can be formed to deliver polynucleotides which may encode at least one immunogen or any other polypeptide of interest. The polynucleotide can be encapsulated by the liposome and/or it can be contained in an aqueous core which may then be encapsulated by the liposome (see International Pub. Nos. WO2012031046, WO2012031043, WO2012030901 and WO2012006378 and US Patent Publication No. US20130189351, US20130195969 and US20130202684; the contents of each of which are herein incorporated by reference in their entirety).

[0441] In another embodiment, liposomes can be formulated for targeted delivery. As a non- limiting example, the liposome can be formulated for targeted delivery to the liver. The liposome used for targeted delivery can include, but is not limited to, the liposomes described in and methods of making liposomes described in US Patent Publication No. US20130195967, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0442] In another embodiment, the polynucleotide can be formulated in a cationic oil-in- water emulsion where the emulsion particle comprises an oil core and a cationic lipid which can interact with the polynucleotide anchoring the molecule to the emulsion particle (see International Pub. No. WO2012006380; herein incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0443] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides can be formulated in a water-in-oil emulsion comprising a continuous hydrophobic phase in which the hydrophilic phase is dispersed. As a non-limiting example, the emulsion can be made by the methods described in International Publication No. WO201087791, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0444] In another embodiment, the lipid formulation can include at least cationic lipid, a lipid which may enhance transfection and a least one lipid which contains a hydrophilic head group linked to a lipid moiety (International Pub. No. WO2011076807 and U.S. Pub. No. 20110200582; the contents of each of which is herein incorporated by reference in their entirety). In another embodiment, the polynucleotides can be formulated in a lipid vesicle which may have crosslinks between functionalized lipid bilayers (see U.S. Pub. No. 20120177724, the contents of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). [0445] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides can be formulated in a liposome as described in International Patent Publication No. WO2013086526, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. The polynucleotides can be encapsulated in a liposome using reverse pH gradients and/or optimized internal buffer compositions as described in International Patent Publication No. WO2013086526, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0446] In some embodiments, the pharmaceutical compositions can be formulated in liposomes such as, but not limited to, DiLa2 liposomes (Marina Biotech, Bothell, WA), SMARTICLES® (Marina Biotech, Bothell, WA), neutral DOPC (l,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3- phosphocholine) based liposomes (e.g., siRNA delivery for ovarian cancer (Landen et al. Cancer Biology & Therapy 2006 5(12)1708-1713); herein incorporated by reference in its entirety) and hyaluronan-coated liposomes (Quiet Therapeutics, Israel).

[0447] In some embodiments, the cationic lipid can be a low molecular weight cationic lipid such as those described in US Patent Application No. 20130090372, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0448] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides can be formulated in a lipid vesicle which may have crosslinks between functionalized lipid bilayers.

[0449] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides can be formulated in a liposome comprising a cationic lipid. The liposome may have a molar ratio of nitrogen atoms in the cationic lipid to the phosphates in the RNA (N:P ratio) of between 1 : 1 and 20: 1 as described in International Publication No. WO2013006825, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. In another embodiment, the liposome may have a N:P ratio of greater than 20: 1 or less than 1 : 1.

[0450] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides can be formulated in a lipid-polycation complex. The formation of the lipid-polycation complex can be accomplished by methods known in the art and/or as described in U.S. Pub. No. 20120178702, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. As a non-limiting example, the polycation can include a cationic peptide or a polypeptide such as, but not limited to, polylysine, polyornithine and/or polyarginine and the cationic peptides described in International Pub. No. WO2012013326 or US Patent Pub. No. US20130142818; each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. In another embodiment, the polynucleotides can be formulated in a lipid-polycation complex which may further include a neutral lipid such as, but not limited to, cholesterol or dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE). [0451] In some embodiments, the polynucleotide can be formulated in an aminoalcohol lipidoid. Aminoalcohol lipidoids which can be used in the present invention can be prepared by the methods described in U.S. Patent No. 8,450,298, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0452] The liposome formulation can be influenced by, but not limited to, the selection of the cationic lipid component, the degree of cationic lipid saturation, the nature of the PEGylation, ratio of all components and biophysical parameters such as size. In one example by Semple et al. (Semple et al. Nature Biotech. 2010 28: 172-176; herein incorporated by reference in its entirety), the liposome formulation was composed of 57.1 % cationic lipid, 7.1% dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, 34.3 % cholesterol, and 1.4% PEG-c-DMA. As another example, changing the composition of the cationic lipid could more effectively deliver siRNA to various antigen presenting cells (Basha et al. Mol Ther. 201 1 19:2186-2200; herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). In some embodiments, liposome formulations can comprise from about 35 to about 45% cationic lipid, from about 40% to about 50% cationic lipid, from about 50%) to about 60%) cationic lipid and/or from about 55% to about 65% cationic lipid. In some embodiments, the ratio of lipid to mRNA in liposomes can be from about about 5 : 1 to about 20: 1, from about 10: 1 to about 25 : 1, from about 15 : 1 to about 30: 1 and/or at least 30: 1.

[0453] In some embodiments, the ratio of PEG in the lipid nanoparticle (LNP) formulations can be increased or decreased and/or the carbon chain length of the PEG lipid can be modified from C14 to C 18 to alter the pharmacokinetics and/or biodistribution of the LNP formulations. As a non-limiting example, LNP formulations may contain from about 0.5% to about 3.0%, from about 1.0% to about 3.5%, from about 1.5% to about 4.0%, from about 2.0% to about 4.5%, from about 2.5%) to about 5.0% and/or from about 3.0% to about 6.0% of the lipid molar ratio of PEG- c-DOMG as compared to the cationic lipid, DSPC and cholesterol. In another embodiment the PEG-c-DOMG can be replaced with a PEG lipid such as, but not limited to, PEG- DSG (1,2- Distearoyl-sn-glycerol, methoxypolyethylene glycol), PEG-DMG (1,2-Dimyristoyl-sn-glycerol) and/or PEG-DPG (1,2-Dipalmitoyl-sn-glycerol, methoxypolyethylene glycol). The cationic lipid can be selected from any lipid known in the art such as, but not limited to, DLin-MC3-DMA, DLin-DMA, CI 2-200, and DLin-KC2-DMA.

[0454] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides can be formulated in a lipid nanoparticle such as those described in International Publication No. WO2012170930, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. [0455] In some embodiments, the formulation comprising the polynucleotide is a nanoparticle which can comprise at least one lipid. The lipid can be selected from, but is not limited to, DLin-DMA, DLin-K-DMA, 98N12-5, C 12-200, DLin-MC3-DMA, DLin-KC2-DMA, DODMA, PLGA, PEG, PEG-DMG, PEGylated lipids, amino alcohol lipids, and KL22, or any combinations thereof. In another aspect, the lipid can be a cationic lipid such as, but not limited to, DLin-DMA, DLin-D-DMA, DLin-MC3 -DMA, DLin-KC2-DMA, DODMA and amino alcohol lipids.

[0456] In some embodiments, the lipid is KL22. In some embodiments, a composition comprising a lipid nanoparticle, e.g., KL22, a polynucleotide encoding a mutant LDLR disclosed herein increases expression of LDLR compared to polynucleotides encoding the mutant LDLR formulated in a different lipid nanoparticle (e.g., DLin-DMA, DLin-K-DMA, 98N12-5, C12-200, DLin-MC3-DMA, DLin-KC2-DMA, DODMA, PLGA, PEG, or PEG-DMG). In some embodiments, a polynucleotide is formulated in a lipid nanoparticle, e.g., KL22, wherein the polynucleotide encodes a human low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) or functional fragment thereof comprising at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain (e.g., corresponding to N316, L339, or the combination of N316 and L339 of human LDLR) and at least one or a single amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain (e.g., corresponding to K816, K830, C839, or any combination thereof of human LDLR). In some embodiments, the mutation in the EGF-A domain corresponds to N316A of human LDLR and the mutation in the intracellular domain corresponds to K830R and/or C839A of human LDLR. In some embodiments, the formulation comprising the polynuceotide and lipid nanoparticle, e.g., KL22, increases LDLR expression (e.g., by at least 20%) and/or decreases LDL, cholesterol and/or triglyceride levels (e.g., by at least 20%) compared to wild-type LDLR. In some embodiments, the composition comprising the polynuceotide and lipid nanoparticle, e.g., KL22, increases LDLR expression (e.g., by 20- 50%, e.g., at least 20%, at least 25%, at least 30%, at least 35%, at least 40%, at least 45%, or at least 50%) and/or decreases LDL, cholesterol and/or triglyceride levels (e.g., by 20-50%, e.g., at least 20%, at least 25%, at least 30%, at least 35%, at least 40%, at least 45%, or at least 50%) compared to wild-type LDLR.

[0457] The amino alcohol cationic lipid can be the lipids described in and/or made by the methods described in US Patent Publication No. US20130150625, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. As a non-limiting example, the cationic lipid can be 2-amino-3- [(9Z, 12Z)-octadeca-9, 12-dien-l-yloxy]-2-{ [(9Z,2Z)-octadeca-9, 12-dien-l-yloxy]methyl}propan- l-ol (Compound 1 in US20130150625); 2-amino-3-[(9Z)-octadec-9-en-l-yloxy]-2-{[(9Z)- octadec-9-en-l-yloxy]methyl}propan-l-ol (Compound 2 in US20130150625); 2-amino-3- [(9Z,12Z)-octadeca-9,12-dien-l-yloxy]-2-[(octyloxy)methyl]propan-l-ol (Compound 3 in US20130150625); and 2-(dimethylamino)-3 -[(9Z, 12Z)-octadeca-9, 12-dien- 1 -yloxy]-2- {[(9Z,12Z)-octadeca-9,12-dien-l-yloxy]methyl}propan-l-ol (Compound 4 in US20130150625); or any pharmaceutically acceptable salt or stereoisomer thereof.

[0458] In some embodiments, the cationic lipid can be selected from, but not limited to, a cationic lipid described in International Publication Nos. WO2012040184, WO2011153120, WO2011149733, WO2011090965, WO2011043913, WO2011022460, WO2012061259, WO2012054365, WO2012044638, WO2010080724, WO201021865, WO2008103276, WO2013086373 and WO2013086354, US Patent Nos. 7,893,302, 7,404,969, 8,283,333, and 8,466, 122 and US Patent Publication No. US20100036115, US20120202871, US20130064894, US20130129785, US20130150625, US20130178541 and US20130225836; the contents of each of which are herein incorporated by reference in their entirety. In another embodiment, the cationic lipid can be selected from, but not limited to, formula A described in International Publication Nos. WO2012040184, WO2011153120, WO2011149733, WO2011090965, WO2011043913, WO2011022460, WO2012061259, WO2012054365, WO2012044638 and WO2013116126 or US Patent Publication No. US20130178541 and US20130225836; the contents of each of which is herein incorporated by reference in their entirety. In yet another embodiment, the cationic lipid can be selected from, but not limited to, formula CLI-CLXXIX of International Publication No. WO2008103276, formula CLI-CLXXIX of US Patent No. 7,893,302, formula CLI-CLXXXXII of US Patent No. 7,404,969 and formula I- VI of US Patent Publication No. US20100036115, formula I of US Patent Publication No US20130123338; each of which is herein incorporated by reference in their entirety. As a non-limiting example, the cationic lipid can be selected from (20Z,23Z)-N,N-dimethylnonacosa-20,23-dien-10-amine, (17Z,20Z)-N,N-dimemylhexacosa-17,20-dien-9-amine, (lZ,19Z)-N5N-dimethylpentacosa-l 6, 19-dien-8-amine, ( 13Z, 16Z)-N,N-dimethyldocosa- 13,16-dien-5-amine, ( 12Z, 15Z)-N,N- dimethylhenicosa-12, 15-dien-4-amine, (14Z, 17Z)-N,N-dimethyltricosa-14,17-dien-6-amine, (15Z, 18Z)-N,N-dimethyltetracosa- 15, 18-dien-7-amine, (18Z,2 lZ)-N,N-dimethylheptacosa- 18,21 -di en- 10-amine, ( 15Z, 18Z)-N,N-dimethyltetracosa- 15, 18-dien-5-amine, ( 14Z, 17Z)-N,N- dimethyltricosa- 14,17-dien-4-amine, ( 19Z,22Z)-N,N-dimeihyloctacosa- 19,22-dien-9-amine, (18Z,21 Z)-N,N-dimethylheptacosa- 18 ,21 -dien-8 -amine, (17Z,20Z)-N,N-dimethylhexacosa- 17,20-dien-7-amine, ( 16Z, 19Z)-N,N-dimethylpentacosa- 16, 19-dien-6-amine, (22Z,25Z)-N,N- dimethylhentriaconta-22,25-dien-10-amine, (21 Z ,24Z)-N,N-dimethyltriaconta-21,24-dien-9- amine, ( 18Z)-N,N-dimetylheptacos- 18-en- 10-amine, ( 17Z)-N,N-dimethylhexacos- 17-en-9- amine, ( 19Z,22Z)-N,N-dimethyloctacosa- 19,22-dien-7-amine, Ν,Ν-dimethylheptacosan- 10- amine, (20Z,23Z)-N-ethyl-N-methylnonacosa-20,23-dien-10-amine, 1-[(1 lZ, 14Z)-l-nonylicosa- 11, 14-dien-l-yl] pyrrolidine, (20Z)-N,N-dimethylheptacos-20-en-l 0-amine, (15Z)-N,N-dimethyl eptacos-15-en-l 0-amine, (14Z)-N,N-dimethylnonacos-14-en-10-amine, (17Z)-N,N- dimethylnonacos- 17-en-10-amine, (24Z)-N,N-dimethyltritriacont-24-en-10-amine, (20Z)-N,N- dimethylnonacos-20-en-l 0-amine, (22Z)-N,N-dimethylhentriacont-22-en-10-amine, (16Z)-N,N- dimethylpentacos-16-en-8-amine, (12Z,15Z)-N,N-dimethyl-2-nonylhenicosa-12,15-dien-l- amine, (13Z, 16Z)-N,N-dimethyl-3-nonyldocosa-13,16-dien-l-amine, N,N-dimethyl-l-[(lS,2R)-2- octylcyclopropyl] eptadecan-8-amine, 1-[(1 S,2R)-2-hexylcyclopropyl]-N,N-dimethylnonadecan- 10-amine, N,N-dimethyl-l-[(l S ,2R)-2-octylcyclopropyl]nonadecan-l 0-amine, N,N-dimethyl- 21-[(lS,2R)-2-octylcyclopropyl]henicosan-10-amine,N,N-dimethyl-l-[(l S,2S)-2-{[(lR,2R)-2- pentylcycIopropyl]methyl}cyclopropyl]nonadecan-10-amine,N,N-dimethyl-l-[(l S,2R)-2- octylcyclopropyl]hexadecan-8-amine, N,N-dimethyl-[(lR,2S)-2-undecyIcyclopropyl]tetradecan- 5-amine, N,N-dimethyl-3-{7-[(l S,2R)-2-octylcyclopropyl]heptyl} dodecan-1 -amine, 1-[(1R,2S)- 2-hepty lcyclopropyl]-N,N-dimethyloctadecan-9-amine, 1-[(1 S,2R)-2-decylcyclopropyl]-N,N- dimethylpentadecan-6-amine, N,N-dimethyl-l-[(lS,2R)-2-octylcyclopropyl]pentadecan-8-amine, R-N,N-dimethyl-l-[(9Z, 12Z)-octadeca-9, 12-dien- l-yloxy]-3-(octyloxy)propan-2-amine, S-N,N- dimethyl-l-[(9Z,12Z)-octadeca-9,12-dien-l-yloxy]-3-(octyloxy)propan-2-amine, l-{2-[(9Z,12Z)- octadeca-9, 12-dien- 1 -yloxy]- 1 -[(octyloxy)methyl]ethyl }pyrrolidine, (2S)-N,N-dimethyl- 1 -

[(9Z,12Z)-octadeca-9,12-dien-l-yloxy]-3-[(5Z)-oct-5-en-l-yloxy]propan-2-amine, l-{2- [(9Z, 12Z)-octadeca-9, 12-dien- 1 -yloxy]- 1 -[(octyloxy)methyl] ethyl } azetidine, (2S)- 1 -(hexyloxy)- N,N-dimethyl-3-[(9Z, 12Z)-octadeca-9, 12-dien- l-yloxy]propan-2-amine, (2S)-l-(heptyloxy)- N,N-dimethyl-3-[(9Z, 12Z)-octadeca-9, 12-dien- l-yloxy]propan-2-amine, N,N-dimethyl-l- (nonyloxy)-3-[(9Z,12Z)-octadeca-9,12-dien-l-yloxy]propan-2-amine, N,N-dimethyl-l-[(9Z)- octadec-9-en-l-yloxy]-3-(octyloxy)propan-2-amine; (2S)-N,N-dimethyl-l-[(6Z,9Z,12Z)- octadeca-6,9, 12-trien-l-yloxy]-3-(octyloxy)propan-2-amine, (2S)-1-[(1 lZ, 14Z)-icosa-l 1,14- dien-l-yloxy]-N,N-dimethyl-3-(pentyloxy)propan-2-amine, (2S)-l-(hexyloxy)-3-[(l 1Z,14Z)- icosa-l l, 14-dien-l-yloxy]-N,N-dimethylpropan-2-amine, 1-[(1 lZ,14Z)-icosa-l 1,14-dien-l- yloxy]-N,N-dimethy 1 -3 -(octyloxy)propan-2-amine, 1 -[( 13Z, 16Z)-docosa-13 , 16-dien-l-yloxy]- N,N-dimethyl-3 -(octyloxy)propan-2-amine, (2S)- 1 -[(13Z, 16Z)-docosa- 13,16-dien- 1 -yloxy]-3 - (hexyloxy)-N,N-dimethylpropan-2-amine, (2S)- 1 -[( 13Z)-docos- 13 -en- 1 -yloxy]-3 -(hexyloxy)- N,N-dimethylpropan-2-amine, 1 -[(13Z)-docos- 13 -en- 1 -yloxy]-N,N-dimethyl-3 -

(octyloxy)propan-2-amine, l-[(9Z)-hexadec-9-en-l-yloxy]-N,N-dimethyl-3-(octyloxy)propan-2- amine, (2R)-N,N-dimethyl-H(l-metoylo ctyl)oxy]-3-[(9Z,12Z)-octadeca-9,12-dien-l- yloxy]propan-2-amine, (2R)-l-[(3,7-dimethyloctyl)oxy]-N,N-dimethyl-3-[(9Z,12Z)-octadeca- 9, 12-dien-l-yloxy]propan-2-amine, N,N-dimethyl-l-(octyloxy)-3-({8-[(l S,2S)-2-{[(lR,2R)-2- pentylcyclopropyl]methyl}cyclopropyl]octyl}oxy)propan-2-amine, N,N-dimethyl-l-{[8-(2- oclylcyclopropyl)octyl]oxy}-3-(octyloxy)propan-2-amine and (11E,20Z,23Z)-N,N- dimethylnonacosa-ll,20,2-trien-10-amine or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or stereoisomer thereof.

[0459] In some embodiments, the lipid can be a cleavable lipid such as those described in International Publication No. WO2012170889, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0460] In another embodiment, the lipid can be a cationic lipid such as, but not limited to, Formula (I) of U.S. Patent Application No. US20130064894, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0461] In some embodiments, the cationic lipid can be synthesized by methods known in the art and/or as described in International Publication Nos. WO2012040184, WO2011153120, WO2011149733, WO2011090965, WO2011043913, WO2011022460, WO2012061259, WO2012054365, WO2012044638, WO2010080724, WO201021865, WO2013086373 and WO2013086354; the contents of each of which are herein incorporated by reference in their entirety.

[0462] In another embodiment, the cationic lipid can be a trialkyl cationic lipid. Non-limiting examples of trialkyl cationic lipids and methods of making and using the trialkyl cationic lipids are described in International Patent Publication No. WO2013126803, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0463] In some embodiments, the LNP formulations of the polynucleotides may contain PEG-c-DOMG at 3% lipid molar ratio. In another embodiment, the LNP formulations polynucleotides may contain PEG-c-DOMG at 1.5% lipid molar ratio.

[0464] In some embodiments, the pharmaceutical compositions of the polynucleotides can include at least one of the PEGylated lipids described in International Publication No. WO2012099755, herein incorporated by reference. [0465] In some embodiments, the LNP formulation may contain PEG-DMG 2000 (1,2- dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phophoethanolamine-N-[methoxy(polyethylene glycol)-2000). In some embodiments, the LNP formulation may contain PEG-DMG 2000, a cationic lipid known in the art and at least one other component. In another embodiment, the LNP formulation may contain PEG-DMG 2000, a cationic lipid known in the art, DSPC and cholesterol. As a non-limiting example, the LNP formulation may contain PEG-DMG 2000, DLin-DMA, DSPC and cholesterol. As another non-limiting example the LNP formulation may contain PEG-DMG 2000, DLin-DMA, DSPC and cholesterol in a molar ratio of 2:40: 10:48 (see e.g., Geall et al., Nonviral delivery of self-amplifying RNA vaccines, PNAS 2012; PMID: 22908294; herein incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0466] In some embodiments, the LNP formulation can be formulated by the methods described in International Publication Nos. WO2011127255 or WO2008103276, the contents of each of which is herein incorporated by reference in their entirety. As a non-limiting example, the polynucleotides described herein can be encapsulated in LNP formulations as described in WO2011127255 and/or WO2008103276; each of which is herein incorporated by reference in their entirety.

[0467] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides described herein can be formulated in a nanoparticle to be delivered by a parenteral route as described in U.S. Pub. No. US20120207845; the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0468] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides can be formulated in a lipid nanoparticle made by the methods described in US Patent Publication No US20130156845 or International Publication No WO2013093648 or WO2012024526, each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0469] The lipid nanoparticles described herein can be made in a sterile environment by the system and/or methods described in US Patent Publication No. US20130164400, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0470] In some embodiments, the LNP formulation can be formulated in a nanoparticle such as a nucleic acid-lipid particle described in US Patent No. 8,492,359, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. As a non-limiting example, the lipid particle can comprise one or more active agents or therapeutic agents; one or more cationic lipids comprising from about 50 mol % to about 85 mol % of the total lipid present in the particle; one or more non-cationic lipids comprising from about 13 mol % to about 49.5 mol % of the total lipid present in the particle; and one or more conjugated lipids that inhibit aggregation of particles comprising from about 0.5 mol % to about 2 mol % of the total lipid present in the particle. The nucleic acid in the nanoparticle can be the polynucleotides described herein and/or are known in the art.

[0471] In some embodiments, the LNP formulation can be formulated by the methods described in International Publication Nos. WO2011127255 or WO2008103276, the contents of each of which are herein incorporated by reference in their entirety. As a non-limiting example, modified RNA described herein can be encapsulated in LNP formulations as described in WO2011127255 and/or WO2008103276; the contents of each of which are herein incorporated by reference in their entirety.

[0472] In some embodiments, LNP formulations described herein can comprise a polycationic composition. As a non-limiting example, the polycationic composition can be selected from formula 1-60 of US Patent Publication No. US20050222064; the content of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. In another embodiment, the LNP formulations comprising a polycationic composition can be used for the delivery of the modified RNA described herein in vivo and/or in vitro.

[0473] In some embodiments, the LNP formulations described herein may additionally comprise a permeability enhancer molecule. Non-limiting permeability enhancer molecules are described in US Patent Publication No. US20050222064; the content of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0474] In some embodiments, the pharmaceutical compositions can be formulated in liposomes such as, but not limited to, DiLa2 liposomes (Marina Biotech, Bothell, WA), SMARTICLES® (Marina Biotech, Bothell, WA), neutral DOPC (l,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3- phosphocholine) based liposomes {e.g., siRNA delivery for ovarian cancer (Landen et al. Cancer Biology & Therapy 2006 5(12)1708-1713); herein incorporated by reference in its entirety) and hyaluronan-coated liposomes (Quiet Therapeutics, Israel).

[0475] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides can be formulated in a lyophilized gel- phase liposomal composition as described in US Publication No. US2012060293, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0476] The nanoparticle formulations can be a carbohydrate nanoparticle comprising a carbohydrate carrier and a polynucleotide. As a non-limiting example, the carbohydrate carrier can include, but is not limited to, an anhydride-modified phytoglycogen or glycogen-type material, phtoglycogen octenyl succinate, phytoglycogen beta-dextrin, anhydride-modified phytoglycogen beta-dextrin. (See e.g., International Publication No. WO2012109121; the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0477] Nanoparticle formulations of the present invention can be coated with a surfactant or polymer in order to improve the delivery of the particle. In some embodiments, the nanoparticle can be coated with a hydrophilic coating such as, but not limited to, PEG coatings and/or coatings that have a neutral surface charge. The hydrophilic coatings may help to deliver nanoparticles with larger payloads such as, but not limited to, polynucleotides within the central nervous system. As a non-limiting example nanoparticles comprising a hydrophilic coating and methods of making such nanoparticles are described in US Patent Publication No. US20130183244, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0478] In some embodiments, the lipid nanoparticles of the present invention can be hydrophilic polymer particles. Non-limiting examples of hydrophilic polymer particles and methods of making hydrophilic polymer particles are described in US Patent Publication No. US20130210991, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0479] In another embodiment, the lipid nanoparticles of the present invention can be hydrophobic polymer particles.

[0480] Lipid nanoparticle formulations can be improved by replacing the cationic lipid with a biodegradable cationic lipid which is known as a rapidly eliminated lipid nanoparticle (reLNP). Ionizable cationic lipids, such as, but not limited to, DLinDMA, DLin-KC2-DMA, and DLin- MC3-DMA, have been shown to accumulate in plasma and tissues over time and can be a potential source of toxicity. The rapid metabolism of the rapidly eliminated lipids can improve the tolerability and therapeutic index of the lipid nanoparticles by an order of magnitude from a 1 mg/kg dose to a 10 mg/kg dose in rat. Inclusion of an enzymatically degraded ester linkage can improve the degradation and metabolism profile of the cationic component, while still maintaining the activity of the reLNP formulation. The ester linkage can be internally located within the lipid chain or it can be terminally located at the terminal end of the lipid chain. The internal ester linkage may replace any carbon in the lipid chain.

[0481] In some embodiments, the internal ester linkage can be located on either side of the saturated carbon.

[0482] In some embodiments, an immune response can be elicited by delivering a lipid nanoparticle which can include a nanospecies, a polymer and an immunogen. (U.S. Publication No. 20120189700 and International Publication No. WO2012099805; each of which is herein incorporated by reference in their entirety). The polymer may encapsulate the nanospecies or partially encapsulate the nanospecies. The immunogen can be a recombinant protein, a modified RNA and/or a polynucleotide described herein. In some embodiments, the lipid nanoparticle can be formulated for use in a vaccine such as, but not limited to, against a pathogen.

[0483] Lipid nanoparticles can be engineered to alter the surface properties of particles so the lipid nanoparticles may penetrate the mucosal barrier. Lipid nanoparticles to penetrate the mucosal barrier and areas where mucus is located is described in International Patent Application No. PCT/US2014/027077, the contents of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0484] In some embodiments, the polynucleotide is formulated as a lipoplex, such as, without limitation, the ATUPLEX™ system, the DACC system, the DBTC system and other siRNA- lipoplex technology from Silence Therapeutics (London, United Kingdom), STEMFECT™ from STEMGENT® (Cambridge, MA), and polyethylenimine (PEI) or protamine-based targeted and non-targeted delivery of nucleic acids acids (Aleku et al. Cancer Res. 2008 68:9788-9798; Strumberg et al. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2012 50:76-78; Santel et al., Gene Ther 2006 13 : 1222-1234; Santel et al., Gene Ther 2006 13 : 1360-1370; Gutbier et al., Pulm Pharmacol. Ther. 2010 23 :334-344; Kaufmann et al. Microvasc Res 2010 80:286-293Weide et al. J Immunother. 2009 32:498-507; Weide et al. J Immunother. 2008 31 : 180-188; Pascolo Expert Opin. Biol. Ther. 4: 1285-1294; Fotin-Mleczek et al., 2011 J. Immunother. 34: 1-15; Song et al., Nature Biotechnol. 2005, 23 :709-717; Peer et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 6; 104:4095- 4100; deFougerolles Hum Gene Ther. 2008 19: 125-132; all of which are incorporated herein by reference in its entirety).

[0485] In some embodiments such formulations may also be constructed or compositions altered such that they passively or actively are directed to different cell types in vivo, including but not limited to hepatocytes, immune cells, tumor cells, endothelial cells, antigen presenting cells, and leukocytes (Akinc et al. Mol Ther. 2010 18: 1357-1364; Song et al., Nat Biotechnol. 2005 23 :709-717; Judge et al., J Clin Invest. 2009 119:661-673; Kaufmann et al., Microvasc Res

2010 80:286-293; Santel et al., Gene Ther 2006 13 : 1222-1234; Santel et al., Gene Ther 2006 13 : 1360-1370; Gutbier et al., Pulm Pharmacol. Ther. 2010 23 :334-344; Basha et al., Mol. Ther.

2011 19:2186-2200; Fenske and Cullis, Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2008 5:25-44; Peer et al., Science. 2008 319:627-630; Peer and Lieberman, Gene Ther. 2011 18: 1127-1133; all of which are incorporated herein by reference in its entirety). One example of passive targeting of formulations to liver cells includes the DLin-DMA, DLin-KC2-DMA and DLin-MC3 -DMA- based lipid nanoparticle formulations which have been shown to bind to apolipoprotein E and promote binding and uptake of these formulations into hepatocytes in vivo (Akinc et al. Mol Ther. 2010 18: 1357-1364; herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). Formulations can also be selectively targeted through expression of different ligands on their surface as exemplified by, but not limited by, folate, transferrin, N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), and antibody targeted approaches (Kolhatkar et al., Curr Drug Discov Technol. 2011 8: 197-206; Musacchio and Torchilin, Front Biosci. 2011 16: 1388-1412; Yu et al., Mol Membr Biol. 2010 27:286-298; Patil et al., Crit Rev Ther Drug Carrier Syst. 2008 25: 1-61; Benoit et al., Biomacromolecules. 2011 12:2708-2714; Zhao et al., Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2008 5:309-319; Akinc et al., Mol Ther. 2010 18: 1357-1364; Srinivasan et al., Methods Mol Biol. 2012 820: 105-116; Ben-Arie et al., Methods Mol Biol. 2012 757:497-507; Peer 2010 J Control Release. 20:63-68; Peer et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 104:4095-4100; Kim et al., Methods Mol Biol. 2011 721 :339-353; Subramanya et al., Mol Ther. 2010 18:2028-2037; Song et al., Nat Biotechnol. 2005 23 :709-717; Peer et al., Science. 2008 319:627-630; Peer and Lieberman, Gene Ther. 2011 18: 1127-1133; all of which are incorporated herein by reference in its entirety).

[0486] In some embodiments, the polynucleotide is formulated as a solid lipid nanoparticle. A solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) can be spherical with an average diameter between 10 to 1000 nm. SLN possess a solid lipid core matrix that can solubilize lipophilic molecules and can be stabilized with surfactants and/or emulsifiers. In a further embodiment, the lipid nanoparticle can be a self-assembly lipid-polymer nanoparticle (see Zhang et al., ACS Nano, 2008, 2 (8), pp 1696-1702; the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). As a non- limiting example, the SLN can be the SLN described in International Patent Publication No. WO2013105101, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. As another non-limiting example, the SLN can be made by the methods or processes described in International Patent Publication No. WO2013105101, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0487] Liposomes, lipoplexes, or lipid nanoparticles can be used to improve the efficacy of polynucleotides directed protein production as these formulations can be able to increase cell transfection by the polynucleotide; and/or increase the translation of encoded protein. One such example involves the use of lipid encapsulation to enable the effective systemic delivery of polyplex plasmid DNA (Heyes et al., Mol Ther. 2007 15 :713-720; herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). The liposomes, lipoplexes, or lipid nanoparticles may also be used to increase the stability of the polynucleotide.

[0488] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides of the present invention can be formulated for controlled release and/or targeted delivery. As used herein, "controlled release" refers to a pharmaceutical composition or compound release profile that conforms to a particular pattern of release to effect a therapeutic outcome. In some embodiments, the polynucleotides can be encapsulated into a delivery agent described herein and/or known in the art for controlled release and/or targeted delivery. As used herein, the term "encapsulate" means to enclose, surround or encase. As it relates to the formulation of the compounds of the invention, encapsulation can be substantial, complete or partial. The term "substantially encapsulated" means that at least greater than 50, 60, 70, 80, 85, 90, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 99.9, 99.9 or greater than 99.999% of the pharmaceutical composition or compound of the invention can be enclosed, surrounded or encased within the delivery agent. "Partially encapsulation" means that less than 10, 10, 20, 30, 40 50 or less of the pharmaceutical composition or compound of the invention can be enclosed, surrounded or encased within the delivery agent. Advantageously, encapsulation can be determined by measuring the escape or the activity of the pharmaceutical composition or compound of the invention using fluorescence and/or electron micrograph. For example, at least 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 85, 90, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 99.9, 99.99 or greater than 99.99% of the pharmaceutical composition or compound of the invention are encapsulated in the delivery agent.

[0489] In some embodiments, the controlled release formulation can include, but is not limited to, tri-block co-polymers. As a non-limiting example, the formulation can include two different types of tri-block co-polymers (International Pub. No. WO2012131104 and WO2012131106; each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0490] In another embodiment, the polynucleotides can be encapsulated into a lipid nanoparticle or a rapidly eliminated lipid nanoparticle and the lipid nanoparticles or a rapidly eliminated lipid nanoparticle may then be encapsulated into a polymer, hydrogel and/or surgical sealant described herein and/or known in the art. As a non-limiting example, the polymer, hydrogel or surgical sealant can be PLGA, ethylene vinyl acetate (EVAc), poloxamer, GELSITE® (Nanotherapeutics, Inc. Alachua, FL), HYLENEX® (Halozyme Therapeutics, San Diego CA), surgical sealants such as fibrinogen polymers (Ethicon Inc. Cornelia, GA), TISSELL® (Baxter International, Inc Deerfield, IL), PEG-based sealants, and COSEAL® (Baxter International, Inc Deerfield, IL).

[0491] In another embodiment, the lipid nanoparticle can be encapsulated into any polymer known in the art which may form a gel when injected into a subject. As another non-limiting example, the lipid nanoparticle can be encapsulated into a polymer matrix which can be biodegradable.

[0492] In some embodiments, the polynucleotide formulation for controlled release and/or targeted delivery may also include at least one controlled release coating. Controlled release coatings include, but are not limited to, OPADRY®, polyvinylpyrrolidone/vinyl acetate copolymer, polyvinylpyrrolidone, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxyethyl cellulose, EUDRAGIT RL®, EUDRAGIT RS® and cellulose derivatives such as ethylcellulose aqueous dispersions (AQUACOAT® and SURELEASE®). Controlled release and/or targeted delivery formulations are described in International Patent Application No. PCT/US2014/027077, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0493] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides of the present invention can be encapsulated in a therapeutic nanoparticle including ACCURINS™. Therapeutic nanoparticles can be formulated by methods described herein and known in the art such as, but not limited to, in International Patent Application No. PCT/US2014/027077, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. As one example, the therapeutic nanoparticle can be a sustained release nanoparticle such as those described in International Patent Application No. PCT/US2014/027077, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0494] In some embodiments, the nanoparticles of the present invention can comprise a polymeric matrix. As a non-limiting example, the nanoparticle can comprise two or more polymers such as, but not limited to, polyethylenes, polycarbonates, polyanhydrides, polyhydroxyacids, polypropylfumerates, polycaprolactones, polyamides, polyacetals, polyethers, polyesters, poly(orthoesters), polycyanoacrylates, polyvinyl alcohols, polyurethanes, polyphosphazenes, polyacrylates, polymethacrylates, polycyanoacrylates, polyureas, polystyrenes, polyamines, polylysine, poly(ethylene imine), poly(serine ester), poly(L-lactide-co- L-lysine), poly(4-hydroxy-L-proline ester) or combinations thereof.

[0495] In some embodiments, the therapeutic nanoparticle comprises a diblock copolymer. In some embodiments, the diblock copolymer can include PEG in combination with a polymer such as, but not limited to, polyethylenes, polycarbonates, polyanhydrides, polyhydroxyacids, polypropylfumerates, polycaprolactones, polyamides, polyacetals, polyethers, polyesters, poly(orthoesters), polycyanoacrylates, polyvinyl alcohols, polyurethanes, polyphosphazenes, polyacrylates, polymethacrylates, polycyanoacrylates, polyureas, polystyrenes, polyamines, polylysine, poly(ethylene imine), poly(serine ester), poly(L-lactide-co-L-lysine), poly(4-hydroxy- L-proline ester) or combinations thereof. In another embodiment, the diblock copolymer can comprise the diblock copolymers described in European Patent Publication No. the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. In yet another embodiment, the diblock copolymer can be a high-X diblock copolymer such as those described in International Patent Publication No. WO2013120052, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0496] In yet another non-limiting example, the lipid nanoparticle comprises the block copolymer PEG-PLGA-PEG (see e.g., the thermosensitive hydrogel (PEG-PLGA-PEG) was used as a TGF-betal gene delivery vehicle in Lee et al. Thermosensitive Hydrogel as a Tgf-βΐ Gene Delivery Vehicle Enhances Diabetic Wound Healing. Pharmaceutical Research, 2003 20(12): 1995-2000; as a controlled gene delivery system in Li et al. Controlled Gene Delivery System Based on Thermosensitive Biodegradable Hydrogel. Pharmaceutical Research 2003 20(6):884- 888; and Chang et al., Non-ionic amphiphilic biodegradable PEG-PLGA-PEG copolymer enhances gene delivery efficiency in rat skeletal muscle. J Controlled Release. 2007 118:245- 253; each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). The polynucleotides of the present invention can be formulated in lipid nanoparticles comprising the PEG-PLGA-PEG block copolymer.

[0497] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides of the present invention can be encapsulated in a synthetic nanocarrier. Synthetic nanocarriers can be formulated by methods described herein and known in the art such as, but not limited to, in International Patent Application No. PCT/US2014/027077, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0498] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides can be encapsulated in, linked to and/or associated with zwitterionic lipids. Non-limiting examples of zwitterionic lipids and methods of using zwitterionic lipids are described in US Patent Publication No. US20130216607, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. In one aspect, the zwitterionic lipids can be used in the liposomes and lipid nanoparticles described herein. [0499] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides can be formulated in colloid nanocarriers as described in US Patent Publication No. US20130197100, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0500] In some embodiments, the nanoparticle can be optimized for oral administration. The nanoparticle can comprise at least one cationic biopolymer such as, but not limited to, chitosan or a derivative thereof. As a non-limiting example, the nanoparticle can be formulated by the methods described in U.S. Pub. No. 20120282343; herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0501] In some embodiments, LNPs comprise the lipid KL52 (an amino-lipid disclosed in U.S. Application Publication No. 2012/0295832, expressly incorporated herein by reference in its entirety) or lipid KL22.

[0502] Activity and/or safety (as measured by examining one or more of ALT/AST, white blood cell count and cytokine induction) of LNP administration can be improved by incorporation of such lipids. LNPs comprising KL52 or KL22 can be administered intravenously and/or in one or more doses. In some embodiments, administration of LNPs comprising KL52 or KL22 results in equal or improved mRNA and/or protein expression as compared to LNPs comprising MC3, C12-200, or KC2.

[0503] In some embodiments, polynucleotides can be delivered using smaller LNPs. Such particles can comprise a diameter from below 0.1 um up to 100 nm such as, but not limited to, less than 0.1 um, less than 1.0 um, less than 5 um, less than 10 um, less than 15 um, less than 20 um, less than 25 um, less than 30 um, less than 35 um, less than 40 um, less than 50 um, less than 55 um, less than 60 um, less than 65 um, less than 70 um, less than 75 um, less than 80 um, less than 85 um, less than 90 um, less than 95 um, less than 100 um, less than 125 um, less than 150 um, less than 175 um, less than 200 um, less than 225 um, less than 250 um, less than 275 um, less than 300 um, less than 325 um, less than 350 um, less than 375 um, less than 400 um, less than 425 um, less than 450 um, less than 475 um, less than 500 um, less than 525 um, less than 550 um, less than 575 um, less than 600 um, less than 625 um, less than 650 um, less than 675 um, less than 700 um, less than 725 um, less than 750 um, less than 775 um, less than 800 um, less than 825 um, less than 850 um, less than 875 um, less than 900 um, less than 925 um, less than 950 um, less than 975 um,

[0504] In another embodiment, polynucleotides can be delivered using smaller LNPs which can comprise a diameter from about 1 nm to about 100 nm, from about 1 nm to about 10 nm, about 1 nm to about 20 nm, from about 1 nm to about 30 nm, from about 1 nm to about 40 nm, from about 1 nm to about 50 nm, from about 1 nm to about 60 nm, from about 1 nm to about 70 nm, from about 1 nm to about 80 nm, from about 1 nm to about 90 nm, from about 5 nm to about from 100 nm, from about 5 nm to about 10 nm, about 5 nm to about 20 nm, from about 5 nm to about 30 nm, from about 5 nm to about 40 nm, from about 5 nm to about 50 nm, from about 5 nm to about 60 nm, from about 5 nm to about 70 nm, from about 5 nm to about 80 nm, from about 5 nm to about 90 nm, about 10 to about 50 nM, from about 20 to about 50 nm, from about 30 to about 50 nm, from about 40 to about 50 nm, from about 20 to about 60 nm, from about 30 to about 60 nm, from about 40 to about 60 nm, from about 20 to about 70 nm, from about 30 to about 70 nm, from about 40 to about 70 nm, from about 50 to about 70 nm, from about 60 to about 70 nm, from about 20 to about 80 nm, from about 30 to about 80 nm, from about 40 to about 80 nm, from about 50 to about 80 nm, from about 60 to about 80 nm, from about 20 to about 90 nm, from about 30 to about 90 nm, from about 40 to about 90 nm, from about 50 to about 90 nm, from about 60 to about 90 nm and/or from about 70 to about 90 nm.

[0505] In some embodiments, such L Ps are synthesized using methods comprising microfluidic mixers. Exemplary microfluidic mixers can include, but are not limited to a slit interdigitial micromixer including, but not limited to those manufactured by Microinnova (Allerheiligen bei Wildon, Austria) and/or a staggered herringbone micromixer (SHM) (Zhigaltsev, IV. et al., Bottom-up design and synthesis of limit size lipid nanoparticle systems with aqueous and triglyceride cores using millisecond microfluidic mixing have been published (Langmuir. 2012. 28:3633-40; Belliveau, N.M. et al., Microfluidic synthesis of highly potent limit-size lipid nanoparticles for in vivo delivery of siRNA. Molecular Therapy-Nucleic Acids. 2012. I :e37; Chen, D. et al., Rapid discovery of potent siRNA-containing lipid nanoparticles enabled by controlled microfluidic formulation. J Am Chem Soc. 2012. 134(16):6948-51; each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). In some embodiments, methods of LNP generation comprising SHM, further comprise the mixing of at least two input streams wherein mixing occurs by microstructure-induced chaotic advection (MICA). According to this method, fluid streams flow through channels present in a herringbone pattern causing rotational flow and folding the fluids around each other. This method may also comprise a surface for fluid mixing wherein the surface changes orientations during fluid cycling. Methods of generating LNPs using SHM include those disclosed in U.S. Application Publication Nos. 2004/0262223 and 2012/0276209, each of which is expressly incorporated herein by reference in their entirety. [0506] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides of the present invention can be formulated in lipid nanoparticles created using a micromixer such as, but not limited to, a Slit Interdigital Microstructured Mixer (SFMM-V2) or a Standard Slit Interdigital Micro Mixer (SSIMM) or Caterpillar (CPMM) or Impinging-jet (IJMM) from the Institut fur Mikrotechnik Mainz GmbH, Mainz Germany).

[0507] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides of the present invention can be formulated in lipid nanoparticles created using microfluidic technology (see Whitesides, George M. The Origins and the Future of Microfluidics. Nature, 2006 442: 368-373; and Abraham et al. Chaotic Mixer for Microchannels. Science, 2002 295: 647-651; each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). As a non-limiting example, controlled microfluidic formulation includes a passive method for mixing streams of steady pressure-driven flows in micro channels at a low Reynolds number (See e.g., Abraham et al. Chaotic Mixer for Microchannels. Science, 2002 295: 647-651; which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0508] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides of the present invention can be formulated in lipid nanoparticles created using a micromixer chip such as, but not limited to, those from Harvard Apparatus (Holliston, MA) or Dolomite Microfluidics (Royston, UK). A micromixer chip can be used for rapid mixing of two or more fluid streams with a split and recombine mechanism.

[0509] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides of the invention can be formulated for delivery using the drug encapsulating microspheres described in International Patent Publication No. WO2013063468 or U.S. Patent No. 8,440,614, each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. The microspheres can comprise a compound of the formula (I), (II), (III), (IV), (V) or (VI) as described in International patent application No. WO2013063468, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. In another aspect, the amino acid, peptide, polypeptide, lipids (APPL) are useful in delivering the polynucleotides of the invention to cells (see International Patent Publication No. WO2013063468, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0510] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides of the invention can be formulated in lipid nanoparticles having a diameter from about 10 to about 100 nm such as, but not limited to, about 10 to about 20 nm, about 10 to about 30 nm, about 10 to about 40 nm, about 10 to about 50 nm, about 10 to about 60 nm, about 10 to about 70 nm, about 10 to about 80 nm, about 10 to about 90 nm, about 20 to about 30 nm, about 20 to about 40 nm, about 20 to about 50 nm, about 20 to about 60 nm, about 20 to about 70 nm, about 20 to about 80 nm, about 20 to about 90 nm, about 20 to about 100 nm, about 30 to about 40 nm, about 30 to about 50 nm, about 30 to about 60 nm, about 30 to about 70 nm, about 30 to about 80 nm, about 30 to about 90 nm, about 30 to about 100 nm, about 40 to about 50 nm, about 40 to about 60 nm, about 40 to about 70 nm, about 40 to about 80 nm, about 40 to about 90 nm, about 40 to about 100 nm, about 50 to about 60 nm, about 50 to about 70 nm about 50 to about 80 nm, about 50 to about 90 nm, about 50 to about 100 nm, about 60 to about 70 nm, about 60 to about 80 nm, about 60 to about 90 nm, about 60 to about 100 nm, about 70 to about 80 nm, about 70 to about 90 nm, about 70 to about 100 nm, about 80 to about 90 nm, about 80 to about 100 nm and/or about 90 to about 100 nm.

[0511] In some embodiments, the lipid nanoparticles may have a diameter from about 10 to 500 nm.

[0512] In some embodiments, the lipid nanoparticle may have a diameter greater than 100 nm, greater than 150 nm, greater than 200 nm, greater than 250 nm, greater than 300 nm, greater than 350 nm, greater than 400 nm, greater than 450 nm, greater than 500 nm, greater than 550 nm, greater than 600 nm, greater than 650 nm, greater than 700 nm, greater than 750 nm, greater than 800 nm, greater than 850 nm, greater than 900 nm, greater than 950 nm or greater than 1000 nm.

[0513] In one aspect, the lipid nanoparticle can be a limit size lipid nanoparticle described in International Patent Publication No. WO2013059922, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. The limit size lipid nanoparticle can comprise a lipid bilayer surrounding an aqueous core or a hydrophobic core; where the lipid bilayer can comprise a phospholipid such as, but not limited to, diacylphosphatidylcholine, a diacylphosphatidylethanolamine, a ceramide, a sphingomyelin, a dihydrosphingomyelin, a cephalin, a cerebroside, a C8-C20 fatty acid diacylphophatidylcholine, and l-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC). In another aspect the limit size lipid nanoparticle can comprise a polyethylene glycol-lipid such as, but not limited to, DLPE-PEG, DMPE-PEG, DPPC-PEG and DSPE-PEG.

[0514] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides can be delivered, localized and/or concentrated in a specific location using the delivery methods described in International Patent Publication No. WO2013063530, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. As a non-limiting example, a subject can be administered an empty polymeric particle prior to, simultaneously with or after delivering the polynucleotides to the subject. The empty polymeric particle undergoes a change in volume once in contact with the subject and becomes lodged, embedded, immobilized or entrapped at a specific location in the subject.

[0515] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides can be formulated in an active substance release system (See e.g., US Patent Publication No. US20130102545, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). The active substance release system can comprise 1) at least one nanoparticle bonded to an oligonucleotide inhibitor strand which is hybridized with a catalytically active nucleic acid and 2) a compound bonded to at least one substrate molecule bonded to a therapeutically active substance (e.g., polynucleotides described herein), where the therapeutically active substance is released by the cleavage of the substrate molecule by the catalytically active nucleic acid.

[0516] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides can be formulated in a nanoparticle comprising an inner core comprising a non-cellular material and an outer surface comprising a cellular membrane. The cellular membrane can be derived from a cell or a membrane derived from a virus. As a non-limiting example, the nanoparticle can be made by the methods described in International Patent Publication No. WO2013052167, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. As another non-limiting example, the nanoparticle described in International Patent Publication No. WO2013052167, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety, can be used to deliver the polynucleotides described herein.

[0517] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides can be formulated in porous nanoparticle- supported lipid bilayers (protocells). Protocells are described in International Patent Publication No. WO2013056132, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0518] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides described herein can be formulated in polymeric nanoparticles as described in or made by the methods described in US Patent No. 8,420,123 and 8,518,963 and European Patent No. EP2073848B1, the contents of each of which are herein incorporated by reference in their entirety. As a non-limiting example, the polymeric nanoparticle may have a high glass transition temperature such as the nanoparticles described in or nanoparticles made by the methods described in US Patent No. 8,518,963, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. As another non-limiting example, the polymer nanoparticle for oral, parenteral and topical formulations can be made by the methods described in European Patent No. EP2073848B1, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. [0519] In another embodiment, the polynucleotides described herein can be formulated in nanoparticles used in imaging. The nanoparticles can be liposome nanoparticles such as those described in US Patent Publication No US20130129636, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. As a non-limiting example, the liposome can comprise gadolinium(III)2-{4,7-bis- carboxymethyl-10-[(N,N-distearylamidomethyl-N'-amido-methyl]-l,4,7,10-tetra-azacyclododec- 1-yl} -acetic acid and a neutral, fully saturated phospholipid component (see e.g., US Patent Publication No US20130129636, the contents of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0520] In some embodiments, the nanoparticles which can be used in the present invention are formed by the methods described in U.S. Patent Application No. US20130130348, the contents of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0521] The nanoparticles of the present invention may further include nutrients such as, but not limited to, those which deficiencies can lead to health hazards from anemia to neural tube defects (see e.g, the nanoparticles described in International Patent Publication No WO2013072929, the contents of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). As a non-limiting example, the nutrient can be iron in the form of ferrous, ferric salts or elemental iron, iodine, folic acid, vitamins or micronutrients.

[0522] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides of the present invention can be formulated in a swellable nanoparticle. The swellable nanoparticle can be, but is not limited to, those described in U.S. Patent No. 8,440,231, the contents of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. As a non-limiting embodiment, the swellable nanoparticle can be used for delivery of the polynucleotides of the present invention to the pulmonary system (see e.g., U.S. Patent No. 8,440,231, the contents of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0523] The polynucleotides of the present invention can be formulated in polyanhydride nanoparticles such as, but not limited to, those described in U.S. Patent No. 8,449,916, the contents of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0524] The nanoparticles and microparticles of the present invention can be geometrically engineered to modulate macrophage and/or the immune response. In one aspect, the geometrically engineered particles may have varied shapes, sizes and/or surface charges in order to incorporated the polynucleotides of the present invention for targeted delivery such as, but not limited to, pulmonary delivery (see e.g., International Publication No WO2013082111, the contents of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). Other physical features the geometrically engineering particles may have include, but are not limited to, fenestrations, angled arms, asymmetry and surface roughness, charge which can alter the interactions with cells and tissues. As a non-limiting example, nanoparticles of the present invention can be made by the methods described in International Publication No WO2013082111, the contents of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0525] In some embodiments, the nanoparticles of the present invention can be water soluble nanoparticles such as, but not limited to, those described in International Publication No. WO2013090601, the contents of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. The nanoparticles can be inorganic nanoparticles which have a compact and zwitterionic ligand in order to exhibit good water solubility. The nanoparticles may also have small hydrodynamic diameters (HD), stability with respect to time, pH, and salinity and a low level of non-specific protein binding.

[0526] In some embodiments the nanoparticles of the present invention can be developed by the methods described in US Patent Publication No. US20130172406, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0527] In some embodiments, the nanoparticles of the present invention are stealth nanoparticles or target-specific stealth nanoparticles such as, but not limited to, those described in US Patent Publication No. US20130172406; the contents of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. The nanoparticles of the present invention can be made by the methods described in US Patent Publication No. US20130172406, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0528] In another embodiment, the stealth or target-specific stealth nanoparticles can comprise a polymeric matrix. The polymeric matrix can comprise two or more polymers such as, but not limited to, polyethylenes, polycarbonates, polyanhydrides, polyhydroxyacids, polypropylfumerates, polycaprolactones, polyamides, polyacetals, polyethers, polyesters, poly(orthoesters), polycyanoacrylates, polyvinyl alcohols, polyurethanes, polyphosphazenes, polyacrylates, polymethacrylates, polycyanoacrylates, polyureas, polystyrenes, polyamines, polyesters, polyanhydrides, polyethers, polyurethanes, polymethacrylates, polyacrylates, polycyanoacrylates or combinations thereof.

[0529] In some embodiments, the nanoparticle can be a nanoparticle-nucleic acid hybrid structure having a high density nucleic acid layer. As a non-limiting example, the nanoparticle- nucleic acid hybrid structure may made by the methods described in US Patent Publication No. US20130171646, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. The nanoparticle can comprise a nucleic acid such as, but not limited to, polynucleotides described herein and/or known in the art.

[0530] At least one of the nanoparticles of the present invention can be embedded in in the core a nanostructure or coated with a low density porous 3-D structure or coating which is capable of carrying or associating with at least one payload within or on the surface of the nanostructure. Non-limiting examples of the nanostructures comprising at least one nanoparticle are described in International Patent Publication No. WO2013123523, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

Polymers, Biodegradable Nanoparticles, and Core-Shell Nanoparticles

[0531] The polynucleotides of the invention can be formulated using natural and/or synthetic polymers. Non-limiting examples of polymers which can be used for delivery include, but are not limited to, DYNAMIC POLYCONJUGATE® (Arrowhead Research Corp., Pasadena, CA) formulations from MIRUS® Bio (Madison, WI) and Roche Madison (Madison, WI), PHASERX™ polymer formulations such as, without limitation, SMARTT POLYMER TECHNOLOGY™ (PHASERX®, Seattle, WA), DMRI/DOPE, poloxamer, VAXFECTIN® adjuvant from Vical (San Diego, CA), chitosan, cyclodextrin from Calando Pharmaceuticals (Pasadena, CA), dendrimers and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) polymers. RONDEL™ (RNAi/Oligonucleotide Nanoparticle Delivery) polymers (Arrowhead Research Corporation, Pasadena, CA) and pH responsive co-block polymers such as, but not limited to, PHASERX® (Seattle, WA).

[0532] A non-limiting example of chitosan formulation includes a core of positively charged chitosan and an outer portion of negatively charged substrate (U.S. Pub. No. 20120258176; herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). Chitosan includes, but is not limited to N- trimethyl chitosan, mono-N-carboxymethyl chitosan (MCC), N-palmitoyl chitosan (NPCS), EDTA-chitosan, low molecular weight chitosan, chitosan derivatives, or combinations thereof.

[0533] In some embodiments, the polymers used in the present invention have undergone processing to reduce and/or inhibit the attachement of unwanted substances such as, but not limited to, bacteria, to the surface of the polymer. The polymer can be processed by methods known and/or described in the art and/or described in International Pub. No. WO2012150467, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. [0534] A non-limiting example of PLGA formulations include, but are not limited to, PLGA injectable depots (e.g., ELIGARD® which is formed by dissolving PLGA in 66% N-methyl-2- pyrrolidone (NMP) and the remainder being aqueous solvent and leuprolide. Once injected, the PLGA and leuprolide peptide precipitates into the subcutaneous space).

[0535] Many of these polymer approaches have demonstrated efficacy in delivering oligonucleotides in vivo into the cell cytoplasm (reviewed in deFougerolles Hum Gene Ther. 2008 19: 125-132; herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). Two polymer approaches that have yielded robust in vivo delivery of nucleic acids, in this case with small interfering RNA (siRNA), are dynamic polyconjugates and cyclodextrin-based nanoparticles (see e.g., US Patent Publication No. US20130156721, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). The first of these delivery approaches uses dynamic polyconjugates and has been shown in vivo in mice to effectively deliver siRNA and silence endogenous target mRNA in hepatocytes (Rozema et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 104: 12982-12887; herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). This particular approach is a multicomponent polymer system whose key features include a membrane-active polymer to which nucleic acid, in this case siRNA, is covalently coupled via a disulfide bond and where both PEG (for charge masking) and N- acetylgalactosamine (for hepatocyte targeting) groups are linked via pH-sensitive bonds (Rozema et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 104: 12982-12887; herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). On binding to the hepatocyte and entry into the endosome, the polymer complex disassembles in the low-pH environment, with the polymer exposing its positive charge, leading to endosomal escape and cytoplasmic release of the siRNA from the polymer. Through replacement of the N-acetylgalactosamine group with a mannose group, it was shown one could alter targeting from asialoglycoprotein receptor-expressing hepatocytes to sinusoidal endothelium and Kupffer cells. Another polymer approach involves using transferrin-targeted cyclodextrin- containing polycation nanoparticles. These nanoparticles have demonstrated targeted silencing of the EWS-FLI1 gene product in transferrin receptor-expressing Ewing's sarcoma tumor cells (Hu- Lieskovan et al., Cancer Res.2005 65: 8984-8982; herein incorporated by reference in its entirety) and siRNA formulated in these nanoparticles was well tolerated in non-human primates (Heidel et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2007 104:5715-21; herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). Both of these delivery strategies incorporate rational approaches using both targeted delivery and endosomal escape mechanisms. [0536] The polymer formulation can permit the sustained or delayed release of polynucleotides (e.g., following intramuscular or subcutaneous injection). The altered release profile for the polynucleotide can result in, for example, translation of an encoded protein over an extended period of time. The polymer formulation may also be used to increase the stability of the polynucleotide. Biodegradable polymers have been previously used to protect nucleic acids other than polynucleotide from degradation and been shown to result in sustained release of payloads in vivo (Rozema et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 104: 12982-12887; Sullivan et al., Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2010 7: 1433-1446; Convertine et al., Biomacromolecules. 2010 Oct 1 ; Chu et al., Acc Chem Res. 2012 Jan 13; Manganiello et al., Biomaterials. 2012 33 :2301-2309; Benoit et al., Biomacromolecules. 201 1 12:2708-2714; Singha et al., Nucleic Acid Ther. 201 1 2: 133-147; deFougerolles Hum Gene Ther. 2008 19: 125-132; Schaffert and Wagner, Gene Ther. 2008 16: 1 131-1 138; Chaturvedi et al., Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 201 1 8: 1455-1468; Davis, Mol Pharm. 2009 6:659-668; Davis, Nature 2010 464: 1067-1070; each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0537] In some embodiments, the pharmaceutical compositions can be sustained release formulations. In a further embodiment, the sustained release formulations can be for subcutaneous delivery. Sustained release formulations can include, but are not limited to, PLGA microspheres, ethylene vinyl acetate (EVAc), poloxamer, GELSITE® (Nanotherapeutics, Inc. Alachua, FL), HYLENEX® (Halozyme Therapeutics, San Diego CA), surgical sealants such as fibrinogen polymers (Ethicon Inc. Cornelia, GA), TISSELL® (Baxter International, Inc Deerfield, IL), PEG-based sealants, and COSEAL® (Baxter International, Inc Deerfield, IL).

[0538] As a non-limiting example modified mRNA can be formulated in PLGA microspheres by preparing the PLGA microspheres with tunable release rates (e.g., days and weeks) and encapsulating the modified mRNA in the PLGA microspheres while maintaining the integrity of the modified mRNA during the encapsulation process. EVAc are non- biodegradeable, biocompatible polymers which are used extensively in pre-clinical sustained release implant applications (e.g., extended release products Ocusert a pilocarpine ophthalmic insert for glaucoma or progestasert a sustained release progesterone intrauterine deivce; transdermal delivery systems Testoderm, Duragesic and Selegiline; catheters). Poloxamer F-407 NF is a hydrophilic, non-ionic surfactant triblock copolymer of polyoxyethylene- polyoxypropylene-polyoxyethylene having a low viscosity at temperatures less than 5°C and forms a solid gel at temperatures greater than 15°C. PEG-based surgical sealants comprise two synthetic PEG components mixed in a delivery device which can be prepared in one minute, seals in 3 minutes and is reabsorbed within 30 days. GELSITE® and natural polymers are capable of in-situ gelation at the site of administration. They have been shown to interact with protein and peptide therapeutic candidates through ionic ineraction to provide a stabilizing effect.

[0539] Polymer formulations can also be selectively targeted through expression of different ligands as exemplified by, but not limited by, folate, transferrin, and N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) (Benoit et al., Biomacromolecules. 2011 12:2708-2714; Rozema et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 104: 12982-12887; Davis, Mol Pharm. 2009 6:659-668; Davis, Nature 2010 464: 1067-1070; each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0540] The polynucleotides of the invention can be formulated with or in a polymeric compound. The polymer can include at least one polymer such as, but not limited to, polyethenes, polyethylene glycol (PEG), poly(l-lysine)(PLL), PEG grafted to PLL, cationic lipopolymer, biodegradable cationic lipopolymer, polyethyleneimine (PEI), cross-linked branched poly(alkylene imines), a polyamine derivative, a modified poloxamer, a biodegradable polymer, elastic biodegradable polymer, biodegradable block copolymer, biodegradable random copolymer, biodegradable polyester copolymer, biodegradable polyester block copolymer, biodegradable polyester block random copolymer, multiblock copolymers, linear biodegradable copolymer, poly[a-(4-aminobutyl)-L-glycolic acid) (PAGA), biodegradable cross-linked cationic multi-block copolymers, polycarbonates, polyanhydrides, polyhydroxyacids, polypropylfumerates, polycaprolactones, polyamides, polyacetals, polyethers, polyesters, poly(orthoesters), polycyanoacrylates, polyvinyl alcohols, polyurethanes, polyphosphazenes, polyacrylates, polymethacrylates, polycyanoacrylates, polyureas, polystyrenes, polyamines, polylysine, poly(ethylene imine), poly(serine ester), poly(L-lactide-co-L-lysine), poly(4-hydroxy- L-proline ester), acrylic polymers, amine-containing polymers, dextran polymers, dextran polymer derivatives or or combinations thereof .

[0541] As a non-limiting example, the polynucleotides of the invention can be formulated with the polymeric compound of PEG grafted with PLL as described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,177,274; herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. The formulation can be used for transfecting cells in vitro or for in vivo delivery of polynucleotide. In another example, the polynucleotide can be suspended in a solution or medium with a cationic polymer, in a dry pharmaceutical composition or in a solution that is capable of being dried as described in U.S. Pub. Nos. 20090042829 and 20090042825; each of which are herein incorporated by reference in their entireties. [0542] As another non-limiting example the polynucleotides of the invention can be formulated with a PLGA-PEG block copolymer (see US Pub. No. US20120004293 and US Pat No. 8,236,330, herein incorporated by reference in their entireties) or PLGA-PEG-PLGA block copolymers (See U.S. Pat. No. 6,004,573, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). As a non-limiting example, the polynucleotides of the invention can be formulated with a diblock copolymer of PEG and PLA or PEG and PLGA (see US Pat No 8,246,968, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0543] A polyamine derivative can be used to deliver nucleic acids or to treat and/or prevent a disease or to be included in an implantable or injectable device (U.S. Pub. No. 20100260817 (now U.S. Patent No. 8,460,696) the contents of each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). As a non-limiting example, a pharmaceutical composition can include the polynucleotide and the polyamine derivative described in U.S. Pub. No. 20100260817 (now U.S. Patent No. 8,460,696; the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. As a non-limiting example the polynucleotides of the present invention can be delivered using a polyaminde polymer such as, but not limited to, a polymer comprising a 1,3-dipolar addition polymer prepared by combining a carbohydrate diazide monomer with a dilkyne unite comprising oligoamines (U.S. Pat. No. 8,236,280; herein incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0544] The polynucleotides of the invention can be formulated with at least one acrylic polymer. Acrylic polymers include but are not limited to, acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, acrylic acid and methacrylic acid copolymers, methyl methacrylate copolymers, ethoxyethyl methacrylates, cyanoethyl methacrylate, amino alkyl methacrylate copolymer, poly(acrylic acid), poly(methacrylic acid), polycyanoacrylates and combinations thereof.

[0545] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides of the present invention can be formulated with at least one polymer and/or derivatives thereof described in International Publication Nos. WO2011115862, WO2012082574 and WO2012068187 and U.S. Pub. No. 20120283427, each of which are herein incorporated by reference in their entireties. In another embodiment, the polynucleotides of the present invention can be formulated with a polymer of formula Z as described in WO2011115862, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. In yet another embodiment, the polynucleotides can be formulated with a polymer of formula Z, Z' or Z" as described in International Pub. Nos. WO2012082574 or WO2012068187 and U.S. Pub. No. 2012028342, each of which are herein incorporated by reference in their entireties. The polymers formulated with the modified RNA of the present invention can be synthesized by the methods described in International Pub. Nos. WO2012082574 or WO2012068187, each of which are herein incorporated by reference in their entireties.

[0546] The polynucleotides of the invention can be formulated with at least one acrylic polymer. Acrylic polymers include but are not limited to, acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, acrylic acid and methacrylic acid copolymers, methyl methacrylate copolymers, ethoxyethyl methacrylates, cyanoethyl methacrylate, amino alkyl methacrylate copolymer, poly(acrylic acid), poly(methacrylic acid), polycyanoacrylates and combinations thereof.

[0547] Formulations of polynucleotides of the invention can include at least one amine- containing polymer such as, but not limited to polylysine, polyethylene imine, poly(amidoamine) dendrimers, poly(amine-co-esters) or combinations thereof. As a non-limiting example, the poly(amine-co-esters) can be the polymers described in and/or made by the methods described in International Publication No WO2013082529, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0548] For example, the polynucleotides of the invention can be formulated in a pharmaceutical compound including a poly(alkylene imine), a biodegradable cationic lipopolymer, a biodegradable block copolymer, a biodegradable polymer, or a biodegradable random copolymer, a biodegradable polyester block copolymer, a biodegradable polyester polymer, a biodegradable polyester random copolymer, a linear biodegradable copolymer, PAGA, a biodegradable cross-linked cationic multi-block copolymer or combinations thereof. The biodegradable cationic lipopolymer can be made by methods known in the art and/or described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,696,038, U.S. App. Nos. 20030073619 and 20040142474 each of which is herein incorporated by reference in their entireties. The poly(alkylene imine) can be made using methods known in the art and/or as described in U.S. Pub. No. 20100004315, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. The biodegradabale polymer, biodegradable block copolymer, the biodegradable random copolymer, biodegradable polyester block copolymer, biodegradable polyester polymer, or biodegradable polyester random copolymer can be made using methods known in the art and/or as described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,517,869 and 6,267,987, the contents of which are each incorporated herein by reference in their entirety. The linear biodegradable copolymer can be made using methods known in the art and/or as described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,652,886. The PAGA polymer can be made using methods known in the art and/or as described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,217,912 herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. The PAGA polymer can be copolymerized to form a copolymer or block copolymer with polymers such as but not limited to, poly-L-lysine, polyargine, polyornithine, histones, avidin, protamines, polylactides and poly(lactide-co-glycolides). The biodegradable cross-linked cationic multi-block copolymers can be made my methods known in the art and/or as described in U.S. Pat. No. 8,057,821, 8,444,992 or U.S. Pub. No. 2012009145 each of which are herein incorporated by reference in their entireties. For example, the multi-block copolymers can be synthesized using linear polyethyleneimine (LPEI) blocks which have distinct patterns as compared to branched polyethyleneimines. Further, the composition or pharmaceutical composition can be made by the methods known in the art, described herein, or as described in U.S. Pub. No. 20100004315 or U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,267,987 and 6,217,912 each of which are herein incorporated by reference in their entireties.

[0549] The polynucleotides of the invention can be formulated with at least one degradable polyester which may contain polycationic side chains. Degradeable polyesters include, but are not limited to, poly(serine ester), poly(L-lactide-co-L-lysine), poly(4-hydroxy-L-proline ester), and combinations thereof. In another embodiment, the degradable polyesters can include a PEG conjugation to form a PEGylated polymer.

[0550] The polynucleotides of the invention can be formulated with at least one crosslinkable polyester. Crosslinkable polyesters include those known in the art and described in US Pub. No. 20120269761, the contents of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0551] The polynucleotides of the invention can be formulated in or with at least one cyclodextrin polymer. Cyclodextrin polymers and methods of making cyclodextrin polymers include those known in the art and described in US Pub. No. 20130184453, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0552] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides of the invention can be formulated in or with at least one crosslinked cation-binding polymers. Crosslinked cation-binding polymers and methods of making crosslinked cation-binding polymers include those known in the art and described in International Patent Publication No. WO2013106072, WO2013106073 and WO2013106086, the contents of each of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0553] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides of the invention can be formulated in or with at least one branched polymer. Branched polymers and methods of making branched polymers include those known in the art and described in International Patent Publication No. WO2013113071, the contents of each of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0554] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides of the invention can be formulated in or with at least PEGylated albumin polymer. PEGylated albumin polymer and methods of making PEGylated albumin polymer include those known in the art and described in US Patent Publication No. US20130231287, the contents of each of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0555] In some embodiments, the polymers described herein can be conjugated to a lipid- terminating PEG. As a non-limiting example, PLGA can be conjugated to a lipid-terminating PEG forming PLGA-DSPE-PEG. As another non-limiting example, PEG conjugates for use with the present invention are described in International Publication No. WO2008103276, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. The polymers can be conjugated using a ligand conjugate such as, but not limited to, the conjugates described in U.S. Pat. No. 8,273,363, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0556] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides disclosed herein can be mixed with the PEGs or the sodium phosphate/sodium carbonate solution prior to administration. In another embodiment, a polynucleotides encoding a protein of interest can be mixed with the PEGs and also mixed with the sodium phosphate/sodium carbonate solution. In yet another embodiment, polynucleotides encoding a protein of interest can be mixed with the PEGs and a polynucleotides encoding a second protein of interest can be mixed with the sodium phosphate/sodium carbonate solution.

[0557] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides described herein can be conjugated with another compound. Non-limiting examples of conjugates are described in US Patent Nos. 7,964,578 and 7,833,992, each of which are herein incorporated by reference in their entireties. In another embodiment, modified RNA of the present invention can be conjugated with conjugates of formula 1-122 as described in US Patent Nos. 7,964,578 and 7,833,992, each of which are herein incorporated by reference in their entireties. The polynucleotides described herein can be conjugated with a metal such as, but not limited to, gold. (See e.g., Giljohann et al. Journ. Amer. Chem. Soc. 2009 131(6): 2072-2073; herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). In another embodiment, the polynucleotides described herein can be conjugated and/or encapsulated in gold-nanoparticles. (International Pub. No. WO201216269 and U.S. Pub. No. 20120302940 and US20130177523; the contents of each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0558] As described in U.S. Pub. No. 20100004313, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety, a gene delivery composition can include a nucleotide sequence and a poloxamer. For example, the polynucleotides of the present inveition can be used in a gene delivery composition with the poloxamer described in U.S. Pub. No. 20100004313.

[0559] In some embodiments, the polymer formulation of the present invention can be stabilized by contacting the polymer formulation, which can include a cationic carrier, with a cationic lipopolymer which can be covalently linked to cholesterol and polyethylene glycol groups. The polymer formulation can be contacted with a cationic lipopolymer using the methods described in U.S. Pub. No. 20090042829 herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. The cationic carrier can include, but is not limited to, polyethylenimine, poly(trimethylenimine), poly(tetramethylenimine), polypropylenimine, aminoglycoside-polyamine, dideoxy-diamino-b- cyclodextrin, spermine, spermidine, poly(2-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate, poly(lysine), poly(histidine), poly(arginine), cationized gelatin, dendrimers, chitosan, l,2-Dioleoyl-3- Trimethylammonium-Propane(DOTAP), N-[l-(2,3-dioleoyloxy)propyl]-N,N,N- trimethylammonium chloride (DOTMA), l-[2-(oleoyloxy)ethyl]-2-oleyl-3-(2- hydroxyethyl)imidazolinium chloride (DOTIM), 2,3-dioleyloxy-N-

[2(sperminecarboxamido)ethyl]-N,N-dimethyl-l-propanaminium trifluoroacetate (DOSPA), 3B- [N— (N',N'-Dimethylaminoethane)-carbamoyl]Cholesterol Hydrochloride (DC-Cholesterol HC1) diheptadecylamidoglycyl spermidine (DOGS), N,N-distearyl-N,N-dimethylammonium bromide (DDAB), N-(l,2-dimyristyloxyprop-3-yl)-N,N-dimethyl-N-hydroxyethyl ammonium bromide (DMRTE), N,N-dioleyl-N,N-dimethylammonium chloride DODAC) and combinations thereof. As a non-limiting example, the polynucleotides can be formulated with a cationic lipopolymer such as those described in U.S. Patent Application No. 20130065942, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0560] The polynucleotides of the invention can be formulated in a polyplex of one or more polymers (See, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 8,501,478, U.S. Pub. No. 20120237565 and 20120270927 and 20130149783 and International Patent Pub. No. WO2013090861; the contents of each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). As a non-limiting example, the polyplex can be formed using the noval alpha-aminoamidine polymers described in International Publication No. WO2013090861, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. As another non-limiting example, the polyplex can be formed using the click polymers described in US Patent No. 8,501,478, the contents of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0561] In some embodiments, the polyplex comprises two or more cationic polymers. The catioinic polymer can comprise a poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) such as linear PEL In another embodiment, the polyplex comprises p(TETA/CBA) its PEGylated analog p(TETA/CBA)-g- PEG2k and mixtures thereof (see e.g., US Patent Publication No. US20130149783, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0562] The polynucleotides of the invention can also be formulated as a nanoparticle using a combination of polymers, lipids, and/or other biodegradable agents, such as, but not limited to, calcium phosphate. Components can be combined in a core-shell, hybrid, and/or layer-by-layer architecture, to allow for fine-tuning of the nanoparticle so to delivery of the polynucleotide, polynucleotides can be enhanced (Wang et al., Nat Mater. 2006 5:791-796; Fuller et al., Biomaterials. 2008 29: 1526-1532; DeKoker et al., Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2011 63 :748-761; Endres et al., Biomaterials. 2011 32:7721-7731; Su et al., Mol Pharm. 2011 Jun 6;8(3):774-87; herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). As a non-limiting example, the nanoparticle can comprise a plurality of polymers such as, but not limited to hydrophilic-hydrophobic polymers {e.g., PEG-PLGA), hydrophobic polymers {e.g., PEG) and/or hydrophilic polymers (International Pub. No. WO20120225129; the contents of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0563] As another non-limiting example the nanoparticle comprising hydrophilic polymers for the polynucleotides can be those described in or made by the methods described in International Patent Publication No. WO2013119936, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0564] In some embodiments, the biodegradable polymers which can be used in the present invention are poly(ether-anhydride) block copolymers. As a non-limiting example, the biodegradable polymers used herein can be a block copolymer as described in International Patent Publication No WO2006063249, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety, or made by the methods described in International Patent Publication No WO2006063249, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0565] In another embodiment, the biodegradable polymers which can be used in the present invention are alkyl and cycloalkyl terminated biodegradable lipids. As a non-limiting example, the alkyl and cycloalkyl terminated biodegradable lipids can be those described in International Publication No. WO2013086322 and/or made by the methods described in International Publication No. WO2013086322; the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0566] In yet another embodiment, the biodegradable polymers which can be used in the present invention are cationic lipids having one or more biodegradable group located in a lipid moiety. As a non-limiting example, the biodegradable lipids can be those described in US Patent Publication No. US20130195920, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0567] Biodegradable calcium phosphate nanoparticles in combination with lipids and/or polymers have been shown to deliver polynucleotides in vivo. In some embodiments, a lipid coated calcium phosphate nanoparticle, which may also contain a targeting ligand such as anisamide, can be used to deliver the polynucleotide, polynucleotides of the present invention. For example, to effectively deliver siRNA in a mouse metastatic lung model a lipid coated calcium phosphate nanoparticle was used (Li et al., J Contr Rel. 2010 142: 416-421; Li et al., J Contr Rel. 2012 158: 108-114; Yang et al., Mol Ther. 2012 20:609-615; herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). This delivery system combines both a targeted nanoparticle and a component to enhance the endosomal escape, calcium phosphate, in order to improve delivery of the siRNA.

[0568] In some embodiments, calcium phosphate with a PEG-polyanion block copolymer can be used to delivery polynucleotides (Kazikawa et al., J Contr Rel. 2004 97:345-356; Kazikawa et al., J Contr Rel. 2006 111 :368-370; the contents of each of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0569] In some embodiments, a PEG-charge-conversional polymer (Pitella et al., Biomaterials. 2011 32:3106-3114; the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety) can be used to form a nanoparticle to deliver the polynucleotides of the present invention. The PEG-charge-conversional polymer may improve upon the PEG-polyanion block copolymers by being cleaved into a polycation at acidic pH, thus enhancing endosomal escape.

[0570] In some embodiments, a polymer used in the present invention can be a pentablock polymer such as, but not limited to, the pentablock polymers described in International Patent Publication No. WO2013055331, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. As a non- limiting example, the pentablock polymer comprises PGA-PCL-PEG-PCL-PGA, wherein PEG is polyethylene glycol, PCL is poly(E-caprolactone), PGA is poly(glycolic acid), and PLA is poly(lactic acid). As another non-limiting example, the pentablock polymer comprises PEG- PCL- PLA-PCL-PEG, wherein PEG is polyethylene glycol, PCL is poly(E-caprolactone), PGA is poly(glycolic acid), and PLA is poly(lactic acid).

[0571] In some embodiments, a polymer which can be used in the present invention comprises at least one diepoxide and at least one aminoglycoside (See e.g., International Patent Publication No. WO2013055971, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). The diepoxide can be selected from, but is not limited to, 1,4 butanediol diglycidyl ether (1,4 B), 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol diglycidyl ether (1,4 C), 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (4VCD), ethyleneglycol diglycidyl ether (EDGE), glycerol diglycidyl ether (GDE), neopentylglycol diglycidyl ether (NPDGE), poly(ethyleneglycol) diglycidyl ether (PEGDE), poly(propyleneglycol) diglycidyl ether (PPGDE) and resorcinol diglycidyl ether (RDE). The aminoglycoside can be selected from, but is not limited to, streptomycin, neomycin, framycetin, paromomycin, ribostamycin, kanamycin, amikacin, arbekacin, bekanamycin, dibekacin, tobramycin, spectinomycin, hygromycin, gentamicin, netilmicin, sisomicin, isepamicin, verdamicin, astromicin, and apramycin. As a non-limiting example, the polymers can be made by the methods described in International Patent Publication No. WO2013055971, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. As another non-limiting example, compositions comprising any of the polymers comprising at least one least one diepoxide and at least one aminoglycoside can be made by the methods described in International Patent Publication No. WO2013055971, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0572] In some embodiments, a polymer which can be used in the present invention can be a cross-linked polymer. As a non-limiting example, the cross-linked polymers can be used to form a particle as described in US Patent No. 8,414,927, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. As another non-limiting example, the cross-linked polymer can be obtained by the methods described in US Patent Publication No. US20130172600, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0573] In another embodiment, a polymer which can be used in the present invention can be a cross-linked polymer such as those described in US Patent No. 8,461, 132, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. As a non-limiting example, the cross- linked polymer can be used in a therapeutic composition for the treatment of a body tissue. The therapeutic composition can be administered to damaged tissue using various methods known in the art and/or described herein such as injection or catheterization.

[0574] In some embodiments, a polymer which can be used in the present invention can be a di-alphatic substituted pegylated lipid such as, but not limited to, those described in International Patent Publication No. WO2013049328, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0575] In some embodiments, a block copolymer is PEG-PLGA-PEG (see e.g., the thermosensitive hydrogel (PEG-PLGA-PEG) was used as a TGF-betal gene delivery vehicle in Lee et al. Thermosensitive Hydrogel as a Tgf-βΐ Gene Delivery Vehicle Enhances Diabetic Wound Healing. Pharmaceutical Research, 2003 20(12): 1995-2000; as a controlled gene delivery system in Li et al. Controlled Gene Delivery System Based on Thermosensitive Biodegradable Hydrogel. Pharmaceutical Research 2003 20(6):884-888; and Chang et al., Non- ionic amphiphilic biodegradable PEG-PLGA-PEG copolymer enhances gene delivery efficiency in rat skeletal muscle. J Controlled Release. 2007 118:245-253; each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety) can be used in the present invention. The present invention can be formulated with PEG-PLGA-PEG for administration such as, but not limited to, intramuscular and subcutaneous administration.

[0576] In another embodiment, the PEG-PLGA-PEG block copolymer is used in the present invention to develop a biodegradable sustained release system. In one aspect, the polynucleotides of the present invention are mixed with the block copolymer prior to administration. In another aspect, the polynucleotides acids of the present invention are co-administered with the block copolymer.

[0577] In some embodiments, the polymer used in the present invention can be a multifunctional polymer derivative such as, but not limited to, a multi-functional N-maleimidyl polymer derivatives as described in US Patent No US8454946, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0578] The use of core-shell nanoparticles has additionally focused on a high-throughput approach to synthesize cationic cross-linked nanogel cores and various shells (Siegwart et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 108: 12996-13001; the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). The complexation, delivery, and internalization of the polymeric nanoparticles can be precisely controlled by altering the chemical composition in both the core and shell components of the nanoparticle. For example, the core-shell nanoparticles may efficiently deliver siRNA to mouse hepatocytes after they covalently attach cholesterol to the nanoparticle.

[0579] In some embodiments, a hollow lipid core comprising a middle PLGA layer and an outer neutral lipid layer containg PEG can be used to delivery of the polynucleotide, polynucleotides of the present invention. As a non-limiting example, in mice bearing a luciferease-expressing tumor, it was determined that the lipid-polymer-lipid hybrid nanoparticle significantly suppressed luciferase expression, as compared to a conventional lipoplex (Shi et al, Angew Chem Int Ed. 2011 50:7027-7031; herein incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0580] In some embodiments, the lipid nanoparticles can comprise a core of the polynucleotides disclosed herein and a polymer shell. The polymer shell can be any of the polymers described herein and are known in the art. In an additional embodiment, the polymer shell can be used to protect the polynucleotides in the core.

[0581] Core-shell nanoparticles for use with the polynucleotides of the present invention are described and can be formed by the methods described in U.S. Pat. No. 8,313,777 or International Patent Publication No. WO2013124867, the contents of each of which are herein incorporated by reference in their entirety.

[0582] In some embodiments, the core-shell nanoparticles can comprise a core of the polynucleotides disclosed herein and a polymer shell. The polymer shell can be any of the polymers described herein and are known in the art. In an additional embodiment, the polymer shell can be used to protect the polynucleotides in the core.

[0583] In some embodiments, the polymer used with the formulations described herein can be a modified polymer (such as, but not limited to, a modified polyacetal) as described in International Publication No. WO2011120053, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0584] In some embodiments, the formulation can be a polymeric carrier cargo complex comprising a polymeric carrier and at least one nucleic acid molecule. Non-limiting examples of polymeric carrier cargo complexes are described in International Patent Publications Nos. WO2013113326, WO2013113501, WO2013113325, WO2013113502 and WO2013113736 and European Patent Publication No. EP2623121, the contents of each of which are herein incorporated by reference in their entireties. In one aspect the polymeric carrier cargo complexes can comprise a negatively charged nucleic acid molecule such as, but not limited to, those described in International Patent Publication Nos. WO2013113325 and WO2013113502, the contents of each of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0585] In some embodiments, a pharmaceutical composition can comprise polynucleotides of the invention and a polymeric carrier cargo complex. The polynucleotides may encode a protein of interest such as, but not limited to, an antigen from a pathogen associated with infectious disease, an antigen associated with allergy or allergic disease, an antigen associated with autoimmune disease or an antigen assocated with cancer or tumour disease (See e.g., the antigens described in International Patent Publications Nos. WO2013113326, WO2013113501, WO2013113325, WO2013113502 and WO2013113736 and European Patent Publication No. EP2623121, the contents of each of which are herein incorporated by reference in their entireties).

[0586] As a non-limiting example, the core-shell nanoparticle can be used to treat an eye disease or disorder (See e.g. US Publication No. 20120321719, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0587] In some embodiments, the polymer used with the formulations described herein can be a modified polymer (such as, but not limited to, a modified polyacetal) as described in International Publication No. WO2011120053, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety

Peptides and Proteins

[0588] The polynucleotides of the invention can be formulated with peptides and/or proteins in order to increase transfection of cells by the polynucleotide. In some embodiments, peptides such as, but not limited to, cell penetrating peptides and proteins and peptides that enable intracellular delivery can be used to deliver pharmaceutical formulations. A non-limiting example of a cell penetrating peptide which can be used with the pharmaceutical formulations of the present invention includes a cell-penetrating peptide sequence attached to polycations that facilitates delivery to the intracellular space, e.g., HIV-derived TAT peptide, penetratins, transportans, or hCT derived cell-penetrating peptides (see, e.g., Caron et al., Mol. Ther. 3(3):310-8 (2001); Langel, Cell-Penetrating Peptides: Processes and Applications (CRC Press, Boca Raton FL, 2002); El-Andaloussi et al., Curr. Pharm. Des. 11(28):3597-611 (2003); and Deshayes et al., Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 62(16): 1839-49 (2005), all of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety). The compositions can also be formulated to include a cell penetrating agent, e.g., liposomes, which enhance delivery of the compositions to the intracellular space. Polynucleotides of the invention can be complexed to peptides and/or proteins such as, but not limited to, peptides and/or proteins from Aileron Therapeutics (Cambridge, MA) and Permeon Biologies (Cambridge, MA) in order to enable intracellular delivery (Cronican et al., ACS Chem. Biol. 2010 5:747-752; McNaughton et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2009 106:6111-6116; Sawyer, Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 73 :3-6; Verdine and Hilinski, Methods Enzymol. 2012;503 :3-33; all of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0589] In some embodiments, the cell-penetrating polypeptide can comprise a first domain and a second domain. The first domain can comprise a supercharged polypeptide. The second domain can comprise a protein-binding partner. As used herein, "protein-binding partner" includes, but are not limited to, antibodies and functional fragments thereof, scaffold proteins, or peptides. The cell-penetrating polypeptide may further comprise an intracellular binding partner for the protein-binding partner. The cell-penetrating polypeptide can be capable of being secreted from a cell where the polynucleotide can be introduced.

[0590] Formulations of the including peptides or proteins can be used to increase cell transfection by the polynucleotide, alter the biodistribution of the polynucleotide (e.g., by targeting specific tissues or cell types), and/or increase the translation of encoded protein. (See e.g., International Pub. No. WO2012110636 and WO2013123298; the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0591] In some embodiments, the cell penetrating peptide can be, but is not limited to, those described in US Patent Publication No US20130129726, US20130137644 and US20130164219, each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety

Cells

[0592] The polynucleotides of the invention can be transfected ex vivo into cells, which are subsequently transplanted into a subject. As non-limiting examples, the pharmaceutical compositions can include red blood cells to deliver modified RNA to liver and myeloid cells, virosomes to deliver modified RNA in virus-like particles (VLPs), and electroporated cells such as, but not limited to, from MAXCYTE® (Gaithersburg, MD) and from ERYTECH® (Lyon, France) to deliver modified RNA. Examples of use of red blood cells, viral particles and electroporated cells to deliver payloads other than polynucleotides have been documented (Godfrin et al., Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2012 12: 127-133; Fang et al., Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2012 12:385-389; Hu et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 108: 10980-10985; Lund et al., Pharm Res. 2010 27:400-420; Huckriede et al., J Liposome Res. 2007;17:39-47; Cusi, Hum Vaccin. 2006 2: 1-7; de Jonge et al., Gene Ther. 2006 13 :400-411; all of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0593] The polynucleotides can be delivered in synthetic VLPs synthesized by the methods described in International Pub No. WO2011085231 and WO2013116656 and US Pub No. 20110171248, the contents of each of which are herein incorporated by reference in their entireties.

[0594] Cell-based formulations of the polynucleotides of the invention can be used to ensure cell transfection (e.g., in the cellular carrier), alter the biodistribution of the polynucleotide (e.g., by targeting the cell carrier to specific tissues or cell types), and/or increase the translation of encoded protein.

Introduction Into Cells

[0595] A variety of methods are known in the art and suitable for introduction of nucleic acid into a cell, including viral and non-viral mediated techniques. Examples of typical non-viral mediated techniques include, but are not limited to, electroporation, calcium phosphate mediated transfer, nucleofection, sonoporation, heat shock, magnetofection, liposome mediated transfer, microinjection, microprojectile mediated transfer (nanoparticles), cationic polymer mediated transfer (DEAE-dextran, polyethylenimine, polyethylene glycol (PEG) and the like) or cell fusion.

[0596] The technique of sonoporation, or cellular sonication, is the use of sound (e.g., ultrasonic frequencies) for modifying the permeability of the cell plasma membrane. Sonoporation methods are known to those in the art and are used to deliver nucleic acids in vivo (Yoon and Park, Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2010 7:321-330; Postema and Gilja, Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2007 8:355-361; Newman and Bettinger, Gene Ther. 2007 14:465-475; all herein incorporated by reference in their entirety). Sonoporation methods are known in the art and are also taught for example as it relates to bacteria in US Patent Publication 20100196983 and as it relates to other cell types in, for example, US Patent Publication 20100009424, each of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

[0597] Electroporation techniques are also well known in the art and are used to deliver nucleic acids in vivo and clinically (Andre et al., Curr Gene Ther. 2010 10:267-280; Chiarella et al., Curr Gene Ther. 2010 10:281-286; Hojman, Curr Gene Ther. 2010 10: 128-138; all herein incorporated by reference in their entirety). Electroporation devices are sold by many companies worldwide including, but not limited to BTX® Instruments (Holliston, MA) (e.g., the AgilePulse In Vivo System) and Inovio (Blue Bell, PA) (e.g., Inovio SP-5P intramuscular delivery device or the CELLECTRA® 3000 intradermal delivery device). In some embodiments, polynucleotides can be delivered by electroporation.

Micro-Organ

[0598] The polynucleotides can be contained in a micro-organ which can then express an encoded polypeptide of interest in a long-lasting therapeutic formulation. Micro-organs and formulations thereof are described in International Patent Application No. PCT/US2014/027077, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

Hyaluronidase

[0599] The intramuscular or subcutaneous localized injection of polynucleotides of the invention can include hyaluronidase, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of hyaluronan. By catalyzing the hydrolysis of hyaluronan, a constituent of the interstitial barrier, hyaluronidase lowers the viscosity of hyaluronan, thereby increasing tissue permeability (Frost, Expert Opin. Drug Deliv. (2007) 4:427-440; herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). It is useful to speed their dispersion and systemic distribution of encoded proteins produced by transfected cells. Alternatively, the hyaluronidase can be used to increase the number of cells exposed to a polynucleotide of the invention administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously.

Nanoparticle Mimics

[0600] The polynucleotides of the invention can be encapsulated within and/or absorbed to a nanoparticle mimic. A nanoparticle mimic can mimic the delivery function organisms or particles such as, but not limited to, pathogens, viruses, bacteria, fungus, parasites, prions and cells. As a non-limiting example the polynucleotides of the invention can be encapsulated in a non-viron particle which can mimic the delivery function of a virus (see International Pub. No. WO2012006376 and US Patent Publication No. US20130171241 and US20130195968, the contents of each of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety).

Nanotubes

[0601] The polynucleotides of the invention can be attached or otherwise bound to at least one nanotube such as, but not limited to, rosette nanotubes, rosette nanotubes having twin bases with a linker, carbon nanotubes and/or single-walled carbon nanotubes, The polynucleotides can be bound to the nanotubes through forces such as, but not limited to, steric, ionic, covalent and/or other forces. Nanotubes and nanotube formulations comprising polynucleotides are described in International Patent Application No. PCT/US2014/027077, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

Conjugates

[0602] The polynucleotides of the invention include conjugates, such as a polynucleotide covalently linked to a carrier or targeting group, or including two encoding regions that together produce a fusion protein (e.g., bearing a targeting group and therapeutic protein or peptide).

[0603] The conjugates of the invention include a naturally occurring substance, such as a protein (e.g., human serum albumin (HSA), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), or globulin); an carbohydrate (e.g., a dextran, pullulan, chitin, chitosan, inulin, cyclodextrin or hyaluronic acid); or a lipid. The ligand may also be a recombinant or synthetic molecule, such as a synthetic polymer, e.g., a synthetic polyamino acid, an oligonucleotide (e.g. an aptamer). Examples of polyamino acids include polyamino acid is a polylysine (PLL), poly L-aspartic acid, poly L-glutamic acid, styrene-maleic acid anhydride copolymer, poly(L-lactide-co-glycolied) copolymer, divinyl ether-maleic anhydride copolymer, N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide copolymer (HMPA), polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polyurethane, poly(2-ethylacryllic acid), N-isopropyl aery 1 amide polymers, or polyphosphazine. Example of polyamines include: polyethylenimine, polylysine (PLL), spermine, spermidine, polyamine, pseudopeptide-polyamine, peptidomimetic polyamine, dendrimer polyamine, arginine, amidine, protamine, cationic lipid, cationic porphyrin, quaternary salt of a polyamine, or an alpha helical peptide.

[0604] In some embodiments, the conjugate of the present invention may function as a carrier for the polynucleotides of the present invention. The conjugate can comprise a cationic polymer such as, but not limited to, polyamine, polylysine, polyalkylenimine, and polyethylenimine which can be grafted to with poly(ethylene glycol). As a non-limiting example, the conjugate can be similar to the polymeric conjugate and the method of synthesizing the polymeric conjugate described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,586,524 herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0605] A non-limiting example of a method for conjugation to a substrate is described in US Patent Publication No. US2013021 1249, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. The method can be used to make a conjugated polymeric particle comprising a polynucleotide. [0606] The conjugates can also include targeting groups, e.g., a cell or tissue targeting agent, e.g., a lectin, glycoprotein, lipid or protein, e.g., an antibody, that binds to a specified cell type such as a kidney cell. A targeting group can be a thyrotropin, melanotropin, lectin, glycoprotein, surfactant protein A, Mucin carbohydrate, multivalent lactose, multivalent galactose, N-acetyl- galactosamine, N-acetyl-gulucosamine multivalent mannose, multivalent fucose, glycosylated polyaminoacids, multivalent galactose, transferrin, bisphosphonate, polyglutamate, polyaspartate, a lipid, cholesterol, a steroid, bile acid, folate, vitamin B 12, biotin, an RGD peptide, an RGD peptide mimetic or an aptamer.

[0607] Targeting groups can be proteins, e.g., glycoproteins, or peptides, e.g., molecules having a specific affinity for a co-ligand, or antibodies e.g., an antibody, that binds to a specified cell type such as a cancer cell, endothelial cell, or bone cell. Targeting groups may also include hormones and hormone receptors. They can also include non-peptidic species, such as lipids, lectins, carbohydrates, vitamins, cofactors, multivalent lactose, multivalent galactose, N-acetyl- galactosamine, N-acetyl-gulucosamine multivalent mannose, multivalent frucose, or aptamers. The ligand can be, for example, a lipopolysaccharide, or an activator of p38 MAP kinase.

[0608] The targeting group can be any ligand that is capable of targeting a specific receptor. Examples include, without limitation, folate, GalNAc, galactose, mannose, mannose-6P, apatamers, integrin receptor ligands, chemokine receptor ligands, transferrin, biotin, serotonin receptor ligands, PSMA, endothelin, GCPII, somatostatin, LDL, and HDL ligands. In particular embodiments, the targeting group is an aptamer. The aptamer can be unmodified or have any combination of modifications disclosed herein.

[0609] As a non-limiting example, the targeting group can be a glutathione receptor (GR)- binding conjugate for targeted delivery across the blood-central nervous system barrier (See e.g., US Patent Publication No. US2013021661012, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0610] In some embodiments, the conjugate of the present invention can be a synergistic biomolecule-polymer conjugate. The synergistic biomolecule-polymer conjugate can be long- acting continuous-release system to provide a greater therapeutic efficacy. The synergistic biomolecule-polymer conjugate can be those described in US Patent Publication No. US20130195799, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0611] In another embodiment, the conjugate which can be used in the present invention can be an aptamer conjugate. Non-limiting examples of apatamer conjugates are described in International Patent Publication No. WO2012040524, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. The aptamer conjugates can be used to provide targerted delivery of formulations comprising polynucleotides.

[0612] In some embodiments, the conjugate which can be used in the present invention can be an amine containing polymer conjugate. Non-limiting examples of amine containing polymer conjugate are described in US Patent No. US 8,507,653, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0613] In some embodiments, pharmaceutical compositions of the present invention can include chemical modifications such as, but not limited to, modifications similar to locked nucleic acids.

[0614] Representative U.S. Patents that teach the preparation of locked nucleic acid (LNA) such as those from Santaris, include, but are not limited to, the following: U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,268,490; 6,670,461; 6,794,499; 6,998,484; 7,053,207; 7,084, 125; and 7,399,845, each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0615] Representative U.S. patents that teach the preparation of PNA compounds include, but are not limited to, U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,539,082; 5,714,331; and 5,719,262, each of which is herein incorporated by reference. Further teaching of PNA compounds can be found, for example, in Nielsen et al., Science, 1991, 254, 1497-1500.

[0616] Some embodiments featured in the invention include polynucleotides with phosphorothioate backbones and oligonucleosides with other modified backbones, and in particular ~CH2~NH~CH2~, --CH2--N(CH3)--0--CH2--[known as a methylene (methylimino) or MMI backbone], -CH2~0-N(CH3)-CH2~, -CH2-N(CH3)-N(CH3)-CH2- and ~N(CH3)~ CH2— CH2— [wherein the native phosphodiester backbone is represented as— O— P(0)2— O— CH2— ] of the above-referenced U.S. Pat. No. 5,489,677, and the amide backbones of the above- referenced U.S. Pat. No. 5,602,240. In some embodiments, the polynucletotides featured herein have morpholino backbone structures of the above-referenced U.S. Pat. No. 5,034,506.

[0617] Modifications at the 2' position may also aid in delivery. Preferably, modifications at the 2' position are not located in a polypeptide-coding sequence, i.e., not in a translatable region. Modifications at the 2' position can be located in a 57 UTR, a 37 UTR and/or a tailing region. Modifications at the 2' position can include one of the following at the 2' position: H (i.e., 2' -deoxy); F; 0-, S-, or N-alkyl; 0-, S-, or N-alkenyl; 0-, S- or N-alkynyl; or O-alkyl-0- alkyl, wherein the alkyl, alkenyl and alkynyl can be substituted or unsubstituted C1 to C10 alkyl or C2 to Cio alkenyl and alkynyl. Exemplary suitable modifications include 0[(CH2)nO] mCH3, 0(CH2).nOCH3, 0(CH2)n H2, 0(CH2) nCH3, 0(CH2)nO H2, and 0(CH2)nON[(CH2)nCH3)]2, where n and m are from 1 to about 10. In other embodiments, the polynucleotides include one of the following at the 2' position: C1 to C10 lower alkyl, substituted lower alkyl, alkaryl, aralkyl, O- alkaryl or O-aralkyl, SH, SCH3, OCN, CI, Br, CN, CF3, OCF3, SOCH3, S02CH3, ON02, N02, N3, H2, heterocycloalkyl, heterocycloalkaryl, aminoalkylamino, polyalkylamino, substituted silyl, an RNA cleaving group, a reporter group, an intercalator, a group for improving the pharmacokinetic properties, or a group for improving the pharmacodynamic properties, and other substituents having similar properties. In some embodiments, the modification includes a 2'-methoxyethoxy (2'-0~CH2CH2OCH3, also known as 2'-0-(2-methoxyethyl) or 2'-MOE) (Martin et al., Helv. Chim. Acta, 1995, 78:486-504) i.e., an alkoxy-alkoxy group. Another exemplary modification is 2'-dimethylaminooxyethoxy, i.e., a 0(CH2)2ON(CH3)2 group, also known as 2'-DMAOE, as described in examples herein below, and 2'- dimethylaminoethoxyethoxy (also known in the art as 2'-0-dimethylaminoethoxyethyl or 2'- DMAEOE), i.e., 2'-0~CH2-0~CH2-N(CH2)2, also described in examples herein below. Other modifications include 2'-methoxy (2'-OCH3), 2'-aminopropoxy (2'-OCH2CH2CH2 H2) and 2'- fluoro (2'-F). Similar modifications may also be made at other positions, particularly the 3' position of the sugar on the 3' terminal nucleotide or in 2'-5' linked dsRNAs and the 5' position of 5' terminal nucleotide. Polynucleotides of the invention may also have sugar mimetics such as cyclobutyl moieties in place of the pentofuranosyl sugar. Representative U. S. patents that teach the preparation of such modified sugar structures include, but are not limited to, U. S. Pat. Nos. 4,981,957; 5, 1 18,800; 5,319,080; 5,359,044; 5,393,878; 5,446, 137; 5,466,786; 5,514,785; 5,519, 134; 5,567,81 1 ; 5,576,427; 5,591,722; 5,597,909; 5,610,300; 5,627,053; 5,639,873; 5,646,265; 5,658,873; 5,670,633; and 5,700,920; the contents of each of which is herein incorporated by reference in their entirety.

[0618] In still other embodiments, the polynucleotide is covalently conjugated to a cell penetrating polypeptide. The cell-penetrating peptide may also include a signal sequence. The conjugates of the invention can be designed to have increased stability; increased cell transfection; and/or altered the biodistribution (e.g., targeted to specific tissues or cell types).

[0619] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides can be conjugated to an agent to enhance delivery. As a non-limiting example, the agent can be a monomer or polymer such as a targeting monomer or a polymer having targeting blocks as described in International Publication No. WO2011062965, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. In another non-limiting example, the agent can be a transport agent covalently coupled to the polynucleotides of the present invention (See e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,835.393 and 7,374,778, each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). In yet another non-limiting example, the agent can be a membrane barrier transport enhancing agent such as those described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 7,737, 108 and 8,003, 129, each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0620] In another embodiment, polynucleotides can be conjugated to SMARTT POLYMER TECHNOLOGY® (PHASERX®, Inc. Seattle, WA).

[0621] In another aspect, the conjugate can be a peptide that selectively directs the nanoparticle to neurons in a tissue or organism. As a non-limiting example, the peptide used can be, but is not limited to, the peptides described in US Patent Publication No US20130129627, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0622] In yet another aspect, the conjugate can be a peptide that can assist in crossing the blood-brain barrier.

Self-Assembled Nanoparticles

[0623] The polynucleotides described herein can be formulated in self-assembled nanoparticles. Nucleic acid self-assembled nanoparticles are described in International Patent Application No. PCT/US2014/027077, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety, such as in paragraphs [000740] - [000743]. Polymer-based self- assembled nanoparticles are described in International Patent Application No. PCT/US2014/027077, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

Self- Assembled Macromolecules

[0624] The polynucleotides can be formulated in amphiphilic macromolecules (AMs) for delivery. AMs comprise biocompatible amphiphilic polymers which have an alkylated sugar backbone covalently linked to poly(ethylene glycol). In aqueous solution, the AMs self-assemble to form micelles. Non-limiting examples of methods of forming AMs and AMs are described in US Patent Publication No. US20130217753, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

Inorganic Nanoparticles

[0625] The polynucleotidess of the present invention can be formulated in inorganic nanoparticles (U.S. Pat. No. 8,257,745, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). The inorganic nanoparticles can include, but are not limited to, clay substances that are water swellable. As a non-limiting example, the inorganic nanoparticle can include synthetic smectite clays which are made from simple silicates (See e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,585, 108 and 8,257,745 each of which are herein incorporated by reference in their entirety).

[0626] In some embodiments, the inorganic nanoparticles can comprise a core of the polynucleotides disclosed herein and a polymer shell. The polymer shell can be any of the polymers described herein and are known in the art. In an additional embodiment, the polymer shell can be used to protect the polynucleotides in the core.

Semi-conductive and Metallic Nanoparticles

[0627] The polynucleotidess of the present invention can be formulated in water-dispersible nanoparticle comprising a semiconductive or metallic material (U.S. Pub. No. 20120228565; herein incorporated by reference in its entirety) or formed in a magnetic nanoparticle (U.S. Pub. No. 20120265001 and 20120283503; each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). The water-dispersible nanoparticles can be hydrophobic nanoparticles or hydrophilic nanoparticles.

[0628] In some embodiments, the semi-conductive and/or metallic nanoparticles can comprise a core of the polynucleotides disclosed herein and a polymer shell. The polymer shell can be any of the polymers described herein and are known in the art. In an additional embodiment, the polymer shell can be used to protect the polynucleotides in the core.

Surgical Sealants: Gels and Hydrogels

[0629] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides disclosed herein can be encapsulated into any hydrogel known in the art which may form a gel when injected into a subject. Surgical sealants such as gels and hydrogels are described in International Patent Application No. PCT/US2014/027077, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

Suspension formulations

[0630] In some embodiments, suspension formulations are provided comprising polynucleotides, water immiscible oil depots, surfactants and/or co-surfactants and/or co- solvents. Combinations of oils and surfactants may enable suspension formulation with polynucleotides. Delivery of polynucleotides in a water immiscible depot can be used to improve bioavailability through sustained release of mRNA from the depot to the surrounding physiologic environment and prevent polynucleotides degradation by nucleases. [0631] In some embodiments, suspension formulations of mRNA can be prepared using combinations of polynucleotides, oil-based solutions and surfactants. Such formulations can be prepared as a two-part system comprising an aqueous phase comprising polynucleotides and an oil-based phase comprising oil and surfactants. Exemplary oils for suspension formulations can include, but are not limited to sesame oil and Miglyol (comprising esters of saturated coconut and palmkernel oil-derived caprylic and capric fatty acids and glycerin or propylene glycol), corn oil, soybean oil, peanut oil, beeswax and/or palm seed oil. Exemplary surfactants can include, but are not limited to Cremophor, polysorbate 20, polysorbate 80, polyethylene glycol, transcutol, Capmul®, labrasol, isopropyl myristate, and/or Span 80. In some embodiments, suspensions can comprise co-solvents including, but not limited to ethanol, glycerol and/or propylene glycol.

[0632] Suspensions can be formed by first preparing polynucleotides formulation comprising an aqueous solution of polynucleotide and an oil-based phase comprising one or more surfactants. Suspension formation occurs as a result of mixing the two phases (aqueous and oil- based). In some embodiments, such a suspension can be delivered to an aqueous phase to form an oil-in-water emulsion. In some embodiments, delivery of a suspension to an aqueous phase results in the formation of an oil-in-water emulsion in which the oil-based phase comprising polynucleotides forms droplets that may range in size from nanometer-sized droplets to micrometer-sized droplets. In some embodiments, specific combinations of oils, surfactants, cosurfactants and/or co-solvents can be utilized to suspend polynucleotides in the oil phase and/or to form oil-in-water emulsions upon delivery into an aqueous environment.

[0633] In some embodiments, suspensions may provide modulation of the release of polynucleotides into the surrounding environment. In such embodiments, polynucleotides release can be modulated by diffusion from a water immiscible depot followed by resolubilization into a surrounding environment (e.g. an aqueous environment).

[0634] In some embodiments, polynucleotides within a water immiscible depot (e.g. suspended within an oil phase) can result in altered polynucleotides stability (e.g. altered degradation by nucleases).

[0635] In some embodiments, polynucleotides can be formulated such that upon injection, an emulsion forms spontaneously (e.g. when delivered to an aqueous phase). Such particle formation may provide a high surface area to volume ratio for release of polynucleotides from an oil phase to an aqueous phase. [0636] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides can be formulated in a nanoemulsion such as, but not limited to, the nanoemulsions described in US Patent No. 8,496,945, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. The nanoemulsions can comprise nanoparticles described herein. As a non-limiting example, the nanoparticles can comprise a liquid hydrophobic core which can be surrounded or coated with a lipid or surfactant layer. The lipid or surfactant layer can comprise at least one membrane-integrating peptide and may also comprise a targeting ligand (see e.g., US Patent No. 8,496,945, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety).

Cations and Anions

[0637] Formulations of polynucleotides disclosed herein can include cations or anions. In some embodiments, the formulations include metal cations such as, but not limited to, Zn2+, Ca2+, Cu2+, Mg+ and combinations thereof. As a non-limiting example, formulations can include polymers and a polynucleotides complexed with a metal cation (See e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,265,389 and 6,555,525, each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0638] In some embodiments, cationic nanoparticles comprising combinations of divalent and monovalent cations can be formulated with polynucleotides. Such nanoparticles may form spontaneously in solution over a give period (e.g. hours, days, etc). Such nanoparticles do not form in the presence of divalent cations alone or in the presence of monovalent cations alone. The delivery of polynucleotides in cationic nanoparticles or in one or more depot comprising cationic nanoparticles may improve polynucleotide bioavailability by acting as a long-acting depot and/or reducing the rate of degradation by nucleases.

Molded Nanoparticles and Microparticles

[0639] The polynucleotides disclosed herein can be formulated in nanoparticles and/or microparticles. These nanoparticles and/or microparticles can be molded into any size shape and chemistry. As an example, the nanoparticles and/or microparticles can be made using the PRINT® technology by LIQUIDA TECHNOLOGIES® (Morrisville, NC) (See, e.g., International Pub. No. WO2007024323; the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0640] In some embodiments, the molded nanoparticles can comprise a core of the polynucleotides disclosed herein and a polymer shell. The polymer shell can be any of the polymers described herein and are known in the art. In an additional embodiment, the polymer shell can be used to protect the polynucleotides in the core.

[0641] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides of the present invention can be formulated in microparticles. The microparticles may contain a core of the polynucleotides and a cortext of a biocompatible and/or biodegradable polymer. As a non-limiting example, the microparticles which can be used with the present invention can be those described in U.S. Patent No. 8,460,709, U. S. Patent Publication No. US20130129830 and International Patent Publication No WO2013075068, each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. As another non-limiting example, the microparticles can be designed to extend the release of the polynucleotides of the present invention over a desired period of time (see e.g, extended release of a therapeutic protein in U. S. Patent Publication No. US20130129830, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0642] The microparticle for use with the present invention may have a diameter of at least 1 micron to at least 100 microns (e.g., at least 1 micron, at least 5 micron, at least 10 micron, at least 15 micron, at least 20 micron, at least 25 micron, at least 30 micron, at least 35 micron, at least 40 micron, at least 45 micron, at least 50 micron, at least 55 micron, at least 60 micron, at least 65 micron, at least 70 micron, at least 75 micron, at least 80 micron, at least 85 micron, at least 90 micron, at least 95 micron, at least 97 micron, at least 99 micron, and at least 100 micron).

NanoJackets and NanoLiposomes

[0643] The polynucleotides disclosed herein can be formulated in NanoJackets and NanoLiposomes by Keystone Nano (State College, PA). NanoJackets are made of compounds that are naturally found in the body including calcium, phosphate and may also include a small amount of silicates. Nanojackets may range in size from 5 to 50 nm and can be used to deliver hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds such as, but not limited to, polynucleotides.

[0644] NanoLiposomes are made of lipids such as, but not limited to, lipids which naturally occur in the body. NanoLiposomes may range in size from 60-80 nm and can be used to deliver hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds such as, but not limited to, polynucleotides. In one aspect, the polynucleotides disclosed herein are formulated in a NanoLiposome such as, but not limited to, Ceramide NanoLiposomes. Pseudovirions

[0645] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides disclosed herein can be formulated in Pseudovirions (e.g., pseudo-virions). As a non-limiting example, the pseudovirions can be those developed and/or are described by Aura Biosciences (Cambridge, MA). In one aspect, the pseudovirion can be developed to deliver drugs to keratinocytes and basal membranes (See e.g., US Patent Publication Nos. US20130012450, US20130012566, US21030012426 and US20120207840 and International Publication No. WO2013009717, each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0646] In some embodiments, the pseudovirion used for delivering the polynucleotides of the present invention can be derived from viruses such as, but not limited to, herpes and papillomaviruses (See e.g., US Patent Publication Nos. US Patent Publication Nos. US20130012450, US20130012566, US21030012426 and US20120207840 and International Publication No. WO2013009717, each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety; and Ma et al. HPV pseudovirions as DNA delivery vehicles. Ther Deliv. 2011 : 2(4): 427-430; Kines et al. The initial steps leading to papillomavirus infection occur on the basement membrane prior to cell surface binding. PNAS 2009: 106(48), 20458-20463; Roberts et al. Genital transmission of HPV in a mouse model is potentiated by nonoxynol-9 and inhibited by carrageenan. Nature Medicine. 2007: 13(7) 857-861; Gordon et al., Targeting the Vaginal Mucosa with Human Papillomavirus Psedudovirion Vaccines delivering SIV DNA. J Immunol. 2012 188(2) 714-723; Cuburu et al., Intravaginal immunization with HPV vectors induces tissue- resident CD8+ T cell responses. The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2012: 122(12) 4606-4620; Hung et al., Ovarian Cancer Gene Therapy Using HPV- 16 Psedudovirion Carrying the HSV-tk Gene. PLoS ONE. 2012: 7(7) e40983; Johnson et al., Role of Heparan Sulfate in Attachment to and Infection of the Murine Femal Genital Tract by Human Papillomavirus. J Virology. 2009: 83(5) 2067-2074; each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0647] The pseudovirion can be a virus-like particle (VLP) prepared by the methods described in US Patent Publication No. US20120015899 and US20130177587 and International Patent Publication No. WO2010047839 WO2013116656, WO2013106525 and WO2013122262, the contents of each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. In one aspect, the VLP can be, but is not limited to, bacteriophages MS, Qp, R17, fr, GA, Sp, MI, I, MXI, NL95, AP205, f2, PP7, and the plant viruses Turnip crinkle virus (TCV), Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), Southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV) and members of the genus Bromovirus including Broad bean mottle virus, Brome mosaic virus, Cassia yellow blotch virus, Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), Melandrium yellow fleck virus, and Spring beauty latent virus. In another aspect, the VLP can be derived from the influenza virus as described in US Patent Publication No. US20130177587 or US Patent No. 8,506,967, the contents of each of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. In yet another aspect, the VLP can comprise a B7-1 and/or B7-2 molecule anchored to a lipid membrane or the exterior of the particle such as described in International Patent Publication No. WO2013116656, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. In one aspect, the VLP can be derived from norovirus, rotavirus recombinant VP6 protein or double layered VP2/VP6 such as the VLP described in International Patent Publication No. WO2012049366, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0648] The pseudovirion can be a human papilloma virus-like particle such as, but not limited to, those described in International Publication No. WO2010120266 and US Patent Publication No. US20120171290, each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety and Ma et al. HPV pseudovirions as DNA delivery vehicles. Ther Deliv. 2011 : 2(4): 427- 430; Kines et al. The initial steps leading to papillomavirus infection occur on the basement membrane prior to cell surface binding. PNAS 2009: 106(48), 20458-20463; Roberts et al. Genital transmission of HPV in a mouse model is potentiated by nonoxynol-9 and inhibited by carrageenan. Nature Medicine. 2007: 13(7) 857-861; Gordon et al., Targeting the Vaginal Mucosa with Human Papillomavirus Psedudovirion Vaccines delivering SIV DNA. J Immunol. 2012 188(2) 714-723; Cuburu et al., Intravaginal immunization with HPV vectors induces tissue- resident CD8+ T cell responses. The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2012: 122(12) 4606-4620; Hung et al., Ovarian Cancer Gene Therapy Using HPV- 16 Psedudovirion Carrying the HSV-tk Gene. PLoS ONE. 2012: 7(7) e40983; Johnson et al., Role of Heparan Sulfate in Attachment to and Infection of the Murine Femal Genital Tract by Human Papillomavirus. J Virology. 2009: 83(5) 2067-2074; each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0649] In one aspect, the pseudovirions can be virion derived nanoparticles such as, but not limited to, those described in US Patent Publication No. US20130116408 and US20130115247, each of which is herein incorporated by reference in their entirety. As a non-limiting example, the virion derived nanoparticles can be used to deliver polynucleotides which can be used in the treatment for cancer and/or enhance the immune system's recognition of the tumor. As a non- limiting example, the virion-derived nanoparticle which may selectively deliver an agent to at least one tumor can be the papilloma-derived particles described in International Patent Publication No. WO2013119877, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. The virion derived nanoparticles can be made by the methods described in US Patent Publication No. US20130116408 and US20130115247 or International Patent Publication No. WO2013119877, each of which is herein incorporated by reference in their entirety.

[0650] In some embodiments, the virus-like particle (VLP) can be a self-assembled particle. Non-limiting examples of self-assembled VLPs and methods of making the self-assembled VLPs are described in International Patent Publication No. WO2013122262, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

Minicells

[0651] In one aspect, the polynucleotides can be formulated in bacterial minicells. As a non- limiting example, bacterial minicells can be those described in International Publication No. WO2013088250 or US Patent Publication No. US20130177499, the contents of each of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. The bacterial minicells comprising therapeutic agents such as polynucleotides described herein can be used to deliver the therapeutic agents to brain tumors.

Semi-solid Compositions

[0652] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides can be formulated with a hydrophobic matrix to form a semi-solid composition. As a non-limiting example, the semi-solid composition or paste-like composition can be made by the methods described in International Patent Publication No WO201307604, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. The semi-solid composition can be a sustained release formulation as described in International Patent Publication No WO201307604, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0653] In another embodiment, the semi-solid composition may further have a micro-porous membrane or a biodegradable polymer formed around the composition (see e.g., International Patent Publication No WO201307604, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0654] The semi-solid composition using the polynucleotides of the present invention may have the characteristics of the semi-solid mixture as described in International Patent Publication No WO201307604, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety (e.g., a modulus of elasticity of at least 10"4 Nmm" , and/or a viscosity of at least lOOmPa s). Exosomes

[0655] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides can be formulated in exosomes. The exosomes can be loaded with at least one polynucleotide and delivered to cells, tissues and/or organisms. As a non-limiting example, the polynucleotides can be loaded in the exosomes described in International Publication No. WO2013084000, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

Silk-Based Delivery

[0656] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides can be formulated in a sustained release silk-based delivery system. The silk-based delivery system can be formed by contacting a silk fibroin solution with a therapeutic agent such as, but not limited to, the polynucleotides described herein and/or known in the art. As a non-limiting example, the sustained release silk-based delivery system which can be used in the present invention and methods of making such system are described in US Patent Publication No. US20130177611, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

Microparticles

[0657] In some embodiments, formulations comprising polynucleotides can comprise microparticles. The microparticles can comprise a polymer described herein and/or known in the art such as, but not limited to, poly(a-hydroxy acid), a polyhydroxy butyric acid, a polycaprolactone, a polyorthoester and a polyanhydride. The microparticle may have adsorbent surfaces to adsorb biologically active molecules such as polynucleotides. As a non-limiting example microparticles for use with the present invention and methods of making microparticles are described in US Patent Publication No. US2013195923 and US20130195898 and US Patent No. 8,309, 139 and 8,206,749, the contents of each of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0658] In another embodiment, the formulation can be a microemulsion comprising microparticles and polynucleotides. As a non-limiting example, microemulsions comprising microparticles are described in US Patent Publication No. US2013195923 and US20130195898 and US Patent No. 8,309,139 and 8,206,749, the contents of each of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. Amino Acid Lipids

[0659] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides can be formulated in amino acid lipids. Amino acid lipids are lipophilic compounds comprising an amino acid residue and one or more lipophilic tails. Non-limiting examples of amino acid lipids and methods of making amino acid lipids are described in US Patent No. 8,501,824, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0660] In some embodiments, the amino acid lipids have a hydrophilic portion and a lipophilic portion. The hydrophilic portion can be an amino acid residue and a lipophilic portion can comprise at least one lipophilic tail.

[0661] In some embodiments, the amino acid lipid formulations can be used to deliver the polynucleotides to a subject.

[0662] In another embodiment, the amino acid lipid formulations may deliver a polynucleotide in releasable form which comprises an amino acid lipid that binds and releases the polynucleotides. As a non-limiting example, the release of the polynucleotides can be provided by an acid-labile linker such as, but not limited to, those described in U.S. Patent Nos. 7,098,032, 6,897, 196, 6,426,086, 7, 138,382, 5,563,250, and 5,505,931, the contents of each of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

Microvesicles

[0663] In some embodiments, polynucleotides can be formulated in microvesicles. Non- limiting examples of microvesicles include those described in US Patent Publication No. US20130209544, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0664] In some embodiments, the microvesicle is an ARRDC1 -mediated microvesicles (ARMMs). Non-limiting examples of ARMMs and methods of making ARMMs are described in International Patent Publication No. WO2013119602, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

Interpolyelectrolyte Complexes

[0665] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides can be formulated in an interpolyelectrolyte complex. Interpolyelectrolyte complexes are formed when charge-dynamic polymers are complexed with one or more anionic molecules. Non-limiting examples of charge- dynamic polymers and interpolyelectrolyte complexes and methods of making interpolyelectrolyte complexes are described in US Patent No. 8,524,368, the contents of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

Cyrstalline Polymeric Systems

[0666] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides can be formulated in crystalline polymeric systems. Crystalline polymeric systems are polymers with crystalline moieties and/or terminal units comprising crystalline moieties. Non-limiting examples of polymers with crystalline moieties and/or terminal units comprising crystalline moieties termed "CYC polymers," crystalline polymer systems and methods of making such polymers and systems are described in US Patent No. US 8,524,259, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

Excipients

[0667] Pharmaceutical formulations may additionally comprise a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient, which, as used herein, includes, but are not limited to, any and all solvents, dispersion media, diluents, or other liquid vehicles, dispersion or suspension aids, surface active agents, isotonic agents, thickening or emulsifying agents, preservatives, solid binders, lubricants, flavoring agents, stabilizers, antioxidants, osmolality adjusting agents, pH adjusting agents and the like, as suited to the particular dosage form desired. Various excipients for formulating pharmaceutical compositions and techniques for preparing the composition are known in the art (see Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 21st Edition, A. R. Gennaro (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD, 2006; incorporated herein by reference in its entirety). The use of a conventional excipient medium can be contemplated within the scope of the present disclosure, except insofar as any conventional excipient medium is incompatible with a substance or its derivatives, such as by producing any undesirable biological effect or otherwise interacting in a deleterious manner with any other component(s) of the pharmaceutical composition, its use is contemplated to be within the scope of this invention.

[0668] In some embodiments, a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient can be at least 95%, at least 96%, at least 97%, at least 98%, at least 99%, or 100% pure. In some embodiments, an excipient is approved for use for humans and for veterinary use. In some embodiments, an excipient can be approved by United States Food and Drug Administration. In some embodiments, an excipient can be of pharmaceutical grade. In some embodiments, an excipient may meet the standards of the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP), the European Pharmacopoeia (EP), the British Pharmacopoeia, and/or the International Pharmacopoeia.

[0669] Pharmaceutically acceptable excipients used in the manufacture of pharmaceutical compositions include, but are not limited to, inert diluents, dispersing and/or granulating agents, surface active agents and/or emulsifiers, disintegrating agents, binding agents, preservatives, buffering agents, lubricating agents, and/or oils. Such excipients may optionally be included in pharmaceutical compositions. The composition may also include excipients such as cocoa butter and suppository waxes, coloring agents, coating agents, sweetening, flavoring, and/or perfuming agents.

[0670] Exemplary diluents include, but are not limited to, calcium carbonate, sodium carbonate, calcium phosphate, dicalcium phosphate, calcium sulfate, calcium hydrogen phosphate, sodium phosphate lactose, sucrose, cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, kaolin, mannitol, sorbitol, inositol, sodium chloride, dry starch, cornstarch, powdered sugar, etc., and/or combinations thereof.

[0671] Exemplary granulating and/or dispersing agents include, but are not limited to, potato starch, corn starch, tapioca starch, sodium starch glycolate, clays, alginic acid, guar gum, citrus pulp, agar, bentonite, cellulose and wood products, natural sponge, cation-exchange resins, calcium carbonate, silicates, sodium carbonate, cross-linked poly(vinyl-pyrrolidone) (crospovidone), sodium carboxymethyl starch (sodium starch glycolate), carboxymethyl cellulose, cross-linked sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (croscarmellose), methylcellulose, pregelatinized starch (starch 1500), microcrystalline starch, water insoluble starch, calcium carboxymethyl cellulose, magnesium aluminum silicate (VEEGUM®), sodium lauryl sulfate, quaternary ammonium compounds, etc., and/or combinations thereof.

[0672] Exemplary surface active agents and/or emulsifiers include, but are not limited to, natural emulsifiers (e.g. acacia, agar, alginic acid, sodium alginate, tragacanth, chondrux, cholesterol, xanthan, pectin, gelatin, egg yolk, casein, wool fat, cholesterol, wax, and lecithin), colloidal clays (e.g. bentonite [aluminum silicate] and VEEGUM® [magnesium aluminum silicate]), long chain amino acid derivatives, high molecular weight alcohols (e.g. stearyl alcohol, cetyl alcohol, oleyl alcohol, triacetin monostearate, ethylene glycol distearate, glyceryl monostearate, and propylene glycol monostearate, polyvinyl alcohol), carbomers (e.g. carboxy polymethylene, polyacrylic acid, acrylic acid polymer, and carboxyvinyl polymer), carrageenan, cellulosic derivatives (e.g. carboxymethylcellulose sodium, powdered cellulose, hydroxymethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, methylcellulose), sorbitan fatty acid esters (e.g. polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate [TWEEN®20], polyoxyethylene sorbitan [TWEEN®60], polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate [TWEEN®80], sorbitan monopalmitate [SPAN®40], sorbitan monostearate [SPAN®60], sorbitan tristearate [SPAN®65], glyceryl monooleate, sorbitan monooleate [SPAN®80]), polyoxyethylene esters (e.g. polyoxyethylene monostearate [MYRJ®45], polyoxyethylene hydrogenated castor oil, polyethoxylated castor oil, polyoxymethylene stearate, and SOLUTOL®), sucrose fatty acid esters, polyethylene glycol fatty acid esters (e.g. CREMOPHOR®), polyoxyethylene ethers, (e.g. polyoxyethylene lauryl ether [BRIJ®30]), poly(vinyl-pyrrolidone), di ethylene glycol monolaurate, triethanolamine oleate, sodium oleate, potassium oleate, ethyl oleate, oleic acid, ethyl laurate, sodium lauryl sulfate, PLUORINC®F 68, POLOXAMER®188, cetrimonium bromide, cetylpyridinium chloride, benzalkonium chloride, docusate sodium, etc. and/or combinations thereof.

[0673] Exemplary binding agents include, but are not limited to, starch (e.g. cornstarch and starch paste); gelatin; sugars (e.g. sucrose, glucose, dextrose, dextrin, molasses, lactose, lactitol, mannitol); amino acids (e.g., glycine); natural and synthetic gums (e.g. acacia, sodium alginate, extract of Irish moss, panwar gum, ghatti gum, mucilage of isapol husks, carboxymethylcellulose, methylcellulose, ethylcellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, cellulose acetate, poly(vinyl-pyrrolidone), magnesium aluminum silicate (VEEGUM®), and larch arabogalactan); alginates; polyethylene oxide; polyethylene glycol; inorganic calcium salts; silicic acid; polymethacrylates; waxes; water; alcohol; etc.; and combinations thereof.

[0674] Exemplary preservatives can include, but are not limited to, antioxidants, chelating agents, antimicrobial preservatives, antifungal preservatives, alcohol preservatives, acidic preservatives, and/or other preservatives. Oxidation is a potential degradation pathway for mRNA, especially for liquid mRNA formulations. In order to prevent oxidation, antioxidants can be added to the formulation. Exemplary antioxidants include, but are not limited to, alpha tocopherol, ascorbic acid, acorbyl palmitate, benzyl alcohol, butylated hydroxyanisole, EDTA, m-cresol, methionine, butylated hydroxytoluene, monothioglycerol, potassium metabi sulfite, propionic acid, propyl gallate, sodium ascorbate, sodium bisulfite, sodium metabisulfite, thioglycerol and/or sodium sulfite. Exemplary chelating agents include ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid monohydrate, disodium edetate, dipotassium edetate, edetic acid, fumaric acid, malic acid, phosphoric acid, sodium edetate, tartaric acid, and/or trisodium edetate. Exemplary antimicrobial preservatives include, but are not limited to, benzalkonium chloride, benzethonium chloride, benzyl alcohol, bronopol, cetrimide, cetylpyridinium chloride, chlorhexidine, chlorobutanol, chlorocresol, chloroxylenol, cresol, ethyl alcohol, glycerin, hexetidine, imidurea, phenol, phenoxyethanol, phenylethyl alcohol, phenylmercuric nitrate, propylene glycol, and/or thimerosal. Exemplary antifungal preservatives include, but are not limited to, butyl paraben, methyl paraben, ethyl paraben, propyl paraben, benzoic acid, hydroxybenzoic acid, potassium benzoate, potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, sodium propionate, and/or sorbic acid. Exemplary alcohol preservatives include, but are not limited to, ethanol, polyethylene glycol, phenol, phenolic compounds, bisphenol, chlorobutanol, hydroxybenzoate, and/or phenylethyl alcohol. Exemplary acidic preservatives include, but are not limited to, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, citric acid, acetic acid, dehydroacetic acid, ascorbic acid, sorbic acid, and/or phytic acid. Other preservatives include, but are not limited to, tocopherol, tocopherol acetate, deteroxime mesylate, cetrimide, butylated hydroxyanisol (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluened (BHT), ethylenediamine, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES), sodium bisulfite, sodium metabi sulfite, potassium sulfite, potassium metabi sulfite, GLYDANT PLUS®, PHENONIP®, methylparaben, GERMALL®115, GERMABEN®II, EOLO E, KATHON, and/or EUXYL®.

[0675] In some embodiments, the pH of polynucleotide solutions are maintained between pH 5 and pH 8 to improve stability. Exemplary buffers to control pH can include, but are not limited to sodium phosphate, sodium citrate, sodium succinate, histidine (or histidine-HCl), sodium carbonate, and/or sodium malate. In another embodiment, the exemplary buffers listed above can be used with additional monovalent counterions (including, but not limited to potassium). Divalent cations may also be used as buffer counterions; however, these are not preferred due to complex formation and/or mRNA degradation.

[0676] Exemplary buffering agents may also include, but are not limited to, citrate buffer solutions, acetate buffer solutions, phosphate buffer solutions, ammonium chloride, calcium carbonate, calcium chloride, calcium citrate, calcium glubionate, calcium gluceptate, calcium gluconate, D-gluconic acid, calcium glycerophosphate, calcium lactate, propanoic acid, calcium levulinate, pentanoic acid, dibasic calcium phosphate, phosphoric acid, tribasic calcium phosphate, calcium hydroxide phosphate, potassium acetate, potassium chloride, potassium gluconate, potassium mixtures, dibasic potassium phosphate, monobasic potassium phosphate, potassium phosphate mixtures, sodium acetate, sodium bicarbonate, sodium chloride, sodium citrate, sodium lactate, dibasic sodium phosphate, monobasic sodium phosphate, sodium phosphate mixtures, tromethamine, magnesium hydroxide, aluminum hydroxide, alginic acid, pyrogen-free water, isotonic saline, Ringer's solution, ethyl alcohol, etc., and/or combinations thereof.

[0677] Exemplary lubricating agents include, but are not limited to, magnesium stearate, calcium stearate, stearic acid, silica, talc, malt, glyceryl behanate, hydrogenated vegetable oils, polyethylene glycol, sodium benzoate, sodium acetate, sodium chloride, leucine, magnesium lauryl sulfate, sodium lauryl sulfate, etc., and combinations thereof.

[0678] Exemplary oils include, but are not limited to, almond, apricot kernel, avocado, babassu, bergamot, black current seed, borage, cade, camomile, canola, caraway, carnauba, castor, cinnamon, cocoa butter, coconut, cod liver, coffee, corn, cotton seed, emu, eucalyptus, evening primrose, fish, flaxseed, geraniol, gourd, grape seed, hazel nut, hyssop, isopropyl myristate, jojoba, kukui nut, lavandin, lavender, lemon, litsea cubeba, macademia nut, mallow, mango seed, meadowfoam seed, mink, nutmeg, olive, orange, orange roughy, palm, palm kernel, peach kernel, peanut, poppy seed, pumpkin seed, rapeseed, rice bran, rosemary, safflower, sandalwood, sasquana, savoury, sea buckthorn, sesame, shea butter, silicone, soybean, sunflower, tea tree, thistle, tsubaki, vetiver, walnut, and wheat germ oils. Exemplary oils include, but are not limited to, butyl stearate, caprylic triglyceride, capric triglyceride, cyclomethicone, diethyl sebacate, dimethicone 360, isopropyl myristate, mineral oil, octyldodecanol, oleyl alcohol, silicone oil, and/or combinations thereof.

[0679] Excipients such as cocoa butter and suppository waxes, coloring agents, coating agents, sweetening, flavoring, and/or perfuming agents can be present in the composition, according to the judgment of the formulator.

[0680] Exemplary additives include physiologically biocompatible buffers {e.g., trimethylamine hydrochloride), addition of chelants (such as, for example, DTPA or DTPA- bisamide) or calcium chelate complexes (as for example calcium DTPA, CaNaDTPA-bisamide), or, optionally, additions of calcium or sodium salts (for example, calcium chloride, calcium ascorbate, calcium gluconate or calcium lactate). In addition, antioxidants and suspending agents can be used. Cryoprotectants for mRNA

[0681] In some embodiments, polynucleotide formulations can comprise cyroprotectants. As used herein, there term "cryoprotectan ' refers to one or more agent that when combined with a given substance, helps to reduce or eliminate damage to that substance that occurs upon freezing. In some embodiments, cryoprotectants are combined with polynucleotides in order to stabilize them during freezing. Frozen storage of mRNA between -20°C and -80°C can be advantageous for long term (e.g. 36 months) stability of polynucleotide. In some embodiments, cryoprotectants are included in polynucleotide formulations to stabilize polynucleotide through freeze/thaw cycles and under frozen storage conditions. Cryoprotectants of the present invention can include, but are not limited to sucrose, trehalose, lactose, glycerol, dextrose, raffinose and/or mannitol. Trehalose is listed by the Food and Drug Administration as being generally regarded as safe (GRAS) and is commonly used in commercial pharmaceutical formulations.

Bulking agents

[0682] In some embodiments, polynucleotide formulations can comprise bulking agents. As used herein, ther term "bulking agent" refers to one or more agents included in formulations to impart a desired consistency to the formulation and/or stabilization of formulation components. In some embodiments, bulking agents are included in lyophilized polynucleotide formulations to yield a "pharmaceutically elegant" cake, stabilizing the lyophilized polynucleotides during long term (e.g. 36 month) storage. Bulking agents of the present invention can include, but are not limited to sucrose, trehalose, mannitol, glycine, lactose and/or raffinose. In some embodiments, combinations of cryoprotectants and bulking agents (for example, sucrose/glycine or trehalose/mannitol) can be included to both stabilize polynucleotides during freezing and provide a bulking agent for lyophilization.

[0683] Non-limiting examples of formulations and methods for formulating the polynucleotides of the present invention are also provided in International Publication No WO2013090648 filed December 14, 2012, the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

Inactive Ingredients

[0684] In some embodiments, polynucleotide formulations can comprise at least one excipient which is an inactive ingredient. As used herein, ther term "inactive ingredient" refers to one or more inactive agents included in formulations. In some embodiments, all, none or some of the inactive ingredients which can be used in the formulations of the present invention can be approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). A non-exhaustive list of inactive ingredients and the routes of administration the inactive ingredients can be formulated in are described in International Application No. PCT/US2014/027077.

Delivery

[0685] The present disclosure encompasses the delivery of polynucleotides for any of therapeutic, pharmaceutical, diagnostic or imaging by any appropriate route taking into consideration likely advances in the sciences of drug delivery. Delivery can be naked or formulated.

Naked Delivery

[0686] The polynucleotides of the present invention can be delivered to a cell naked. As used herein in, "naked" refers to delivering polynucleotides free from agents which promote transfection. For example, the polynucleotides delivered to the cell may contain no modifications. The naked polynucleotides can be delivered to the cell using routes of administration known in the art and described herein.

Formulated Delivery

[0687] The polynucleotides of the present invention can be formulated, using the methods described herein. The formulations may contain polynucleotides which can be modified and/or unmodified. The formulations may further include, but are not limited to, cell penetration agents, a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, a delivery agent, a bioerodible or biocompatible polymer, a solvent, and a sustained-release delivery depot. The formulated polynucleotides can be delivered to the cell using routes of administration known in the art and described herein.

[0688] The compositions may also be formulated for direct delivery to an organ or tissue in any of several ways in the art including, but not limited to, direct soaking or bathing, via a catheter, by gels, powder, ointments, creams, gels, lotions, and/or drops, by using substrates such as fabric or biodegradable materials coated or impregnated with the compositions, and the like.

Administration

[0689] The polynucleotides of the present invention can be administered by any route which results in a therapeutically effective outcome. These include, but are not limited to enteral (into the intestine), gastroenteral, epidural (into the dura matter), oral (by way of the mouth), transdermal, peridural, intracerebral (into the cerebrum), intracerebroventricular (into the cerebral ventricles), epicutaneous (application onto the skin), intradermal, (into the skin itself), subcutaneous (under the skin), nasal administration (through the nose), intravenous (into a vein), intravenous bolus, intravenous drip, intraarterial (into an artery), intramuscular (into a muscle), intracardiac (into the heart), intraosseous infusion (into the bone marrow), intrathecal (into the spinal canal), intraperitoneal, (infusion or injection into the peritoneum), intravesical infusion, intravitreal, (through the eye), intracavernous injection (into a pathologic cavity) intracavitary (into the base of the penis), intravaginal administration, intrauterine, extra-amniotic administration, transdermal (diffusion through the intact skin for systemic distribution), transmucosal (diffusion through a mucous membrane), transvaginal, insufflation (snorting), sublingual, sublabial, enema, eye drops (onto the conjunctiva), in ear drops, auricular (in or by way of the ear), buccal (directed toward the cheek), conjunctival, cutaneous, dental (to a tooth or teeth), electro-osmosis, endocervical, endosinusial, endotracheal, extracorporeal, hemodialysis, infiltration, interstitial, intra-abdominal, intra-amniotic, intra-articular, intrabiliary, intrabronchial, intrabursal, intracartilaginous (within a cartilage), intracaudal (within the cauda equine), intraci sternal (within the cisterna magna cerebellomedularis), intracorneal (within the cornea), dental intracornal, intracoronary (within the coronary arteries), intracorporus cavernosum (within the dilatable spaces of the corporus cavernosa of the penis), intradiscal (within a disc), intraductal (within a duct of a gland), intraduodenal (within the duodenum), intradural (within or beneath the dura), intraepidermal (to the epidermis), intraesophageal (to the esophagus), intragastric (within the stomach), intragingival (within the gingivae), intraileal (within the distal portion of the small intestine), intralesional (within or introduced directly to a localized lesion), intraluminal (within a lumen of a tube), intralymphatic (within the lymph), intramedullary (within the marrow cavity of a bone), intrameningeal (within the meninges), intraocular (within the eye), intraovarian (within the ovary), intrapericardial (within the pericardium), intrapleural (within the pleura), intraprostatic (within the prostate gland), intrapulmonary (within the lungs or its bronchi), intrasinal (within the nasal or periorbital sinuses), intraspinal (within the vertebral column), intrasynovial (within the synovial cavity of a joint), intratendinous (within a tendon), intratesticular (within the testicle), intrathecal (within the cerebrospinal fluid at any level of the cerebrospinal axis), intrathoracic (within the thorax), intratubular (within the tubules of an organ), intratumor (within a tumor), intratympanic (within the aurus media), intravascular (within a vessel or vessels), intraventricular (within a ventricle), iontophoresis (by means of electric current where ions of soluble salts migrate into the tissues of the body), irrigation (to bathe or flush open wounds or body cavities), laryngeal (directly upon the larynx), nasogastric (through the nose and into the stomach), occlusive dressing technique (topical route administration which is then covered by a dressing which occludes the area), ophthalmic (to the external eye), oropharyngeal (directly to the mouth and pharynx), parenteral, percutaneous, periarticular, peridural, perineural, periodontal, rectal, respiratory (within the respiratory tract by inhaling orally or nasally for local or systemic effect), retrobulbar (behind the pons or behind the eyeball), intramyocardial (entering the myocardium), soft tissue, subarachnoid, subconjunctival, submucosal, topical, transplacental (through or across the placenta), transtracheal (through the wall of the trachea), transtympanic (across or through the tympanic cavity), ureteral (to the ureter), urethral (to the urethra), vaginal, caudal block, diagnostic, nerve block, biliary perfusion, cardiac perfusion, photopheresis or spinal. In specific embodiments, compositions can be administered in a way which allows them cross the blood- brain barrier, vascular barrier, or other epithelial barrier. In some embodiments, a formulation for a route of administration can include at least one inactive ingredient. Non-limiting examples of routes of administration and inactive ingredients which can be included in formulations for the specific route of administration is shown in Table 9. In Table 9, "AN" means anesthetic, "CNBLK" means cervical nerve block, "NBLK" means nerve block, "IV" means intravenous, "IM" means intramuscular and "SC" means subcutaneous.

Table 9. Routes of Adminsitration and Inactive Ingredients

Route of Inactive Ingredient

Administration

Intrathecal (AN, Acetone Sodium Bisulfite; Citric Acid; Hydrochloric Acid; Sodium Chloride;

CNBLK) Sodium Hydroxide; Sodium Metabisulfite

Infiltration Acetic Acid; Acetone Sodium Bisulfite; Ascorbic Acid; Benzyl Alcohol; Calcium

(AN) Chloride; Carbon Dioxide; Chlorobutanol; Citric Acid; Citric Acid Monohydrate;

Edetate Calcium Disodium; Edetate Disodium; Hydrochloric Acid; Hydrochloric

Acid, Diluted; Lactic Acid; Methylparaben; Monothioglycerol; Nitrogen; Potassium

Chloride; Potassium Metabisulfite; Potassium Phosphate, Monobasic;

Propylparaben; Sodium Bisulfite; Sodium Carbonate; Sodium Chlorate; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Citrate; Sodium Hydroxide; Sodium Lactate; Sodium

Metabisulfite; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic, Heptahydrate

Sympathetic Hydrochloric Acid; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Hydroxide

NBLK (AN)

Auricular (Otic) Acetic Acid; Aluminum Acetate; Aluminum Sulfate Anhydrous; Benzalkonium

Chloride; Benzethonium Chloride; Benzyl Alcohol; Boric Acid; Calcium Carbonate;

Cetyl Alcohol; Chlorobutanol; Chloroxylenol; Citric Acid; Creatinine; Cupric Sulfate; Cupric Sulfate Anhydrous; Edetate Disodium; Edetic Acid; Glycerin;

Glyceryl Stearate; Hydrochloric Acid; Hydrocortisone; Hydroxyethyl Cellulose;

Isopropyl Myristate; Lactic Acid; Lecithin, Hydrogenated; Methylparaben; Mineral

Oil; Petrolatum; Petrolatum, White; Phenylethyl Alcohol; Polyoxyl 40 Stearate; Polyoxyl Stearate; Polysorbate 20; Polysorbate 80; Polyvinyl Alcohol; Potassium Metabisulfite; Potassium Phosphate, Monobasic; Povidone K90f; Povidones;

Propylene Glycol; Propylene Glycol Diacetate; Propylparaben; Sodium Acetate; Sodium Bisulfite; Sodium Borate; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Citrate; Sodium Hydroxide; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic, Anhydrous; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic, Heptahydrate; Sodium Phosphate, Monobasic, Anhydrous; Sodium Sulfite; Sulfuric Acid; Thimerosal

Caudal Block Ascorbic Acid; Calcium Chloride; Citric Acid; Edetate Calcium Disodium; Edetate

Disodium; Hydrochloric Acid; Methylparaben; Monothioglycerol; Nitrogen;

Potassium Chloride; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Hydroxide; Sodium Lactate; Sodium Metabisulfite

Dental Acetone Sodium Bisulfite; Alcohol; Alcohol, Dehydrated; Alcohol, Denatured;

Anethole; Benzyl Alcohol; Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium; Carrageenan; D&C Yellow No. 10; Dimethicone Medical Fluid 360; Eucalyptol; Fd&C Blue No. 1; Fd&C Green No. 3; Flavor 89-186; Flavor 89-259; Flavor Df-119; Flavor Df- 1530; Flavor Enhancer; Gelatin; Gelatin, Crosslinked; Glycerin; Glyceryl Stearate; High Density Polyethylene; Hydrocarbon Gel, Plasticized; Hydrochloric Acid; Menthol; Mineral Oil; Nitrogen; Pectin; Peg-40 Sorbitan Diisostearate; Peppermint Oil; Petrolatum, White; Plastibase-50w; Polyethylene Glycol 1540; Polyglactin; Polyols; Polyoxyl 40 Hydrogenated Castor Oil; Polyoxyl 40 Stearate; Propylene Glycol; Pvm/Ma Copolymer; Saccharin Sodium; Silica, Dental; Silicon Dioxide; Sodium Benzoate; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Hydroxide; Sodium Lauryl Sulfate; Sodium Metabisulfite; Sorbitol; Titanium Dioxide

Diagnostic Hydrochloric Acid

Endocervical Colloidal Silicon Dioxide; Triacetin

Epidural 1 ,2-Dioleoyl-Sn-Glycero-3 -Phosphocholine; 1 ,2-Dipalmitoyl-Sn-Glycero-3 - (Phospho-Rac-(l-Glycerol)); Ascorbic Acid; Benzyl Alcohol; Calcium Chloride; Cholesterol; Citric Acid; Edetate Calcium Disodium; Edetate Disodium; Glyceryl Trioleate; Hydrochloric Acid; Isotonic Sodium Chloride Solution; Methylparaben; Monothioglycerol; Nitrogen; Potassium Chloride; Sodium Bisulfite; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Citrate; Sodium Hydroxide; Sodium Lactate, L-; Sodium Metabisulfite; Sodium Sulfite; Sulfuric Acid; Tricaprylin

Extracorporeal Acetic Acid; Alcohol, Dehydrated; Benzyl Alcohol; Hydrochloric Acid; Propylene

Glycol; Sodium Acetate; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Hydroxide

Intramuscular- Acetic Acid; Alcohol; Alcohol, Dehydrated; Alcohol, Diluted; Anhydrous Dextrose; Intravenous Anhydrous Lactose; Anhydrous Trisodium Citrate; Arginine; Ascorbic Acid;

Benzethonium Chloride; Benzoic Acid; Benzyl Alcohol; Calcium Chloride; Carbon Dioxide; Chlorobutanol; Citric Acid; Citric Acid Monohydrate; Creatinine;

Dextrose; Edetate Calcium Disodium; Edetate Disodium; Edetate Sodium;

Gluconolactone; Glycerin; Hydrochloric Acid; Hydrochloric Acid, Diluted; Lactic Acid; Lactic Acid, D1-; Lactose; Lactose Monohydrate; Lactose, Hydrous; Lysine; Mannitol; Methylparaben; Monothioglycerol; Niacinamide; Nitrogen; Phenol; Phenol, Liquefied; Phosphoric Acid; Polyethylene Glycol 300; Polyethylene Glycol 400; Polypropylene Glycol; Polysorbate 40; Potassium Metabisulfite; Potassium Phosphate, Monobasic; Propylene Glycol; Propylparaben; Saccharin Sodium; Saccharin Sodium Anhydrous; Silicone; Simethicone; Sodium Acetate; Sodium Acetate Anhydrous; Sodium Benzoate; Sodium Bicarbonate; Sodium Bisulfate; Sodium Bisulfite; Sodium Carbonate; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Citrate; Sodium Formaldehyde Sulfoxylate; Sodium Hydroxide; Sodium Lactate, L-; Sodium Metabisulfite; Sodium Phosphate; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic, Anhydrous; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic, Dihydrate; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic, Heptahydrate; Sodium Phosphate, Monobasic; Sodium Phosphate, Monobasic, Anhydrous; Sodium Phosphate, Monobasic, Monohydrate; Sodium Sulfate; Sodium Sulfite; Sodium Tartrate; Sodium Thiomalate; Succinic Acid; Sulfuric Acid; Tartaric Acid, D1-; Thimerosal; Trisodium Citrate Dihydrate;

Tromethamine

Intramuscular- Acetic Acid; Alcohol; Alcohol, Dehydrated; Benzyl Alcohol; Chlorobutanol; Citric Intravenous- Acid; Citric Acid Monohydrate; Citric Acid, Hydrous; Creatinine; Dextrose; Edetate Subcutaneous Disodium; Edetate Sodium; Gelatin; Glycerin; Glycine; Hydrochloric Acid;

Hydrochloric Acid, Diluted; Lactic Acid; Lactose; Lactose Monohydrate;

Metacresol; Methanesulfonic Acid; Methylparaben; Monothioglycerol; Nitrogen; Phenol; Phosphoric Acid; Polyoxyethylene Fatty Acid Esters; Propylparaben; Sodium Acetate; Sodium Bisulfate; Sodium Bisulfite; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Citrate; Sodium Dithionite; Sodium Hydroxide; Sodium Lactate; Sodium Lactate, L- ; Sodium Metabisulfite; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic, Heptahydrate; Thimerosal

Intramuscular - Acetic Acid; Anhydrous Dextrose; Benzyl Alcohol; Chlorobutanol; Citric Acid; Subcutaneous Cysteine; Edetate Disodium; Gelatin; Glycerin; Glycine; Hydrochloric Acid; Lactose

Monohydrate; Mannitol; Metacresol; Methylparaben; Nitrogen; Peg Vegetable Oil; Peg-40 Castor Oil; Phenol; Phenol, Liquefied; Phosphoric Acid; Polyoxyethylene Fatty Acid Esters; Polysorbate 20; Propylparaben; Protamine Sulfate; Sesame Oil; Sodium Acetate; Sodium Acetate Anhydrous; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Citrate; Sodium Formaldehyde Sulfoxylate; Sodium Hydroxide; Sodium Phosphate Dihydrate; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic, Heptahydrate; Sulfuric Acid; Thimerosal; Zinc Chloride; Zinc Oxide

Implantation Acetone; Crospovidone; Dimethylsiloxane Methylvinylsiloxane Copolymer;

Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Copolymer; Magnesium Stearate; Poly(Bis(P- Carboxyphenoxy)Propane Anhydride) :Sebacic Acid; Polyglactin; Silastic Brand Medical Grade Tubing; Silastic Medical Adhesive,Silicone Type A; Stearic Acid

Infiltration Cholesterol; Citric Acid; Diethyl Pyrocarbonate; Dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol,

D1-; Hydrochloric Acid; Nitrogen; Phosphoric Acid; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Hydroxide; Sodium Metabisulfite; Tricaprylin

Inhalation Acetone Sodium Bisulfite; Acetylcysteine; Alcohol; Alcohol, Dehydrated;

Ammonia; Ascorbic Acid; Benzalkonium Chloride; Carbon Dioxide;

Cetylpyridinium Chloride; Chlorobutanol; Citric Acid; D&C Yellow No. 10;

Dichlorodifluoromethane; Dichlorotetrafluoroethane; Edetate Disodium; Edetate Sodium; Fd&C Yellow No. 6; Fluorochlorohydrocarbons; Glycerin; Hydrochloric Acid; Hydrochloric Acid, Diluted; Lactose; Lecithin; Lecithin, Hydrogenated Soy; Lecithin, Soybean; Menthol; Methylparaben; Nitric Acid; Nitrogen; Norflurane; Oleic Acid; Propylene Glycol; Propylparaben; Saccharin; Saccharin Sodium;

Sodium Bisulfate; Sodium Bisulfite; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Citrate; Sodium Hydroxide; Sodium Metabisulfite; Sodium Sulfate Anhydrous; Sodium Sulfite; Sorbitan Trioleate; Sulfuric Acid; Thymol; Trichloromonofluoromethane

Interstitial Benzyl Alcohol; Dextrose; Hydrochloric Acid; Sodium Acetate; Sodium Hydroxide

Intra-amniotic Citric Acid; Edetate Disodium Anhydrous; Hydrochloric Acid; Sodium Hydroxide

Intra-arterial Anhydrous Trisodium Citrate; Benzyl Alcohol; Carbon Dioxide; Citric Acid;

Diatrizoic Acid; Edetate Calcium Disodium; Edetate Disodium; Hydrochloric Acid; Hydrochloric Acid, Diluted; Iodine; Meglumine; Methylparaben; Nitrogen;

Propylparaben; Sodium Bisulfite; Sodium Carbonate; Sodium Carbonate

Monohydrate; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Citrate; Sodium Hydroxide; Tromethamine

Intra-articular Acetic Acid; Anhydrous Trisodium Citrate; Benzalkonium Chloride; Benzyl

Alcohol; Carboxymethylcellulose; Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium; Cellulose, Microcrystalline; Citric Acid; Creatine; Creatinine; Crospovidone; Diatrizoic Acid; Edetate Calcium Disodium; Edetate Disodium; Hyaluronate Sodium; Hydrochloric Acid; Iodine; Meglumine; Methylcelluloses; Methylparaben; My ristyl-. Gamma. - Picolinium Chloride; Niacinamide; Phenol; Phosphoric Acid; Polyethylene Glycol 3350; Polyethylene Glycol 4000; Polysorbate 80; Potassium Phosphate, Dibasic; Potassium Phosphate, Monobasic; Propylparaben; Sodium Acetate; Sodium Bisulfite; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Citrate; Sodium Hydroxide; Sodium

Metabisulfite; Sodium Phosphate; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic, Anhydrous; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic, Heptahydrate; Sodium Phosphate, Monobasic, Anhydrous; Sodium Phosphate, Monobasic, Monohydrate; Sodium Sulfite; Sorbitol; Sorbitol Solution

Intrabursal Anhydrous Trisodium Citrate; Benzalkonium Chloride; Benzyl Alcohol;

Carboxymethylcellulose; Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium; Citric Acid; Creatinine; Edetate Disodium; Hydrochloric Acid; Methylparaben; Polysorbate 80;

Propylparaben; Sodium Bisulfite; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Hydroxide; Sodium Metabisulfite; Sodium Phosphate; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic, Heptahydrate;

Sodium Phosphate, Monobasic, Anhydrous

Intracardiac Carbon Dioxide; Citric Acid; Citric Acid Monohydrate; Diatrizoic Acid; Edetate

Calcium Disodium; Edetate Disodium; Hydrochloric Acid; Iodine; Lactic Acid; Meglumine; Sodium Bisulfite; Sodium Carbonate Monohydrate; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Citrate; Sodium Hydroxide; Sodium Lactate; Sodium Lactate, L-; Sodium Metabisulfite

Intracaudal Hydrochloric Acid; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Hydroxide

Intracavitary Alcohol, Dehydrated; Alfadex; Anhydrous Lactose; Benzyl Alcohol; Dextrose;

Hydrochloric Acid; Lactose; Lactose Monohydrate; Nitrogen; Sodium Acetate; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Citrate; Sodium Hydroxide

Intradermal Benzalkonium Chloride; Benzyl Alcohol; Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium;

Creatinine; Edetate Disodium; Glycerin; Hydrochloric Acid; Metacresol;

Methylparaben; Phenol; Polysorbate 80; Protamine Sulfate; Sodium Acetate;

Sodium Bisulfite; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Hydroxide; Sodium Phosphate; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic, Heptahydrate; Sodium Phosphate, Monobasic, Anhydrous; Zinc Chloride

Intradiscal Cysteine Hydrochloride Anhydrous; Cysteine, D1-; Diatrizoic Acid; Edetate Calcium

Disodium; Edetate Disodium; Iodine; Meglumine; Sodium Bisulfite; Sodium Hydroxide

Intralesional Acetic Acid; Benzalkonium Chloride; Benzyl Alcohol; Carboxymethylcellulose;

Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium; Citric Acid; Creatine; Creatinine; Edetate Disodium; Hydrochloric Acid; Methylcelluloses; Methylparaben; Myristyl- . Gamma. -Picolinium Chloride; Niacinamide; Phenol; Phosphoric Acid; Polyethylene Glycol 3350; Polyethylene Glycol 4000; Polysorbate 80; Propylparaben; Sodium Acetate; Sodium Bisulfite; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Citrate; Sodium Hydroxide; Sodium Phosphate; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic, Anhydrous; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic, Heptahydrate; Sodium Phosphate, Monobasic; Sodium Phosphate, Monobasic, Anhydrous; Sodium Phosphate, Monobasic, Monohydrate; Sodium Sulfite; Sorbitol; Sorbitol Solution

Intralymphatic Poppy Seed Oil

Intramuscular Acetic Acid; Activated Charcoal; Adipic Acid; Alcohol; Alcohol, Dehydrated;

Ammonium Acetate; Anhydrous Dextrose; Ascorbic Acid; Benzalkonium Chloride; Benzethonium Chloride; Benzoic Acid; Benzyl Alcohol; Benzyl Benzoate;

Butylated Hydroxyanisole; Butylated Hydroxy toluene; Butylparaben; Calcium; Calcium Chloride; Carbon Dioxide; Carboxymethylcellulose;

Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium; Castor Oil; Cellulose, Microcrystalline;

Chlorobutanol; Chlorobutanol Hemihydrate; Chlorobutanol, Anhydrous; Citric Acid; Citric Acid Monohydrate; Corn Oil; Cottonseed Oil; Creatine; Creatinine;

Croscarmellose Sodium; Crospovidone; Dextrose; Diatrizoic Acid; Docusate Sodium; Edetate Calcium Disodium; Edetate Disodium; Edetate Disodium

Anhydrous; Edetate Sodium; Ethyl Acetate; Gelatin; Glutathione; Glycerin; Glycine; Hyaluronate Sodium; Hydrochloric Acid; Hydroxide Ion; Lactic Acid; Lactic Acid, D1-; Lactose; Lactose Monohydrate; Lactose, Hydrous; Lecithin; Magnesium Chloride; Maleic Acid; Mannitol; Meglumine; Metacresol; Methionine;

Methylcelluloses; Methylparaben; Monothioglycerol; Myristyl-. Gamma. -Picolinium Chloride; N,N-Dimethylacetamide; Niacinamide; Nitrogen; Peanut Oil; Peg-20 Sorbitan Isostearate; Phenol; Phenylmercuric Nitrate; Phosphoric Acid; Polyethylene Glycol 200; Polyethylene Glycol 300; Polyethylene Glycol 3350; Polyethylene Glycol 4000; Polyglactin; Polylactide; Polysorbate 20; Polysorbate 40; Polysorbate 80; Polyvinyl Alcohol; Potassium Phosphate, Dibasic; Potassium Phosphate, Monobasic; Povidones; Propyl Gallate; Propylene Glycol; Propylparaben; Saccharin Sodium; Saccharin Sodium Anhydrous; Sesame Oil; Sodium Acetate; Sodium Acetate Anhydrous; Sodium Benzoate; Sodium Bicarbonate; Sodium Bisulfite; Sodium Carbonate; Sodium Chlorate; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Chloride Injection; Sodium Citrate; Sodium Formaldehyde Sulfoxylate; Sodium Hydroxide; Sodium Metabisulfite; Sodium Phosphate; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic, Anhydrous; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic, Heptahydrate; Sodium Phosphate, Monobasic; Sodium Phosphate, Monobasic, Anhydrous; Sodium Phosphate, Monobasic, Monohydrate; Sodium Sulfate Anhydrous; Sodium Sulfite; Sodium Tartrate; Sorbitan Monopalmitate; Sorbitol; Sorbitol Solution; Starch; Sucrose; Sulfobutylether .Beta.-Cyclodextrin; Sulfuric Acid; Sulfurous Acid; Tartaric Acid; Thimerosal; Tromantadine; Tromethamine; Urea

Intraocular Benzalkonium Chloride; Calcium Chloride; Citric Acid Monohydrate; Hydrochloric

Acid; Magnesium Chloride; Polyvinyl Alcohol; Potassium Chloride; Sodium Acetate; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Citrate; Sodium Hydroxide

Intraperitoneal Benzyl Alcohol; Calcium Chloride; Dextrose; Edetate Calcium Disodium;

Hydrochloric Acid; Magnesium Chloride; Sodium Acetate; Sodium Bicarbonate; Sodium Bisulfite; Sodium Carbonate; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Citrate; Sodium Hydroxide; Sodium Lactate; Sodium Metabisulfite; Sulfuric Acid

Intrapleural Benzyl Alcohol; Citric Acid; Dextrose; Dichlorodifluoro methane; Hydrochloric

Acid; Sodium Acetate; Sodium Carbonate; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Citrate;

Sodium Hydroxide

Intraspinal Dextrose; Hydrochloric Acid; Sodium Hydroxide

Intrasynovial Acetic Acid; Benzyl Alcohol; Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium; Citric Acid;

Creatinine; Edetate Disodium; Hydrochloric Acid; Methylcelluloses; Methylparaben; Myristyl-. Gamma. -Picolinium Chloride; Niacinamide; Phenol; Polyethylene Glycol 3350; Polyethylene Glycol 4000; Polysorbate 80;

Propylparaben; Sodium Acetate; Sodium Bisulfite; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Citrate; Sodium Hydroxide; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic, Heptahydrate; Sodium Phosphate, Monobasic; Sodium Phosphate, Monobasic, Anhydrous; Sorbitol

Intrathecal Benzyl Alcohol; Carbon Dioxide; Citric Acid; Edetate Calcium Disodium;

Hydrochloric Acid; Methionine; Nitrogen; Pentetate Calcium Trisodium; Pentetic Acid; Sodium Bicarbonate; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Citrate; Sodium Hydroxide; Sulfuric Acid; Tromethamine

Intratracheal Acetic Acid; Benzyl Alcohol; Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium; Hydrochloric Acid;

Isotonic Sodium Chloride Solution; Peanut Oil; Sodium Bicarbonate; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Citrate; Sodium Hydroxide; Tromethamine

Intratumor Benzyl Alcohol; Hydrochloric Acid; Nitrogen; Sodium Carbonate; Sodium Chloride;

Sodium Hydroxide

Intrauterine Barium Sulfate; Crospovidone; Diatrizoic Acid;

Dimethylsiloxane/Methylvinylsiloxane Copolymer; Edetate Calcium Disodium; Edetate Disodium; Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Copolymer; High Density Polyethylene; Meglumine; Polyethylene High Density Containing Ferric Oxide Black (<1%); Polyethylene Low Density Containing Barium Sulfate (20-24%); Polyethylene T; Polypropylene; Poppy Seed Oil; Potassium Phosphate, Monobasic; Silicone; Sodium Citrate; Sodium Hydroxide; Titanium Dioxide

Intravascular Alcohol; Alcohol, Dehydrated; Calcium Chloride; Carbon Dioxide; Citric Acid;

Diatrizoic Acid; Edetate Calcium Disodium; Edetate Disodium; Hydrochloric Acid; Hydrochloric Acid, Diluted; Iodine; Meglumine; Nitrogen; Potassium Hydroxide; Sodium Carbonate; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Citrate; Sodium Hydroxide; Sodium Phosphate, Monobasic, Anhydrous; Sodium Phosphate, Monobasic, Monohydrate; Tromethamine

Intravenous Alpha-Tocopherol; Alpha-Tocopherol, D1-; l,2-Dimyristoyl-Sn-Glycero-3- Phosphocholine; 1 ,2-Distearoyl-Sn-Glycero-3 -(Phospho-Rac-( 1 -Glycerol)); 1 ,2- Distearoyl-Sn-Glycero-3-Phosphocholine; Acetic Acid; Acetic Acid, Glacial; Acetic Anhydride; Acetylated Monoglycerides; Acetyltryptophan, D1-; Activated Charcoal; Albumin Aggregated; Albumin Colloidal; Albumin Human; Alcohol; Alcohol, Dehydrated; Alcohol, Denatured; Ammonium Acetate; Ammonium Hydroxide; Ammonium Sulfate; Anhydrous Citric Acid; Anhydrous Dextrose; Anhydrous Lactose; Anhydrous Trisodium Citrate; Arginine; Ascorbic Acid; Benzenesulfonic Acid; Benzethonium Chloride; Benzoic Acid; Benzyl Alcohol; Benzyl Chloride; Bibapcitide; Boric Acid; Butylated Hydroxy toluene; Calcium Chloride; Calcium Gluceptate; Calcium Hydroxide; Calcobutrol; Caldiamide Sodium; Caloxetate Trisodium; Calteridol Calcium; Captisol; Carbon Dioxide; Cellulose, Microcrystalline; Chlorobutanol; Chlorobutanol Hemihydrate; Chlorobutanol, Anhydrous; Cholesterol; Citrate; Citric Acid; Citric Acid Monohydrate; Citric Acid, Hydrous; Cysteine; Cysteine Hydrochloride; Dalfampridine; Dextran; Dextran 40; Dextrose; Dextrose Monohydrate; Dextrose Solution; Diatrizoic Acid; Dimethicone Medical Fluid 360; Edetate Calcium Disodium; Edetate Disodium; Edetate Disodium Anhydrous; Egg Phospholipids; Ethanolamine Hydrochloride;

Ethylenediamine; Exametazime; Ferric Chloride; Gadolinium Oxide; Gamma Cyclodextrin; Gelatin; Gentisic Acid; Gluceptate Sodium; Gluceptate Sodium Dihydrate; Gluconolactone; Glucuronic Acid; Glycerin; Glycine; Guanidine Hydrochloride; Hetastarch; Histidine; Human Albumin Microspheres; Hydrochloric Acid; Hydrochloric Acid, Diluted; Hydroxyethylpiperazine Ethane Sulfonic Acid; Hydroxypropyl-Bcyclodextrin; Iodine; Iodoxamic Acid; Iofetamine Hydrochloride; Isopropyl Alcohol; Isotonic Sodium Chloride Solution; Lactic Acid; Lactic Acid, Dl- ; Lactic Acid, L-; Lactobionic Acid; Lactose; Lactose Monohydrate; Lactose, Hydrous; Lecithin, Egg; Lecithin, Hydrogenated Soy; Lidofenin; Mannitol;

Mebrofenin; Medronate Disodium; Medronic Acid; Meglumine; Methionine;

Methylboronic Acid; Methylene Blue; Methylparaben; Monothioglycerol; N- (Carbamoyl-Methoxy Peg-40)-1,2-Distearoyl-Cephalin Sodium; N,N- Dimethylacetamide; Nioxime; Nitrogen; Octanoic Acid; Oxidronate Disodium; Oxyquinoline; Pentasodium Pentetate; Pentetate Calcium Trisodium; Pentetic Acid; Perflutren; Phenol; Phenol, Liquefied; Phosphatidyl Glycerol, Egg; Phospholipid, Egg; Phosphoric Acid; Poloxamer 188; Polyethylene Glycol 300; Polyethylene Glycol 400; Polyethylene Glycol 600; Polysiloxane; Polysorbate 20; Polysorbate 80; Potassium Bisulfite; Potassium Chloride; Potassium Hydroxide; Potassium

Metabisulfite; Potassium Phosphate, Dibasic; Potassium Phosphate, Monobasic; Povidones; Propylene Glycol; Propylparaben; Saccharin Sodium; Sodium Acetate; Sodium Acetate Anhydrous; Sodium Ascorbate; Sodium Benzoate; Sodium Bicarbonate; Sodium Bisulfite; Sodium Carbonate; Sodium Carbonate Decahydrate; Sodium Carbonate Monohydrate; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Chloride Injection, Bacteriostatic; Sodium Citrate; Sodium Dithionite; Sodium Gluconate; Sodium Hydroxide; Sodium Iodide; Sodium Lactate; Sodium Metabisulfite; Sodium Phosphate; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic, Anhydrous; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic, Dihydrate; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic, Heptahydrate; Sodium Phosphate, Monobasic, Anhydrous; Sodium Phosphate, Monobasic, Dihydrate; Sodium Phosphate, Monobasic, Monohydrate; Sodium Pyrophosphate; Sodium Succinate Hexahydrate; Sodium Sulfite; Sodium Tartrate; Sodium

Thiosulfate; Sodium Thiosulfate Anhydrous; Sodium Trimetaphosphate; Sorbitol; Sorbitol Solution; Soybean Oil; Stannous Chloride; Stannous Chloride Anhydrous; Stannous Fluoride; Stannous Tartrate; Succimer; Succinic Acid; Sucrose;

Sulfobutylether .Beta.-Cyclodextrin; Sulfuric Acid; Tartaric Acid; Tartaric Acid, Dl- ; Tert-Butyl Alcohol; Tetrakis(2-Methoxyisobutylisocyanide)Copper(I)

Tetrafluoroborate; Theophylline; Thimerosal; Threonine; Tin; Trisodium Citrate Dihydrate; Tromantadine; Tromethamine; Versetamide

Intravenous Sodium Chloride

Bolus

Intravesical Alcohol, Dehydrated; Edetate Calcium Disodium; Hydrochloric Acid; Nitrogen;

Polyoxyl 35 Castor Oil; Potassium Phosphate, Monobasic; Sodium Chloride;

Sodium Hydroxide; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic, Anhydrous; Sodium Phosphate, Monobasic, Anhydrous

Intravitreal Calcium Chloride; Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium; Cellulose, Microcrystalline;

Hyaluronate Sodium; Hydrochloric Acid; Magnesium Chloride; Magnesium Stearate; Polysorbate 80; Polyvinyl Alcohol; Potassium Chloride; Sodium Acetate; Sodium Bicarbonate; Sodium Carbonate; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Hydroxide; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic, Heptahydrate; Sodium Phosphate, Monobasic, Monohydrate; Trisodium Citrate Dihydrate

Iontophoresis Cetylpyridinium Chloride; Citric Acid; Edetate Disodium; Glycerin; Hydrochloric

Acid; Methylparaben; Phenonip; Polacrilin; Polyvinyl Alcohol; Povidone Hydrogel; Sodium Bisulfite; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Citrate; Sodium Hydroxide; Sodium Metabisulfite; Sodium Phosphate, Monobasic

Irrigation Acetic Acid; Activated Charcoal; Benzoic Acid; Hydrochloric Acid; Hypromelloses;

Methylparaben; Nitrogen; Sodium Bisulfite; Sodium Citrate; Sodium Hydroxide; Sulfuric Acid

Intravenous - Acetic Acid; Alcohol; Benzyl Alcohol; Calcium Hydroxide; Chlorobutanol;

Subcutaneous Glycerin; Hydrochloric Acid; Lactose Monohydrate; Methylparaben; Nitrogen;

Phenol; Phenol, Liquefied; Phosphoric Acid; Propylparaben; Sodium Acetate; Sodium Carbonate; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Hydroxide

Intravenous l,2-Dimyristoyl-Sn-Glycero-3-(Phospho-S-(l-Glycerol)); 1,2-Dimyristoyl-Sn- (Infusion) Glycero-3-Phosphocholine; Acetic Acid; Acetic Acid, Glacial; Activated Charcoal;

Alanine; Albumin Human; Alcohol; Alcohol, Dehydrated; Ammonium Acetate; Anhydrous Citric Acid; Anhydrous Dextrose; Anhydrous Lactose; Anhydrous Trisodium Citrate; Arginine; Ascorbic Acid; Aspartic Acid; Benzenesulfonic Acid; Benzethonium Chloride; Benzoic Acid; Benzyl Alcohol; Brocrinat; Butylated Hydroxyanisole; Butylated Hydroxytoluene; Carbon Dioxide; Chlorobutanol; Citric Acid; Citric Acid Monohydrate; Citric Acid, Hydrous; Cysteine; Cysteine

Hydrochloride; Deoxycholic Acid; Dextrose; Dextrose Solution; Diatrizoic Acid; Diethanolamine; Dimethyl Sulfoxide; Disodium Sulfosalicylate; Disofenin; Edetate Calcium Disodium; Edetate Disodium; Edetate Disodium Anhydrous; Edetate Sodium; Egg Phospholipids; Ethylenediamine; Fructose; Gelatin; Gentisic Acid Ethanolamide; Glycerin; Glycine; Histidine; Hydrochloric Acid; Hydrochloric Acid, Diluted; Hydroxide Ion; Hydroxypropyl-Bcyclodextrin; Isoleucine; Isotonic Sodium Chloride Solution; Lactic Acid; Lactic Acid, D1-; Lactobionic Acid; Lactose;

Lactose Monohydrate; Lactose, Hydrous; Leucine; Lysine; Lysine Acetate;

Magnesium Chloride; Maleic Acid; Mannitol; Meglumine; Metacresol;

Metaphosphoric Acid; Methanesulfonic Acid; Methionine; Methylparaben;

Monothioglycerol; N,N-Dimethylacetamide; Nitric Acid; Nitrogen; Peg Vegetable Oil; Peg-40 Castor Oil; Peg-60 Castor Oil; Pentetate Calcium Trisodium; Phenol; Phenylalanine; Phospholipid; Phospholipid, Egg; Phosphoric Acid; Polyethylene Glycol 300; Polyethylene Glycol 400; Polyoxyl 35 Castor Oil; Polysorbate 20; Polysorbate 80; Potassium Chloride; Potassium Hydroxide; Potassium Metabisulfite; Potassium Phosphate, Dibasic; Potassium Phosphate, Monobasic; Povidones;

Proline; Propylene Glycol; Propylparaben; Saccharin Sodium; Saccharin Sodium Anhydrous; Serine; Sodium Acetate; Sodium Acetate Anhydrous; Sodium Benzoate; Sodium Bicarbonate; Sodium Bisulfite; Sodium Carbonate; Sodium Chlorate; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Cholesteryl Sulfate; Sodium Citrate; Sodium

Desoxycholate; Sodium Dithionite; Sodium Formaldehyde Sulfoxylate; Sodium Gluconate; Sodium Hydroxide; Sodium Hypochlorite; Sodium Lactate; Sodium Lactate, L-; Sodium Metabisulfite; Sodium Phosphate; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic, Anhydrous; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic, Dihydrate; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic, Heptahydrate; Sodium Phosphate, Monobasic; Sodium Phosphate, Monobasic, Anhydrous; Sodium Phosphate, Monobasic, Dihydrate; Sodium Phosphate, Monobasic, Monohydrate; Sodium Sulfite; Sodium Tartrate; Sorbitol; Sorbitol Solution; Soybean Oil; Stannous Chloride; Stannous Chloride Anhydrous; Sterile Water For Inhalation; Sucrose; Sulfobutylether .Beta.- Cyclodextrin; Sulfur Dioxide; Sulfuric Acid; Tartaric Acid; Tartaric Acid, D1-; Tert- Butyl Alcohol; Tetrofosmin; Theophylline; Threonine; Trifluoroacetic Acid;

Trisodium Citrate Dihydrate; Tromethamine; Tryptophan; Tyrosine; Valine

Any Delivery Alcohol; Benzyl Alcohol; Citric Acid Monohydrate; Gelfoam Sponge; Hydrochloric Route Acid; Methylparaben; Poly(Dl-Lactic-Co-Glycolic Acid), (50:50; Poly(Dl-Lactic- Co-Glycolic Acid), Ethyl Ester Terminated, (50:50; Polyquaternium-7 (70/30 Acrylamide/Dadmac ; Propylene Glycol; Propylparaben; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Citrate ; Sodium Hydroxide; Sodium Lactate ; Sodium Phosphate, Monobasic, Monohydrate

Nasal Acetic Acid; Alcohol, Dehydrated; Allyl . Alpha. -Ionone; Anhydrous Dextrose;

Anhydrous Trisodium Citrate; Benzalkonium Chloride; Benzethonium Chloride; Benzyl Alcohol; Butylated Hydroxyanisole; Butylated Hydroxytoluene; Caffeine; Carbon Dioxide; Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium; Cellulose, Microcrystalline; Chlorobutanol; Citric Acid; Citric Acid Monohydrate; Dextrose;

Dichlorodifluoromethane; Dichlorotetrafluoroethane; Edetate Disodium; Glycerin; Glycerol Ester Of Hydrogenated Rosin; Hydrochloric Acid; Hypromellose 2910 (15000 Mpa.S); Methylcelluloses; Methylparaben; Nitrogen; Norflurane; Oleic Acid; Petrolatum, White; Phenylethyl Alcohol; Polyethylene Glycol 3350;

Polyethylene Glycol 400; Polyoxyl 400 Stearate; Polysorbate 20; Polysorbate 80; Potassium Phosphate, Monobasic; Potassium Sorbate; Propylene Glycol;

Propylparaben; Sodium Acetate; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Citrate; Sodium Hydroxide; Sodium Phosphate; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic, Anhydrous; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic, Dihydrate; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic, Dodecahydrate; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic, Heptahydrate; Sodium Phosphate, Monobasic, Anhydrous; Sodium Phosphate, Monobasic, Dihydrate; Sorbitan Trioleate; Sorbitol; Sorbitol Solution; Sucralose; Sulfuric Acid;

Trichloro mo nofluoro methane; Trisodium Citrate Dihydrate

Nerve Block Acetic Acid; Acetone Sodium Bisulfite; Ascorbic Acid; Benzyl Alcohol; Calcium

Chloride; Carbon Dioxide; Chlorobutanol; Citric Acid; Citric Acid Monohydrate; Edetate Calcium Disodium; Edetate Disodium; Hydrochloric Acid; Hydrochloric Acid, Diluted; Lactic Acid; Methylparaben; Monothioglycerol; Nitrogen; Potassium Chloride; Potassium Metabisulfite; Potassium Phosphate, Monobasic;

Propylparaben; Sodium Bisulfite; Sodium Carbonate; Sodium Chlorate; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Citrate; Sodium Hydroxide; Sodium Lactate; Sodium Lactate, L-; Sodium Metabisulfite; Sodium Phosphate; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic,

Heptahydrate

Ophthalmic Acetic Acid; Alcohol; Alcohol, Dehydrated; Alginic Acid; Amerchol-Cab;

Ammonium Hydroxide; Anhydrous Trisodium Citrate; Antipyrine; Benzalkonium Chloride; Benzethonium Chloride; Benzododecinium Bromide; Boric Acid;

Caffeine; Calcium Chloride; Carbomer 1342; Carbomer 934p; Carbomer 940; Carbomer Homopolymer Type B (Allyl Pentaerythritol Crosslinked);

Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium; Castor Oil; Cetyl Alcohol; Chlorobutanol;

Chlorobutanol, Anhydrous; Cholesterol; Citric Acid; Citric Acid Monohydrate; Creatinine; Diethanolamine; Diethylhexyl Phthalate **See Cder Guidance: Limiting The Use Of Certain Phthalates As Excipients In Cder-Regulated Products;

Divinylbenzene Styrene Copolymer; Edetate Disodium; Edetate Disodium

Anhydrous; Edetate Sodium; Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Copolymer; Gellan Gum (Low Acyl); Glycerin; Glyceryl Stearate; High Density Polyethylene; Hydrocarbon Gel, Plasticized; Hydrochloric Acid; Hydrochloric Acid, Diluted; Hydroxyethyl Cellulose; Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose 2906; Hypromellose 2910 (15000 Mpa.S); Hypromelloses; Jelene; Lanolin; Lanolin Alcohols; Lanolin Anhydrous; Lanolin Nonionic Derivatives; Lauralkonium Chloride; Lauroyl Sarcosine; Light Mineral Oil; Magnesium Chloride; Mannitol; Methylcellulose (4000 Mpa.S);

Methylcelluloses; Methylparaben; Mineral Oil; Nitric Acid; Nitrogen; Nonoxynol-9; Octoxynol-40; Octylphenol Poly methylene; Petrolatum; Petrolatum, White;

Phenylethyl Alcohol; Phenylmercuric Acetate; Phenylmercuric Nitrate; Phosphoric Acid; Polidronium Chloride; Poloxamer 188; Poloxamer 407; Polycarbophil;

Polyethylene Glycol 300; Polyethylene Glycol 400; Polyethylene Glycol 8000; Polyoxyethylene - Polyoxypropylene 1800; Polyoxyl 35 Castor Oil; Polyoxyl 40 Hydrogenated Castor Oil; Polyoxyl 40 Stearate; Polypropylene Glycol; Polysorbate 20; Polysorbate 60; Polysorbate 80; Polyvinyl Alcohol; Potassium Acetate;

Potassium Chloride; Potassium Phosphate, Monobasic; Potassium Sorbate; Povidone K29/32; Povidone K30; Povidone K90; Povidones; Propylene Glycol;

Propylparaben; Soda Ash; Sodium Acetate; Sodium Bisulfate; Sodium Bisulfite; Sodium Borate; Sodium Borate Decahydrate; Sodium Carbonate; Sodium Carbonate Monohydrate; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Citrate; Sodium Hydroxide; Sodium Metabisulfite; Sodium Nitrate; Sodium Phosphate; Sodium Phosphate Dihydrate; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic, Anhydrous; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic, Dihydrate; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic, Heptahydrate; Sodium Phosphate, Monobasic; Sodium Phosphate, Monobasic, Anhydrous; Sodium Phosphate, Monobasic, Dihydrate; Sodium Phosphate, Monobasic, Monohydrate; Sodium Sulfate; Sodium Sulfate Anhydrous; Sodium Sulfate Decahydrate; Sodium Sulfite; Sodium Thiosulfate; Sorbic Acid; Sorbitan Monolaurate; Sorbitol; Sorbitol Solution; Stabilized Oxychloro Complex; Sulfuric Acid; Thimerosal; Titanium Dioxide; Tocophersolan; Trisodium Citrate Dihydrate; Triton 720; Tromethamine; Tyloxapol; Zinc Chloride

Parenteral Hydrochloric Acid; Mannitol; Nitrogen; Sodium Acetate; Sodium Chloride; Sodium

Hydroxide

Percutaneous Duro-Tak 87-2287; Silicone Adhesive 4102

Perfusion, Glycerin

Biliary

Perfusion, Hydrochloric Acid; Sodium Hydroxide

Cardiac

Periarticular Diatrizoic Acid; Edetate Calcium Disodium; Iodine; Meglumine

Peridural Citric Acid; Hydrochloric Acid; Methylparaben; Sodium Chloride; Sodium

Hydroxide; Sodium Metabisulfite

Perineural Hydrochloric Acid; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Hydroxide

Periodontal Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Copolymer; Hydrochloric Acid; Methyl Pyrrolidone;

Poloxamer 188; Poloxamer 407; Polylactide

Photopheresis Acetic Acid; Alcohol, Dehydrated; Propylene Glycol; Sodium Acetate; Sodium

Chloride; Sodium Hydroxide

Rectal Alcohol; Alcohol, Dehydrated; Aluminum Subacetate; Anhydrous Citric Acid;

Aniseed Oil; Ascorbic Acid; Ascorbyl Palmitate; Balsam Peru; Benzoic Acid; Benzyl Alcohol; Bismuth Subgallate; Butylated Hydroxyanisole; Butylated Hydroxytoluene; Butylparaben; Caramel; Carbomer 934; Carbomer 934p;

Carboxypoly methylene; Cerasynt-Se; Cetyl Alcohol; Cocoa Butter; Coconut Oil, Hydrogenated; Coconut Oil/Palm Kernel Oil Glycerides, Hydrogenated; Cola Nitida Seed Extract; D&C Yellow No. 10; Dichlorodifluoromethane;

Dichlorotetrafluoroethane; Dimethyldioctadecylammonium Bentonite; Edetate Calcium Disodium; Edetate Disodium; Edetic Acid; Epilactose; Ethylenediamine; Fat, Edible; Fat, Hard; Fd&C Blue No. 1; Fd&C Green No. 3; Fd&C Yellow No. 6; Flavor Fig 827118; Flavor Raspberry Pfc-8407; Fructose; Galactose; Glycerin; Glyceryl Palmitate; Glyceryl Stearate; Glyceryl Stearate/Peg Stearate; Glyceryl Stearate Peg-40 Stearate; Glycine; Hydrocarbon; Hydrochloric Acid; Hydrogenated Palm Oil; Hypromelloses; Lactose; Lanolin; Lecithin; Light Mineral Oil;

Magnesium Aluminum Silicate; Magnesium Aluminum Silicate Hydrate;

Methylparaben; Nitrogen; Palm Kernel Oil; Paraffin; Petrolatum, White;

Polyethylene Glycol 1000; Polyethylene Glycol 1540; Polyethylene Glycol 3350; Polyethylene Glycol 400; Polyethylene Glycol 4000; Polyethylene Glycol 6000; Polyethylene Glycol 8000; Polysorbate 60; Polysorbate 80; Potassium Acetate; Potassium Metabisulfite; Propylene Glycol; Propylparaben; Saccharin Sodium; Saccharin Sodium Anhydrous; Silicon Dioxide, Colloidal; Simethicone; Sodium Benzoate; Sodium Carbonate; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Citrate; Sodium

Hydroxide; Sodium Metabisulfite; Sorbitan Monooleate; Sorbitan Sesquioleate; Sorbitol; Sorbitol Solution; Starch; Steareth-10; Steareth-40; Sucrose; Tagatose, D-; Tartaric Acid, D1-; Trolamine; Tromethamine; Vegetable Oil Glyceride,

Hydrogenated; Vegetable Oil, Hydrogenated; Wax, Emulsifying; White Wax; Xanthan Gum; Zinc Oxide

Respiratory Alcohol; Alcohol, Dehydrated; Apaflurane; Benzalkonium Chloride; Calcium (Inhalation) Carbonate; Edetate Disodium; Gelatin; Glycine; Hydrochloric Acid; Lactose

Monohydrate; Lysine Monohydrate; Mannitol; Norflurane; Oleic Acid; Polyethylene Glycol 1000; Povidone K25; Silicon Dioxide, Colloidal; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Citrate; Sodium Hydroxide; Sodium Lauryl Sulfate; Sulfuric Acid; Titanium Dioxide; Tromethamine; Zinc Oxide

Retrobulbar Hydrochloric Acid; Sodium Hydroxide

Soft Tissue Acetic Acid; Anhydrous Trisodium Citrate; Benzyl Alcohol;

Carboxymethylcellulose; Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium; Citric Acid; Creatinine; Edetate Disodium; Hydrochloric Acid; Methylcelluloses; Methylparaben; Myristyl- . Gamma. -Picolinium Chloride; Phenol; Phosphoric Acid; Polyethylene Glycol 3350; Polyethylene Glycol 4000; Polysorbate 80; Propylparaben; Sodium Acetate; Sodium Bisulfite; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Citrate; Sodium Hydroxide; Sodium Phosphate; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic, Heptahydrate; Sodium Phosphate, Monobasic; Sodium Phosphate, Monobasic, Anhydrous; Sodium Sulfite

Spinal Anhydrous Dextrose; Dextrose; Hydrochloric Acid; Sodium Hydroxide

Subarachnoid Hydrochloric Acid; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Hydroxide

Subconjunctival Benzyl Alcohol; Hydrochloric Acid; Sodium Hydroxide

Subcutaneous Acetic Acid; Acetic Acid, Glacial; Albumin Human; Ammonium Hydroxide;

Ascorbic Acid; Benzyl Alcohol; Calcium Chloride; Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium; Chlorobutanol; Cresol; Diatrizoic Acid; Dimethyl Sulfoxide; Edetate Calcium Disodium; Edetate Disodium; Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Copolymer;

Glycerin; Glycine; Glycine Hydrochloride; Histidine; Hydrochloric Acid; Lactic Acid; Lactic Acid, L-; Lactose; Magnesium Chloride; Magnesium Stearate;

Mannitol; Metacresol; Methanesulfonic Acid; Methionine; Methyl Pyrrolidone; Methylparaben; Nitrogen; Phenol; Phenol, Liquefied; Phosphoric Acid; Poloxamer 188; Polyethylene Glycol 3350; Polyglactin; Polysorbate 20; Polysorbate 80;

Potassium Phosphate, Dibasic; Potassium Phosphate, Monobasic; Povidone K17; Povidones; Propylene Glycol; Propylparaben; Protamine Sulfate; Sodium Acetate; Sodium Acetate Anhydrous; Sodium Bicarbonate; Sodium Bisulfite; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Citrate; Sodium Hydroxide; Sodium Metabisulfite; Sodium Phosphate; Sodium Phosphate Dihydrate; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic, Anhydrous; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic, Dihydrate; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic, Heptahydrate; Sodium Phosphate, Monobasic; Sodium

Phosphate, Monobasic, Anhydrous; Sodium Phosphate, Monobasic, Dihydrate; Sodium Phosphate, Monobasic, Monohydrate; Sodium Sulfite; Sodium

Thioglycolate; Stearic Acid; Sucrose; Thimerosal; Tromethamine; Zinc; Zinc Acetate; Zinc Carbonate; Zinc Chloride; Zinc Oxide

Sublingual Alcohol, Dehydrated

Submucosal Acetic Acid; Edetic Acid; Mannitol; Nitrogen; Sodium Acetate; Sodium Chloride;

Sodium Hydroxide; Sodium Metabisulfite

Topical .Alpha. -Terpineol; .Alpha. -Tocopherol; .Alpha.-Tocopherol Acetate, D1-; .Alpha.- Tocopherol, D1-; 1,2,6-Hexanetriol; 1-O-Tolylbiguanide; 2-Ethyl-l,6-Hexanediol; Acetic Acid; Acetone; Acetylated Lanolin Alcohols; Acrylates Copolymer;

Adhesive Tape; Alcohol; Alcohol, Dehydrated; Alcohol, Denatured; Alcohol, Diluted; Alkyl Ammonium Sulfonic Acid Betaine; Alkyl Aryl Sodium Sulfonate; Allantoin; Almond Oil; Aluminum Acetate; Aluminum Chlorhydroxy Allantoinate; Aluminum Hydroxide; Aluminum Hydroxide - Sucrose, Hydrated; Aluminum Hydroxide Gel; Aluminum Hydroxide Gel F 500; Aluminum Hydroxide Gel F 5000; Aluminum Monostearate; Aluminum Oxide; Aluminum Silicate; Aluminum Starch Octenylsuccinate; Aluminum Stearate; Aluminum Sulfate Anhydrous; Amerchol C; Amerchol-Cab; Aminomethylpropanol; Ammonia Solution; Ammonia Solution, Strong; Ammonium Hydroxide; Ammonium Lauryl Sulfate; Ammonium

Nonoxynol-4 Sulfate; Ammonium Salt Of C-12-C-15 Linear Primary Alcohol Ethoxylate; Ammonyx; Amphoteric-2; Amphoteric-9; Anhydrous Citric Acid; Anhydrous Trisodium Citrate; Anoxid Sbn; Antifoam; Apricot Kernel Oil Peg-6 Esters; Aquaphor; Arlacel; Ascorbic Acid; Ascorbyl Palmitate; Beeswax; Beeswax, Synthetic; Beheneth-10; Bentonite; Benzalkonium Chloride; Benzoic Acid; Benzyl Alcohol; Betadex; Boric Acid; Butane; Butyl Alcohol; Butyl Ester Of Vinyl Methyl Ether Maleic Anhydride Copolymer (125000 Mw); Butyl Stearate; Butylated Hydroxyanisole; Butylated Hydroxytoluene; Butylene Glycol; Butylparaben; C20-40 Pareth-24; Calcium Chloride; Calcium Hydroxide; Canada Balsam; Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride; Caprylic/Capric/Stearic Triglyceride; Captan; Caramel; Carbomer 1342; Carbomer 1382; Carbomer 934; Carbomer 934p; Carbomer 940; Carbomer 941; Carbomer 980; Carbomer 981; Carbomer Homopolymer Type B (Allyl Pentaerythritol Crosslinked); Carbomer Homopolymer Type C (Allyl Pentaerythritol Crosslinked); Carboxy Vinyl Copolymer; Carboxymethylcellulose; Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium; Carboxypolymethylene; Carrageenan; Carrageenan Salt; Castor Oil; Cedar Leaf Oil; Cellulose; Cerasynt-Se; Ceresin; Ceteareth-12; Ceteareth-15; Ceteareth-30; Cetearyl Alcohol/Ceteareth-20; Cetearyl Ethylhexanoate; Ceteth-10; Ceteth-2; Ceteth-20; Ceteth-23; Cetostearyl Alcohol; Cetrimonium Chloride; Cetyl Alcohol; Cetyl Esters Wax; Cetyl Palmitate;

Chlorobutanol; Chlorocresol; Chloroxylenol; Cholesterol; Choleth-24; Citric Acid; Citric Acid Monohydrate; Cocamide Ether Sulfate; Cocamine Oxide; Coco Betaine; Coco Diethanolamide; Coco Monoethanolamide; Cocoa Butter; Coco-Glycerides; Coconut Oil; Cocoyl Caprylocaprate; Collagen; Coloring Suspension; Cream Base; Creatinine; Crospovidone; Cyclomethicone; Cyclomethicone/Dimethicone

Copolyol; D&C Red No. 28; D&C Red No. 33; D&C Red No. 36; D&C Red No. 39; D&C Yellow No. 10; Decyl Methyl Sulfoxide; Dehydag Wax Sx; Dehydroacetic Acid; Dehymuls E; Denatonium Benzoate; Dextrin; Diazolidinyl Urea;

Dichlorobenzyl Alcohol; Dichlorodifluoro methane; Dichlorotetrafluoroethane; Diethanolamine; Diethyl Sebacate; Diethylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether;

Dihydroxyaluminum Aminoacetate; Diisopropanolamine; Diisopropyl Adipate; Diisopropyl Dilinoleate; Dimethicone 350; Dimethicone Copolyol; Dimethicone Medical Fluid 360; Dimethyl Isosorbide; Dimethyl Sulfoxide; Dinoseb Ammonium Salt; Disodium Cocoamphodiacetate; Disodium Laureth Sulfosuccinate; Disodium Lauryl Sulfosuccinate; Dmdm Hydantoin; Docosanol; Docusate Sodium; Edetate Disodium; Edetate Sodium; Edetic Acid; Entsufon; Entsufon Sodium;

Epitetracycline Hydrochloride; Essence Bouquet 9200; Ethyl Acetate;

Ethylcelluloses; Ethylene Glycol; Ethylenediamine; Ethylenediamine

Dihydrochloride; Ethylhexyl Hydroxystearate; Ethylparaben; Fatty Acid

Pentaerythriol Ester; Fatty Acids; Fatty Alcohol Citrate; Fd&C Blue No. 1; Fd&C Red No. 4; Fd&C Red No. 40; Fd&C Yellow No. 10 (Delisted); Fd&C Yellow No. 5; Fd&C Yellow No. 6; Ferric Oxide; Flavor Rhodia Pharmaceutical No. Rf 451 ; Formaldehyde; Formaldehyde Solution; Fractionated Coconut Oil; Fragrance 3949- 5; Fragrance 520a; Fragrance 6.007; Fragrance 91-122; Fragrance 9128-Y;

Fragrance 93498g; Fragrance Balsam Pine No. 5124; Fragrance Bouquet 10328; Fragrance Chemoderm 6401-B; Fragrance Chemoderm 6411; Fragrance Cream No. 73457; Fragrance Cs-28197; Fragrance Felton 066m; Fragrance Firmenich 47373; Fragrance Givaudan Ess 9090/lc; Fragrance H-6540; Fragrance Herbal 10396; Fragrance Nj-1085; Fragrance P O Fl-147; Fragrance Pa 52805; Fragrance Pera Derm D; Fragrance Rbd-9819; Fragrance Shaw Mudge U-7776; Fragrance Tf 044078; Fragrance Ungerer Honeysuckle K 2771; Fragrance Ungerer N5195;

Gelatin; Gluconolactone; Glycerin; Glyceryl Citrate; Glyceryl Isostearate; Glyceryl Monostearate; Glyceryl Oleate; Glyceryl Oleate Propylene Glycol; Glyceryl Palmitate; Glyceryl Ricinoleate; Glyceryl Stearate; Glyceryl Stearate - Laureth-23; Glyceryl Stearate/Peg-100 Stearate; Glyceryl Stearate-Stearamidoethyl

Diethylamine; Glycol Distearate; Glycol Stearate; Guar Gum; Hair Conditioner (18nl95-lm); Hexylene Glycol; High Density Polyethylene; Hyaluronate Sodium; Hydrocarbon Gel, Plasticized; Hydrochloric Acid; Hydrochloric Acid, Diluted; Hydrogen Peroxide; Hydrogenated Castor Oil; Hydrogenated Palm/Palm Kernel Oil Peg-6 Esters; Hydroxyethyl Cellulose; Hydroxymethyl Cellulose;

Hydroxyoctacosanyl Hydroxystearate; Hydroxypropyl Cellulose; Hypromelloses; Imidurea; Irish Moss Extract; Isobutane; Isoceteth-20; Isooctyl Acrylate; Isopropyl Alcohol; Isopropyl Isostearate; Isopropyl Myristate; Isopropyl Myristate - Myristyl Alcohol; Isopropyl Palmitate; Isopropyl Stearate; Isostearic Acid; Isostearyl Alcohol; Jelene; Kaolin; Kathon Cg; Kathon Cg Ii; Lactate; Lactic Acid; Lactic Acid, D1-; Laneth; Lanolin; Lanolin Alcohol - Mineral Oil; Lanolin Alcohols;

Lanolin Anhydrous; Lanolin Cholesterols; Lanolin, Ethoxylated; Lanolin,

Hydrogenated; Lauramine Oxide; Laurdimonium Hydrolyzed Animal Collagen; Laureth Sulfate; Laureth-2; Laureth-23; Laureth-4; Laurie Diethanolamide; Laurie Myristic Diethanolamide; Lauryl Sulfate; Lavandula Angustifolia Flowering Top; Lecithin; Lecithin Unbleached; Lemon Oil; Light Mineral Oil; Light Mineral Oil (85 Ssu); Limonene, (+/-)-; Lipocol Sc-15; Magnesium Aluminum Silicate; Magnesium Aluminum Silicate Hydrate; Magnesium Nitrate; Magnesium Stearate; Mannitol; Maprofix; Medical Antiform A-F Emulsion; Menthol; Methyl Gluceth-10; Methyl Gluceth-20; Methyl Gluceth-20 Sesquistearate; Methyl Glucose Sesquistearate; Methyl Salicylate; Methyl Stearate; Methylcelluloses; Methylchloroisothiazolinone; Methylisothiazolinone; Methylparaben; Microcrystalline Wax; Mineral Oil; Mono And Diglyceride; Monostearyl Citrate; Multisterol Extract; Myristyl Alcohol;

Myristyl Lactate; Niacinamide; Nitric Acid; Nitrogen; Nonoxynol Iodine;

Nonoxynol-15; Nonoxynol-9; Oatmeal; Octadecene-l Maleic Acid Copolymer; Octoxynol-1; Octoxynol-9; Octyldodecanol; Oleic Acid; Olefh-lO/Oleth-5; Oleth-2; Oleth-20; Oleyl Alcohol; Oleyl Oleate; Olive Oil; Palmitamine Oxide; Parabens; Paraffin; Paraffin, White Soft; Parfum Creme 45/3; Peanut Oil; Peanut Oil, Refined; Pectin; Peg 6-32 Stearate/Glycol Stearate; Peg-100 Stearate; Peg-12 Glyceryl Laurate; Peg-120 Glyceryl Stearate; Peg-120 Methyl Glucose Dioleate; Peg-15 Cocamine; Peg-150 Distearate; Peg-2 Stearate; Peg-22 Methyl Ether/Dodecyl Glycol Copolymer; Peg-25 Propylene Glycol Stearate; Peg-4 Dilaurate; Peg-4 Laurate; Peg- 45/Dodecyl Glycol Copolymer; Peg-5 Oleate; Peg-50 Stearate; Peg-54

Hydrogenated Castor Oil; Peg-6 Isostearate; Peg-60 Hydrogenated Castor Oil; Peg-7 Methyl Ether; Peg-75 Lanolin; Peg-8 Laurate; Peg-8 Stearate; Pegoxol 7 Stearate; Pentaerythritol Cocoate; Peppermint Oil; Perfume 25677; Perfume Bouquet;

Perfume E-1991; Perfume Gd 5604; Perfume Tana 90/42 Scba; Perfume W-1952-1; Petrolatum; Petrolatum, White; Petroleum Distillates; Phenonip; Phenoxyethanol; Phenylmercuric Acetate; Phosphoric Acid; Pine Needle Oil (Pinus Sylvestris); Plastibase-50w; Polidronium Chloride; Poloxamer 124; Poloxamer 181; Poloxamer 182; Poloxamer 188; Poloxamer 237; Poloxamer 407; Polycarbophil; Polyethylene Glycol 1000; Polyethylene Glycol 1450; Polyethylene Glycol 1500; Polyethylene Glycol 1540; Polyethylene Glycol 200; Polyethylene Glycol 300; Polyethylene Glycol 300-1600; Polyethylene Glycol 3350; Polyethylene Glycol 400; Polyethylene Glycol 4000; Polyethylene Glycol 540; Polyethylene Glycol 600; Polyethylene Glycol 6000; Polyethylene Glycol 8000; Polyethylene Glycol 900; Poly hydroxy ethyl Methacrylate; Polyisobutylene; Polyisobutylene (1100000 Mw); Polyoxyethylene - Polyoxypropylene 1800; Polyoxyethylene Alcohols; Polyoxyethylene Fatty Acid Esters; Polyoxyethylene Propylene; Polyoxyl 20 Cetostearyl Ether; Polyoxyl 40 Hydrogenated Castor Oil; Polyoxyl 40 Stearate; Polyoxyl 400 Stearate; Polyoxyl 6 And Polyoxyl 32 Palmitostearate; Polyoxyl Distearate; Polyoxyl Glyceryl Stearate; Polyoxyl Lanolin; Polyoxyl Stearate; Polypropylene; Polyquaternium-10;

Polysorbate 20; Polysorbate 40; Polysorbate 60; Polysorbate 65; Polysorbate 80; Polyvinyl Alcohol; Potash; Potassium Citrate; Potassium Hydroxide; Potassium Soap; Potassium Sorbate; Povidone Acrylate Copolymer; Povidone Hydrogel; Povidone K90; Povidone/Eicosene Copolymer; Povidones; Ppg-12/Smdi

Copolymer; Ppg-15 Stearyl Ether; Ppg-20 Methyl Glucose Ether Distearate; Ppg-26 Oleate; Product Wat; Promulgen D; Promulgen G; Propane; Propellant A-46; Propyl Gallate; Propylene Carbonate; Propylene Glycol; Propylene Glycol Diacetate; Propylene Glycol Dicaprylate; Propylene Glycol Monopalmitostearate; Propylene Glycol Palmitostearate; Propylene Glycol Ricinoleate; Propylene

Glycol/Diazolidinyl Urea Methylparaben Propylparben; Propylparaben; Protein Hydrolysate; Quaternium-15; Quaternium-15 Cis-Form; Quaternium-52; Saccharin; Saccharin Sodium; Safflower Oil; Sd Alcohol 3a; Sd Alcohol 40; Sd Alcohol 40-2; Sd Alcohol 40b; Sepineo P 600; Shea Butter; Silicon; Silicon Dioxide; Silicone; Silicone Adhesive Bio-Psa Q7-4201; Silicone Adhesive Bio-Psa Q7-4301; Silicone Emulsion; Simethicone; Simethicone Emulsion; Sipon Ls 20np; Sodium Acetate; Sodium Acetate Anhydrous; Sodium Alkyl Sulfate; Sodium Benzoate; Sodium Bisulfite; Sodium Borate; Sodium Cetostearyl Sulfate; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Citrate; Sodium Cocoyl Sarcosinate; Sodium Dodecylbenzenesulfonate; Sodium Formaldehyde Sulfoxylate; Sodium Hydroxide; Sodium Iodide; Sodium Lactate; Sodium Laureth-2 Sulfate; Sodium Laureth-3 Sulfate; Sodium Laureth-5 Sulfate; Sodium Lauroyl Sarcosinate; Sodium Lauryl Sulfate; Sodium Lauryl Sulfoacetate; Sodium Metabisulfite; Sodium Phosphate; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic, Anhydrous; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic, Dihydrate; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic, Heptahydrate; Sodium Phosphate, Monobasic; Sodium

Phosphate, Monobasic, Anhydrous; Sodium Phosphate, Monobasic, Dihydrate; Sodium Phosphate, Monobasic, Monohydrate; Sodium Polyacrylate (2500000 Mw); Sodium Pyrrolidone Carboxylate; Sodium Sulfite; Sodium Sulfosuccinated

Undecyclenic Monoalkylolamide; Sodium Thiosulfate; Sodium Xylenesulfonate; Somay 44; Sorbic Acid; Sorbitan; Sorbitan Isostearate; Sorbitan Monolaurate; Sorbitan Monooleate; Sorbitan Monopalmitate; Sorbitan Monostearate; Sorbitan Sesquioleate; Sorbitan Tristearate; Sorbitol; Sorbitol Solution; Soybean Flour; Soybean Oil; Spearmint Oil; Spermaceti; Squalane; Starch; Stearalkonium Chloride; Stearamidoethyl Diethylamine; Steareth-10; Steareth-100; Steareth-2; Steareth-20; Steareth-21; Steareth-40; Stearic Acid; Stearic Diethanolamide;

Stearoxytrimethylsilane; Steartrimonium Hydrolyzed Animal Collagen; Stearyl Alcohol; Styrene/Isoprene/Styrene Block Copolymer; Sucrose; Sucrose Distearate; Sucrose Polyesters; Sulfacetamide Sodium; Sulfuric Acid; Surfactol Qs; Talc; Tall Oil; Tallow Glycerides; Tartaric Acid; Tenox; Tenox-2; Tert-Butyl Alcohol; Tert- Butyl Hydroperoxide; Thimerosal; Titanium Dioxide; Tocopherol; Tocophersolan; Trichloromonofluoromethane; Trideceth-10; Triethanolamine Lauryl Sulfate;

Triglycerides, Medium Chain; Trihydroxystearin; Trilaneth-4 Phosphate; Trilaureth- 4 Phosphate; Trisodium Citrate Dihydrate; Trisodium Hedta; Triton X-200;

Trolamine; Tromethamine; Tyloxapol; Undecylenic Acid; Vegetable Oil; Vegetable Oil, Hydrogenated; Viscarin; Vitamin E; Wax, Emulsifying; Wecobee Fs; White Wax; Xanthan Gum; Zinc Acetate

Transdermal Acrylates Copolymer; Acrylic Acid-Isooctyl Acrylate Copolymer; Acrylic Adhesive

788; Adcote 72al03; Aerotex Resin 3730; Alcohol; Alcohol, Dehydrated;

Aluminum Polyester; Bentonite; Butylated Hydroxytoluene; Butylene Glycol; Butyric Acid; Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride; Carbomer 1342; Carbomer 940;

Carbomer 980; Carrageenan; Cetylpyridinium Chloride; Citric Acid; Crospovidone; Daubert 1-5 Pestr (Matte) 164z; Diethylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether; Diethylhexyl Phthalate **See Cder Guidance: Limiting The Use Of Certain Phthalates As Excipients In Cder-Regulated Products; Dimethicone Copolyol; Dimethicone Mdx4- 4210; Dimethicone Medical Fluid 360; Dimethylaminoethyl Methacrylate - Butyl Methacrylate - Methyl Methacrylate Copolymer; Dipropylene Glycol; Duro-Tak 280-2516; Duro-Tak 387-2516; Duro-Tak 80-1196; Duro-Tak 87-2070; Duro-Tak 87-2194; Duro-Tak 87-2287; Duro-Tak 87-2296; Duro-Tak 87-2888; Duro-Tak 87- 2979; Edetate Disodium; Ethyl Acetate; Ethyl Oleate; Ethylcelluloses; Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Copolymer; Ethylene-Propylene Copolymer; Fatty Acid Esters; Gelva 737; Glycerin; Glyceryl Laurate; Glyceryl Oleate; Heptane; High Density

Polyethylene; Hydrochloric Acid; Hydrogenated Polybutene 635-690; Hydroxyethyl Cellulose; Hydroxypropyl Cellulose; Isopropyl Myristate; Isopropyl Palmitate; Lactose; Lanolin Anhydrous; Lauryl Lactate; Lecithin; Levulinic Acid; Light Mineral Oil; Medical Adhesive Modified S-15; Methyl Alcohol; Methyl Laurate; Mineral Oil; Nitrogen; Octisalate; Octyldodecanol; Oleic Acid; Oleyl Alcohol; Oleyl Oleate; Pentadecalactone; Petrolatum, White; Polacrilin; Polyacrylic Acid (250000 Mw); Polybutene (1400 Mw); Polyester; Polyester Polyamine Copolymer; Polyester Rayon; Polyethylene Terephthalates; Polyisobutylene; Polyisobutylene (1100000 Mw); Polyisobutylene (35000 Mw); Polyisobutylene 178-236; Polyisobutylene 241- 294; Polyisobutylene 35-39; Polyisobutylene Low Molecular Weight;

Polyisobutylene Medium Molecular Weight; Polyisobutylene/Polybutene Adhesive; Polypropylene; Polyvinyl Acetate; Polyvinyl Alcohol; Polyvinyl Chloride; Polyvinyl Chloride-Polyvinyl Acetate Copolymer; Polyvinylpyridine; Povidone K29/32; Povidones; Propylene Glycol; Propylene Glycol Monolaurate; Ra-2397; Ra-3011; Silicon; Silicon Dioxide, Colloidal; Silicone; Silicone Adhesive 4102; Silicone Adhesive 4502; Silicone Adhesive Bio-Psa Q7-4201; Silicone Adhesive Bio-Psa Q7-4301; Silicone Polyester Film Strip; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Citrate; Sodium Hydroxide; Sorbitan Monooleate; Stearalkonium Hectorite Propylene Carbonate; Titanium Dioxide; Triacetin; Trolamine; Tromethamine; Union 76 Amsco-Res 6038; Viscose/Cotton

Transmucosal Magnesium Stearate; Mannitol; Potassium Bicarbonate; Sodium Starch Glycolate

Ureteral Benzyl Alcohol; Diatrizoic Acid; Edetate Calcium Disodium; Edetate Disodium;

Hydrochloric Acid; Meglumine; Methylparaben; Propylparaben; Sodium Citrate; Sodium Hydroxide

Urethral Diatrizoic Acid; Edetate Calcium Disodium; Edetate Disodium; Hydrochloric Acid;

Meglumine; Methylparaben; Polyethylene Glycol 1450; Propylparaben; Sodium Hydroxide; Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic, Heptahydrate; Tromethamine

Vaginal Adipic Acid; Alcohol, Denatured; Allantoin; Anhydrous Lactose; Apricot Kernel Oil

Peg-6 Esters; Barium Sulfate; Beeswax; Bentonite; Benzoic Acid; Benzyl Alcohol;

Butylated Hydroxyanisole; Butylated Hydroxy toluene; Calcium Lactate; Carbomer

934; Carbomer 934p; Cellulose, Microcrystalline; Ceteth-20; Cetostearyl Alcohol;

Cetyl Alcohol; Cetyl Esters Wax; Cetyl Palmitate; Cholesterol; Choleth; Citric Acid;

Citric Acid Monohydrate; Coconut Oil/Palm Kernel Oil Glycerides, Hydrogenated;

Crospovidone; Edetate Disodium; Ethylcelluloses; Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Copolymer (28% Vinyl Acetate); Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Copolymer (9%

Vinylacetate); Fatty Alcohols; Fd&C Yellow No. 5; Gelatin; Glutamic Acid, D1-;

Glycerin; Glyceryl Isostearate; Glyceryl Monostearate; Glyceryl Stearate; Guar Gum; High Density Polyethylene; Hydrogel Polymer; Hydrogenated Palm Oil;

Hypromellose 2208 (15000 Mpa.S); Hypromelloses; Isopropyl Myristate; Lactic

Acid; Lactic Acid, D1-; Lactose; Lactose Monohydrate; Lactose, Hydrous; Lanolin;

Lanolin Anhydrous; Lecithin; Lecithin, Soybean; Light Mineral Oil; Magnesium Aluminum Silicate; Magnesium Aluminum Silicate Hydrate; Magnesium Stearate;

Methyl Stearate; Methylparaben; Microcrystalline Wax; Mineral Oil; Nitric Acid;

Octyldodecanol; Peanut Oil; Peg 6-32 Stearate/Glycol Stearate; Peg-100 Stearate;

Peg-120 Glyceryl Stearate; Peg-2 Stearate; Peg-5 Oleate; Pegoxol 7 Stearate;

Petrolatum, White; Phenylmercuric Acetate; Phospholipon 90g; Phosphoric Acid;

Piperazine Hexahydrate;

Poly(Dimethylsiloxane/Methylvinylsiloxane/Methylhydrogensiloxane)

Dimethylvinyl Or Dimethylhydroxy Or Trimethyl Endblocked; Polycarbophil;

Polyester; Polyethylene Glycol 1000; Polyethylene Glycol 3350; Polyethylene Glycol 400; Polyethylene Glycol 4000; Polyethylene Glycol 6000; Polyethylene

Glycol 8000; Polyglyceryl-3 Oleate; Polyglyceryl-4 Oleate; Polyoxyl Palmitate;

Polysorbate 20; Polysorbate 60; Polysorbate 80; Polyurethane; Potassium Alum;

Potassium Hydroxide; Povidone K29/32; Povidones; Promulgen D; Propylene Glycol; Propylene Glycol Monopalmitostearate; Propylparaben; Quaternium-15 Cis- Form; Silicon Dioxide; Silicon Dioxide, Colloidal; Silicone; Sodium Bicarbonate;

Sodium Citrate; Sodium Hydroxide; Sodium Lauryl Sulfate; Sodium Metabisulfite;

Sodium Phosphate, Dibasic, Anhydrous; Sodium Phosphate, Monobasic,

Anhydrous; Sorbic Acid; Sorbitan Monostearate; Sorbitol; Sorbitol Solution;

Spermaceti; Stannous 2-Ethylhexanoate; Starch; Starch 1500, Pregelatinized; Starch,

Corn; Stearamidoethyl Diethylamine; Stearic Acid; Stearyl Alcohol; Tartaric Acid,

D1-; Tert-Butylhydroquinone; Tetrapropyl Ortho silicate; Trolamine; Urea; Vegetable

Oil, Hydrogenated; Wecobee Fs; White Ceresin Wax; White Wax

[0690] Non-limiting routes of administration for the polynucleotides of the present invention are described below.

Parenteral and Injectable Administration

[0691] Liquid dosage forms for parenteral administration include, but are not limited to, pharmaceutically acceptable emulsions, microemulsions, solutions, suspensions, syrups, and/or elixirs. In addition to active ingredients, liquid dosage forms can comprise inert diluents commonly used in the art such as, for example, water or other solvents, solubilizing agents and emulsifiers such as ethyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, ethyl carbonate, ethyl acetate, benzyl alcohol, benzyl benzoate, propylene glycol, 1,3-butylene glycol, dimethylformamide, oils (in particular, cottonseed, groundnut, corn, germ, olive, castor, and sesame oils), glycerol, tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol, polyethylene glycols and fatty acid esters of sorbitan, and mixtures thereof. Besides inert diluents, oral compositions can include adjuvants such as wetting agents, emulsifying and suspending agents, sweetening, flavoring, and/or perfuming agents. In certain embodiments for parenteral administration, compositions are mixed with solubilizing agents such as CREMOPHOR®, alcohols, oils, modified oils, glycols, polysorbates, cyclodextrins, polymers, and/or combinations thereof.

[0692] A pharmaceutical composition for parenteral administration can comprise at least one inactive ingredient. Any or none of the inactive ingredients used may have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). A non-exhaustive list of inactive ingredients for use in pharmaceutical compositions for parenteral administration includes hydrochloric acid, mannitol, nitrogen, sodium acetate, sodium chloride and sodium hydroxide.

[0693] Injectable preparations, for example, sterile injectable aqueous or oleaginous suspensions can be formulated according to the known art using suitable dispersing agents, wetting agents, and/or suspending agents. Sterile injectable preparations can be sterile injectable solutions, suspensions, and/or emulsions in nontoxic parenterally acceptable diluents and/or solvents, for example, as a solution in 1,3-butanediol. Among the acceptable vehicles and solvents that can be employed are water, Ringer's solution, U.S. P., and isotonic sodium chloride solution. Sterile, fixed oils are conventionally employed as a solvent or suspending medium. For this purpose any bland fixed oil can be employed including synthetic mono- or diglycerides. Fatty acids such as oleic acid can be used in the preparation of injectables. The sterile formulation may also comprise adjuvants such as local anesthetics, preservatives and buffering agents.

[0694] Injectable formulations can be sterilized, for example, by filtration through a bacterial-retaining filter, and/or by incorporating sterilizing agents in the form of sterile solid compositions which can be dissolved or dispersed in sterile water or other sterile injectable medium prior to use.

[0695] Injectable formulations can be for direct injection into a region of a tissue, organ and/or subject. As a non-limiting example, a tissue, organ and/or subject can be directly injected a formulation by intramyocardial injection into the ischemic region. (See e.g., Zangi et al. Nature Biotechnology 2013; the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). [0696] In order to prolong the effect of an active ingredient, it is often desirable to slow the absorption of the active ingredient from subcutaneous or intramuscular injection. This can be accomplished by the use of a liquid suspension of crystalline or amorphous material with poor water solubility. The rate of absorption of the drug then depends upon its rate of dissolution which, in turn, may depend upon crystal size and crystalline form. Alternatively, delayed absorption of a parenterally administered drug form is accomplished by dissolving or suspending the drug in an oil vehicle. Injectable depot forms are made by forming microencapsule matrices of the drug in biodegradable polymers such as polylactide-polyglycolide. Depending upon the ratio of drug to polymer and the nature of the particular polymer employed, the rate of drug release can be controlled. Examples of other biodegradable polymers include poly(orthoesters) and poly(anhydrides). Depot injectable formulations are prepared by entrapping the drug in liposomes or microemulsions which are compatible with body tissues.

Rectal and Vaginal Administration

[0697] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides described here can be formulated for rectal and vaginal administration by the methods or compositions described in International Patent Application No. PCT/US2014/027077, the contents of which are incorporated by reference in its entirety.

Oral Administration

[0698] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides described here can be formulated for oral administration by the methods or compositions described in International Patent Application No. PCT/US2014/027077, the contents of which are incorporated by reference in its entirety. The oral administration can be a liquid dosage for or a solid dosage form.

Topical or Transdermal Administration

[0699] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides described here can be formulated for topical or transdermal administration by the methods or compositions described in International Patent Application No. PCT/US2014/027077, the contents of which are incorporated by reference in its entirety. Depot Administration

[0700] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides described here can be formulated for depot administration by the methods or compositions described in International Patent Application No. PCT/US2014/027077, the contents of which are incorporated by reference in its entirety.

Pulmonary Administration

[0701] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides described here can be formulated for pulmonary administration by the methods or compositions described in International Patent Application No. PCT/US2014/027077, the contents of which are incorporated by reference in its entirety.

Intranasal, nasal and buccal Administration

[0702] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides described here can be formulated for intranasal, nasal or buccal administration by the methods or compositions described in International Patent Application No. PCT/US2014/027077, the contents of which are incorporated by reference in its entirety.

Ophthalmic and Auricular (Otic) Administration

[0703] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides described here can be formulated for ophthalmic or auricular (otic) administration by the methods or compositions described in International Patent Application No. PCT/US2014/027077, the contents of which are incorporated by reference in its entirety.

Payload Administration: Detectable Agents and Therapeutic Agents

[0704] The polynucleotides described herein can be used in a number of different scenarios in which delivery of a substance (the "payload") to a biological target is desired, for example delivery of detectable substances for detection of the target, or delivery of a therapeutic agent. Detection methods can include, but are not limited to, both imaging in vitro and in vivo imaging methods, e.g., immunohistochemistry, bioluminescence imaging (BLI), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), electron microscopy, X-ray computed tomography, Raman imaging, optical coherence tomography, absorption imaging, thermal imaging, fluorescence reflectance imaging, fluorescence microscopy, fluorescence molecular tomographic imaging, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, X-ray imaging, ultrasound imaging, photoacoustic imaging, lab assays, or in any situation where tagging/staining/imaging is required. [0705] The polynucleotides can be designed to include both a linker and a payload in any useful orientation. For example, a linker having two ends is used to attach one end to the payload and the other end to the nucleobase, such as at the C-7 or C-8 positions of the deaza-adenosine or deaza-guanosine or to the N-3 or C-5 positions of cytosine or uracil. The polynucleotide of the invention can include more than one payload (e.g., a label and a transcription inhibitor), as well as a cleavable linker. In some embodiments, the modified nucleotide is a modified 7-deaza- adenosine triphosphate, where one end of a cleavable linker is attached to the C7 position of 7- deaza-adenine, the other end of the linker is attached to an inhibitor (e.g., to the C5 position of the nucleobase on a cytidine), and a label (e.g., Cy5) is attached to the center of the linker (see, e.g., compound 1 of A*pCp C5 Parg Capless in Fig. 5 and columns 9 and 10 of U. S. Pat. No. 7,994,304, incorporated herein by reference). Upon incorporation of the modified 7-deaza- adenosine triphosphate to an encoding region, the resulting polynucleotide having a cleavable linker attached to a label and an inhibitor (e.g., a polymerase inhibitor). Upon cleavage of the linker (e.g., with reductive conditions to reduce a linker having a cleavable disulfide moiety), the label and inhibitor are released. Additional linkers and payloads (e.g., therapeutic agents, detectable labels, and cell penetrating payloads) are described herein and in International Application PCT/US2013/30062 filed March 9, 2013, the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

[0706] The polynucleotides described herein can be used in intracellular targeting of a payload, e.g., detectable or therapeutic agent, to specific organelle. Exemplary intracellular targets can include, but are not limited to, the nuclear localization for advanced mRNA processing, or a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) linked to the mRNA containing an inhibitor.

[0707] In one example, the linker is attached at the 2' -position of the ribose ring and/or at the 3 ' and/or 5' positionof the polynucleotides (See e.g., International Pub. No. WO2012030683, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). The linker can be any linker disclosed herein, known in the art and/or disclosed in International Pub. No. WO2012030683, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0708] In another example, the polynucleotides can be attached to the polynucleotides a viral inhibitory peptide (VIP) through a cleavable linker. The cleavable linker can release the VIP and dye into the cell. In another example, the polynucleotides can be attached through the linker to an ADP-ribosylate, which is responsible for the actions of some bacterial toxins, such as cholera toxin, diphtheria toxin, and pertussis toxin. These toxin proteins are ADP-ribosyltransferases that modify target proteins in human cells. For example, cholera toxin ADP-ribosylates G proteins modifies human cells by causing massive fluid secretion from the lining of the small intestine, which results in life-threatening diarrhea.

[0709] In some embodiments, the payload can be a therapeutic agent such as a cytotoxin, radioactive ion, chemotherapeutic, or other therapeutic agent. A cytotoxin or cytotoxic agent includes any agent that can be detrimental to cells. Examples include, but are not limited to, taxol, cytochalasin B, gramicidin D, ethidium bromide, emetine, mitomycin, etoposide, teniposide, vincristine, vinblastine, colchicine, doxorubicin, daunorubicin, dihydroxyanthracinedione, mitoxantrone, mithramycin, actinomycin D, 1-dehydrotestosterone, glucocorticoids, procaine, tetracaine, lidocaine, propranolol, puromycin, maytansinoids, e.g., maytansinol (see U. S. Pat. No. 5,208,020 incorporated herein in its entirety), rachelmycin (CC- 1065, see U. S. Pat. Nos. 5,475,092, 5,585,499, and 5,846,545, all of which are incorporated herein by reference), and analogs or homologs thereof. Radioactive ions include, but are not limited to iodine (e.g., iodine 125 or iodine 131), strontium 89, phosphorous, palladium, cesium, iridium, phosphate, cobalt, yttrium 90, samarium 153, and praseodymium. Other therapeutic agents include, but are not limited to, antimetabolites (e.g., methotrexate, 6-mercaptopurine, 6- thioguanine, cytarabine, 5-fluorouracil decarbazine), alkylating agents (e.g., mechlorethamine, thiotepa chlorambucil, rachelmycin (CC-1065), melphalan, carmustine (BSNU), lomustine (CCNU), cyclophosphamide, busulfan, dibromomannitol, streptozotocin, mitomycin C, and cis- dichlorodiamine platinum (II) (DDP) cisplatin), anthracyclines (e.g., daunorubicin (formerly daunomycin) and doxorubicin), antibiotics (e.g., dactinomycin (formerly actinomycin), bleomycin, mithramycin, and anthramycin (AMC)), and anti-mitotic agents (e.g., vincristine, vinblastine, taxol and maytansinoids).

[0710] In some embodiments, the payload can be a detectable agent, such as various organic small molecules, inorganic compounds, nanoparticles, enzymes or enzyme substrates, fluorescent materials, luminescent materials (e.g., luminol), bioluminescent materials (e.g., luciferase, luciferin, and aequorin), chemiluminescent materials, radioactive materials (e.g., 18F, 67 Ga, 81mKr, 82Rb, mIn, 123I, 133Xe, 201T1, 125I, 35S, 14C, 3H, or 99mTc (e.g., as pertechnetate (technetate(VII), Tc(V)), and contrast agents (e.g., gold (e.g., gold nanoparticles), gadolinium (e.g., chelated Gd), iron oxides (e.g., superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO), monocrystalline iron oxide nanoparticles (MIONs), and ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO)), manganese chelates (e.g., Mn- DPDP), barium sulfate, iodinated contrast media (iohexol), microbubbles, or perfluorocarbons). Such optically-detectable labels include for example, without limitation, 4-acetamido-4'- isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'disulfonic acid; acridine and derivatives (e.g., acridine and acridine isothiocyanate); 5-(2'-aminoethyl)aminonaphthalene-l -sulfonic acid (EDANS); 4-amino-N-[3- vinylsulfonyl)phenyl]naphthalimide-3,5 disulfonate; N-(4-anilino-l-naphthyl)maleimide; anthranilamide; BODIPY; Brilliant Yellow; coumarin and derivatives (e.g., coumarin, 7-amino- 4-methylcoumarin (AMC, Coumarin 120), and 7-amino-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin (Coumarin 151)); cyanine dyes; cyanosine; 4',6-diaminidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI); 5' 5"- dibromopyrogallol-sulfonaphthalein (Bromopyrogallol Red); 7-diethylamino-3-(4'- isothiocyanatophenyl)-4-methylcoumarin; diethylenetriamine pentaacetate; 4,4'- diisothiocyanatodihydro-stilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid; 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'- disulfonic acid; 5-[dimethylamino]-naphthalene-l-sulfonyl chloride (DNS, dansylchloride); 4- dimethylaminophenylazophenyl-4'-isothiocyanate (DABITC); eosin and derivatives (e.g., eosin and eosin isothiocyanate); erythrosin and derivatives (e.g., erythrosin B and erythrosin isothiocyanate); ethidium; fluorescein and derivatives (e.g., 5-carboxyfluorescein (FAM), 5-(4,6- dichlorotriazin-2-yl)aminofluorescein (DTAF), 2',7'-dimethoxy-4' 5'-dichloro-6- carboxyfluorescein, fluorescein, fluorescein isothiocyanate, X-rhodamine-5-(and-6)- isothiocyanate (QFITC or XRITC), and fluorescamine); 2-[2-[3-[[l,3-dihydro-l, l-dimethyl-3-(3- sulfopropyl)-2H-benz[e]indol-2-ylidene]ethylidene]-2-[4-(ethoxycarbonyl)-l-piperazinyl]-l- cyclopenten-l-yl]ethenyl]-l, l-dimethyl-3-(3-sulforpropyl)-lH-benz[e]indolium hydroxide, inner salt, compound with n,n-diethylethanamine(l : l) (IR144); 5-chloro-2-[2-[3-[(5-chloro-3-ethyl- 2(3H)-benzothiazol- ylidene)ethylidene]-2-(diphenylamino)-l-cyclopenten-l-yl]ethenyl]-3-ethyl benzothiazolium perchlorate (IR140); Malachite Green isothiocyanate; 4-methylumbelliferone orthocresolphthalein; nitrotyrosine; pararosaniline; Phenol Red; B-phycoerythrin; o- phthaldialdehyde; pyrene and derivatives(e.g., pyrene, pyrene butyrate, and succinimidyl 1- pyrene); butyrate quantum dots; Reactive Red 4 (CIBACRON™ Brilliant Red 3B-A); rhodamine and derivatives (e.g., 6-carboxy-X-rhodamine (ROX), 6-carboxyrhodamine (R6G), lissamine rhodamine B sulfonyl chloride rhodamine (Rhod), rhodamine B, rhodamine 123, rhodamine X isothiocyanate, sulforhodamine B, sulforhodamine 101, sulfonyl chloride derivative of sulforhodamine 101 (Texas Red), Ν,Ν,Ν ',Ν 'tetramethyl-6-carboxyrhodamine (TAMRA) tetramethyl rhodamine, and tetramethyl rhodamine isothiocyanate (TRITC)); riboflavin; rosolic acid; terbium chelate derivatives; Cyanine-3 (Cy3); Cyanine-5 (Cy5); cyanine-5.5 (Cy5.5), Cyanine-7 (Cy7); IRD 700; IRD 800; Alexa 647; La Jolta Blue; phthalo cyanine; and naphthalo cyanine.

[0711] In some embodiments, the detectable agent can be a non-detectable pre-cursor that becomes detectable upon activation (e.g., fluorogenic tetrazine-fluorophore constructs (e.g., tetrazine-BODIPY FL, tetrazine-Oregon Green 488, or tetrazine-BODIPY TMR-X) or enzyme activatable fluorogenic agents (e.g., PROSENSE® (VisEn Medical))). In vitro assays in which the enzyme labeled compositions can be used include, but are not limited to, enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), immunoprecipitation assays, immunofluorescence, enzyme immunoassays (EIA), radioimmunoassays (RIA), and Western blot analysis.

Combinations

[0712] The polynucleotides can be used in combination with one or more other therapeutic, prophylactic, diagnostic, or imaging agents. By "in combination with," it is not intended to imply that the agents must be administered at the same time and/or formulated for delivery together, although these methods of delivery are within the scope of the present disclosure. Compositions can be administered concurrently with, prior to, or subsequent to, one or more other desired therapeutics or medical procedures. In general, each agent will be administered at a dose and/or on a time schedule determined for that agent. In some embodiments, the present disclosure encompasses the delivery of pharmaceutical, prophylactic, diagnostic, or imaging compositions in combination with agents that may improve their bioavailability, reduce and/or modify their metabolism, inhibit their excretion, and/or modify their distribution within the body. In some embodiments, the polynucleotides described here can be used in combination with one or more other agents as described in International Patent Application No. PCT/US2014/027077, the contents of which are incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0713] It will further be appreciated that therapeutically, prophylactically, diagnostically, or imaging active agents utilized in combination can be administered together in a single composition or administered separately in different compositions. In general, it is expected that agents utilized in combination with be utilized at levels that do not exceed the levels at which they are utilized individually. In some embodiments, the levels utilized in combination will be lower than those utilized individually. In some embodiments, the combinations, each or together can be administered according to the split dosing regimens described herein. Dosing

[0714] The present invention provides methods comprising administering modified mRNAs and their encoded proteins or complexes in accordance with the invention to a subject in need thereof. Nucleic acids, proteins or complexes, or pharmaceutical, imaging, diagnostic, or prophylactic compositions thereof, can be administered to a subject using any amount and any route of administration effective for preventing, treating, diagnosing, or imaging a disease, disorder, and/or condition (e.g., a disease, disorder, and/or condition relating to working memory deficits). The exact amount required will vary from subject to subject, depending on the species, age, and general condition of the subject, the severity of the disease, the particular composition, its mode of administration, its mode of activity, and the like. Compositions in accordance with the invention are typically formulated in dosage unit form for ease of administration and uniformity of dosage. It will be understood, however, that the total daily usage of the compositions of the present invention can be decided by the attending physician within the scope of sound medical judgment. The specific therapeutically effective, prophylactically effective, or appropriate imaging dose level for any particular patient will depend upon a variety of factors including the disorder being treated and the severity of the disorder; the activity of the specific compound employed; the specific composition employed; the age, body weight, general health, sex and diet of the patient; the time of administration, route of administration, and rate of excretion of the specific compound employed; the duration of the treatment; drugs used in combination or coincidental with the specific compound employed; and like factors well known in the medical arts.

[0715] In certain embodiments, compositions in accordance with the present invention can be administered at dosage levels sufficient to deliver from about 0.0001 mg/kg to about 100 mg/kg, from about 0.001 mg/kg to about 0.05 mg/kg, from about 0.005 mg/kg to about 0.05 mg/kg, from about 0.001 mg/kg to about 0.005 mg/kg, from about 0.05 mg/kg to about 0.5 mg/kg, from about 0.01 mg/kg to about 50 mg/kg, from about 0.1 mg/kg to about 40 mg/kg, from about 0.5 mg/kg to about 30 mg/kg, from about 0.01 mg/kg to about 10 mg/kg, from about 0.1 mg/kg to about 10 mg/kg, or from about 1 mg/kg to about 25 mg/kg, of subject body weight per day, one or more times a day, to obtain the desired therapeutic, diagnostic, prophylactic, or imaging effect (see e.g., the range of unit doses described in International Publication No WO2013078199, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). The desired dosage can be delivered three times a day, two times a day, once a day, every other day, every third day, every week, every two weeks, every three weeks, or every four weeks. In certain embodiments, the desired dosage can be delivered using multiple administrations (e.g., two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, twelve, thirteen, fourteen, or more administrations). When multiple administrations are employed, split dosing regimens such as those described herein can be used.

[0716] According to the present invention, it has been discovered that administration of polynucleotides in split-dose regimens produce higher levels of proteins in mammalian subjects. As used herein, a "split dose" is the division of single unit dose or total daily dose into two or more doses, e.g, two or more administrations of the single unit dose. As used herein, a "single unit dose" is a dose of any therapeutic administed in one dose/at one time/single route/single point of contact, i.e., single administration event. As used herein, a "total daily dose" is an amount given or prescribed in 24 hr period. It can be administered as a single unit dose. In some embodiments, the polynucleotides of the present invention are administed to a subject in split doses. The polynucleotides can be formulated in buffer only or in a formulation described herein.

Dosage Forms

[0717] A pharmaceutical composition described herein can be formulated into a dosage form described herein, such as a topical, intranasal, intratracheal, or injectable (e.g., intravenous, intraocular, intravitreal, intramuscular, intracardiac, intraperitoneal, subcutaneous).

Liquid dosage forms

[0718] Liquid dosage forms for parenteral administration include, but are not limited to, pharmaceutically acceptable emulsions, microemulsions, solutions, suspensions, syrups, and/or elixirs. In addition to active ingredients, liquid dosage forms can comprise inert diluents commonly used in the art including, but not limited to, water or other solvents, solubilizing agents and emulsifiers such as ethyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, ethyl carbonate, ethyl acetate, benzyl alcohol, benzyl benzoate, propylene glycol, 1,3-butylene glycol, dimethylformamide, oils (in particular, cottonseed, groundnut, corn, germ, olive, castor, and sesame oils), glycerol, tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol, polyethylene glycols and fatty acid esters of sorbitan, and mixtures thereof. In certain embodiments for parenteral administration, compositions can be mixed with solubilizing agents such as CREMOPHOR®, alcohols, oils, modified oils, glycols, polysorbates, cyclodextrins, polymers, and/or combinations thereof. Injectable

[0719] Injectable preparations, for example, sterile injectable aqueous or oleaginous suspensions can be formulated according to the known art and can include suitable dispersing agents, wetting agents, and/or suspending agents. Sterile injectable preparations can be sterile injectable solutions, suspensions, and/or emulsions in nontoxic parenterally acceptable diluents and/or solvents, for example, a solution in 1,3-butanediol. Among the acceptable vehicles and solvents that can be employed include, but are not limited to, water, Ringer's solution, U.S.P., and isotonic sodium chloride solution. Sterile, fixed oils are conventionally employed as a solvent or suspending medium. For this purpose any bland fixed oil can be employed including synthetic mono- or diglycerides. Fatty acids such as oleic acid can be used in the preparation of injectables.

[0720] Injectable formulations can be sterilized, for example, by filtration through a bacterial-retaining filter, and/or by incorporating sterilizing agents in the form of sterile solid compositions which can be dissolved or dispersed in sterile water or other sterile injectable medium prior to use.

[0721] In order to prolong the effect of an active ingredient, it can be desirable to slow the absorption of the active ingredient from subcutaneous or intramuscular injection. This can be accomplished by the use of a liquid suspension of crystalline or amorphous material with poor water solubility. The rate of absorption of the polynucleotides then depends upon its rate of dissolution which, in turn, may depend upon crystal size and crystalline form. Alternatively, delayed absorption of a parenterally administered polynucleotides can be accomplished by dissolving or suspending the polynucleotides in an oil vehicle. Injectable depot forms are made by forming microencapsule matrices of the polynucleotides in biodegradable polymers such as polylactide-polyglycolide. Depending upon the ratio of polynucleotides to polymer and the nature of the particular polymer employed, the rate of polynucleotides release can be controlled. Examples of other biodegradable polymers include, but are not limited to, poly(orthoesters) and poly(anhydrides). Depot injectable formulations can be prepared by entrapping the polynucleotides in liposomes or microemulsions which are compatible with body tissues.

Pulmonary

[0722] Formulations described herein as being useful for pulmonary delivery may also be used for intranasal delivery of a pharmaceutical composition. Another formulation suitable for intranasal administration can be a coarse powder comprising the active ingredient and having an average particle from about 0.2 μιη to 500 μιη. Such a formulation can be administered in the manner in which snuff is taken, i.e. by rapid inhalation through the nasal passage from a container of the powder held close to the nose.

[0723] Formulations suitable for nasal administration may, for example, comprise from about as little as 0.1% (w/w) and as much as 100% (w/w) of active ingredient, and can comprise one or more of the additional ingredients described herein. A pharmaceutical composition can be prepared, packaged, and/or sold in a formulation suitable for buccal administration. Such formulations may, for example, be in the form of tablets and/or lozenges made using conventional methods, and may, for example, contain about 0.1% to 20% (w/w) active ingredient, where the balance can comprise an orally dissolvable and/or degradable composition and, optionally, one or more of the additional ingredients described herein. Alternately, formulations suitable for buccal administration can comprise a powder and/or an aerosolized and/or atomized solution and/or suspension comprising active ingredient. Such powdered, aerosolized, and/or aerosolized formulations, when dispersed, may have an average particle and/or droplet size in the range from about 0.1 nm to about 200 nm, and may further comprise one or more of any additional ingredients described herein.

[0724] General considerations in the formulation and/or manufacture of pharmaceutical agents can be found, for example, in Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy 21st ed., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005 (incorporated herein by reference in its entirety).

Coatings or Shells

[0725] Solid dosage forms of tablets, dragees, capsules, pills, and granules can be prepared with coatings and shells such as enteric coatings and other coatings well known in the pharmaceutical formulating art. They may optionally comprise opacifying agents and can be of a composition that they release the active ingredient(s) only, or preferentially, in a certain part of the intestinal tract, optionally, in a delayed manner. Examples of embedding compositions which can be used include polymeric substances and waxes. Solid compositions of a similar type can be employed as fillers in soft and hard-filled gelatin capsules using such excipients as lactose or milk sugar as well as high molecular weight polyethylene glycols and the like.

Multi-dose and repeat-dose administration

[0726] In some embodiments, compounds and/or compositions of the present invention can be administered in two or more doses (referred to herein as "multi-dose administration"). Such doses can comprise the same components or can comprise components not included in a previous dose. Such doses can comprise the same mass and/or volume of components or an altered mass and/or volume of components in comparison to a previous dose. In some embodiments, multi- dose administration can comprise repeat-dose administration. As used herein, the term "repeat- dose administration" refers to two or more doses administered consecutively or within a regimen of repeat doses comprising substantially the same components provided at substantially the same mass and/or volume. In some embodiments, subjects may display a repeat-dose response. As used herein, the term "repeat-dose response" refers to a response in a subject to a repeat-dose that differs from that of another dose administered within a repeat-dose administration regimen. In some embodiments, such a response can be the expression of a protein in response to a repeat- dose comprising mRNA. In such embodiments, protein expression can be elevated in comparison to another dose administered within a repeat-dose administration regimen or protein expression can be reduced in comparison to another dose administered within a repeat-dose administration regimen. Alteration of protein expression can be from about 1% to about 20%, from about 5% to about 50% from about 10% to about 60%, from about 25% to about 75%, from about 40% to about 100%) and/or at least 100%. A reduction in expression of mRNA administered as part of a repeat-dose regimen, wherein the level of protein translated from the administered RNA is reduced by more than 40% in comparison to another dose within the repeat-dose regimen is referred to herein as "repeat-dose resistance."

Properties of the Pharmaceutical Compositions

[0727] The pharmaceutical compositions described herein can be characterized by one or more of the following properties:

Bioavailability

[0728] The polynucleotides, when formulated into a composition with a delivery agent as described herein, can exhibit an increase in bioavailability as compared to a composition lacking a delivery agent as described herein. As used herein, the term "bioavailability" refers to the systemic availability of a given amount of polynucleotides administered to a mammal. Bioavailability can be assessed by measuring the area under the curve (AUC) or the maximum serum or plasma concentration (CmaX) of the unchanged form of a compound following administration of the compound to a mammal. AUC is a determination of the area under the curve plotting the serum or plasma concentration of a compound along the ordinate (Y-axis) against time along the abscissa (X-axis). Generally, the AUC for a particular compound can be calculated using methods known to those of ordinary skill in the art and as described in G. S. Banker, Modern Pharmaceutics, Drugs and the Pharmaceutical Sciences, v. 72, Marcel Dekker, New York, Inc., 1996, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0729] The Cmax value is the maximum concentration of the compound achieved in the serum or plasma of a mammal following administration of the compound to the mammal. The Cmax value of a particular compound can be measured using methods known to those of ordinary skill in the art. The phrases "increasing bioavailability" or "improving the pharmacokinetics," as used herein mean that the systemic availability of a first polynucleotides, measured as AUC, Cmax, or Cmin in a mammal is greater, when co-administered with a delivery agent as described herein, than when such co-administration does not take place. In some embodiments, the bioavailability of the polynucleotides can increase by at least about 2%, at least about 5%, at least about 10%, at least about 15%, at least about 20%, at least about 25%, at least about 30%>, at least about 35%, at least about 40%, at least about 45%, at least about 50%, at least about 55%, at least about 60%, at least about 65%, at least about 70%, at least about 75%, at least about 80%, at least about 85%, at least about 90%, at least about 95%, or about 100%.

[0730] In some embodiments, liquid formulations of polynucleotides may have varying in vivo half-life, requiring modulation of doses to yield a therapeutic effect. To address this, in some embodiments of the present invention, polynucleotides formulations can be designed to improve bioavailability and/or therapeutic effect during repeat administrations. Such formulations may enable sustained release of polynucleotides and/or reduce polynucleotide degradation rates by nucleases. In some embodiments, suspension formulations are provided comprising polynucleotides, water immiscible oil depots, surfactants and/or co-surfactants and/or co-solvents. Combinations of oils and surfactants may enable suspension formulation with polynucleotides. Delivery of polynucleotides in a water immiscible depot can be used to improve bioavailability through sustained release of polynucleotides from the depot to the surrounding physiologic environment and/or prevent polynucleotide degradation by nucleases.

[0731] In some embodiments, cationic nanoparticles comprising combinations of divalent and monovalent cations can be formulated with polynucleotides. Such nanoparticles may form spontaneously in solution over a given period (e.g. hours, days, etc). Such nanoparticles do not form in the presence of divalent cations alone or in the presence of monovalent cations alone. The delivery of polynucleotides in cationic nanoparticles or in one or more depot comprising cationic nanoparticles may improve polynucleotide bioavailability by acting as a long-acting depot and/or reducing the rate of degradation by nucleases

Therapeutic Window

[0732] The polynucleotides, when formulated into a composition with a delivery agent as described herein, can exhibit an increase in the therapeutic window of the administered polynucleotides composition as compared to the therapeutic window of the administered polynucleotides composition lacking a delivery agent as described herein. As used herein "therapeutic window" refers to the range of plasma concentrations, or the range of levels of therapeutically active substance at the site of action, with a high probability of eliciting a therapeutic effect. In some embodiments, the therapeutic window of the polynucleotides when co-administered with a delivery agent as described herein can increase by at least about 2%, at least about 5%, at least about 10%, at least about 15%, at least about 20%, at least about 25%, at least about 30%, at least about 35%, at least about 40%, at least about 45%, at least about 50%, at least about 55%, at least about 60%, at least about 65%, at least about 70%, at least about 75%, at least about 80%, at least about 85%, at least about 90%, at least about 95%, or about 100%.

Volume of Distribution

[0733] The polynucleotides, when formulated into a composition with a delivery agent as described herein, can exhibit an improved volume of distribution (Vdist), e.g., reduced or targeted, relative to a composition lacking a delivery agent as described herein. The volume of distribution (Vdist) relates the amount of the drug in the body to the concentration of the drug in the blood or plasma. As used herein, the term "volume of distribution" refers to the fluid volume that would be required to contain the total amount of the drug in the body at the same concentration as in the blood or plasma: Vdist equals the amount of drug in the body/concentration of drug in blood or plasma. For example, for a 10 mg dose and a plasma concentration of 10 mg/L, the volume of distribution would be 1 liter. The volume of distribution reflects the extent to which the drug is present in the extravascular tissue. A large volume of distribution reflects the tendency of a compound to bind to the tissue components compared with plasma protein binding. In a clinical setting, Vdist can be used to determine a loading dose to achieve a steady state concentration. In some embodiments, the volume of distribution of the polynucleotides when co-administered with a delivery agent as described herein can decrease at least about 2%, at least about 5%, at least about 10%), at least about 15%, at least about 20%, at least about 25%, at least about 30%, at least about 35%, at least about 40%, at least about 45%, at least about 50%, at least about 55%, at least about 60%), at least about 65%, at least about 70%.

Biological Effect

[0734] In some embodiments, the biological effect of the polynucleotide, e.g., modified mRNA, delivered to a mammal can be categorized by analyzing protein, e.g., LDLR, expression in the mammal. The protein, e.g., LDLR, expression can be determined from analyzing a biological sample, e.g., a plasma sample, collected from a mammal administered the polynucleotide, e.g., modified mRNA, of the present invention. In some embodiments, the protein, e.g., LDLR, expression is a therapeutically effective amount of protein in the mammal. In some embodiments, the of expression the protein, e.g., LDLR, is at least 50 pg/ml or 50-200 pg/ml. In some embodiments, the the cellular expression of the protein, e.g., LDLR, in a mammal administered the polynucleotide, e.g., modified mRNA, is increased by least 20%, at least 25%, at least 30%, at least 35%, or at least 40% compared to a mammal not administered the polynucleotide, e.g., modified mRNA.

[0735] In some embodiments, the biological effect of the polynucleotide, e.g., modified mRNA, delivered to a mammal can be categorized by analyzing LDL, cholesterol, and/or triglyceride levels in the mammal. The LDL, cholesterol, and/or triglyceride levels can be determined from analyzing a biological sample, e.g., a plasma sample, collected from a mammal administered the polynucleotide, e.g., modified mRNA, of the present invention. In some embodiments, the LDL, cholesterol, and/or triglyceride levels is reduced by least 20%, at least 25%), at least 30%, at least 35%, or at least 40% compared to a mammal not administered the polynucleotide, e.g., modified mRNA.

Detection of Polynucleotides Acids by Mass Spectrometry

[0736] Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that can provide structural and molecular mass/concentration information on molecules after their conversion to ions. The molecules are first ionized to acquire positive or negative charges and then they travel through the mass analyzer to arrive at different areas of the detector according to their mass/charge (m/z) ratio.

[0737] Mass spectrometry is performed using a mass spectrometer which includes an ion source for ionizing the fractionated sample and creating charged molecules for further analysis. For example ionization of the sample can be performed by electrospray ionization (ESI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), photoionization, electron ionization, fast atom bombardment (FAB)/liquid secondary ionization (LSIMS), matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI), field ionization, field desorption, thermospray/plasmaspray ionization, and particle beam ionization. The skilled artisan will understand that the choice of ionization method can be determined based on the analyte to be measured, type of sample, the type of detector, the choice of positive versus negative mode, etc.

[0738] After the sample has been ionized, the positively charged or negatively charged ions thereby created can be analyzed to determine a mass-to-charge ratio (i.e., m/z). Suitable analyzers for determining mass-to-charge ratios include quadropole analyzers, ion traps analyzers, and time-of-flight analyzers. The ions can be detected using several detection modes. For example, selected ions can be detected (i.e., using a selective ion monitoring mode (SFM)), or alternatively, ions can be detected using a scanning mode, e.g., multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) or selected reaction monitoring (SRM).

[0739] Liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring (LC-MS/MRM) coupled with stable isotope labeled dilution of peptide standards has been shown to be an effective method for protein verification (e.g., Keshishian et al., Mol Cell Proteomics 2009 8: 2339-2349; Kuhn et al., Clin Chem 2009 55: 1108-1117; Lopez et al., Clin Chem 2010 56:281-290; each of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). Unlike untargeted mass spectrometry frequently used in biomarker discovery studies, targeted MS methods are peptide sequence-based modes of MS that focus the full analytical capacity of the instrument on tens to hundreds of selected peptides in a complex mixture. By restricting detection and fragmentation to only those peptides derived from proteins of interest, sensitivity and reproducibility are improved dramatically compared to discovery -mode MS methods. This method of mass spectrometry-based multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) quantitation of proteins can dramatically impact the discovery and quantitation of biomarkers via rapid, targeted, multiplexed protein expression profiling of clinical samples.

[0740] In some embodiments, a biological sample which may contain at least one protein encoded by at least one modified mRNA of the present invention can be analyzed by the method of MRM-MS. The quantification of the biological sample may further include, but is not limited to, isotopically labeled peptides or proteins as internal standards.

[0741] According to the present invention, the biological sample, once obtained from the subject, can be subjected to enzyme digestion. As used herein, the term "digest" means to break apart into shorter peptides. As used herein, the phrase "treating a sample to digest proteins" means manipulating a sample in such a way as to break down proteins in a sample. These enzymes include, but are not limited to, trypsin, endoproteinase Glu-C and chymotrypsin. In some embodiments, a biological sample which may contain at least one protein encoded by at least one modified mRNA of the present invention can be digested using enzymes.

[0742] In some embodiments, a biological sample which may contain protein encoded by modified mRNA of the present invention can be analyzed for protein using electrospray ionization. Electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (ESIMS) uses electrical energy to aid in the transfer of ions from the solution to the gaseous phase before they are analyzed by mass spectrometry. Samples can be analyzed using methods known in the art (e.g., Ho et al., Clin Biochem Rev. 2003 24(1):3-12; herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). The ionic species contained in solution can be transferred into the gas phase by dispersing a fine spray of charge droplets, evaporating the solvent and ejecting the ions from the charged droplets to generate a mist of highly charged droplets. The mist of highly charged droplets can be analyzed using at least 1, at least 2, at least 3 or at least 4 mass analyzers such as, but not limited to, a quadropole mass analyzer. Further, the mass spectrometry method can include a purification step. As a non-limiting example, the first quadrapole can be set to select a single m/z ratio so it may filter out other molecular ions having a different m/z ratio which may eliminate complicated and time-consuming sample purification procedures prior to MS analysis.

[0743] In some embodiments, a biological sample which may contain protein encoded by modified mRNA of the present invention can be analyzed for protein in a tandem ESIMS system (e.g., MS/MS). As non-limiting examples, the droplets can be analyzed using a product scan (or daughter scan) a precursor scan (parent scan) a neutral loss or a multiple reaction monitoring.

[0744] In some embodiments, a biological sample which may contain protein encoded by modified mRNA of the present invention can be analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MALDIMS). MALDI provides for the nondestructive vaporization and ionization of both large and small molecules, such as proteins. In MALDI analysis, the analyte is first co-crystallized with a large molar excess of a matrix compound, which may also include, but is not limited to, an ultraviolet absorbing weak organic acid. Non-limiting examples of matrices used in MALDI are a-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxycinnamic acid and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid. Laser radiation of the analyte-matrix mixture can result in the vaporization of the matrix and the analyte. The laser induced desorption provides high ion yields of the intact analyte and allows for measurement of compounds with high accuracy. Samples can be analyzed using methods known in the art (e.g., Lewis, Wei and Siuzdak, Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry 2000:5880-5894; herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). As non-limiting examples, mass analyzers used in the MALDI analysis can include a linear time-of-flight (TOF), a TOF reflectron or a Fourier transform mass analyzer.

[0745] In some embodiments, the analyte-matrix mixture can be formed using the dried- droplet method. A biologic sample is mixed with a matrix to create a saturated matrix solution where the matrix-to-sample ratio is approximately 5000: 1. An aliquot (approximately 0.5-2.0 uL) of the saturated matrix solution is then allowed to dry to form the analyte-matrix mixture.

[0746] In some embodiments, the analyte-matrix mixture can be formed using the thin-layer method. A matrix homogeneous film is first formed and then the sample is then applied and can be absorbed by the matrix to form the analyte-matrix mixture.

[0747] In some embodiments, the analyte-matrix mixture can be formed using the thick-layer method. A matrix homogeneous film is formed with a nitro-cellulose matrix additive. Once the uniform nitro-cellulose matrix layer is obtained the sample is applied and absorbed into the matrix to form the analyte-matrix mixture.

[0748] In some embodiments, the analyte-matrix mixture can be formed using the sandwich method. A thin layer of matrix crystals is prepared as in the thin-layer method followed by the addition of droplets of aqueous trifluoroacetic acid, the sample and matrix. The sample is then absorbed into the matrix to form the analyte-matrix mixture.

V. Uses of polynucleotides of the Invention

[0749] The polynucleotides of the present invention are designed, in preferred embodiments, to provide for avoidance or evasion of deleterious bio-responses such as the immune response and/or degradation pathways, overcoming the threshold of expression and/or improving protein production capacity, improved expression rates or translation efficiency, improved drug or protein half life and/or protein concentrations, optimized protein localization, to improve one or more of the stability and/or clearance in tissues, receptor uptake and/or kinetics, cellular access by the compositions, engagement with translational machinery, secretion efficiency (when applicable), accessibility to circulation, and/or modulation of a cell's status, function and/or activity. [0750] In some embodiments, the methods and uses of the invention comprise administering an effective amount of a pharmaceutical composition comprising a polynucleotide of the invention, e.g., mRNA, encoding a human low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) or functional fragment thereof comprising at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain (e.g., corresponding to N316, L339, or the combination of N316 and L339 of human LDLR) and at least one or a single amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain (e.g., corresponding to K816, K830, C839, or any combination thereof of human LDLR). In some embodiments, the method or use comprises administering a polynucleotide, e.g,. mRNA, encoding a human LDLR or functional fragment thereof comprising at least one mutation in the EGF-A domain corresponding to N316A, L339D, or N316A/L339D and the single mutation in the intracellular domain corresponding to K816R, K830R, C839A, K816R/K830R, K816R/C839A, K830R/C839A, or K816R/K830R/C839A of human LDLR. In some embodiments, the method or use comprises administering a polynucleotide, e.g., encoding a human LDLR or functional fragment thereof comprising a mutation in the EGF-A domain corresponding to N316A of human LDLR and the mutation in the intracellular domain corresponding to K830R and/or C839A of human LDLR.

[0751] In some embodiments, the method or use comprises administering a polynucleotide, e.g., mRNA, comprising a human LDLR nucleic acid sequences listed in Table 3 A (e.g., selected from SEQ ID NO: 37-43, 56-63, and 70-718) altered to encode a human low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) or functional fragment thereof comprising at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain (e.g., corresponding to N316, L339, or the combination of N316 and L339 of human LDLR) and at least one or a single amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain (e.g., corresponding to K816, K830, C839, or any combination thereof of human LDLR). In some embodiments, the method or use comprises administering a polynucleotide comprising a mutation in the EGF-A domain corresponds to N316A of human LDLR and the mutation in the intracellular domain corresponds to K830R and/or C839A of human LDLR.

[0752] In some embodiments, the method or use comprises increasing LDLR expression (e.g., by at least 20%, e.g., at least 20%, at least 25%, at least 35%, or at least 40%) and/or decreasing LDL, cholesterol and/or triglyceride levels (e.g., by at least 20%, e.g., at least 20%, at least 25%, at least 35%, or at least 40%) compared to wild-type LDLR. LDLR related diseases, disorders and/or conditions

[0753] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides of the present invention can be used to treat and/or prevent LDLR-related diseases, disorders or conditions. Non-limiting examples of LDLR-related diseases, disorders or conditions include LDL lowering, cholesterol lowering, triglyceride lowering, hypercholesterolemia (e.g., familial hypercholesterolemia (FH)), hyperlipidemia, and atherosclerosis.

[0754] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides of the present invention can be used to reduce the risk of heart disease.

[0755] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides of the present invention can be used to reduce the risk of developing atherosclerosis. While not wishing to be bound by theory, atherosclerosis is responsible for a majority of cardiovascular diseases.

[0756] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides of the present invention can be used to treat and/or prevent hypercholesterolemia. As a non-limiting example, hypercholesterolemia is familial hypercholesterolemia.

[0757] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides of the present invention can be used to lower LDL, e.g., to less than 250 mg/dL, less than 240 mg/dL, less than 230 mg/dL, less than 220 mg/dL, less than 210 mg/dL, less than 200 mg/dL, less than 190 mg/dL, less than 180 mg/dL, less than 170 mg/dL, less than 160 mg/dL, or less than 150 mg/dL.

[0758] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides of the present invention can be used to lower LDL, cholesterol, and/or triglycerides in a subject. As a non-limiting example, the polynucleotides described herein can be able to lower LDL, cholesterol, and/or triglyceride levels in the plasma of a subject. In some embodiments, the LDL, cholesterol, and/or triglyceride level is at least 20%, at least 25%, at least 30%>, at least 35%, at least 40%, at least 45%, or at least 50%) lower than the LDL, cholesterol, and/or triglyceride level without administering the polynucleotide to a subject. In some embodiments, the LDL, cholesterol, and/or triglyceride level is at least 5-20%, at least 5-25%, at least 5-30%, at least 5-35%, at least 5-40%, at least 5-45%, or at least 5-50% lower than the LDL, cholesterol, and/or triglyceride level without administering the polynucleotide to a subject. In some embodiments, the LDL is reduced to less than 190 mg/dL.

[0759] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides of the present invention can be used to treat or prevent hyperlipidemia. Metabolic diseases, disorders and/or conditions

[0760] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides of the present invention can be used to treat and/or prevent metabolic diseases, disorders and/or conditions. As a non-limiting example, the metabolic disease, disorder or condition can be Acid Lipase Disease, Barth Syndrome (BTHS), Central Pontine Myelinolysis, Farber's Disease, Gangliosidoses, Hunter Syndrome, Hurler Syndrome, Trimethylaminuria, Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome, Lipid Storage Disease, Metabolic Myopathy, Mitochondrial Myopathy, Mucolipidoses, Mucolipidoses, Mucopolysaccharidoses, Pompe Disase, Glycogen Storage Disease, Urea Cycle Disease, Hyperoxaluria and Oxalosis.

Cardiovascular diseases, disorders and/or conditions

[0761] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides of the present invention can be used to treat and/or prevent cardiovascular diseases, disorders and/or conditions. As a non-limiting example, the cardiovascular disease, disorder or condition can be heart failure, ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, arrhythmia, stenosis, regurgitation, mitral valve prolapase.

Therapeutic Agents

[0762] The polynucleotides of the present invention, such as modified nucleic acids and modified RNAs, and the proteins translated from them described herein can be used as therapeutic or prophylactic agents. They are provided for use in medicine. For example, a polynucleotide described herein can be administered to a subject, wherein the polynucleotide is translated in vivo to produce a therapeutic or prophylactic polypeptide in the subject. Provided are compositions, methods, kits, and reagents for diagnosis, treatment or prevention of a disease or condition in humans and other mammals. The active therapeutic agents of the invention include polynucleotides, cells containing polynucleotides or polypeptides translated from the polynucleotides.

[0763] In certain embodiments, provided herein are combination therapeutics containing one or more polynucleotides containing translatable regions that encode for a protein or proteins that boost a mammalian subject's immunity along with a protein that induces antibody-dependent cellular toxicity. For example, provided herein are therapeutics containing one or more nucleic acids that encode trastuzumab and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). In particular, such combination therapeutics are useful in Her2+ breast cancer patients who develop induced resistance to trastuzumab. (See, e.g., Albrecht, Immunotherapy. 2(6):795-8 (2010)). [0764] Provided herein are methods of inducing translation of a recombinant polypeptide in a cell population using the polynucleotides described herein. Such translation can be in vivo, ex vivo, in culture, or in vitro. The cell population is contacted with an effective amount of a composition containing a nucleic acid that has at least one nucleoside modification, and a translatable region encoding the recombinant polypeptide. The population is contacted under conditions such that the nucleic acid is localized into one or more cells of the cell population and the recombinant polypeptide is translated in the cell from the nucleic acid.

[0765] An "effective amount" of the composition is provided based, at least in part, on the target tissue, target cell type, means of administration, physical characteristics of the nucleic acid {e.g., size, and extent of modified nucleosides), and other determinants. In general, an effective amount of the composition provides efficient protein production in the cell, preferably more efficient than a composition containing a corresponding unmodified nucleic acid. Increased efficiency can be demonstrated by increased cell transfection (i.e., the percentage of cells transfected with the nucleic acid), increased protein translation from the nucleic acid, decreased nucleic acid degradation (as demonstrated, e.g., by increased duration of protein translation from a modified nucleic acid), or reduced innate immune response of the host cell.

[0766] Aspects of the invention are directed to methods of inducing in vivo translation of a recombinant polypeptide in a mammalian subject in need thereof. Therein, an effective amount of a composition containing a nucleic acid that has at least one structural or chemical modification and a translatable region encoding the recombinant polypeptide is administered to the subject using the delivery methods described herein. The nucleic acid is provided in an amount and under other conditions such that the nucleic acid is localized into a cell of the subject and the recombinant polypeptide is translated in the cell from the nucleic acid. The cell in which the nucleic acid is localized, or the tissue in which the cell is present, can be targeted with one or more than one rounds of nucleic acid administration.

[0767] In certain embodiments, the administered polynucleotides directs production of one or more recombinant polypeptides that provide a functional activity which is substantially absent in the cell, tissue or organism in which the recombinant polypeptide is translated. For example, the missing functional activity can be enzymatic, structural, or gene regulatory in nature. In related embodiments, the administered polynucleotides directs production of one or more recombinant polypeptides that increases {e.g., synergistically) a functional activity which is present but substantially deficient in the cell in which the recombinant polypeptide is translated. [0768] In other embodiments, the administered polynucleotides directs production of one or more recombinant polypeptides that replace a polypeptide (or multiple polypeptides) that is substantially absent in the cell in which the recombinant polypeptide is translated. Such absence can be due to genetic mutation of the encoding gene or regulatory pathway thereof. In some embodiments, the recombinant polypeptide increases the level of an endogenous protein in the cell to a desirable level; such an increase may bring the level of the endogenous protein from a subnormal level to a normal level or from a normal level to a super-normal level.

[0769] Alternatively, the recombinant polypeptide functions to antagonize the activity of an endogenous protein present in, on the surface of, or secreted from the cell. Usually, the activity of the endogenous protein is deleterious to the subject; for example, due to mutation of the endogenous protein resulting in altered activity or localization. Additionally, the recombinant polypeptide antagonizes, directly or indirectly, the activity of a biological moiety present in, on the surface of, or secreted from the cell. Examples of antagonized biological moieties include lipids (e.g., cholesterol), a lipoprotein (e.g., low density lipoprotein), a nucleic acid, a carbohydrate, a protein toxin such as shiga and tetanus toxins, or a small molecule toxin such as botulinum, cholera, and diphtheria toxins. Additionally, the antagonized biological molecule can be an endogenous protein that exhibits an undesirable activity, such as a cytotoxic or cytostatic activity.

[0770] The recombinant proteins described herein can be engineered for localization within the cell, potentially within a specific compartment such as the nucleus, or are engineered for secretion from the cell or translocation to the plasma membrane of the cell.

[0771] In some embodiments, polynucleotides and their encoded polypeptides in accordance with the present invention can be used for treatment of any of a variety of diseases, disorders, and/or conditions, including but not limited to one or more of the following: autoimmune disorders (e.g. diabetes, lupus, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis); inflammatory disorders (e.g. arthritis, pelvic inflammatory disease); infectious diseases (e.g. viral infections (e.g., HIV, HCV, RSV), bacterial infections, fungal infections, sepsis); neurological disorders (e.g. Alzheimer's disease, Huntington' s disease; autism; Duchenne muscular dystrophy); cardiovascular disorders (e.g. atherosclerosis, hypercholesterolemia, thrombosis, clotting disorders, angiogenic disorders such as macular degeneration); proliferative disorders (e.g. cancer, benign neoplasms); respiratory disorders (e.g. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease); digestive disorders (e.g. inflammatory bowel disease, ulcers); musculoskeletal disorders (e.g. fibromyalgia, arthritis); endocrine, metabolic, and nutritional disorders (e.g. diabetes, osteoporosis); urological disorders (e.g. renal disease); psychological disorders (e.g. depression, schizophrenia); skin disorders (e.g. wounds, eczema); blood and lymphatic disorders (e.g. anemia, hemophilia); etc.

[0772] In some embodiments, the present invention provides a method for treating LDLR- related diseases, disorders or conditions, e.g., LDL lowering, cholesterol lowering, triglyceride lowering, hypercholesterolemia (e.g., familial hypercholesterolemia (FH)), hyperlipidemia, and atherosclerosis in a subject, by introducing into a cell population of the subject a polynucleotide, e.g., a modified mRNA, encoding a human LDLR comprising at least one mutation in the EGF-A domain (e.g., corresponding to N316, L339, or the combination of N316 and L339 of human LDLR) and at least one or a single amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain (e.g., corresponding to K816, K830, C839, or any combination thereof of human LDLR). In some embodiments, the mutation in the EGF-A domain corresponds to N316A, L339D, or N316A/L339D and the mutation in the intracellular domain corresponds to K816R, K830R, C839A, K816R/K830R, K816R/C839A, K830R/C839A, or K816R/K830R/C839A of human LDLR. In some embodiments, the mutation in the EGF-A domain corresponds to N316A of SEQ ID NO:43 and the mutation in the intracellular domain corresponds to K830R and/or C839A of SEQ ID NO:43. In some embodiments, the alterations, e.g., mutations, of the PCSK9 interacting domain and the IDOL interacting domain lead to an increase in LDLR protein expression. In some embodiments, the alteration, e.g., mutations, of the PCSK9 interacting domain and IDOL interacting domain promotes low density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake or lower LDL, cholesterol, and/or triglyceride plasma levels.Jn some embodiments, the method or use comprises increasing LDLR expression (e.g., by at least 20%, e.g., at least 20%, at least 25%, at least 35%, or at least 40%)) and/or decreasing LDL, cholesterol and/or triglyceride levels (e.g., by at least 20%, e.g., at least 20%), at least 25%, at least 35%, or at least 40%) compared to wild-type LDLR.

[0773] Other aspects of the present disclosure relate to transplantation of cells containing polynucleotides to a mammalian subject. Administration of cells to mammalian subjects is known to those of ordinary skill in the art, and include, but is not limited to, local implantation (e.g., topical or subcutaneous administration), organ delivery or systemic injection (e.g., intravenous injection or inhalation), and the formulation of cells in pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. Such compositions containing polynucleotides can be formulated for administration intramuscularly, transarterially, intraperitoneally, intravenously, intranasally, subcutaneously, endoscopically, transdermally, or intrathecally. In some embodiments, the composition can be formulated for extended release.

[0774] The subject to whom the therapeutic agent can be administered suffers from or can be at risk of developing a disease, disorder, or deleterious condition. Provided are methods of identifying, diagnosing, and classifying subjects on these bases, which can include clinical diagnosis, biomarker levels, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and other methods known in the art.

Modulation of the Immune Response

[0775] As described herein, a useful feature of the polynucleotides of the invention is the capacity to reduce, evade or avoid the innate immune response of a cell. In one aspect, provided herein are polynucleotides encoding a polypeptide of interest which when delivered to cells, results in a reduced immune response from the host as compared to the response triggered by a reference compound, e.g. an unmodified polynucleotide corresponding to a polynucleotide of the invention, or different polynucleotides of the invention. As used herein, a "reference compound" is any molecule or substance which when administered to a mammal, results in an innate immune response having a known degree, level or amount of immune stimmulation. A reference compound need not be a nucleic acid molecule and it need not be any of the polynucleotides of the invention. Hence, the measure of a polynucleotides avoidance, evasion or failure to trigger an immune response can be expressed in terms relative to any compound or substance which is known to trigger such a response.

[0776] The term "innate immune response" includes a cellular response to exogenous single stranded nucleic acids, generally of viral or bacterial origin, which involves the induction of cytokine expression and release, particularly the interferons, and cell death. As used herein, the innate immune response or interferon response operates at the single cell level causing cytokine expression, cytokine release, global inhibition of protein synthesis, global destruction of cellular RNA, upregulation of major histocompatibility molecules, and/or induction of apoptotic death, induction of gene transcription of genes involved in apoptosis, anti-growth, and innate and adaptive immune cell activation. Some of the genes induced by type I IFNs include PKR, ADAR (adenosine deaminase acting on RNA), OAS (2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase), RNase L, and Mx proteins. PKR and ADAR lead to inhibition of translation initiation and RNA editing, respectively. OAS is a dsRNA-dependent synthetase that activates the endoribonuclease RNase L to degrade ssRNA. [0777] In some embodiments, the innate immune response comprises expression of a Type I or Type II interferon, and the expression of the Type I or Type II interferon is not increased more than two-fold compared to a reference from a cell which has not been contacted with a polynucleotide of the invention.

[0778] In some embodiments, the innate immune response comprises expression of one or more IFN signature genes and where the expression of the one of more IFN signature genes is not increased more than three-fold compared to a reference from a cell which has not been contacted with the polynucleotides of the invention.

[0779] While in some circumstances, it might be advantageous to eliminate the innate immune response in a cell, the invention provides polynucleotides that upon administration result in a substantially reduced (significantly less) the immune response, including interferon signaling, without entirely eliminating such a response.

[0780] In some embodiments, the immune response is lower by 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 95%, 99%, 99.9%, or greater than 99.9% as compared to the immune response induced by a reference compound. The immune response itself can be measured by determining the expression or activity level of Type 1 interferons or the expression of interferon- regulated genes such as the toll-like receptors (e.g., TLR7 and TLR8). Reduction of innate immune response can also be measured by measuring the level of decreased cell death following one or more administrations to a cell population; e.g., cell death is 10%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 85%, 90%), 95%), or over 95% less than the cell death frequency observed with a reference compound. Moreover, cell death may affect fewer than 50%, 40%, 30%, 20%, 10%, 5%, 1%, 0.1%, 0.01% or fewer than 0.01% of cells contacted with the polynucleotides.

[0781] In another embodiment, the polynucleotides of the present invention are significantly less immunogenic than an unmodified in vitro-synthesized polynucleotide with the same sequence or a reference compound. As used herein, "significantly less immunogenic" refers to a detectable decrease in immunogenicity. In another embodiment, the term refers to a fold decrease in immunogenicity. In another embodiment, the term refers to a decrease such that an effective amount of the polynucleotides can be administered without triggering a detectable immune response. In another embodiment, the term refers to a decrease such that the polynucleotides can be repeatedly administered without eliciting an immune response sufficient to detectably reduce expression of the recombinant protein. In another embodiment, the decrease is such that the polynucleotides can be repeatedly administered without eliciting an immune response sufficient to eliminate detectable expression of the recombinant protein.

[0782] In another embodiment, the polynucleotides is 2-fold less immunogenic than its unmodified counterpart or reference compound. In another embodiment, immunogenicity is reduced by a 3-fold factor. In another embodiment, immunogenicity is reduced by a 5-fold factor. In another embodiment, immunogenicity is reduced by a 7-fold factor. In another embodiment, immunogenicity is reduced by a 10-fold factor. In another embodiment, immunogenicity is reduced by a 15-fold factor. In another embodiment, immunogenicity is reduced by a fold factor. In another embodiment, immunogenicity is reduced by a 50-fold factor. In another embodiment, immunogenicity is reduced by a 100-fold factor. In another embodiment, immunogenicity is reduced by a 200-fold factor. In another embodiment, immunogenicity is reduced by a 500-fold factor. In another embodiment, immunogenicity is reduced by a 1000-fold factor. In another embodiment, immunogenicity is reduced by a 2000-fold factor. In another embodiment, immunogenicity is reduced by another fold difference.

[0783] Methods of determining immunogenicity are well known in the art, and include, e.g. measuring secretion of cytokines (e.g. IL-12, IFNalpha, T F-alpha, RANTES, MIP-1 alpha or beta, IL-6, IFN-beta, or IL-8), measuring expression of DC activation markers (e.g. CD83, HLA- DR, CD80 and CD86), or measuring ability to act as an adjuvant for an adaptive immune response.

[0784] The polynucleotides of the invention, including the combination of modifications taught herein may have superior properties making them more suitable as therapeutic modalities.

[0785] It has been determined that the "all or none" model in the art is sorely insufficient to describe the biological phenomena associated with the therapeutic utility of the polynucleotides. The present inventors have determined that to improve protein production, one may consider the nature of the modification, or combination of modifications, the percent modification and survey more than one cytokine or metric to determine the efficacy and risk profile of a particular polynucleotide.

[0786] In one aspect of the invention, methods of determining the effectiveness of a polynucleotide as compared to unmodified involves the measure and analysis of one or more cytokines whose expression is triggered by the administration of the exogenous nucleic acid of the invention. These values are compared to administration of an umodified nucleic acid or to a standard metric such as cytokine response, PolylC, R-848 or other standard known in the art. [0787] One example of a standard metric developed herein is the measure of the ratio of the level or amount of encoded polypeptide (protein) produced in the cell, tissue or organism to the level or amount of one or more (or a panel) of cytokines whose expression is triggered in the cell, tissue or organism as a result of administration or contact with the modified nucleic acid. Such ratios are referred to herein as the Protein: Cytokine Ratio or "PC" Ratio. The higher the PC ratio, the more efficacioius the modified nucleic acid (polynucleotide encoding the protein measured). Preferred PC Ratios, by cytokine, of the present invention can be greater than 1, greater than 10, greater than 100, greater than 1000, greater than 10,000 or more. Modified nucleic acids having higher PC Ratios than a modified nucleic acid of a different or unmodified construct are preferred.

[0788] The PC ratio can be further qualified by the percent modification present in the polynucleotide. For example, normalized to a 100% modified nucleic acid, the protein production as a function of cytokine (or risk) or cytokine profile can be determined.

[0789] In some embodiments, the present invention provides a method for determining, across chemistries, cytokines or percent modification, the relative efficacy of any particular modified the polynucleotides by comparing the PC Ratio of the modified nucleic acid (polynucleotides).

[0790] Polynucleotides containing varying levels of nucleobase subsitutions could be produced that maintain increased protein production and decreased immunostimulatory potential. The relative percentage of any modified nucleotide to its naturally occurring nucleotide counterpart can be varied during the IVT reaction (for instance, 100, 50, 25, 10, 5, 2.5, 1, 0.1, 0.01% 5 methyl cytidine usage versus cytidine; 100, 50, 25, 10, 5, 2.5, 1, 0.1, 0.01% pseudouridine or Nl-methyl-pseudouridine usage versus uridine). Polynucleotides can also be made that utilize different ratios using 2 or more different nucleotides to the same base (for instance, different ratios of pseudouridine and Nl-methyl-pseudouridine). Polynucleotides can also be made with mixed ratios at more than 1 "base" position, such as ratios of 5 methyl cytidine/cytidine and pseudouridine/Nl-methyl-pseudouridine/uridine at the same time. Use of modified mRNA with altered ratios of modified nucleotides can be beneficial in reducing potential exposure to chemically modified nucleotides. Lastly, positional introduction of modified nucleotides into the polynucleotides which modulate either protein production or immunostimulatory potential or both is also possible. The ability of such polynucleotides to demonstrate these improved properties can be assessed in vitro (using assays such as the PBMC assay described herein), and can also be assessed in vivo through measurement of both polynucleotides-encoded protein production and mediators of innate immune recognition such as cytokines.

[0791] In another embodiment, the relative immunogenicity of the polynucleotides and its unmodified counterpart are determined by determining the quantity of the polynucleotides required to elicit one of the above responses to the same degree as a given quantity of the unmodified nucleotide or reference compound. For example, if twice as much polynucleotides are required to elicit the same response, than the polynucleotides is two-fold less immunogenic than the unmodified nucleotide or the reference compound.

[0792] In another embodiment, the relative immunogenicity of the polynucleotides and its unmodified counterpart are determined by determining the quantity of cytokine (e.g. IL-12, IFNalpha, T F-alpha, RANTES, MIP-1 alpha or beta, IL-6, IFN-beta, or IL-8) secreted in response to administration of the polynucleotides, relative to the same quantity of the unmodified nucleotide or reference compound. For example, if one-half as much cytokine is secreted, than the polynucleotides is two-fold less immunogenic than the unmodified nucleotide. In another embodiment, background levels of stimulation are subtracted before calculating the immunogenicity in the above methods.

[0793] Provided herein are also methods for performing the titration, reduction or elimination of the immune response in a cell or a population of cells. In some embodiments, the cell is contacted with varied doses of the same polynucleotides and dose response is evaluated. In some embodiments, a cell is contacted with a number of different polynucleotides at the same or different doses to determine the optimal composition for producing the desired effect. Regarding the immune response, the desired effect can be to avoid, evade or reduce the immune response of the cell. The desired effect may also be to alter the efficiency of protein production.

[0794] The polynucleotides of the present invention can be used to reduce the immune response using the method described in International Publication No. WO2013003475, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

Naturally Occuring Mutants

[0795] In another embodiment, the polynucleotides can be utilized to express variants of naturally occurring proteins that have an improved disease modifying activity, including increased biological activity, improved patient outcomes, or a protective function, etc. Many such modifier genes have been described in mammals (Nadeau, Current Opinion in Genetics & Development 2003 13 :290-295; Hamilton and Yu, PLoS Genet. 2012;8:el002644; Corder et al., Nature Genetics 1994 7: 180 - 184; all herein incorporated by reference in their entireties). Examples in humans include Apo E2 protein, Apo A-I variant proteins (Apo A-I Milano, Apo A- I Paris), hyperactive Factor IX protein (Factor IX Padua Arg338Lys), transthyretin mutants (TTR Thrl 19Met). Expression of ApoE2 (cysl 12, cysl58) has been shown to confer protection relative to other ApoE isoforms (ApoE3 (cysl 12, argl58), and ApoE4 (argl l2, argl58)) by reducing susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease and possibly other conditions such as cardiovascular disease (Corder et al., Nature Genetics 1994 7: 180 - 184; Seripa et al., Rejuvenation Res. 2011 14:491- 500; Liu et al. Nat Rev Neurol. 2013 9: 106-118; all herein incorporated by reference in their entireties). Expression of Apo A-I variants has been associated with reduced cholesterol (deGoma and Rader, 2011 Nature Rev Cardiol 8:266-271; Nissen et al., 2003 JAMA 290:2292- 2300; all herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). The amino acid sequence of ApoA-I in certain populations has been changed to cysteine in Apo A-I Milano (Arg 173 changed to Cys) and in Apo A-I Paris (Arg 151 changed to Cys). Factor IX mutation at position R338L (FIX Padua) results in a Factor IX protein that has ~ 10-fold increased activity (Simioni et al., N Engl J Med. 2009 361 : 1671-1675; Finn et al., Blood. 2012 120:4521-4523; Cantore et al., Blood. 2012 120:4517-20; all herein incorporated by reference in their entireties). Mutation of transthyretin at positions 104 or 119 (Argl04 His, Thrl l9Met) has been shown to provide protection to patients also harboring the disease causing Val30Met mutations (Saraiva, Hum Mutat. 2001 17:493-503; DATA BASE ON TRANSTHYRETIN MUTATIONS

http://www.ibmc.up.pt/mjsaraiva/ttrmut.html; all herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). Differences in clinical presentation and severity of symptoms among Portuguese and Japanese Met 30 patients carrying respectively the Met 119 and the Hisl04 mutations are observed with a clear protective effect exerted by the non pathogenic mutant (Coelho et al. 1996 Neuromuscular Disorders (Suppl) 6: S20; Terazaki et al. 1999. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 264: 365-370; all herein incorporated by reference in its entirety), which confer more stability to the molecule. A modified mRNA encoding these protective TTR alleles can be expressed in TTR amyloidosis patients, thereby reducing the effect of the pathogenic mutant TTR protein.

Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor (LDLR)

[0796] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides described herein encode at least one low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) protein, functional fragment, or variant thereof. The structure of LDLR is shown in Figure 4a of Watson et al., Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 7, 84- 99 (January 2008); the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). LDLR comprises a ligand-binding domain, epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like regions, β- propeller structure, a glycosylated region, a membrane spanning domain and cytoplasmic region. The receptor consists of seven repeats of a cysteine-rich ligand-binding domain, three EGF precursor-like repeats, a six-bladed β -propeller structure composed of Tyr-Trp-Thr-Asp, a heavily glycosylated region, a membrane-spanning domain and a small cytosolic domain containing a NPXY motif for signal transduction.

[0797] LDLR plays a critical role in regulating the amount of cholesterol in the blood. LDLR is particularly abundant in the liver, which is the organ responsible for removing most excess cholesterol from the body. The number of LDLRs on the surface of liver cells determines how quickly cholesterol (in the form of low-density lipoproteins) is removed from the bloodstream. Variants, such as mutants, in the LDLR protein can cause the autosomal dominant disorder familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) also known as the inherited form of high cholesterol. LDL is most often considered to be too high if it is 190 mg/dL or higher. A typical FH patient has an average LDL between 400-1000 mg/dL.

[0798] LDLR transports circulating LDL in the bloodstream into the cell where LDL is broken down to release cholesterol to be used, stored and/or removed from the body (see e.g., Figure 4 in Daniels et al. Int J Biol Sci 2009; 5(5): 474-488, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). Receptors are then recycled to the cell surface. Defective LDLR results in FH and can increase the risk of atherosclerosis and heart disease.

[0799] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides described herein encode at least one LDLR protein comprising at least one mutation (e.g., a LDLR cell surface expression enhancing mutation, a mutation increasing the residence time of LDLR at the cell surface or a mutation resulting in increased levels of LDLR at the cell surface). The LDLR protein can include at least one, at least two, at least three, at least four, at least five, at least six, at least seven, at least eight, at least nine or at least 10 mutations. The mutations can be located in 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or more than 5 different domains of the LDLR protein. In one aspect, the mutation or mutations can be located in the same domain of the LDLR protein. In another aspect, the mutations can be located in 2 different domains of the LDLR. Non-limiting examples of domains of the LDLR protein where mutations can be located include the EGF-A domain and the intracellular domain.

[0800] In some embodiments, when the LDLR protein comprises more than one mutation, and the mutations can be located in the same domain of the LDLR protein or can be located in different domains of the LDLR protein. As a non-limiting example, the mutations can be located in the EGF-A domain of the LDLR protein. As further embodiment, a single mutation is also located in the intracellular domain of the LDLR protein.

[0801] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides described herein comprise at least one mutation (e.g., a LDLR cell surface expression-enhancing mutation, a mutation increasing the residence time of LDLR at the cell surface or a mutation resulting in increased levels of LDLR at the cell surface).

[0802] In some embodiments, the polynucleotide of the invention, e.g., a modified mRNA, encodes a human LDLR comprising at least one mutation in the EGF-A domain (e.g., corresponding to N316, L339, or the combination of N316 and L339 of human LDLR) and at least one or a single amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain (e.g., corresponding to K816, K830, C839, or any combination thereof of human LDLR). In some embodiments, the mutation in the EGF-A domain corresponds to N316A, L339D, or N316A/L339D and the mutation in the intracellular domain corresponds to K816R, K830R, C839A, K816R/K830R, K816R/C839A, K830R/C839A, or K816R/K830R/C839A of human LDLR. In some embodiments, the mutation in the EGF-A domain corresponds to N316A of SEQ ID NO:43 and the mutation in the intracellular domain corresponds to K830R and/or C839A of SEQ ID NO:43. In some embodiments, the alterations, e.g., mutations, of the PCSK9 interacting domain and the IDOL interacting domain lead to an increase in human LDLR protein expression. In some embodiments, mutations of the PCSK9 interacting domain and IDOL interacting domain promotes low density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake or lower LDL, cholesterol, and/or triglyceride plasma levels. In some embodiments, the polynucleotide, e.g., modified mRNA, increases LDLR expression (e.g., by at least 20%, e.g., at least 20%, at least 25%, at least 35%, or at least 40%) and/or decreases LDL, cholesterol and/or triglyceride levels (e.g., by at least 20%, e.g., at least 20%), at least 25%, at least 35%, or at least 40%) compared to wild-type LDLR.

LDLR Mutants - EGF-A domain

[0803] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides described herein encode at least one LDLR protein comprising at least one mutation (e.g., a LDLR cell surface expression-enhancing mutation, a mutation increasing the residence time of LDLR at the cell surface or a mutation resulting in increased levels of LDLR at the cell surface) in the EGF-A domain of the LDLR protein. As a non-limiting example, the EGF-A domain of the LDLR protein can comprise a sequence at least 20%, at least 30%, at least 40%, at least 50%, at least 60%, at least 70%, at least 80%, at least 90%, at least 95%, at least 98% or at least 99% homologous to the sequence GT ECLDNNGGCSHVC DLKIGYECLCPDGFQLVAQRRCE (SEQ ID NO: 719). As a non- limiting example, the EGF-A of the LDLR protein can comprise the sequence GTNECLDNNGGCSHVCNDLKIGYECLCPDGFQLVAQRRCE (SEQ ID NO: 719). In one aspect, the mutation can be the replacement of an amino acid with electrically charged side chain, acidic (e.g., aspartic acid or glutamic acid) with another acidic amino acid with an electrically charged side chain, acid. As a non-limiting example, Aspartic acid (Asp, D) can be replaced with Glutamic Acid (Glu, E). In another aspect, the mutation can be the replacement of an amino acid with a hydrophobic side chain, aliphatic (e.g., alanine, isoleucine, leucine or valine) with an amino acid with electrically charged side chain, acidic (e.g., aspartic acid or glutamic acid). As a non-limiting example, Leucine (Leu, L) can be replaced with Aspartic acid (Asp, D). In yet another aspect, the mutation can be the replacement of an amino acid with polar neutral side chains (e.g., asparagine, cysteine, glutamine, methionine, serine or threonine) with an amino acid with a hydrophobic side chain, aliphatic (e.g., alanine, isoleucine, leucine or valine). As a non- limiting example, Asparagine (Asn, N) can be replaced with Alanine (Ala, A). In another aspect, the mutation can be the replacement of an amino acid with electrically charged side chain, acidic (e.g., aspartic acid or glutamic acid) with an amino acid with a hydrophobic side chain, aliphatic (e.g., alanine, isoleucine, leucine or valine) As a non-limiting example, Glutamic acid (Glu, E) can be replaced with Alanine (Ala, A).

[0804] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides described herein encode at least one human LDLR protein where the protein is SEQ ID NO: 43 and the EGF-A domain is defined as amino acid 314 - amino acid 353 of SEQ ID NO: 43. The LDLR protein can include at least one mutation (e.g., a LDLR cell surface expression-enhancing mutation, a mutation increasing the residence time of LDLR at the cell surface or a mutation resulting in increased levels of LDLR at the cell surface) in the EGF-A domain such as, but not limited to, Aspartic acid at position 331 replaced with Glutamic acid (referred to as D331E), Leucine at position 339 replaced with Aspartic acid (referred to as L339D), Asparagine at position 316 replaced at Alanine (referred to as N316A), Glutamic acid at position 317 replaced with Alanine (referred to as E317A) or a combination thereof. As a non-limiting example, the LDLR protein includes at least one mutation in the EGF-A domain which is D331E. As another non-limiting example, the LDLR protein includes at least one mutation in the EGF-A domain which is L339D. As yet another non-limiting example, the LDLR protein includes at least one mutation in the EGF-A domain which is N316 A. As yet another non-limiting example, the LDLR protein includes at least one mutation in the EGF-A domain which is E317A. As another non-limiting example, the LDLR protein includes at least one mutation in the EGF-A domain which is D331E and L339D. As another non-limiting example, the LDLR protein includes at least one mutation in the EGF-A domain which is D331E and N316A. As another non-limiting example, the LDLR protein includes at least one mutation in the EGF-A domain which is D331E and E317A. As another non-limiting example, the LDLR protein includes at least one mutation in the EGF-A domain which is L339D and N316A. As another non-limiting example, the LDLR protein includes at least one mutation in the EGF-A domain which is L339D and E317A. As another non-limiting example, the LDLR protein includes at least one mutation in the EGF-A domain which is N316A and E317A.

LDLR Mutants - Intracellular domain

[0805] IDOL dependent LDLR degradation was analyzed using mutational analysis in Zelcer et al., Science 325: 100-104 (2009). It was shown that IDOL had no effect on an LDLR lacking the entire 50-amino acid intracellular domain. Furthermore, Zelcer et al. prepared mouse LDLR proteins with mutations in the intracellular domain at Kl, K6, K20, and/or C29 (corresponding to mouse LDLR K813, K818, K832, and C841, respectively). Single mutations of any of these residues, or combined mutation of all three lysine residues, did not prevent IDOL from degrading the LDLR. However, superimposing a cysteine mutation on constructs containing two or three mutated lysines rendered the LDLR insensitive to degradation. Zelcer et al. reported that intact K20 or intact C29 was required for IDOL-mediated degradation.

[0806] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides described herein encode a LDLR protein comprising a single mutation in the intracellular domain of the human LDLR protein, e.g., a single mutation at K811, K816, K830, and C839 of SEQ ID NO:43. In some embodiments, the single mutation is K830R or C839A. In some embodiments, the encoded LDLR protein comprises an intact K830 or intact C839. In some embodiments, the intracellular domain of the LDLR protein can comprise a sequence at least 20%, at least 30%, at least 40%, at least 50%, at least 60%, at least 70%, at least 80%, at least 90%, at least 95%, at least 98% or at least 99% homologous to the sequence

KNWRLKNINSINFDNPVYQKTTEDEVHICHNQDGYSYPSRQMVSLEDDVA (SEQ ID NO: 720). As a non-limiting example, the intracellular domain of the LDLR protein can comprise can comprise the sequence

KNWRLKNINSINFDNPVYQKTTEDEVHICHNQDGYSYPSRQMVSLEDDVA (SEQ ID NO: 720). In one aspect, the mutation can be the replacement of an amino acid with electrically charged side chain, basic (e.g., arginine, histidine, lysine) with another amino acid with electrically charged side chain, basic. As a non-limiting example, Lysine (Lys, K) can be replaced with Arginine (Arg, R). In another aspect, the mutation can be the replacement of an amino acid with polar neutral side chains (e.g., asparagine, cysteine, glutamine, methionine, serine or threonine) with an amino acid with a hydrophobic side chain, aliphatic (e.g., alanine, isoleucine, leucine or valine). As an example, Cysteine (Cys, C) can be replaced with Alanine (Ala, A). As another example, Asparagine (Asn, N) can be replaced with Alanine (Ala, A).

[0807] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides described herein encode at least one LDLR protein where the protein is SEQ ID NO: 43 and the intracellular domain is defined as amino acid 81 1 - amino acid 860 of SEQ ID NO: 43. The LDLR protein can include a single mutation (e.g., a LDLR cell surface expression-enhancing mutation, a mutation increasing the residence time of LDLR at the cell surface or a mutation resulting in increased levels of LDLR at the cell surface) in the intracellular domain such as, but not limited to, Lysine at position 81 1 replaced with Arginine (referred to as K81 1R), Lysine at position 816 replaced with Arginine (referred to as K816R), Lysine at position 830 replaced with Arginine (referred to as K830R) or Cysteine at position 839 replaced with Alanine (referred to as C839A).

[0808] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides described herein encode at least one LDLR protein comprising a single mutation in the intracellular domain of the human LDLR protein sequence (e.g., a LDLR cell surface expression-enhancing mutation, a mutation increasing the residence time of LDLR at the cell surface or a mutation resulting in increased levels of LDLR at the cell surface). As an example, the LDLR protein comprises at least one or a single the mutation in the intracellular domain selected from a mutation at K830, K816, C839, or any combination thereof. As an example, the LDLR protein comprises a single the mutation in the intracellular domain selected from K830R, K816R, or C839A. In a further embodiment, at least one of K830 or C839 is intact.

LDLR Mutants - EGF-A Domain and Intracellular Domain

[0809] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides described herein encode at least one LDLR protein comprising at least one mutation (e.g., a LDLR cell surface expression-enhancing mutation, a mutation increasing the residence time of LDLR at the cell surface or a mutation resulting in increased levels of LDLR at the cell surface) in the EGF-A domain and a single mutation (e.g., a LDLR cell surface expression-enhancing mutation, a mutation increasing the residence time of LDLR at the cell surface or a mutation resulting in increased levels of LDLR at the cell surface) in the intracellular domain of the LDLR protein.

[0810] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides described herein encode at least one LDLR protein comprising one mutation (e.g., a LDLR cell surface expression-enhancing mutation, a mutation increasing the residence time of LDLR at the cell surface or a mutation resulting in increased levels of LDLR at the cell surface mutation) in the EGF-A domain and one mutation (e.g., a LDLR cell surface expression-enhancing mutation, a mutation increasing the residence time of LDLR at the cell surface or a mutation resulting in increased levels of LDLR at the cell surface) in the intracellular domain. As a non-limiting example, the LDLR protein comprises the mutation N316A in the EGF-A domain and the mutation K830R or C839A in the intracellular domain. As a non-limiting example, the LDLR protein comprises the mutation L339D in the EGF-A domain and the mutations K830R or C839A in the intracellular domain.

[0811] In some embodiments, the mutant polynucleotide of the invention, e.g., mRNA, encodes a human low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) or functional fragment thereof comprising at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain (e.g., corresponding to N316, L339, or the combination of N316 and L339 of human LDLR) and at least one or a single amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain (e.g., corresponding to K816, K830, C839, or any combination thereof of human LDLR). In some embodiments, the mutant polynucleotide, e.g,. mRNA, encodes a human LDLR or functional fragment thereof comprising at least one mutation in the EGF-A domain corresponding to N316A, L339D, or N316A/L339D and the single mutation in the intracellular domain corresponding to K816R, K830R, C839A, K816R/K830R, K816R/C839A, K830R/C839A, or K816R/K830R/C839A of human LDLR. In some embodiments, the mutant polynucleotide, e.g., mRNA, encodes a human LDLR or functional fragment thereof comprising a mutation in the EGF-A domain corresponding to N316A of human LDLR and the mutation in the intracellular domain corresponding to K830R and/or C839A of human LDLR.

[0812] In some embodiments, the mutant polynucleotide, e.g., mRNA, comprises a human LDLR nucleic acid sequences listed in Table 3A (e.g., selected from SEQ ID NO: 37-43, 56-63, and 70-718) altered to encode a human low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) or functional fragment thereof comprising at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain (e.g., corresponding to N316, L339, or the combination of N316 and L339 of human LDLR) and at least one or a single amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain (e.g., corresponding to K816, K830, C839, or any combination thereof of human LDLR). In some embodiments, the mutant polynucleotide comprises a mutation in the EGF-A domain corresponds to N316A of human LDLR and the mutation in the intracellular domain corresponds to K830R and/or C839A of human LDLR.

[0813] In some embodiments, the mutant polynucleotide increases LDLR expression (e.g., by at least 20-50%, e.g., by at least 20%, at least 25%, at least 30%, at least 35%, at least 40%, at least 45%), or at least 50%>) and/or decreases LDL, cholesterol and/or triglyceride levels (e.g., by at least 20-50%, e.g., by at least 20%, at least 25%, at least 30%, at least 35%, at least 40%, at least 45%), or at least 50%>) compared to wild-type LDLR.

LDLR Mutants - EGF-A domain and PCSK9 binding

[0814] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides described herein encode at least one LDLR protein comprising at least one mutation (e.g., a LDLR cell surface expression-enhancing mutation, a mutation increasing the residence time of LDLR at the cell surface or a mutation resulting in increased levels of LDLR at the cell surface) in the EGF-A domain which causes the LDLR protein to be deficient in proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) binding. The binding site of PCSK-9 has been previously localized to the EGF-A (or EGF-like repeat) domain of LDLR (see e.g., Kwon et al. Molecular Basis for LDL receptor recognition by PCSK9. PNAS. 2008 105(6), 1820-1825; the contents of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0815] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides described herein encode at least one LDLR protein which is deficient is binding to PCSK9. As a non-limiting example, the LDLR protein can comprise at least one mutation (e.g., a LDLR cell surface expression-enhancing mutation, a mutation increasing the residence time of LDLR at the cell surface or a mutation resulting in increased levels of LDLR at the cell surface) to be PCSK9 binding deficient as described herein.

LDLR Mutants - Intracellular domain and IDOL

[0816] In another embodiment, the polynucleotides described herein encode at least one LDLR protein comprising at least one mutation (e.g., a LDLR cell surface expression-enhancing mutation, a mutation increasing the residence time of LDLR at the cell surface or a mutation resulting in increased levels of LDLR at the cell surface) in the intracellular domain which prevents IDOL (inducible degrader of the LDLR also known as mosin regulatory ligh chain interacting protein (MYLIP)) from degrading the LDLR (See e.g., the intracellular domain mutations described by Zelcer et al. Science 2009 325(5936): 100-104; Sorrentino and Zelcer 2012 23(3):213-219; and Zhang et al. J Lipid Research 2013 54: 1410-1420; the contents of each of which are herein incorporated by reference in their entirety). While not wishing to be bound by theory, IDOL contains a band 4.1 and Ezrin/Radizin/Moeisin homology (FERM) domain that mediates interactions with cytoplasmic domains of transmembrane proteins. IDOL also contains a C-terminal RING domain and has been proposed to act as an E3-ubiquitin ligase.

[0817] According to Zelcer et al., the LDLR intracellular domain contains three highly conserved lysines and one cysteine that could be potential sites for ubiquitination. The single mutation of any of theses residues or the mutation of all three lysines did not prevent degradation of LDLR by IDOL. Zelcer et al. described that that either an intact K20 or an intact C29 of the intracellular domain was important for IDOL-mediated degradation. Zhang states that depending on the usage of the lysine residues on ubiquitation, various linkage-specific ubiquitations can happen with K48 and K68 linkage-specific ubiquitinations being the most predominant forms of polyubiquitination.

LDLR Mutants - DAB2 binding deficient

[0818] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides described herein can be deficient in binding to disable homolog 2, mitogen-responsive phosphoprotein (DAB2). While not wishing to be bound by theory, the DAB2 binding-deficient LDLR may limit the internalization of LDLR through the DAB2 pathway and thus reducing LDLR uptake.

LDLR Mutants - NPXY motif

[0819] In some embodiments, the NPXY motif of LDLR can be modified in order to alter the signal for rapid endocytosis through coated pits of LDLR. The NPXY motif can comprise at least one mutation, at least two mutations, at least three mutations, at least four mutations or more than four mutations. As a non-limiting example, the NPXY motif can comprise amino acid 822 through amino acid 829 of a LDLR sequence. As another non-limiting example, the NPXY motif can comprise the sequence NFDNPVYQ (SEQ ID NO: 721).

[0820] In some embodiments, the LDLR sequence does not comprise a mutation in the NPXY motif. In another embodiment, the LDLR sequence can comprise a mutation but the mutation may not be at position 822, 826, 827 or 828 of LDLR where amino acid 822 through amino acid 829 of LDLR is shown in (SEQ ID NO: 721). LDLR Mutants - NPXY motif and SNX17 binding

[0821] In another embodiment, the NPXY motif of LDLR can be modified to reduce the binding of Sorting Nexin 17 (SNX17) to the NPXY motif of LDLR. The reduction of binding of SNX17 to the NPXY motif of LDLR can be used to regulate the endosomal recycling of receptors.

[0822] In some embodiments, the PX domain (PI3P binding) of SNX17 can comprise at least one mutation. The at least one mutation may alter the ability of SNX17 to bind to the NPXY motif of LDLR and thus regulate the endosomal recycling of receptors.

[0823] In some embodiments, the FERM-like domain of SNX17 can comprise at least one mutation. The at least one mutation may alter the ability of SNX17 to bind to the NPXY motif of LDLR and thus regulate the endosomal recycling of receptors.

[0824] In some embodiments, the Ras-association domain of SNX17 can comprise at least one mutation. The at least one mutation may alter the ability of SNX17 to bind to the NPXY motif of LDLR and thus regulate the endosomal recycling of receptors.

LDLR Mutants and Phosphorylation

[0825] In some embodiments, a LDLR sequence described herein can comprise at least one amino acid which has been phosphorylated. As a non-limiting example, at least one amino acid in the sequence NQDGYSYPSR (SEQ ID NO: 722) can be phosphorylated. As a non-limiting example, the two tyrosines (Ys) in SEQ ID NO: 722 of LDLR can be phosphorylated. As another non-limiting example, at least one tyrosine (Y) in the LDLR sequence described herein can be phosphorylated. As yet another non-limiting example, tyrosine at position 845 and tyrosine at position 847 of LDLR described herein are phosphorylated.

[0826] In some embodiments, a LDLR sequence described herein can comprise at least one amino acid which has been phosphorylated but tyrosine at position 828 is not phosphorylated.

[0827] In another embodiment, a LDLR sequences described herein can comprise at least one amino acid which has been phosphorylated, wherein at least one of the amino acids is tyrosine at position 828.

LDLR Mutants - C-terminal variant

[0828] In some embodiments, the LDLR sequence described herein can comprise at least one amino acid mutation in the C-terminal sequence LEDDVA (SEQ ID NO: 7). As a non-limiting example, SEQ ID NO: 723 can be amino acid 855 through amino acid 860 of the LDLR sequence.

LDLR Mutants - N-linked glycosylation site

[0829] In some embodiments, the LDLR sequences can comprise at least one mutation at an N-linked glycosylation site of the LDLR sequence. As a non-limiting example, at least one mutation can be located at amino acid 97, 156, 272, 515 and/or 657.

[0830] In another embodiment, the LDLR sequences can comprise at least one mutation at an O-linked glycosylation site of the LDLR sequence. As a non-limiting example, at least one mutation can be located at amino acids 721-768.

[0831] In yet another embodiment, the LDLR sequences can comprise at least one mutation at an N-linked glycosylation site ant at least one mutation at an O-linked glycosylation site.

LDLR Mutant - LDLRAP 1

[0832] In some embodiments, the polynucleotides described herein can be deficient in binding to low density lipoprotein receptor adaptor protein 1 (LDLRAPl). While not wishing to be bound by theory, the LDLRAPl binding-deficient LDLR may limit the binding and internalization of LDLR and thus reducing LDLR uptake

LDLR Mutant - Fusions

[0833] In some embodiments, the ecto-domains of LDLR sequences and constructs described herein can be fused with cytoplasmic domains. As a non-limiting example, LDLR ecto-domain can be fused with folate receptor TM-cytoplasmic domain. As another non-limiting example, LDLR ecto-domain can be fused with GPI-linked receptor TM-cytoplasmic domain.

LDLR Mutant - Surface- Signalling Enhancing Mutations

[0834] In some embodiments, the LDLR protein comprises at least one mutation (e.g., a LDLR cell surface expression-enhancing mutation, a mutation increasing the residence time of LDLR at the cell surface or a mutation resulting in increased levels of LDLR at the cell surface) to enhance the surface expression of LDLR. As a non-limiting example, at least one mutation is located in the EGF-A domain, the intracellular domain, a domain or region of LDLR described herein, or a combination thereof. As a non-limiting example, at least one mutation is located in the EGF-A domain and the intracellular domain in order to enhance the surface expression of LDLR. Bioprocessing

[0835] The polynucleotides and methods of making the polynucleotides can be useful for enhancing protein product yield in a cell culture process. Bioprocessing methods and uses thereof are described in International Patent Publication No. WO2013151666, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

Cells

[0836] In some embodiments, the cells are selected from the group consisting of mammalian cells, bacterial cells, plant, microbial, algal and fungal cells. In some embodiments, the cells are mammalian cells, such as, but not limited to, human, mouse, rat, goat, horse, rabbit, hamster or cow cells. In a further embodiment, the cells can be from an established cell line, including, but not limited to, HeLa, NSO, SP2/0, KEK 293T, Vero, Caco, Caco-2, MDCK, COS-1, COS-7, K562, Jurkat, CHO-K1, DG44, CHOK1 SV, CHO-S, Huvec, CV-1, Huh-7, NIH3T3, HEK293, 293, A549, HepG2, IMR-90, MCF-7, U-20S, Per.C6, SF9, SF21 or Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells.

[0837] In certain embodiments, the cells are fungal cells, such as, but not limited to, Chrysosporium cells, Aspergillus cells, Trichoderma cells, Dictyostelium cells, Candida cells, Saccharomyces cells, Schizosaccharomyces cells, and Penicillium cells.

[0838] In certain embodiments, the cells are bacterial cells such as, but not limited to, E. coli, B. subtilis, or BL21 cells. Primary and secondary cells to be transfected by the methods of the invention can be obtained from a variety of tissues and include, but are not limited to, all cell types which can be maintained in culture. For examples, primary and secondary cells which can be transfected by the methods of the invention include, but are not limited to, fibroblasts, keratinocytes, epithelial cells (e.g., mammary epithelial cells, intestinal epithelial cells), endothelial cells, glial cells, neural cells, formed elements of the blood (e.g., lymphocytes, bone marrow cells), muscle cells and precursors of these somatic cell types. Primary cells may also be obtained from a donor of the same species or from another species (e.g., mouse, rat, rabbit, cat, dog, pig, cow, bird, sheep, goat, horse).

Purification and Isolation

[0839] Those of ordinary skill in the art should be able to make a determination of the methods to use to purify or isolate of a protein of interest from cultured cells. Generally, this is done through a capture method using affinity binding or non-affinity purification. If the protein of interest is not secreted by the cultured cells, then a lysis of the cultured cells should be performed prior to purification or isolation. One may use unclarified cell culture fluid containing the protein of interest along with cell culture media components as well as cell culture additives, such as anti-foam compounds and other nutrients and supplements, cells, cellular debris, host cell proteins, DNA, viruses and the like in the present invention. The process can be conducted in the bioreactor itself. The fluid may either be preconditioned to a desired stimulus such as pH, temperature or other stimulus characteristic or the fluid can be conditioned upon the addition of polymer(s) or the polymer(s) can be added to a carrier liquid that is properly conditioned to the required parameter for the stimulus condition required for that polymer to be solubilized in the fluid. The polymer can be allowed to circulate thoroughly with the fluid and then the stimulus can be applied (change in pH, temperature, salt concentration, etc) and the desired protein and polymer(s) precipitate can out of the solution. The polymer and the desired protein(s) can be separated from the rest of the fluid and optionally washed one or more times to remove any trapped or loosely bound contaminants. The desired protein may then be recovered from the polymer(s) by, for example, elution and the like. Preferably, the elution can be done under a set of conditions such that the polymer remains in its precipitated form and retains any impurities to it during the selected elution of the desired protein. The polymer and protein as well as any impurities can be solubilized in a new fluid such as water or a buffered solution and the protein can be recovered by a means such as affinity, ion exchanged, hydrophobic, or some other type of chromatography that has a preference and selectivity for the protein over that of the polymer or impurities. The eluted protein may then be recovered and can be subjected to additional processing steps, either batch like steps or continuous flow through steps if appropriate.

[0840] In another embodiment, it can be useful to optimize the expression of a specific polypeptide in a cell line or collection of cell lines of potential interest, particularly a polypeptide of interest such as a protein variant of a reference protein having a known activity. In some embodiments, provided is a method of optimizing expression of a polypeptide of interest in a target cell, by providing a plurality of target cell types, and independently contacting with each of the plurality of target cell types a modified mRNA encoding a polypeptide. Additionally, culture conditions can be altered to increase protein production efficiency. Subsequently, the presence and/or level of the polypeptide of interest in the plurality of target cell types is detected and/or quantitated, allowing for the optimization of a polypeptide of interest's expression by selection of an efficient target cell and cell culture conditions relating thereto. Such methods can be useful when the polypeptide of interest contains one or more post-translational modifications or has substantial tertiary structure, which often complicate efficient protein production.

Protein recovery

[0841] The protein of interest can be preferably recovered from the culture medium as a secreted polypeptide, or it can be recovered from host cell lysates if expressed without a secretory signal. It can be necessary to purify the protein of interest from other recombinant proteins and host cell proteins in a way that substantially homogenous preparations of the protein of interest are obtained. The cells and/or particulate cell debris can be removed from the culture medium or lysate. The product of interest may then be purified from contaminant soluble proteins, polypeptides and nucleic acids by, for example, fractionation on immunoaffinity or ion- exchange columns, ethanol precipitation, reverse phase HPLC (RP-HPLC), SEPHADEX® chromatography, chromatography on silica or on a cation exchange resin such as DEAE. Methods of purifying a protein heterologous expressed by a host cell are well known in the art.

[0842] Methods and compositions described herein can be used to produce proteins which are capable of attenuating or blocking the endogenous agonist biological response and/or antagonizing a receptor or signaling molecule in a mammalian subject. For example, IL-12 and IL-23 receptor signaling can be enhanced in chronic autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis and inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, lupus erythematosus, ankylosing spondylitis and Chron's disease (Kikly K, Liu L, Na S, Sedgwich JD (2006) Cur. Opin. Immunol. 18(6): 670-5). In another embodiment, a nucleic acid encodes an antagonist for chemokine receptors. Chemokine receptors CXCR-4 and CCR-5 are required for HIV enry into host cells (Arenzana-Seisdedos F et al, (1996) Nature. Oct 3; 383 (6599):400).

Therapeutic Polypeptides

[0843] Therapeutic polypeptides are also disclosed herein. In some embodiments, the polypeptide comprises a human low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) or functional fragment thereof comprising at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain and at least one or a single amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain, wherein the at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain abrogates binding of PCSK9 to the LDLR or functional fragment thereof are also disclosed herein.

[0844] In some embodimetns, the polypeptide comprises a human low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) or functional fragment thereof comprising at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain and at least one amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain, wherein the at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain abrogates binding of PCSK9 to the LDLR or functional fragment thereof and at least one of the amino acids corresponding to K830 or C839 of human LDLR is intact.

[0845] The polypeptide can comprise at least one mutation in the EGF-A domain is at an amino acid residue corresponding to N316, L339, or the combination of N316 and L339 of human LDLR (SEQ ID NO:43). For example, in some emobidments, the polypeptide comprises the at least one mutation in the EGF-A domain is a substitution from the N (asparagine) corresponding to amino acid residue 316 of SEQ ID NO:43 to an amino acid selected from the group consisting of glycine, alanine, valine, leucine, and isoleucine; or at least one mutation in the EGF-A domain is a substitution from the L (leucine) corresponding to amino acid residue 339 of SEQ ID NO:43 to an amino acid selected from the group consisting of aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, and asparagine.

[0846] In some embodiments, the polypeptide comprises a single mutation or at least one amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain that is at an amino acid residue corresponding to K816, K830, C839, or any combination thereof of human LDLR (SEQ ID NO:43). For example, in some embodiments, the single mutation or at least one amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain is a substitution from the K (lysine) corresponding to an amino acid residue 816 or 830 of SEQ ID NO:43 to an amino acid selected from the group consisting of histidine or arginine; or the single mutation or at least one amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain is a substitution from the C (cysteine) corresponding to an amino acid residue 839 of SEQ ID NO:43 to an amino acid selected from the group consisting of glycine, alanine, valine, leucine, and isoleucine.

[0847] In some embodimetnts, polypeptide comprises one mutation in the EGF-A domain corresponding to N316A of human LDLR and one or two mutation in the intracellular domain corresponding to K830R and/or C839A of human LDLR.

[0848] The therapeutic polypeptides of the invention can be encoded by the RNA polynucleotide disclosed herein.

[0849] Some embodiments are directed to compositions comprising a polypeptide of the invention. In some emodiments, the composition is formulation for in vivo delivery, e.g., for administration to a human. In some embodiments, the composition is formulated for intramuscular, subcutaneous, or intradermal delivery. [0850] In some embodiments, the polypeptide or composition comprising the same is used for increasing the expression of LDLR in a subject comprising contacting the subject with a pharmaceutical composition comprising a polypeptide disclosed herein. In some embodiments, the expression of LDLR in the subject is at least 20%, at least 25%, at least 30%, at least 35%, or at least 40% greater than in a subject not contacted with the pharmaceutical composition.

[0851] In some embodiments, the polypeptide or composition comprising the same is used for modulating LDL, cholesterol, and/or triglyceride levels in the plasma of a subject comprising contacting the subject with a pharmaceutical composition comprising a polypeptide disclosed herein. In some embodiments, the LDL, cholesterol, and/or triglyceride level in the subject is at least 20%, at least 25%, at least 30%, at least 35%, at least 40%, at least 45%, or at least 50% lower than in a subject not contacted with the pharmaceutical composition.

[0852] The polypeptides and compositions comprising the same can also be used for treating familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) in a subject in need thereof comprising administering to the subject a pharmaceutical composition comprising a polypeptide disclosed herein.

Gene Silencing

[0853] The polynucleotides described herein are useful to silence (i.e., prevent or substantially reduce) expression of one or more target genes in a cell population. A polynucleotide encoding a polypeptide of interest capable of directing sequence-specific histone H3 methylation is introduced into the cells in the population under conditions such that the polypeptide is translated and reduces gene transcription of a target gene via histone H3 methylation and subsequent heterochromatin formation. In some embodiments, the silencing mechanism is performed on a cell population present in a mammalian subject. By way of non- limiting example, a useful target gene is a mutated Janus Kinase-2 family member, wherein the mammalian subject expresses the mutant target gene suffers from a myeloproliferative disease resulting from aberrant kinase activity.

[0854] Co-administration of polynucleotides and RNAi agents are also provided herein. Modulation of Biological Pathways

[0855] The rapid translation polynucleotides introduced into cells provides a desirable mechanism of modulating target biological pathways. Such modulation includes antagonism or agonism of a given pathway. In some embodiments, a method is provided for antagonizing a biological pathway in a cell by contacting the cell with an effective amount of a composition comprising a polynucleotide encoding a polypeptide of interest, under conditions such that the polynucleotides is localized into the cell and the polypeptide is capable of being translated in the cell from the polynucleotides, wherein the polypeptide inhibits the activity of a polypeptide functional in the biological pathway. Exemplary biological pathways are those defective in an autoimmune or inflammatory disorder such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, lupus erythematosus, ankylosing spondylitis colitis, or Crohn's disease; in particular, antagonism of the IL-12 and IL-23 signaling pathways are of particular utility. (See Kikly K, Liu L, Na S, Sedgwick JD (2006) Curr. Opin. Immunol. 18 (6): 670-5).

[0856] Further, provided are polynucleotides encoding an antagonist for chemokine receptors; chemokine receptors CXCR-4 and CCR-5 are required for, e.g., HIV entry into host cells (Arenzana-Seisdedos F et al, (1996) Nature. Oct 3;383(6599):400).

[0857] Alternatively, provided are methods of agonizing a biological pathway in a cell by contacting the cell with an effective amount of a polynucleotide encoding a recombinant polypeptide under conditions such that the nucleic acid is localized into the cell and the recombinant polypeptide is capable of being translated in the cell from the nucleic acid, and the recombinant polypeptide induces the activity of a polypeptide functional in the biological pathway. Exemplary agonized biological pathways include pathways that modulate cell fate determination. Such agonization is reversible or, alternatively, irreversible.

Expression of Ligand or Receptor on Cell Surface

[0858] In some aspects and embodiments, the polynucleotides described herein can be used to express a ligand or ligand receptor on the surface of a cell (e.g., a homing moiety). A ligand or ligand receptor moiety attached to a cell surface can permit the cell to have a desired biological interaction with a tissue or an agent in vivo. A ligand can be an antibody, an antibody fragment, an aptamer, a peptide, a vitamin, a carbohydrate, a protein or polypeptide, a receptor, e.g., cell- surface receptor, an adhesion molecule, a glycoprotein, a sugar residue, a therapeutic agent, a drug, a glycosaminoglycan, or any combination thereof. For example, a ligand can be an antibody that recognizes a cancer-cell specific antigen, rendering the cell capable of preferentially interacting with tumor cells to permit tumor-specific localization of a modified cell. A ligand can confer the ability of a cell composition to accumulate in a tissue to be treated, since a preferred ligand can be capable of interacting with a target molecule on the external face of a tissue to be treated. Ligands having limited cross-reactivity to other tissues are generally preferred. [0859] In some cases, a ligand can act as a homing moiety which permits the cell to target to a specific tissue or interact with a specific ligand. Such homing moieties can include, but are not limited to, any member of a specific binding pair, antibodies, monoclonal antibodies, or derivatives or analogs thereof, including without limitation: Fv fragments, single chain Fv (scFv) fragments, Fab' fragments, F(ab')2 fragments, single domain antibodies, camelized antibodies and antibody fragments, humanized antibodies and antibody fragments, and multivalent versions of the foregoing; multivalent binding reagents including without limitation: monospecific or bispecific antibodies, such as disulfide stabilized Fv fragments, scFv tandems ((SCFV)2 fragments), diabodies, tribodies or tetrabodies, which typically are covalently linked or otherwise stabilized (i.e., leucine zipper or helix stabilized) scFv fragments; and other homing moieties include for example, aptamers, receptors, and fusion proteins.

[0860] In some embodiments, the homing moiety can be a surface-bound antibody, which can permit tuning of cell targeting specificity. This is especially useful since highly specific antibodies can be raised against an epitope of interest for the desired targeting site. In some embodiments, multiple antibodies are expressed on the surface of a cell, and each antibody can have a different specificity for a desired target. Such approaches can increase the avidity and specificity of homing interactions.

[0861] A skilled artisan can select any homing moiety based on the desired localization or function of the cell, for example an estrogen receptor ligand, such as tamoxifen, can target cells to estrogen-dependent breast cancer cells that have an increased number of estrogen receptors on the cell surface. Other non-limiting examples of ligand/receptor interactions include CCRI (e.g., for treatment of inflamed joint tissues or brain in rheumatoid arthritis, and/or multiple sclerosis), CCR7, CCR8 (e.g., targeting to lymph node tissue), CCR6, CCR9,CCR10 (e.g., to target to intestinal tissue), CCR4, CCR10 (e.g., for targeting to skin), CXCR4 (e.g., for general enhanced transmigration), HCELL (e.g., for treatment of inflammation and inflammatory disorders, bone marrow), Alpha4beta7 (e.g., for intestinal mucosa targeting), VLA-4/VCAM-1 (e.g., targeting to endothelium). In general, any receptor involved in targeting (e.g., cancer metastasis) can be harnessed for use in the methods and compositions described herein.

Modulation of Cell Lineage

2] Provided are methods of inducing an alteration in cell fate in a target mammalian cell.

The target mammalian cell can be a precursor cell and the alteration may involve driving differentiation into a lineage, or blocking such differentiation. Alternatively, the target mammalian cell can be a differentiated cell, and the cell fate alteration includes driving de- differentiation into a pluripotent precursor cell, or blocking such de-differentiation, such as the dedifferentiation of cancer cells into cancer stem cells. In situations where a change in cell fate is desired, effective amounts of mRNAs encoding a cell fate inductive polypeptide is introduced into a target cell under conditions such that an alteration in cell fate is induced. In some embodiments, the modified mRNAs are useful to reprogram a subpopulation of cells from a first phenotype to a second phenotype. Such a reprogramming can be temporary or permanent.Optionally, the reprogramming induces a target cell to adopt an intermediate phenotype.

[0863] Additionally, the methods of the present invention are particularly useful to generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) because of the high efficiency of transfection, the ability to re-transfect cells, and the tenability of the amount of recombinant polypeptides produced in the target cells. Further, the use of iPS cells generated using the methods described herein is expected to have a reduced incidence of teratoma formation.

[0864] Also provided are methods of reducing cellular differentiation in a target cell population. For example, a target cell population containing one or more precursor cell types is contacted with a composition having an effective amount of a polynucleotides encoding a polypeptide, under conditions such that the polypeptide is translated and reduces the differentiation of the precursor cell. In non-limiting embodiments, the target cell population contains injured tissue in a mammalian subject or tissue affected by a surgical procedure. The precursor cell is, e.g., a stromal precursor cell, a neural precursor cell, or a mesenchymal precursor cell.

[0865] In a specific embodiment, provided are polynucleotides that encode one or more differentiation factors Gata4, Mef2c and Tbx4. These mRNA-generated factors are introduced into fibroblasts and drive the reprogramming into cardiomyocytes. Such a reprogramming can be performed in vivo, by contacting an mRNA-containing patch or other material to damaged cardiac tissue to facilitate cardiac regeneration. Such a process promotes cardiomyocyte genesis as opposed to fibrosis.

Mediation of cell death

[0866] In some embodiments, polynucleotides compositions can be used to induce apoptosis in a cell (e.g., a cancer cell) by increasing the expression of a death receptor, a death receptor ligand or a combination thereof. Compositions and methods of use thereof are described in International Patent Publication No. WO2013151666, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

VI. Kits and Devices

Kits

[0867] The invention provides a variety of kits for conveniently and/or effectively carrying out methods of the present invention. Typically kits will comprise sufficient amounts and/or numbers of components to allow a user to perform multiple treatments of a subject(s) and/or to perform multiple experiments.

[0868] In one aspect, the present invention provides kits comprising the molecules (polynucleotides) of the invention. In some embodiments, the kit comprises one or more functional antibodies or function fragments thereof.

[0869] Said kits can be for protein production, comprising a first polynucleotides comprising a translatable region. The kit may further comprise packaging and instructions and/or a delivery agent to form a formulation composition. The delivery agent can comprise a saline, a buffered solution, a lipidoid or any delivery agent disclosed herein.

[0870] In some embodiments, the buffer solution can include sodium chloride, calcium chloride, phosphate and/or EDTA. In another embodiment, the buffer solution can include, but is not limited to, saline, saline with 2mM calcium, 5% sucrose, 5% sucrose with 2mM calcium, 5% Mannitol, 5% Mannitol with 2mM calcium, Ringer's lactate, sodium chloride, sodium chloride with 2mM calcium and mannose (See e.g., U.S. Pub. No. 20120258046; herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). In a futher embodiment, the buffer solutions can be precipitated or it can be lyophilized. The amount of each component can be varied to enable consistent, reproducible higher concentration saline or simple buffer formulations. The components may also be varied in order to increase the stability of modified RNA in the buffer solution over a period of time and/or under a variety of conditions. In one aspect, the present invention provides kits for protein production, comprising: a polynucleotide comprising a translatable region, provided in an amount effective to produce a desired amount of a protein encoded by the translatable region when introduced into a target cell; a second polynucleotide comprising an inhibitory nucleic acid, provided in an amount effective to substantially inhibit the innate immune response of the cell; and packaging and instructions. [0871] In one aspect, the present invention provides kits for protein production, comprising a polynucleotide comprising a translatable region, wherein the polynucleotide exhibits reduced degradation by a cellular nuclease, and packaging and instructions.

[0872] In one aspect, the present invention provides kits for protein production, comprising a polynucleotide comprising a translatable region, wherein the polynucleotide exhibits reduced degradation by a cellular nuclease, and a mammalian cell suitable for translation of the translatable region of the first nucleic acid.

Devices

[0873] The present invention provides for devices which may incorporate polynucleotides that encode polypeptides of interest. These devices contain in a stable formulation the reagents to synthesize a polynucleotide in a formulation available to be immediately delivered to a subject in need thereof, such as a human patient

[0874] Devices for administration can be employed to deliver the polynucleotides of the present invention according to single, multi- or split-dosing regimens taught herein. Such devices are taught in, for example, International Application PCT/US2013/30062 filed March 9, 2013, the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

[0875] Method and devices known in the art for multi-administration to cells, organs and tissues are contemplated for use in conjunction with the methods and compositions disclosed herein as embodiments of the present invention. These include, for example, those methods and devices having multiple needles, hybrid devices employing for example lumens or catheters as well as devices utilizing heat, electric current or radiation driven mechanisms.

[0876] According to the present invention, these multi-administration devices can be utilized to deliver the single, multi- or split doses contemplated herein. Such devices are taught for example in, International Application PCT/US2013/30062 filed March 9, 2013, the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

[0877] In some embodiments, the polynucleotide is administered subcutaneously or intramuscularly via at least 3 needles to three different, optionally adjacent, sites simultaneously, or within a 60 minutes period (e.g., administration to 4 ,5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10 sites simultaneously or within a 60 minute period). Methods and Devices utilizing catheters and/or lumens

[0878] Methods and devices using catheters and lumens can be employed to administer the polynucleotides of the present invention on a single, multi- or split dosing schedule. Such methods and devices are described in International Application PCT/US2013/30062 filed March 9, 2013 (Attorney Docket Number M300), the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

Methods and Devices utilizing electrical current

[0879] Methods and devices utilizing electric current can be employed to deliver the polynucleotides of the present invention according to the single, multi- or split dosing regimens taught herein. Such methods and devices are described in International Application PCT/US2013/30062 filed March 9, 2013 (Attorney Docket Number M300), the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

VII. Definitions

[0880] At various places in the present specification, substituents of compounds of the present disclosure are disclosed in groups or in ranges. It is specifically intended that the present disclosure include each and every individual subcombination of the members of such groups and ranges

[0881] About: As used herein, the term "about" means +/- 10% of the recited value.

[0882] Administered in combination: As used herein, the term "administered in combination" or "combined administration" means that two or more agents are administered to a subject at the same time or within an interval such that there can be an overlap of an effect of each agent on the patient. In some embodiments, they are administered within about 60, 30, 15, 10, 5, or 1 minute of one another. In some embodiments, the administrations of the agents are spaced sufficiently closely together such that a combinatorial {e.g., a synergistic) effect is achieved.

[0883] Adjuvant: As used herein, the term "adjuvant" means a substance that enhances a subject's immune response to an antigen.

[0884] Animal: As used herein, the term "animal" refers to any member of the animal kingdom. In some embodiments, "animal" refers to humans at any stage of development. In some embodiments, "animal" refers to non-human animals at any stage of development. In certain embodiments, the non-human animal is a mammal {e.g., a rodent, a mouse, a rat, a rabbit, a monkey, a dog, a cat, a sheep, cattle, a primate, or a pig). In some embodiments, animals include, but are not limited to, mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and worms. In some embodiments, the animal is a transgenic animal, genetically-engineered animal, or a clone.

[0885] Approximately: As used herein, the term "approximately" or "about," as applied to one or more values of interest, refers to a value that is similar to a stated reference value. In certain embodiments, the term "approximately" or "about" refers to a range of values that fall within 25%, 20%, 19%, 18%, 17%, 16%, 15%, 14%, 13%, 12%, 11%, 10%, 9%, 8%, 7%, 6%, 5%), 4%), 3%), 2%), 1%), or less in either direction (greater than or less than) of the stated reference value unless otherwise stated or otherwise evident from the context (except where such number would exceed 100% of a possible value).

[0886] Associated with: As used herein, the terms "associated with," "conjugated," "linked," "attached," and "tethered," when used with respect to two or more moieties, means that the moieties are physically associated or connected with one another, either directly or via one or more additional moieties that serves as a linking agent, to form a structure that is sufficiently stable so that the moieties remain physically associated under the conditions in which the structure is used, e.g., physiological conditions. An "association" need not be strictly through direct covalent chemical bonding. It may also suggest ionic or hydrogen bonding or a hybridization based connectivity sufficiently stable such that the "associated" entities remain physically associated.

[0887] Bifunctional: As used herein, the term "bifunctional" refers to any substance, molecule or moiety which is capable of or maintains at least two functions. The functions may effect the same outcome or a different outcome. The structure that produces the function can be the same or different. For example, bifunctional modified RNAs of the present invention may encode a cytotoxic peptide (a first function) while those nucleosides which comprise the encoding RNA are, in and of themselves, cytotoxic (second function). In this example, delivery of the bifunctional modified RNA to a cancer cell would produce not only a peptide or protein molecule which may ameliorate or treat the cancer but would also deliver a cytotoxic payload of nucleosides to the cell should degradation, instead of translation of the modified RNA, occur.

[0888] Biocompatible: As used herein, the term "biocompatible" means compatible with living cells, tissues, organs or systems posing little to no risk of injury, toxicity or rejection by the immune system.

[0889] Biodegradable: As used herein, the term "biodegradable" means capable of being broken down into innocuous products by the action of living things. [0890] Biologically active: As used herein, the phrase "biologically active" refers to a characteristic of any substance that has activity in a biological system and/or organism. For instance, a substance that, when administered to an organism, has a biological effect on that organism, is considered to be biologically active. In particular embodiments, a polynucleotide of the present invention can be considered biologically active if even a portion of the polynucleotides is biologically active or mimics an activity considered biologically relevant.

[0891] Chimera: As used herein, "chimera" is an entity having two or more incongruous or heterogeneous parts or regions.

[0892] Conserved: As used herein, the term "conserved" refers to nucleotides or amino acid residues of a polynucleotide sequence or polypeptide sequence, respectively, that are those that occur unaltered in the same position of two or more sequences being compared. Nucleotides or amino acids that are relatively conserved are those that are conserved amongst more related sequences than nucleotides or amino acids appearing elsewhere in the sequences.

[0893] In some embodiments, two or more sequences are said to be "completely conserved" if they are 100% identical to one another. In some embodiments, two or more sequences are said to be "highly conserved" if they are at least 70% identical, at least 80% identical, at least 90% identical, or at least 95% identical to one another. In some embodiments, two or more sequences are said to be "highly conserved" if they are about 70% identical, about 80% identical, about 90%) identical, about 95%, about 98%, or about 99% identical to one another. In some embodiments, two or more sequences are said to be "conserved" if they are at least 30% identical, at least 40% identical, at least 50% identical, at least 60% identical, at least 70% identical, at least 80% identical, at least 90% identical, or at least 95% identical to one another. In some embodiments, two or more sequences are said to be "conserved" if they are about 30% identical, about 40% identical, about 50% identical, about 60% identical, about 70% identical, about 80%) identical, about 90% identical, about 95% identical, about 98% identical, or about 99%) identical to one another. Conservation of sequence may apply to the entire length of an polynucleotide or polypeptide or may apply to a portion, region or feature thereof.

[0894] Controlled Release: As used herein, the term "controlled release" refers to a pharmaceutical composition or compound release profile that conforms to a particular pattern of release to effect a therapeutic outcome.

[0895] Cyclic or Cyclized: As used herein, the term "cyclic" refers to the presence of a continuous loop. Cyclic molecules need not be circular, only joined to form an unbroken chain of subunits. Cyclic molecules such as the engineered RNA or mRNA of the present invention can be single units or multimers or comprise one or more components of a complex or higher order structure.

[0896] Cytotoxic: As used herein, "cytotoxic" refers to killing or causing injurious, toxic, or deadly effect on a cell (e.g., a mammalian cell (e.g., a human cell)), bacterium, virus, fungus, protozoan, parasite, prion, or a combination thereof.

[0897] Delivery: As used herein, "delivery" refers to the act or manner of delivering a compound, substance, entity, moiety, cargo or payload.

[0898] Delivery Agent: As used herein, "delivery agent" refers to any substance which facilitates, at least in part, the in vivo delivery of a polynucleotide to targeted cells.

[0899] Destabilized: As used herein, the term "destable," "destabilize," or "destabilizing region" means a region or molecule that is less stable than a starting, wild-type or native form of the same region or molecule.

[0900] Detectable label: As used herein, "detectable label" refers to one or more markers, signals, or moieties which are attached, incorporated or associated with another entity that is readily detected by methods known in the art including radiography, fluorescence, chemiluminescence, enzymatic activity, absorbance and the like. Detectable labels include radioisotopes, fluorophores, chromophores, enzymes, dyes, metal ions, ligands such as biotin, avidin, streptavidin and haptens, quantum dots, and the like. Detectable labels can be located at any position in the peptides or proteins disclosed herein. They can be within the amino acids, the peptides, or proteins, or located at the N- or C- termini.

[0901] Diastereomer: As used herein, the term "diastereomer," means stereoisomers that are not mirror images of one another and are non-superimposable on one another.

[0902] Digest: As used herein, the term "digest" means to break apart into smaller pieces or components. When referring to polypeptides or proteins, digestion results in the production of peptides.

[0903] Distal: As used herein, the term "distal" means situated away from the center or away from a point or region of interest.

[0904] Dosing regimen: As used herein, a "dosing regimen" is a schedule of administration or physician determined regimen of treatment, prophylaxis, or palliative care. [0905] Dose splitting factor (DSFJ-ratio of PUD of dose split treatment divided by PUD of total daily dose or single unit dose. The value is derived from comparison of dosing regimens groups.

[0906] Enantiomer: As used herein, the term "enantiomer" means each individual optically active form of a compound of the invention, having an optical purity or enantiomeric excess (as determined by methods standard in the art) of at least 80% (i.e., at least 90% of one enantiomer and at most 10% of the other enantiomer), preferably at least 90% and more preferably at least 98%.

[0907] Encapsulate: As used herein, the term "encapsulate" means to enclose, surround or encase.

[0908] Encoded protein cleavage signal: As used herein, "encoded protein cleavage signal" refers to the nucleotide sequence which encodes a protein cleavage signal.

[0909] Engineered: As used herein, embodiments of the invention are "engineered" when they are designed to have a feature or property, whether structural or chemical, that varies from a starting point, wild type or native molecule.

[0910] Effective Amount: As used herein, the term "effective amount" of an agentis that amount sufficient to effect beneficial or desired results, for example, clinical results, and, as such, an "effective amount" depends upon the context in which it is being applied. For example, in the context of administering an agent that treats high cholesterol, an effective amount of an agent is, for example, an amount sufficient to achieve treatment, as defined herein, of high cholesterol, as compared to the response obtained without administration of the agent.

[0911] Exosome: As used herein, "exosome" is a vesicle secreted by mammalian cells or a complex involved in RNA degradation.

[0912] Expression: As used herein, "expression" of a nucleic acid sequence refers to one or more of the following events: (1) production of an RNA template from a DNA sequence (e.g., by transcription); (2) processing of an RNA transcript (e.g., by splicing, editing, 5' cap formation, and/or 3' end processing); (3) translation of an RNA into a polypeptide or protein; and (4) post- translational modification of a polypeptide or protein.

[0913] Feature: As used herein, a "feature" refers to a characteristic, a property, or a distinctive element.

[0914] Formulation: As used herein, a "formulation" includes at least a polynucleotide and a delivery agent. [0915] Fragment: A "fragment," as used herein, refers to a portion. For example, fragments of proteins can comprise polypeptides obtained by digesting full-length protein isolated from cultured cells.

[0916] Functional: As used herein, a "functional" biological molecule is a biological molecule in a form in which it exhibits a property and/or activity by which it is characterized.

[0917] Homology: As used herein, the term "homology" refers to the overall relatedness between polymeric molecules, e.g. between nucleic acid molecules {e.g. DNA molecules and/or RNA molecules) and/or between polypeptide molecules. In some embodiments, polymeric molecules are considered to be "homologous" to one another if their sequences are at least 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, or 99% identical or similar. The term "homologous" necessarily refers to a comparison between at least two sequences (polynucleotide or polypeptide sequences). In accordance with the invention, two polynucleotide sequences are considered to be homologous if the polypeptides they encode are at least about 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 95%, or even 99% for at least one stretch of at least about 20 amino acids. In some embodiments, homologous polynucleotide sequences are characterized by the ability to encode a stretch of at least 4-5 uniquely specified amino acids. For polynucleotide sequences less than 60 nucleotides in length, homology is determined by the ability to encode a stretch of at least 4-5 uniquely specified amino acids. In accordance with the invention, two protein sequences are considered to be homologous if the proteins are at least about 50%), 60%), 70%, 80%, or 90% identical for at least one stretch of at least about 20 amino acids.

[0918] Identity: As used herein, the term "identity" refers to the overall relatedness between polymeric molecules, e.g., between polynucleotide molecules {e.g. DNA molecules and/or RNA molecules) and/or between polypeptide molecules. Calculation of the percent identity of two polynucleotide sequences, for example, can be performed by aligning the two sequences for optimal comparison purposes {e.g., gaps can be introduced in one or both of a first and a second nucleic acid sequences for optimal alignment and non-identical sequences can be disregarded for comparison purposes). In certain embodiments, the length of a sequence aligned for comparison purposes is at least 30%, at least 40%, at least 50%, at least 60%, at least 70%, at least 80%, at least 90%), at least 95%, or 100% of the length of the reference sequence. The nucleotides at corresponding nucleotide positions are then compared. When a position in the first sequence is occupied by the same nucleotide as the corresponding position in the second sequence, then the molecules are identical at that position. The percent identity between the two sequences is a function of the number of identical positions shared by the sequences, taking into account the number of gaps, and the length of each gap, which needs to be introduced for optimal alignment of the two sequences. The comparison of sequences and determination of percent identity between two sequences can be accomplished using a mathematical algorithm. For example, the percent identity between two nucleotide sequences can be determined using methods such as those described in Computational Molecular Biology, Lesk, A. M., ed., Oxford University Press, New York, 1988; Biocomputing: Informatics and Genome Projects, Smith, D. W., ed., Academic Press, New York, 1993; Sequence Analysis in Molecular Biology, von Heinje, G., Academic Press, 1987; Computer Analysis of Sequence Data, Part I, Griffin, A. M., and Griffin, H. G., eds., Humana Press, New Jersey, 1994; and Sequence Analysis Primer, Gribskov, M. and Devereux, J., eds., M Stockton Press, New York, 1991; each of which is incorporated herein by reference. For example, the percent identity between two nucleotide sequences can be determined using the algorithm of Meyers and Miller (CABIOS, 1989, 4: 11-17), which has been incorporated into the ALIGN program (version 2.0) using a PAM120 weight residue table, a gap length penalty of 12 and a gap penalty of 4. The percent identity between two nucleotide sequences can, alternatively, be determined using the GAP program in the GCG software package using an NWSgapdna.CMP matrix. Methods commonly employed to determine percent identity between sequences include, but are not limited to those disclosed in Carillo, H., and Lipman, D., SIAM J Applied Math., 48: 1073 (1988); incorporated herein by reference. Techniques for determining identity are codified in publicly available computer programs. Exemplary computer software to determine homology between two sequences include, but are not limited to, GCG program package, Devereux, J., et al, Nucleic Acids Research, 12(1), 387 (1984)), BLASTP, BLASTN, and FASTA Altschul, S. F. et al, J. Molec. Biol, 215, 403 (1990)).

[0919] Inhibit expression of a gene: As used herein, the phrase "inhibit expression of a gene" means to cause a reduction in the amount of an expression product of the gene. The expression product can be an RNA transcribed from the gene {e.g., an mRNA) or a polypeptide translated from an mRNA transcribed from the gene. Typically a reduction in the level of an mRNA results in a reduction in the level of a polypeptide translated therefrom. The level of expression can be determined using standard techniques for measuring mRNA or protein. [0920] Intact: As used herein, in the context of a polypeptide, the term "intact" means retaining an amino acid corresponding to the wild-type protein, e.g., not mutating or substituting the wild-type amino acid.

[0921] Isomer: As used herein, the term "isomer" means any tautomer, stereoisomer, enantiomer, or diastereomer of any compound of the invention. It is recognized that the compounds of the invention can have one or more chiral centers and/or double bonds and, therefore, exist as stereoisomers, such as double-bond isomers (i.e., geometric E/Z isomers) or diastereomers {e.g., enantiomers (i.e., (+) or (-)) or cis/trans isomers). According to the invention, the chemical structures depicted herein, and therefore the compounds of the invention, encompass all of the corresponding stereoisomers, that is, both the stereomerically pure form {e.g., geometrically pure, enantiomerically pure, or diastereomerically pure) and enantiomeric and stereoisomenc mixtures, e.g., racemates. Enantiomeric and stereoi someric mixtures of compounds of the invention can typically be resolved into their component enantiomers or stereoisomers by well-known methods, such as chiral-phase gas chromatography, chiral-phase high performance liquid chromatography, crystallizing the compound as a chiral salt complex, or crystallizing the compound in a chiral solvent. Enantiomers and stereoisomers can also be obtained from stereomerically or enantiomerically pure intermediates, reagents, and catalysts by well-known asymmetric synthetic methods.

[0922] In vitro: As used herein, the term "in vitro" refers to events that occur in an artificial environment, e.g., in a test tube or reaction vessel, in cell culture, in a Petri dish, etc., rather than within an organism {e.g., animal, plant, or microbe).

[0923] In vivo: As used herein, the term "in vivo" refers to events that occur within an organism {e.g., animal, plant, or microbe or cell or tissue thereof).

[0924] Isolated: As used herein, the term "isolated" refers to a substance or entity that has been separated from at least some of the components with which it was associated (whether in nature or in an experimental setting). Isolated substances may have varying levels of purity in reference to the substances from which they have been associated. Isolated substances and/or entities can be separated from at least about 10%, about 20%, about 30%, about 40%, about 50%, about 60%, about 70%, about 80%, about 90%, or more of the other components with which they were initially associated. In some embodiments, isolated agents are more than about 80%, about 85%, about 90%, about 91%, about 92%, about 93%, about 94%, about 95%, about 96%, about 97%), about 98%), about 99%, or more than about 99% pure. As used herein, a substance is "pure" if it is substantially free of other components. Substantially isolated: By "substantially isolated" is meant that the compound is substantially separated from the environment in which it was formed or detected. Partial separation can include, for example, a composition enriched in the compound of the present disclosure. Substantial separation can include compositions containing at least about 50%, at least about 60%, at least about 70%, at least about 80%, at least about 90%, at least about 95%, at least about 97%, or at least about 99% by weight of the compound of the present disclosure, or salt thereof. Methods for isolating compounds and their salts are routine in the art.

[0925] LDLR Associated Disease: As used herein, an "LDLR Associated Disease" or "LDLR associated disorder" refers to diseases or disorders, respectively, which results from aberrant LDLR activity {e.g., decreases activity or increased activity). As a non-limiting example, hypercholesterolemia is a LDLR associated disease.

[0926] Linker: As used herein, a "linker" refers to a group of atoms, e.g., 10-1,000 atoms, and can be comprised of the atoms or groups such as, but not limited to, carbon, amino, alkylamino, oxygen, sulfur, sulfoxide, sulfonyl, carbonyl, and imine. The linker can be attached to a modified nucleoside or nucleotide on the nucleobase or sugar moiety at a first end, and to a payload, e.g., a detectable or therapeutic agent, at a second end. The linker can be of sufficient length as to not interfere with incorporation into a nucleic acid sequence. The linker can be used for any useful purpose, such as to form polynucleotide multimers {e.g., through linkage of two or more chimeric polynucleotides molecules or IVT polynucleoties) or polynucleotides conjugates, as well as to administer a payload, as described herein. Examples of chemical groups that can be incorporated into the linker include, but are not limited to, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, amido, amino, ether, thioether, ester, alkylene, heteroalkylene, aryl, or heterocyclyl, each of which can be optionally substituted, as described herein. Examples of linkers include, but are not limited to, unsaturated alkanes, polyethylene glycols {e.g., ethylene or propylene glycol monomelic units, e.g., diethylene glycol, dipropylene glycol, triethylene glycol, tripropylene glycol, tetraethylene glycol, or tetraethylene glycol), and dextran polymers and derivatives thereof, Other examples include, but are not limited to, cleavable moieties within the linker, such as, for example, a disulfide bond (-S-S-) or an azo bond (-N=N-), which can be cleaved using a reducing agent or photolysis. Non-limiting examples of a selectively cleavable bond include an amido bond can be cleaved for example by the use of tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP), or other reducing agents, and/or photolysis, as well as an ester bond can be cleaved for example by acidic or basic hydrolysis.

[0927] MicroRNA (miRNA) binding site: As used herein, a microRNA (miRNA) binding site represents a nucleotide location or region of a nucleic acid transcript to which at least the "seed" region of a miRNA binds.

[0928] Modified: As used herein "modified" refers to a changed state or structure of a molecule of the invention. Molecules can be modified in many ways including chemically, structurally, and functionally. In some embodiments, the mRNA molecules of the present invention are modified by the introduction of non-natural nucleosides and/or nucleotides, e.g., as it relates to the natural ribonucleotides A, U, G, and C. Noncanonical nucleotides such as the cap structures are not considered "modified" although they differ from the chemical structure of the A, C, G, U ribonucleotides.

[0929] Mucus: As used herein, "mucus" refers to the natural substance that is viscous and comprises mucin glycoproteins.

[0930] Naturally occurring: As used herein, "naturally occurring" means existing in nature without artificial aid.

[0931] Neutralizing antibody : As used herein, a "neutralizing antibody" refers to an antibody which binds to its antigen and defends a cell from an antigen or infectious agent by neutralizing or abolishing any biological activity it has.

[0932] Non-human vertebrate: As used herein, a "non human vertebrate" includes all vertebrates except Homo sapiens, including wild and domesticated species. Examples of non- human vertebrates include, but are not limited to, mammals, such as alpaca, banteng, bison, camel, cat, cattle, deer, dog, donkey, gayal, goat, guinea pig, horse, llama, mule, pig, rabbit, reindeer, sheep water buffalo, and yak.

[0933] Off-target: As used herein, "off target" refers to any unintended effect on any one or more target, gene, or cellular transcript.

[0934] Open reading frame: As used herein, "open reading frame" or "ORF" refers to a sequence which does not contain a stop codon in a given reading frame.

[0935] Operably linked: As used herein, the phrase "operably linked" refers to a functional connection between two or more molecules, constructs, transcripts, entities, moieties or the like.

[0936] Optionally substituted: Herein a phrase of the form "optionally substituted X" {e.g., optionally substituted alkyl) is intended to be equivalent to "X, wherein X is optionally substituted" (e.g., "alkyl, wherein said alkyl is optionally substituted"). It is not intended to mean that the feature "X" (e.g. alkyl) per se is optional.

[0937] Part: As used herein, a "part" or "region" of a polynucleotide is defined as any portion of the polynucleotide which is less than the entire length of the polynucleotide.

[0938] Peptide: As used herein, "peptide" is less than or equal to 50 amino acids long, e.g., about 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, or 50 amino acids long.

[0939] Patient: As used herein, "patient" refers to a subject who may seek or be in need of treatment, requires treatment, is receiving treatment, will receive treatment, or a subject who is under care by a trained professional for a particular disease or condition.

[0940] Pharmaceutically acceptable: The phrase "pharmaceutically acceptable" is employed herein to refer to those compounds, materials, compositions, and/or dosage forms which are, within the scope of sound medical judgment, suitable for use in contact with the tissues of human beings and animals without excessive toxicity, irritation, allergic response, or other problem or complication, commensurate with a reasonable benefit/risk ratio.

[0941] Pharmaceutically acceptable excipients: The phrase "pharmaceutically acceptable excipient," as used herein, refers any ingredient other than the compounds described herein (for example, a vehicle capable of suspending or dissolving the active compound) and having the properties of being substantially nontoxic and non-inflammatory in a patient. Excipients can include, for example: anti adherents, antioxidants, binders, coatings, compression aids, disintegrants, dyes (colors), emollients, emulsifiers, fillers (diluents), film formers or coatings, flavors, fragrances, glidants (flow enhancers), lubricants, preservatives, printing inks, sorbents, suspensing or dispersing agents, sweeteners, and waters of hydration. Exemplary excipients include, but are not limited to: butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate (dibasic), calcium stearate, croscarmellose, crosslinked polyvinyl pyrrolidone, citric acid, crospovidone, cysteine, ethylcellulose, gelatin, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, lactose, magnesium stearate, maltitol, mannitol, methionine, methylcellulose, methyl paraben, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, povidone, pregelatinized starch, propyl paraben, retinyl palmitate, shellac, silicon dioxide, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, sodium citrate, sodium starch glycolate, sorbitol, starch (corn), stearic acid, sucrose, talc, titanium dioxide, vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin C, and xylitol.

[0942] Pharmaceutically acceptable salts: The present disclosure also includes pharmaceutically acceptable salts of the compounds described herein. As used herein, "pharmaceutically acceptable salts" refers to derivatives of the disclosed compounds wherein the parent compound is modified by converting an existing acid or base moiety to its salt form (e.g., by reacting the free base group with a suitable organic acid). Examples of pharmaceutically acceptable salts include, but are not limited to, mineral or organic acid salts of basic residues such as amines; alkali or organic salts of acidic residues such as carboxylic acids; and the like. Representative acid addition salts include acetate, acetic acid, adipate, alginate, ascorbate, aspartate, benzenesulfonate, benzene sulfonic acid, benzoate, bisulfate, borate, butyrate, camphorate, camphorsulfonate, citrate, cyclopentanepropionate, digluconate, dodecyl sulfate, ethanesulfonate, fumarate, glucoheptonate, glycerophosphate, hemisulfate, heptonate, hexanoate, hydrobromide, hydrochloride, hydroiodide, 2-hydroxy-ethanesulfonate, lactobionate, lactate, laurate, lauryl sulfate, malate, maleate, malonate, methanesulfonate, 2-naphthalenesulfonate, nicotinate, nitrate, oleate, oxalate, palmitate, pamoate, pectinate, persulfate, 3-phenylpropionate, phosphate, picrate, pivalate, propionate, stearate, succinate, sulfate, tartrate, thiocyanate, toluenesulfonate, undecanoate, valerate salts, and the like. Representative alkali or alkaline earth metal salts include sodium, lithium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and the like, as well as nontoxic ammonium, quaternary ammonium, and amine cations, including, but not limited to ammonium, tetramethylammonium, tetraethylammonium, methylamine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine, triethylamine, ethylamine, and the like. The pharmaceutically acceptable salts of the present disclosure include the conventional non-toxic salts of the parent compound formed, for example, from non-toxic inorganic or organic acids. The pharmaceutically acceptable salts of the present disclosure can be synthesized from the parent compound which contains a basic or acidic moiety by conventional chemical methods. Generally, such salts can be prepared by reacting the free acid or base forms of these compounds with a stoichiometric amount of the appropriate base or acid in water or in an organic solvent, or in a mixture of the two; generally, nonaqueous media like ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol, isopropanol, or acetonitrile are preferred. Lists of suitable salts are found in Remington 's Pharmaceutical Sciences, 17th ed., Mack Publishing Company, Easton, Pa., 1985, p. 1418, Pharmaceutical Salts: Properties, Selection, and Use, P.H. Stahl and C.G. Wermuth (eds.), Wiley-VCH, 2008, and Berge et al., Journal of Pharmaceutical Science, 66, 1-19 (1977), each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

[0943] Pharmaceutically acceptable solvate: The term "pharmaceutically acceptable solvate," as used herein, means a compound of the invention wherein molecules of a suitable solvent are incorporated in the crystal lattice. A suitable solvent is physiologically tolerable at the dosage administered. For example, solvates can be prepared by crystallization, recrystallization, or precipitation from a solution that includes organic solvents, water, or a mixture thereof. Examples of suitable solvents are ethanol, water (for example, mono-, di-, and tri-hydrates), N- methylpyrrolidinone ( MP), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), N,N'-dimethylformamide (DMF), N,N'-dimethylacetamide (DMAC), l,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone (DMEU), 1,3-dimethyl- 3,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2-(lH)-pyrimidinone (DMPU), acetonitrile (ACN), propylene glycol, ethyl acetate, benzyl alcohol, 2-pyrrolidone, benzyl benzoate, and the like. When water is the solvent, the solvate is referred to as a "hydrate."

[0944] Pharmacokinetic: As used herein, "pharmacokinetic" refers to any one or more properties of a molecule or compound as it relates to the determination of the fate of substances administered to a living organism. Pharmacokinetics is divided into several areas including the extent and rate of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion. This is commonly referred to as ADME where: (A) Absorption is the process of a substance entering the blood circulation; (D) Distribution is the dispersion or dissemination of substances throughout the fluids and tissues of the body; (M) Metabolism (or Biotransformation) is the irreversible transformation of parent compounds into daughter metabolites; and (E) Excretion (or Elimination) refers to the elimination of the substances from the body. In rare cases, some drugs irreversibly accumulate in body tissue.

[0945] Physicochemical: As used herein, "physicochemical" means of or relating to a physical and/or chemical property.

[0946] Polypeptide per unit drug (PUD) : As used herein, a PUD or product per unit drug, is defined as a subdivided portion of total daily dose, usually 1 mg, pg, kg, etc., of a product (such as a polypeptide) as measured in body fluid or tissue, usually defined in concentration such as pmol/mL, mmol/mL, etc divided by the measure in the body fluid.

[0947] Preventing: As used herein, the term "preventing" refers to partially or completely delaying onset of an infection, disease, disorder and/or condition; partially or completely delaying onset of one or more symptoms, features, or clinical manifestations of a particular infection, disease, disorder, and/or condition; partially or completely delaying onset of one or more symptoms, features, or manifestations of a particular infection, disease, disorder, and/or condition; partially or completely delaying progression from an infection, a particular disease, disorder and/or condition; and/or decreasing the risk of developing pathology associated with the infection, the disease, disorder, and/or condition.

[0948] Prodrug: The present disclosure also includes prodrugs of the compounds described herein. As used herein, "prodrugs" refer to any substance, molecule or entity which is in a form predicate for that substance, molecule or entity to act as a therapeutic upon chemical or physical alteration. Prodrugs may by covalently bonded or sequestered in some way and which release or are converted into the active drug moiety prior to, upon or after administered to a mammalian subject. Prodrugs can be prepared by modifying functional groups present in the compounds in such a way that the modifications are cleaved, either in routine manipulation or in vivo, to the parent compounds. Prodrugs include compounds wherein hydroxyl, amino, sulfhydryl, or carboxyl groups are bonded to any group that, when administered to a mammalian subject, cleaves to form a free hydroxyl, amino, sulfhydryl, or carboxyl group respectively. Preparation and use of prodrugs is discussed in T. Higuchi and V. Stella, "Pro-drugs as Novel Delivery Systems," Vol. 14 of the A.C.S. Symposium Series, and in Bioreversible Carriers in Drug Design, ed. Edward B. Roche, American Pharmaceutical Association and Pergamon Press, 1987, both of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety.

[0949] Proliferate: As used herein, the term "proliferate" means to grow, expand or increase or cause to grow, expand or increase rapidly. "Proliferative" means having the ability to proliferate. "Anti-proliferative" means having properties counter to or inapposite to proliferative properties.

[0950] Prophylactic: As used herein, "prophylactic" refers to a therapeutic or course of action used to prevent the spread of disease.

[0951] Prophylaxis: As used herein, a "prophylaxis" refers to a measure taken to maintain health and prevent the spread of disease. An "immune phrophylaxis" refers to a measure to produce active or passive immunity to prevent the spread of disease.

[0952] Protein cleavage site: As used herein, "protein cleavage site" refers to a site where controlled cleavage of the amino acid chain can be accomplished by chemical, enzymatic or photochemical means.

[0953] Protein cleavage signal: As used herein "protein cleavage signal" refers to at least one amino acid that flags or marks a polypeptide for cleavage.

[0954] Protein of interest: As used herein, the terms "proteins of interest" or "desired proteins" include those provided herein and fragments, mutants, variants, and alterations thereof. [0955] Proximal: As used herein, the term "proximal" means situated nearer to the center or to a point or region of interest.

[0956] Pseudouridine: As used herein, pseudouridine refers to the C-glycoside isomer of the nucleoside uridine. A "pseudouridine analog" is any modification, variant, isoform or derivative of pseudouridine. For example, pseudouridine analogs include but are not limited to 1- carboxymethyl-pseudouridine, 1-propynyl-pseudouridine, 1-taurinomethyl-pseudouridine, 1- taurinomethyl-4-thio-pseudouridine, 1-methylpseudouridine (mV), 1 -methyl -4-thio- pseudouridine (rr sV), 4-thio-l-methyl-pseudouridine, 3-methyl-pseudouridine (m3\|/), 2-thio-l- methyl-pseudouridine, 1 -methyl- 1 -deaza-pseudouridine, 2-thio- 1 -methyl- 1 -deaza-pseudouridine, dihydropseudouridine, 2-thio-dihydropseudouridine, 2-methoxyuridine, 2-methoxy-4-thio- uridine, 4-methoxy-pseudouridine, 4-methoxy-2-thio-pseudouridine, Nl-methyl-pseudouridine, l-methyl-3-(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)pseudouridine (acp3 ψ), and 2'-0-methyl-pseudouridine (ψπι).

[0957] Purified: As used herein, "purify," "purified," "purification" means to make substantially pure or clear from unwanted components, material defilement, admixture or imperfection.

[0958] Repeated transfection: As used herein, the term "repeated transfection" refers to transfection of the same cell culture with a polynucleotide a plurality of times. The cell culture can be transfected at least twice, at least 3 times, at least 4 times, at least 5 times, at least 6 times, at least 7 times, at least 8 times, at least 9 times, at least 10 times, at least 11 times, at least 12 times, at least 13 times, at least 14 times, at least 15 times, at least 16 times, at least 17 times at least 18 times, at least 19 times, at least 20 times, at least 25 times, at least 30 times, at least 35 times, at least 40 times, at least 45 times, at least 50 times or more.

[0959] Sample: As used herein, the term "sample" or "biological sample" refers to a subset of its tissues, cells or component parts (e.g. body fluids, including but not limited to blood, mucus, lymphatic fluid, synovial fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, saliva, amniotic fluid, amniotic cord blood, urine, vaginal fluid and semen). A sample further can include a homogenate, lysate or extract prepared from a whole organism or a subset of its tissues, cells or component parts, or a fraction or portion thereof, including but not limited to, for example, plasma, serum, spinal fluid, lymph fluid, the external sections of the skin, respiratory, intestinal, and genitourinary tracts, tears, saliva, milk, blood cells, tumors, organs. A sample further refers to a medium, such as a nutrient broth or gel, which may contain cellular components, such as proteins or nucleic acid molecule.

[0960] Signal Sequences: As used herein, the phrase "signal sequences" refers to a sequence which can direct the transport or localization of a protein.

[0961] Single unit dose: As used herein, a "single unit dose" is a dose of any therapeutic administed in one dose/at one time/single route/single point of contact, i.e., single administration event.

[0962] Similarity: As used herein, the term "similarity" refers to the overall relatedness between polymeric molecules, e.g. between polynucleotide molecules {e.g. DNA molecules and/or RNA molecules) and/or between polypeptide molecules. Calculation of percent similarity of polymeric molecules to one another can be performed in the same manner as a calculation of percent identity, except that calculation of percent similarity takes into account conservative substitutions as is understood in the art.

[0963] Split dose: As used herein, a "split dose" is the division of single unit dose or total daily dose into two or more doses.

[0964] Stable: As used herein "stable" refers to a compound that is sufficiently robust to survive isolation to a useful degree of purity from a reaction mixture, and preferably capable of formulation into an efficacious therapeutic agent.

[0965] Stabilized: As used herein, the term "stabilize", "stabilized," "stabilized region" means to make or become stable.

[0966] Stereoisomer: As used herein, the term "stereoisomer" refers to all possible different isomeric as well as conformational forms which a compound may possess {e.g., a compound of any formula described herein), in particular all possible stereochemically and conformationally isomeric forms, all diastereomers, enantiomers and/or conformers of the basic molecular structure. Some compounds of the present invention may exist in different tautomeric forms, all of the latter being included within the scope of the present invention.

[0967] Subject: As used herein, the term "subject" or "patient" refers to any organism to which a composition in accordance with the invention can be administered, e.g., for experimental, diagnostic, prophylactic, and/or therapeutic purposes. Typical subjects include animals {e.g., mammals such as mice, rats, rabbits, non-human primates, and humans) and/or plants. [0968] Substantially: As used herein, the term "substantially" refers to the qualitative condition of exhibiting total or near-total extent or degree of a characteristic or property of interest. One of ordinary skill in the biological arts will understand that biological and chemical phenomena rarely, if ever, go to completion and/or proceed to completeness or achieve or avoid an absolute result. The term "substantially" is therefore used herein to capture the potential lack of completeness inherent in many biological and chemical phenomena.

[0969] Substantially equal: As used herein as it relates to time differences between doses, the term means plus/minus 2%.

[0970] Substantially simultaneously : As used herein and as it relates to plurality of doses, the term means within 2 seconds.

[0971] Suffering from: An individual who is "suffering from" a disease, disorder, and/or condition has been diagnosed with or displays one or more symptoms of a disease, disorder, and/or condition.

[0972] Susceptible to: An individual who is "susceptible to" a disease, disorder, and/or condition has not been diagnosed with and/or may not exhibit symptoms of the disease, disorder, and/or condition but harbors a propensity to develop a disease or its symptoms. In some embodiments, an individual who is susceptible to a disease, disorder, and/or condition (for example, cancer) can be characterized by one or more of the following: (1) a genetic mutation associated with development of the disease, disorder, and/or condition; (2) a genetic polymorphism associated with development of the disease, disorder, and/or condition; (3) increased and/or decreased expression and/or activity of a protein and/or nucleic acid associated with the disease, disorder, and/or condition; (4) habits and/or lifestyles associated with development of the disease, disorder, and/or condition; (5) a family history of the disease, disorder, and/or condition; and (6) exposure to and/or infection with a microbe associated with development of the disease, disorder, and/or condition. In some embodiments, an individual who is susceptible to a disease, disorder, and/or condition will develop the disease, disorder, and/or condition. In some embodiments, an individual who is susceptible to a disease, disorder, and/or condition will not develop the disease, disorder, and/or condition.

[0973] Sustained release: As used herein, the term "sustained release" refers to a pharmaceutical composition or compound release profile that conforms to a release rate over a specific period of time. [0974] Synthetic: The term "synthetic" means produced, prepared, and/or manufactured by the hand of man. Synthesis of polynucleotides or polypeptides or other molecules of the present invention can be chemical or enzymatic.

[0975] Targeted Cells: As used herein, "targeted cells" refers to any one or more cells of interest. The cells can be found in vitro, in vivo, in situ or in the tissue or organ of an organism. The organism can be an animal, preferably a mammal, more preferably a human and most preferably a patient.

[0976] Therapeutic Agent: The term "therapeutic agent" refers to any agent that, when administered to a subject, has a therapeutic, diagnostic, and/or prophylactic effect and/or elicits a desired biological and/or pharmacological effect.

[0977] Therapeutically effective amount: As used herein, the term "therapeutically effective amount" means an amount of an agent to be delivered {e.g., nucleic acid, drug, therapeutic agent, diagnostic agent, prophylactic agent, etc.) that is sufficient, when administered to a subject suffering from or susceptible to an infection, disease, disorder, and/or condition, to treat, improve symptoms of, diagnose, prevent, and/or delay the onset of the infection, disease, disorder, and/or condition.

[0978] Therapeutically effective outcome: As used herein, the term "therapeutically effective outcome" means an outcome that is sufficient in a subject suffering from or susceptible to an infection, disease, disorder, and/or condition, to treat, improve symptoms of, diagnose, prevent, and/or delay the onset of the infection, disease, disorder, and/or condition.

[0979] Total daily dose: As used herein, a "total daily dose" is an amount given or prescribed in 24 hr period. It can be administered as a single unit dose.

[0980] Totipotency: As used herein, "totipotency" refers to a cell with a developmental potential to make all of the cells found in the adult body as well as the extra-embryonic tissues, including the placenta.

[0981] Transcription factor: As used herein, the term "transcription factor" refers to a DNA- binding protein that regulates transcription of DNA into RNA, for example, by activation or repression of transcription. Some transcription factors effect regulation of transcription alone, while others act in concert with other proteins. Some transcription factor can both activate and repress transcription under certain conditions. In general, transcription factors bind a specific target sequence or sequences highly similar to a specific consensus sequence in a regulatory region of a target gene. Transcription factors may regulate transcription of a target gene alone or in a complex with other molecules.

[0982] Transcription: As used herein, the term "transcription" refers to methods to introduce exogenous nucleic acids into a cell. Methods of transfection include, but are not limited to, chemical methods, plysical treatments and cationic lipids or mixtures.

[0983] Transdifferentiation: As used herein, "transdifferentiation" refers to the capacity of differentiated cells of one type to lose identifying characteristics and to change their phenotype to that of other fully differentiated cells.

[0984] Treating: As used herein, the term "treating" refers to partially or completely alleviating, ameliorating, improving, relieving, delaying onset of, inhibiting progression of, reducing severity of, and/or reducing incidence of one or more symptoms or features of a particular infection, disease, disorder, and/or condition. For example, "treating" cancer may refer to inhibiting survival, growth, and/or spread of a tumor. Treatment can be administered to a subject who does not exhibit signs of a disease, disorder, and/or condition and/or to a subject who exhibits only early signs of a disease, disorder, and/or condition for the purpose of decreasing the risk of developing pathology associated with the disease, disorder, and/or condition.

[0985] Unmodified: As used herein, "unmodified" refers to any substance, compound or molecule prior to being changed in any way. Unmodified may, but does not always, refer to the wild type or native form of a biomolecule. Molecules may undergo a series of modifications whereby each modified molecule may serve as the "unmodified" starting molecule for a subsequent modification.

[0986] Viral protein: As used herein, the pharse "viral protein" means any protein originating from a virus.

Equivalents and Scope

[0987] Those skilled in the art will recognize, or be able to ascertain using no more than routine experimentation, many equivalents to the specific embodiments in accordance with the invention described herein. The scope of the present invention is not intended to be limited to the above Description, but rather is as set forth in the appended claims.

[0988] In the claims, articles such as "a," "an," and "the" may mean one or more than one unless indicated to the contrary or otherwise evident from the context. Claims or descriptions that include "or" between one or more members of a group are considered satisfied if one, more than one, or all of the group members are present in, employed in, or otherwise relevant to a given product or process unless indicated to the contrary or otherwise evident from the context. The invention includes embodiments in which exactly one member of the group is present in, employed in, or otherwise relevant to a given product or process. The invention includes embodiments in which more than one, or all of the group members are present in, employed in, or otherwise relevant to a given product or process.

[0989] It is also noted that the term "comprising" is intended to be open and permits but does not require the inclusion of additional elements or steps. When the term "comprising" is used herein, the term "consisting of is thus also encompassed and disclosed.

[0990] Where ranges are given, endpoints are included. Furthermore, it is to be understood that unless otherwise indicated or otherwise evident from the context and understanding of one of ordinary skill in the art, values that are expressed as ranges can assume any specific value or subrange within the stated ranges in different embodiments of the invention, to the tenth of the unit of the lower limit of the range, unless the context clearly dictates otherwise.

[0991] In addition, it is to be understood that any particular embodiment of the present invention that falls within the prior art can be explicitly excluded from any one or more of the claims. Since such embodiments are deemed to be known to one of ordinary skill in the art, they can be excluded even if the exclusion is not set forth explicitly herein. Any particular embodiment of the compositions of the invention (e.g., any nucleic acid or protein encoded thereby; any method of production; any method of use; etc.) can be excluded from any one or more claims, for any reason, whether or not related to the existence of prior art.

[0992] All cited sources, for example, references, publications, databases, database entries, and art cited herein, are incorporated into this application by reference, even if not expressly stated in the citation. In case of conflicting statements of a cited source and the instant application, the statement in the instant application shall control.

[0993] Section and table headings are not intended to be limiting.

EXAMPLES

Example 1. Chimeric polynucleotide synthesis: triphosphate route

Introduction

[0994] Two regions or parts of a chimeric polynucleotide can be joined or ligated using triphosphate chemistry.

[0995] According to this method, a first region or part of 100 nucleotides or less is chemically synthesized with a 5' monophosphate and terminal 3 'desOH or blocked OH. If the region is longer than 80 nucleotides, it can be synthesized as two strands for ligation.

[0996] If the first region or part is synthesized as a non-positionally modified region or part using in vitro transcription (IVT), conversion the 5 'monophosphate with subsequent capping of the 3 ' terminus can follow.

[0997] Monophosphate protecting groups can be selected from any of those known in the art.

[0998] The second region or part of the chimeric polynucleotide can be synthesized using either chemical synthesis or IVT methods. IVT methods can include an RNA polymerase that can utilize a primer with a modified cap. Alternatively, a cap of up to 80 nucleotides can be chemically synthesized and coupled to the IVT region or part.

[0999] It is noted that for ligation methods, ligation with DNA T4 ligase, followed by treatment with DNAse should readily avoid concatenation.

[01000] The entire chimeric polynucleotide need not be manufactured with a phosphate-sugar backbone. If one of the regions or parts encodes a polypeptide, then it is preferable that such region or part comprise a phosphate-sugar backbone.

[01001] Ligation is then performed using any known click chemistry, orthoclick chemistry, solulink, or other bioconjugate chemistries known to those in the art.

[01002] Synthetic route

[01003] The chimeric polynucleotide is made using a series of starting segments. Such segments include:

[01004] (a) Capped and protected 5' segment comprising a normal 3 ΌΗ (SEG. 1)

[01005] (b) 5' triphosphate segment which can include the coding region of a polypeptide and comprising a normal 3 ΌΗ (SEG. 2)

[01006] (c) 5' monophosphate segment for the 3 ' end of the chimeric polynucleotide (e.g., the tail) comprising cordycepin or no 3 ΌΗ (SEG. 3) [01007] After synthesis (chemical or IVT), segment 3 (SEG. 3) is treated with cordycepin and then with pyrophosphatase to create the 5 'monophosphate.

[01008] Segment 2 (SEG. 2) is then ligated to SEG. 3 using RNA ligase. The ligated polynucleotide is then purified and treated with pyrophosphatase to cleave the diphosphate. The treated SEG.2-SEG. 3 construct is then purified and SEG. 1 is ligated to the 5' terminus. A further purification step of the chimeric polynucleotide can be performed.

[01009] Where the chimeric polynucleotide encodes a polypeptide, the ligated or joined segments can be represented as: 5'UTR (SEG. 1), open reading frame or ORF (SEG. 2) and 3'UTR+PolyA (SEG. 3).

[01010] The yields of each step can be as much as 90-95%. Example 2: PCR for cDNA Production

[01011] PCR procedures for the preparation of cDNA are performed using 2x KAPA HIFI™ HotStart ReadyMix by Kapa Biosystems (Woburn, MA). This system includes 2x KAPA ReadyMixl2.5 μΐ; Forward Primer (10 uM) 0.75 μΐ; Reverse Primer (10 uM) 0.75 μΐ; Template cDNA -100 ng; and dH20 diluted to 25.0 μΐ. The reaction conditions are at 95° C for 5 min. and 25 cycles of 98° C for 20 sec, then 58° C for 15 sec, then 72° C for 45 sec, then 72° C for 5 min. then 4° C to termination.

[01012] The reverse primer of the instant invention incorporates a poly-Ti20 for a poly-Ai20 in the mRNA. Other reverse primers with longer or shorter poly(T) tracts can be used to adjust the length of the poly(A) tail in the polynucleotide mRNA.

[01013] The reaction is cleaned up using Invitrogen's PURELINK™ PCR Micro Kit (Carlsbad, CA) per manufacturer's instructions (up to 5 μg). Larger reactions will require a cleanup using a product with a larger capacity. Following the cleanup, the cDNA is quantified using the NANODROP™ and analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis to confirm the cDNA is the expected size. The cDNA is then submitted for sequencing analysis before proceeding to the in vitro transcription reaction.

Example 3. In vitro Transcription (TVT)

[01014] The in vitro transcription reaction generates polynucletodies containing uniformly modified polynucleotides. Such uniformly modified polynucleotides can comprise a region or part of the polynucleotides of the invention. The input nucleotide triphosphate (NTP) mix is made in-house using natural and un-natural NTPs.

[01015] A typical in vitro transcription reaction includes the following: 1 Template cDNA 1.0 μ§

2 lOx transcription buffer (400 mM Tris-HCl pH 8.0, 190 mM MgCl2, 50 mM DTT, 10 mM Spermidine) 2.0 μΐ

3 Custom NTPs (25mM each) 7.2 μΐ

4 RNase Inhibitor 20 U

5 T7 RNA polymerase 3000 U

6 d¾0 Up to 20.0 μΐ. and

7 Incubation at 37° C for 3 hr-5 hrs.

[01016] The crude IVT mix can be stored at 4° C overnight for cleanup the next day. 1 U of RNase-free DNase is then used to digest the original template. After 15 minutes of incubation at 37° C, the mRNA is purified using Ambion's MEGACLEAR™ Kit (Austin, TX) following the manufacturer's instructions. This kit can purify up to 500 μg of RNA. Following the cleanup, the RNA is quantified using the NanoDrop and analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis to confirm the RNA is the proper size and that no degradation of the RNA has occurred.

Example 4. Enzymatic Capping

[01017] Capping of a polynucleotide is performed as follows where the mixture includes: IVT RNA 60 μg-180μg and dH20 up to 72 μΐ. The mixture is incubated at 65° C for 5 minutes to denature RNA, and then is transferred immediately to ice.

[01018] The protocol then involves the mixing of lOx Capping Buffer (0.5 M Tris-HCl (pH 8.0), 60 mM KC1, 12.5 mM MgCl2) (10.0 μΐ); 20 mM GTP (5.0 μΐ); 20 mM S-Adenosyl Methionine (2.5 μΐ); RNase Inhibitor (100 U); 2'-0-Methyltransferase (400U); Vaccinia capping enzyme (Guanylyl transferase) (40 U); dH20 (Up to 28 μΐ); and incubation at 37° C for 30 minutes for 60 μg RNA or up to 2 hours for 180 μg of RNA.

[01019] The polynucleotide is then purified using Ambion's MEGACLEAR™ Kit (Austin, TX) following the manufacturer's instructions. Following the cleanup, the RNA is quantified using the NANODROP™ (Therm oFisher, Waltham, MA) and analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis to confirm the RNA is the proper size and that no degradation of the RNA has occurred. The RNA product can also be sequenced by running a reverse-transcription-PCR to generate the cDNA for sequencing.

Example 5. Poly A Tailing Reaction

[01020] Without a poly-T in the cDNA, a poly-A tailing reaction must be performed before cleaning the final product. This is done by mixing Capped IVT RNA (100 μΐ); RNase Inhibitor (20 U); lOx Tailing Buffer (0.5 M Tris-HCl (pH 8.0), 2.5 M NaCl, 100 mM MgCl2)(12.0 μΐ); 20 mM ATP (6.0 μΐ); Poly-A Polymerase (20 U); d¾0 up to 123.5 μΐ and incubation at 37° C for 30 min. If the poly-A tail is already in the transcript, then the tailing reaction can be skipped and proceed directly to cleanup with Ambion's MEGACLEAR™ kit (Austin, TX) (up to 500 μg). Poly-A Polymerase is preferably a recombinant enzyme expressed in yeast.

[01021] It should be understood that the processivity or integrity of the polyA tailing reaction may not always result in an exact size polyA tail. Hence polyA tails of approximately between 40-200 nucleotides, e.g, about 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 150-165, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164 or 165 are within the scope of the invention.

Example 6. Natural 5f Caps and 5f Cap Analogues

[01022] 5 '-capping of polynucleotides can be completed concomitantly during the in vitro- transcription reaction using the following chemical RNA cap analogs to generate the 5'- guanosine cap structure according to manufacturer protocols: 3 '-0-Me-m7G(5')ppp(5') G [the ARCA cap];G(5')ppp(5')A; G(5')ppp(5')G; m7G(5')ppp(5')A; m7G(5')ppp(5')G (New England BioLabs, Ipswich, MA). 5 '-capping of modified RNA can be completed post-transcriptionally using a Vaccinia Virus Capping Enzyme to generate the "Cap 0" structure: m7G(5')ppp(5')G (New England BioLabs, Ipswich, MA). Cap 1 structure can be generated using both Vaccinia Virus Capping Enzyme and a 2'-0 methyl-transferase to generate: m7G(5')ppp(5')G-2'-0-methyl. Cap 2 structure can be generated from the Cap 1 structure followed by the 2'-0-methylation of the 5 '-antepenultimate nucleotide using a 2'-0 methyl-transferase. Cap 3 structure can be generated from the Cap 2 structure followed by the 2'-0-methylation of the 5'-preantepenultimate nucleotide using a 2'-0 methyl-transferase. Enzymes are preferably derived from a recombinant source.

[01023] When transfected into mammalian cells, the modified mRNAs have a stability of between 12-18 hours or more than 18 hours, e.g., 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 or greater than 72 hours.

Example 7. Capping Assays

A. Protein Expression Assay

[01024] Polynucleotides encoding a polypeptide, containing any of the caps taught herein can be transfected into cells at equal concentrations. 6, 12, 24 and 36 hours post-transfection the amount of protein secreted into the culture medium can be assayed by ELISA. Synthetic polynucleotides that secrete higher levels of protein into the medium would correspond to a synthetic polynucleotide with a higher translationally-competent Cap structure.

B. Purity Analysis Synthesis

[01025] Polynucleotides encoding a polypeptide, containing any of the caps taught herein can be compared for purity using denaturing Agarose-Urea gel electrophoresis or HPLC analysis. Polynucleotides with a single, consolidated band by electrophoresis correspond to the higher purity product compared to polynucleotides with multiple bands or streaking bands. Synthetic polynucleotides with a single HPLC peak would also correspond to a higher purity product. The capping reaction with a higher efficiency would provide a more pure polynucleotide population.

C. Cytokine Analysis

[01026] Polynucleotides encoding a polypeptide, containing any of the caps taught herein can be transfected into cells at multiple concentrations. 6, 12, 24 and 36 hours post-transfection the amount of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as T F-alpha and IFN-beta secreted into the culture medium can be assayed by ELISA. Polynucleotides resulting in the secretion of higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines into the medium would correspond to polynucleotides containing an immune-activating cap structure.

D. Capping Reaction Efficiency

[01027] Polynucleotides encoding a polypeptide, containing any of the caps taught herein can be analyzed for capping reaction efficiency by LC-MS after nuclease treatment. Nuclease treatment of capped polynucleotides would yield a mixture of free nucleotides and the capped 5'- 5 -triphosphate cap structure detectable by LC-MS. The amount of capped product on the LC-MS spectra can be expressed as a percent of total polynucleotide from the reaction and would correspond to capping reaction efficiency. The cap structure with higher capping reaction efficiency would have a higher amount of capped product by LC-MS.

Example 8. Agarose Gel Electrophoresis of Modified RNA or RT PCR Products

[01028] Individual polynucleotides (200-400 ng in a 20 μΐ volume) or reverse transcribed PCR products (200-400 ng) are loaded into a well on a non-denaturing 1.2% Agarose E-Gel (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) and run for 12-15 minutes according to the manufacturer protocol. Example 9. Nanodrop Modified RNA Quantification and UV Spectral Data

[01029] Modified polynucleotides in TE buffer (1 μΐ) are used for Nanodrop UV absorbance readings to quantitate the yield of each polynucleotide from an chemical synthesis or in vitro transcription reaction.

Example 10. Formulation of Modified mRNA Using Lipidoids

[01030] Polynucleotides are formulated for in vitro experiments by mixing the polynucleotides with the lipidoid at a set ratio prior to addition to cells. In vivo formulation may require the addition of extra ingredients to facilitate circulation throughout the body. To test the ability of these lipidoids to form particles suitable for in vivo work, a standard formulation process used for siRNA-lipidoid formulations can be used as a starting point. After formation of the particle, polynucleotide is added and allowed to integrate with the complex. The encapsulation efficiency is determined using a standard dye exclusion assays.

Example 11. Method of Screening for Protein Expression

A. Electrospray Ionization

[01031] A biological sample which can contain proteins encoded by a polynucleotide administered to the subject is prepared and analyzed according to the manufacturer protocol for electrospray ionization (ESI) using 1, 2, 3 or 4 mass analyzers. A biologic sample can also be analyzed using a tandem ESI mass spectrometry system.

[01032] Patterns of protein fragments, or whole proteins, are compared to known controls for a given protein and identity is determined by comparison.

B. Matrix- Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization

[01033] A biological sample which can contain proteins encoded by one or more polynucleotides administered to the subject is prepared and analyzed according to the manufacturer protocol for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI).

[01034] Patterns of protein fragments, or whole proteins, are compared to known controls for a given protein and identity is determined by comparison.

C. Liquid Chromatography-Mass spectrometry-Mass spectrometry

[01035] A biological sample, which can contain proteins encoded by one or more polynucleotides, can be treated with a trypsin enzyme to digest the proteins contained within. The resulting peptides are analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The peptides are fragmented in the mass spectrometer to yield diagnostic patterns that can be matched to protein sequence databases via computer algorithms. The digested sample can be diluted to achieve 1 ng or less starting material for a given protein. Biological samples containing a simple buffer background (e.g. water or volatile salts) are amenable to direct in- solution digest; more complex backgrounds (e.g. detergent, non-volatile salts, glycerol) require an additional clean-up step to facilitate the sample analysis.

[01036] Patterns of protein fragments, or whole proteins, are compared to known controls for a given protein and identity is determined by comparison.

Example 12. Cyclization and/or concatemerization

[01037] A polynucleotide can be cyclized, or concatemerized, to generate a translation competent molecule to assist interactions between poly-A binding proteins and 5 '-end binding proteins. The mechanism of cyclization or concatemerization can occur through at least 3 different routes: 1) chemical, 2) enzymatic, and 3) ribozyme catalyzed. The newly formed 5'-/3'- linkage can be intramolecular or intermolecular.

[01038] In the first route, the 5 '-end and the 3 '-end of the nucleic acid contain chemically reactive groups that, when close together, form a new covalent linkage between the 5 '-end and the 3 '-end of the molecule. The 5 '-end can contain an HS-ester reactive group and the 3 '-end can contain a 3 '-amino-terminated nucleotide such that in an organic solvent the 3'-amino- terminated nucleotide on the 3 '-end of a synthetic mRNA molecule will undergo a nucleophilic attack on the 5 '-NHS-ester moiety forming a new 5 '-/3 '-amide bond.

[01039] In the second route, T4 RNA ligase can be used to enzymatically link a 5'- phosphorylated nucleic acid molecule to the 3 '-hydroxyl group of a nucleic acid forming a new phosphorodiester linkage. In an example reaction, ^g of a nucleic acid molecule is incubated at 37°C for 1 hour with 1-10 units of T4 RNA ligase (New England Biolabs, Ipswich, MA) according to the manufacturer's protocol. The ligation reaction can occur in the presence of a split polynucleotide capable of base-pairing with both the 5'- and 3'- region in juxtaposition to assist the enzymatic ligation reaction.

[01040] In the third route, either the 5 '-or 3 '-end of the cDNA template encodes a ligase ribozyme sequence such that during in vitro transcription, the resultant nucleic acid molecule can contain an active ribozyme sequence capable of ligating the 5 '-end of a nucleic acid molecule to the 3 '-end of a nucleic acid molecule. The ligase ribozyme can be derived from the Group I Intron, Group I Intron, Hepatitis Delta Virus, Hairpin ribozyme or can be selected by SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment). The ribozyme ligase reaction may take 1 to 24 hours at temperatures between 0 and 37°C.

Example 13. Mouse Model for In Vivo Studies of LDLR

[01041] A mouse model (LDLR -/- mouse) was developed from a C57BL/6 background strain using a neo cassette inserted into exon 4 of the LDLR receptor gene. The mouse model has an elevated serum cholesterol level of 200-400 mg/dl (80-100 mg/dl is considered a normal level) and rises to greater than 200 mg/dl when fed a high fat diet.

Example 14. In Vitro Expression of LDL receptors

[01042] Human embryonic kidney epithelial (HEK293) cells (LGC standards GmbH, Wesel, Germany) are seeded on 6-well plates (BD Biosciences, San Jose, USA). HEK293 are seeded at a density of about 500,000 cells per well in 3 mL cell culture medium. Formulations containing wild type LDLR mRNA (fully modified with 5-methylcytidine and pseudouridine or fully modified with 1-methylpseudouridine; 5 'cap, capl; poly A tail of at least 140 nucleotides not shown in sequence), an LDLR EGF-A domain sequence variant mRNA (fully modified with 5- methylcytidine and pseudouridine or fully modified with 1-methylpseudouridine; 5 'cap, capl; poly A tail of at least 140 nucleotides not shown in sequence), an LDLR EGF-A and cytoplasmic domain sequence variant (fully modified with 5-methylcytidine and pseudouridine or fully modified with 1-methylpseudouridine; 5 'cap, capl; poly A tail of at least 140 nucleotides not shown in sequence), or an LDLR cytoplasmic domain sequence variant (fully modified with 5- methylcytidine and pseudouridine or fully modified with 1-methylpseudouridine; 5 'cap, capl; polyA tail of at least 140 nucleotides not shown in sequence) or a control of G-CSF (fully modified with 5-methylcytidine and pseudouridine or fully modified with 1- methylpseudouridine; 5 'cap, capl; poly A tail of at least 140 nucleotides not shown in sequence) are added directly after seeding the cells at quantities of 800 ng per well and incubated. The LDLR mRNA sequence variants prepared and tested will include: a four amino acid substitution variant, N316A, E317A, D331A, and Y336A (#399), or the following single amino acid substitution variants Y336A (#400), E317A (#401), N316A (#402), L339D (#403), D331E (#404). These sequence variants may also contain one or more of several cytoplasmic domain variants including K816R, K830R, or C839A. mRNA transfected cells will be treated with anti- LDLR antibody and one set of LDLR transfected cells will be treated with normal goat IgG as controls. Bound primary antibodies will detected by FACS analysis following treatment with a Phycoerythrin (PE)-labeled secondary antibody. The percent gated live cells will be detected to express LDLR. It is anticipated that no staining will be observed in LDLR mRNA treated cells stained with the control non-immune IgG and no LDLR positive cells will be detected in cells transfected with G-CSF mRNA.

Example 15. In Vitro LDLR expression

A. Expression

[01043] Human embryonic kidney epithelial (HEK293) cells (LGC standards GmbH, Wesel, Germany) are seeded on 6-well plates (BD Biosciences, San Jose, USA). HEK293 are seeded at a density of about 500,000 cells per well in 3 mL cell culture medium. Formulations containing wild type LDLR mRNA (fully modified with 5-methylcytidine and pseudouridine or fully modified with 1-methylpseudouridine; 5 'cap, capl; poly A tail of at least 140 nucleotides not shown in sequence), an LDLR EGF-A domain sequence variant mRNA (fully modified with 5- methylcytidine and pseudouridine or fully modified with 1-methylpseudouridine; 5 'cap, capl; poly A tail of at least 140 nucleotides not shown in sequence), an LDLR EGF-A and cytoplasmic domain sequence variant (fully modified with 5-methylcytidine and pseudouridine or fully modified with 1-methylpseudouridine; 5 'cap, capl; poly A tail of at least 140 nucleotides not shown in sequence), or an LDLR cytoplasmic domain sequence variant (fully modified with 5- methylcytidine and pseudouridine or fully modified with 1-methylpseudouridine; 5 'cap, capl; polyA tail of at least 140 nucleotides not shown in sequence) or a control of G-CSF (fully modified with 5-methylcytidine and pseudouridine or fully modified with 1- methylpseudouridine; 5 'cap, capl; poly A tail of at least 140 nucleotides not shown in sequence) are added directly after seeding the cells at quantities of 800 ng per well and incubated in the presence and in the absence of exogenous human PCSK9 at 60 μg /mL. The LDLR mRNA sequence variants prepared and tested will include: a four amino acid substitution variant (also referred to herein as a LDLR mutant with 4 mutations), N316A, E317A, D331A, and Y336A (#399), or the following single amino acid substitution variants Y336A (#400), E317A (#401), N316A (#402), L339D (#403), D331E (#404). These sequence variants may also contain one or more of several cytoplasmic domain variants including K816R, K830R, or C839A. mRNA transfected cells will be treated with anti-LDLR antibody and one set of LDLR transfected cells will be treated with normal goat IgG as controls. After fifteen hours at 37°C, the transfection media will be removed, the cells washed, and will be treated with anti-LDLR antibody conjugated to Phycoerythrin (PE) as described above. One set of LDLR transfected cells will be treated with normal goat IgG conjugated to PE and another set of untransfected cells will be used as controls. Cells transfected with G-CSF modified mRNA will be used as an additional negative control. Bound primary antibodies will be detected by flow cytometry as described above.

[01044] It is anticipated that the FACS analysis will show that cell surface LDLR expression in cells transfected with wild-type LDLR mRNA as a percent of gated live cells. In contrast, it is expected that each of the LDLR mRNA variants with substitutions in the PCSK9 binding domain will show less sensitivity to down-modulation by exogenous PCSK9, with values of percent reduction ranging from -8.1% to 29% (compared to 58% reduction observed with wild-type LDLR). It is also anticipated that LDLR PCSK9 binding variants containing one or more of the mutations in the cytoplasmic domain, including K816R, K830R, or C839A or any combination of these variants, will also be insensitive to exogenous PCSK9. As the latter variants also are expected to be deficient in IDOL-dependent ubiquitination of the LDLR, these variants may be even less sensitive to PCSK9 down modulation due to increased apparent LDLR half-life.

B. Functionality of LDLR

[01045] To evaluate whether the expressed LDLR are functional, BODIPY-labeled LDL will be used. HEK293 cells will be transfected overnight with either LDLR or G-CSF mRNAs, the cells will be washed and incubated with increasing amounts of BODIPY-LDL. Following incubation for 1.0-h at 37°C, the cells will be washed and the cell associated BODIPY-LDL will be assessed by flow cytometry. Contour plots of the BODIPY-LDL binding will be obtained. For wild-type, LDLR PCSK9 and/or cytoplasmic domain binding variants, the binding of BODIPY-LDL to LDLR mRNA transfected cells will be evident as a right-ward shift in the gated cell population that increased with BODIPY-LDL concentration. It is expected that a similar rightward shift in the gated cell population will be seen for cells transfected with each of the LDLR mRNA constructs. It is also expected that the half-maximal cell association will be the same for BODIPY-LDL binding to cells transfected with either wild type, the PCSK9 binding-deficient, and/or the cytoplasmic domain variant LDLR mRNAs. For each construct, it is expected that BODIPY-LDL binding will be of high affinity (half-maximal binding between 0.6-0.7 ng/mL) and saturable. It is likely that no BODIPY-LDL binding will be observed for cells transfected with G-CSF mRNA.

C. Effect on half-life of cell surface LDLR in cells

[01046] To assess whether exogenous PCSK9 can modulate the apparent half-life of cell surface LDL receptors in cells transfected with LDLR mRNA, HEK293 cells will be plated, incubated, and transfected with LDLR mRNA as described above. The cell monolayers will be washed and fresh media with or without PCSK9 (60 μg/mL) will be added. After various times of incubation at 37°C, cell surface LDLR expression will be monitored by flow cytometry using anti-LDLR antibodies as described above. It is anticipated that cell surface LDLR in cells transfected with wild-type LDLR mRNA will decrease in a time-dependent manner. Similarly, addition of PCSK9 to the media of cells transfected with wild-type LDLR mRNA is expected to decrease the apparent half-life of cell surface LDLR . In contrast, addition of PCSK9 to the media of cells transfected with PCSK9 binding-deficient LDLR mRNA or PCSK9 binding- deficient and the cytoplasmic domain mutant LDLR mRNA will produced little or no change in the apparent half-life of cell surface LDLR . It is expected that these data will show that cells transfected with LDLR mRNA encoding LDLR with mutations in the PCSK9 binding site in the presence or absence of cytoplasmic domain mutations will fail to respond to exogenous PCSK9, suggesting that these binding variants may have a longer half-life than wild-type LDLR in vivo and be useful for treating patients with hypercholesterolemia.

D. Ubiquitination of the LDLR

[01047] The mutations in the LDLR mRNA encoding the cytoplasmic domain of the LDLR (K816R, K830R, or C839A) either together or singly, or in combination, are expected to prevent the ubiquitination of the LDLR and thus prolong the cellular half-life of the LDLR. To assess this, HEK293 cells or Hep-G2 cells will be transfected with formulations containing wild type LDLR mRNA (fully modified with 5-methylcytidine and pseudouridine or fully modified with 1- methylpseudouridine; 5 'cap, capl; poly A tail of at least 140 nucleotides not shown in sequence), an LDLR EGF-A domain sequence variant mRNA (fully modified with 5-methylcytidine and pseudouridine or fully modified with l-methylpseudouridine; 5 'cap, capl; poly A tail of at least 140 nucleotides not shown in sequence), an LDLR EGF-A and cytoplasmic domain sequence variant (fully modified with 5-methylcytidine and pseudouridine or fully modified with 1- methylpseudouridine; 5 'cap, capl; poly A tail of at least 140 nucleotides not shown in sequence), or an LDLR cytoplasmic domain sequence variant (fully modified with 5-methylcytidine and pseudouridine or fully modified with l-methylpseudouridine; 5 'cap, capl; poly A tail of at least 140 nucleotides not shown in sequence) or a control of G-CSF (fully modified with 5- methylcytidine and pseudouridine or fully modified with l-methylpseudouridine; 5 'cap, capl; poly A tail of at least 140 nucleotides not shown in sequence) are added directly after seeding the cells at quantities of 800 ng per well and incubated. The LDLR mRNA sequence variants prepared and tested will include: a four amino acid substitution variant, N316A, E317A, D331A, and Y336A (#399), or the following single amino acid substitution variants Y336A (#400), E317A (#401), N316A (#402), L339D (#403), D331E (#404). These sequence variants may also contain one or more of several cytoplasmic domain variants including K816R, K830R, or C839A. Cells will be incubated with oxysterol ligands for LXR alpha for up to 24h at 37°C to induce the expression of IDOL. The ability of IDOL to ubiquitinate the LDLR will be assessed by Western analysis of cell extracts with ubiquitin and LDLR specific antibodies. It is anticipated that the LDLR variants containing the cytoplasmic domain mutations will show decreased ubiquitination.

Example 16. In Vivo LDLR expression

[01048] To assess the function of the LDLR mRNAs in vivo, LDL receptor-deficient mice will be utilized. Animals will receive various doses of nanoparticle formulations, such as those utilizing C12-200, for example, containing wild type LDLR mRNA (fully modified with 5- methylcytidine and pseudouridine or fully modified with 1-methylpseudouridine; 5 'cap, capl; poly A tail of at least 140 nucleotides not shown in sequence), an LDLR EGF-A domain sequence variant mRNA (fully modified with 5-methylcytidine and pseudouridine or fully modified with 1-methylpseudouridine; 5 'cap, capl; poly A tail of at least 140 nucleotides not shown in sequence), an LDLR EGF-A and cytoplasmic domain sequence variant (fully modified with 5- methylcytidine and pseudouridine or fully modified with 1-methylpseudouridine; 5 'cap, capl; poly A tail of at least 140 nucleotides not shown in sequence), or an LDLR cytoplasmic domain sequence variant (fully modified with 5-methylcytidine and pseudouridine or fully modified with 1-methylpseudouridine; 5 'cap, capl; poly A tail of at least 140 nucleotides not shown in sequence) or a control of G-CSF (fully modified with 5-methylcytidine and pseudouridine or fully modified with 1-methylpseudouridine; 5 'cap, capl; poly A tail of at least 140 nucleotides not shown in sequence). The LDLR mRNA sequence variants prepared and tested will include: a four amino acid substitution variant, N316A, E317A, D331A, and Y336A (#399), or the following single amino acid substitution variants Y336A (#400), E317A (#401), N316A (#402), L339D (#403), D331E (#404). These sequence variants may also contain one or more of several cytoplasmic domain variants including K816R, K830R, or C839A. After various periods of time the mice will be sacrificed, serum samples will be obtained, and levels of hepatic LDLR expression will be assessed by Western blotting. It is anticipated that the apparent half-life of LDLR encoded by the PCSK9 binding variants will be increased. It is further anticipated that the half-life of LDLR encoded by PCSK9 binding mutants also harboring mutations in the cytoplasmic domain will be increased. It is expected that the prolonged half-life of the LDLR mutants will be associated with reductions in the level of serum VLDL+IDL+LDL cholesterol. These data will further validate the approach for treating familial hypercholesterolemia with LDLR mRNA.

Example 17. Mouse LDLR Mutant Constructs

[01049] According to the present invention, the polynucleotide may comprise at least a first region of linked nucleosides encoding mouse LDLR. The mouse LDLR protein sequences of the present invention are listed in Table 10 below. Shown in Table 10, are the name and description of the gene and the protein sequence identifier. For any particular gene there may exist one or more variants or isoforms. It will be appreciated by those of skill in the art that disclosed in the Table are potential flanking regions. The coding region is definitively and specifically disclosed by teaching the protein sequence. Consequently, the sequences taught flanking that encoding the protein are considered flanking regions. It is also possible to further characterize the 5' and 3' flanking regions by utilizing one or more available databases or algorithms. Databases have annotated the features contained in the flanking regions of the ENST transcripts and these are available in the art.

Table 10. Targets

Target Gene Description Protein mRNA

No SEQ ID SEQ ID

NO NO

21 LDLR N317A, low density lipoprotein 724 732

K832R, C841A receptor/PCSK9/ubiquitation

mutant (Mus musculus)

(mLDLR-733)

22 LDLR N317A, low density lipoprotein 725

K818R, receptor/PCSK9/ubiquitation

K832R, C841A mutant (Mus musculus)

23 LDLR L340D, low density lipoprotein 726 733

K832R, C841A receptor/PCSK9/ubiquitation

mutant (Mus musculus)

(mLDLR-734)

24 LDLR L340D, low density lipoprotein 727

K818R, receptor/PCSK9/ubiquitation

K832R, C841A mutant (Mus musculus)

25 LDLR K832R, low density lipoprotein 728 734

C841A receptor/PCSK9/ubiquitation

mutant (Mus musculus)

(mLDLR-735)

26 LDLR K818R, low density lipoprotein 729 K832R, C841A receptor/PCSK9/ubiquitation

mutant (Mus musculus)

[01050] The EGF-A domain for the LDLR mouse protein sequence is KT ECLDNNGGC SHICKDLKIGSECLCP S GFRL VDLHRCE (SEQ ID NO: 730) and the intracellular domain is

RNWRLKNINSINFDNPVYQKTTEDELHICRSQDGYTYPSRQMVSLEDDVA (SEQ ID NO: 731).

[01051] Any of the polynucleotides described herein may encode the mouse LDLR constructs and may be used in experiments in vivo to evaluate the effect of the mutation on an animal.

Example 17. Human LDLR Mutant Constructs

[01052] According to the present invention, the polynucleotide may comprise at least a first region of linked nucleosides encoding human LDLR. The human LDLR protein sequences of the present invention are listed in Table 11 below. Shown in Table 11, are the name and description of the gene and the protein sequence identifier. For any particular gene there may exist one or more variants or isoforms. It will be appreciated by those of skill in the art that disclosed in the Table are potential flanking regions. The coding region is definitively and specifically disclosed by teaching the protein sequence. Consequently, the sequences taught flanking that encoding the protein are considered flanking regions. It is also possible to further characterize the 5' and 3' flanking regions by utilizing one or more available databases or algorithms. Databases have annotated the features contained in the flanking regions of the ENST transcripts and these are available in the art.

Table 11. Targets

Target Gene Description Protein mRNA

No SEQ ID SEQ ID

NO NO

15 LDLR N316A, low density lipoprotein 50 735

K830R, C839A receptor/PCSK9/ubiquitation

mutant (homo sapiens)

(hLDLR-733)

16 LDLR N316A, low density lipoprotein 51

K816R, K830R, receptor/PCSK9/ubiquitation

C839A

mutant (homo sapiens)

17 LDLR L339D, low density lipoprotein 52 736

K830R, C839A receptor/PCSK9/ubiquitation

mutant (homo sapiens)

(hLDLR-734)

18 LDLR L339D, low density lipoprotein 53

K816R, K830R, receptor/PCSK9/ubiquitation C839A mutant (homo sapiens)

19 LDLR K830R, low density lipoprotein 54 737

C839A receptor/PCSK9/ubiquitation

mutant (homo sapiens)

(hLDLR-735)

20 LDLR K816R, low density lipoprotein 55

K830R, C839A receptor/PCSK9/ubiquitation

mutant (homo sapiens)

Example 18. In Vitro Studies of LDLR-IDOL Mutants

A. In Vitro Expression of LDLR-IDOL Mutants

[01053] HEK293 cells are transfected with mRNA encoding human or mouse LDLR mutants and compared to a control of human or mouse LDLR (wild type). The HEK293 cells are transfected for 12-14 hours with the mRNA encoding human or mouse LDLR using lipofectamine 2000 with increasing doses of mRNA (about 4 to 4000 ng of mRNA). Cells are harvested and stained with either a goat anti-hLDLR-PE or goat IgG-PE antibody and analyzed with a flow cytometer. LDLR expression is assessed as a percentage of LDLR positive cells for each dose and construct evaluated.

[01054] mRNA encoding human LDLR mutants for this study include the mutations N316A, K830R and C839A (amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 50; mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 735 where the polyA tail of approximately 140 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence, 5'Cap is Cap and the mRNA is fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1- methylpseudouridine), the mutations K830R, C839A and L339D (amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 52; mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 736 where the polyA tail of approximately 140 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence, 5'Cap is Cap (e.g., CapO) and the mRNA is fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and l-methylpseudouridine) or the mutations K830R and C839A (amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 54; mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 737 where the polyA tail of approximately 140 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence, 5'Cap is Cap and the mRNA is fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1- methylpseudouridine).

[01055] mRNA encoding mouse LDLR mutants for this study include the mutations N317A, K832R and C841A (amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 724; mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 732 where the polyA tail of approximately 140 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence, 5'Cap is Cap and the mRNA is fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1- methylpseudouridine), the mutations L340D, K832R and C841A (amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 726; mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 733 where the poly A tail of approximately 140 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence, 5'Cap is Cap and the mRNA is fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1-methylpseudouridine) or the mutations K832R and C841A (amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 728; mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 734 where the polyA tail of approximately 140 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence, 5 'Cap is Cap and the mRNA is fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1- methylpseudouridine).

B. In Vitro LDL Binding to LDLR-IDOL Mutants

[01056] Following establishment of expression of LDLR-IDOL mutants, the in vitro bioactivity of these mRNA is assessed and compared to the bioactivity of the wild-type receptor in vitro. mRNA encoding LDLR-IDOL mutants are evaluated for ligand binding using a BODIPY-labelled LDL binding assay. HEK293 cells are transfected with mRNA encoding LDLR-IDOL mutants for 12-14 hours at a dose in the range of about 4 ng to about 4000 ng.

[01057] mRNA encoding human LDLR mutants for this study include the mutations N316A, K830R and C839A (amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 50; mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 735 where the polyA tail of approximately 140 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence, 5'Cap is Cap and the mRNA is fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1- methylpseudouridine), the mutations K830R, C839A and L339D (amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 52; mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 736 where the polyA tail of approximately 140 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence, 5'Cap is Cap and the mRNA is fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1-methylpseudouridine) or the mutations K830R and C839A (amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 54; mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 737 where the polyA tail of approximately 140 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence, 5'Cap is Cap and the mRNA is fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1-methylpseudouridine).

[01058] mRNA encoding mouse LDLR mutants for this study include the mutations N317A, K832R and C841 A (amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 724; mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 732 where the polyA tail of approximately 140 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence, 5'Cap is Cap and the mRNA is fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1- methylpseudouridine), the mutations L340D, K832R and C841A (amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 726; mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 733 where the polyA tail of approximately 140 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence, 5'Cap is Cap and the mRNA is fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1-methylpseudouridine) or the mutations K832R and C841 A (amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 728; mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 734 where the polyA tail of approximately 140 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence, 5 'Cap is Cap and the mRNA is fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1- methylpseudouridine).

[01059] Cells are incubated with increasing concentration of fluorescently labeled LDLR ligand (LDL-BODIPY) (about 0.1 ug/ml to about 50 ug/ml) for one hour at 37C. Cells are then harvested and analyzed with a flow cytometer.

[01060] C. PCSK9 Down-Modulation of LDLR Expression

[01061] mRNA encoding the LDLR-IDOL mutants are evaluated for resistance to PCSK9 down-modul ati on .

[01062] HEK293 cells are transfected with mRNA encoding LDLR-IDOL mutants using Lipofectamine 2000 for 12-14 hours at a dose in the range of about 4 ng to about 4000 ng.

[01063] mRNA encoding human LDLR mutants for this study include the mutations N316A, K830R and C839A (amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 50; mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 735 where the polyA tail of approximately 140 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence, 5 'Cap is Cap and the mRNA is fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1- methylpseudouridine), the mutations K830R, C839A and L339D (amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 52; mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 736 where the polyA tail of

approximately 140 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence, 5'Cap is Cap and the mRNA is fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1-methylpseudouridine) or the mutations K830R and C839A (amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 54; mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 737 where the polyA tail of approximately 140 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence, 5'Cap is Cap and the mRNA is fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1-methylpseudouridine).

[01064] mRNA encoding mouse LDLR mutants for this study include the mutations N317A, K832R and C841 A (amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 724; mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 732 where the polyA tail of approximately 140 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence, 5'Cap is Cap and the mRNA is fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1- methylpseudouridine), the mutations L340D, K832R and C841A (amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 726; mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 733 where the polyA tail of approximately 140 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence, 5'Cap is Cap and the mRNA is fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1-methylpseudouridine) or the mutations K832R and C841 A (amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 728; mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 734 where the polyA tail of approximately 140 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence, 5 'Cap is Cap and the mRNA is fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1- methylpseudouridine).

[01065] The cells are incubated with media with or without 75 μg/mL of PCSK9 over an eight hour time course. Cells are harvested and stained with goat anti-hLDLR-PE antibody. Cells are analyzed with a flow cytometer to evaluate PCSK9-mediated down modulation of LDLR.

Example 19. In Vivo Studies of LDLR-IDOL Mutants

[01066] The ability of mRNA encoding human or mouse LDLR-IDOL mutants is compared to human or mouse LDLR (wild-type) in vivo.

[01067] mRNA encoding LDLR-IDOL mutants is administered intravenously via tail vein injection to knockout (KO) LDLR mice. The mRNA is formulated in lipid nanoparticles and the mRNA is administered in dose range of 0.01 mg/kg to 5mg/kg.

[01068] mRNA encoding human LDLR mutants for this study include the mutations N316A, K830R and C839A (amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 50; mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 735 where the polyA tail of approximately 140 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence, 5 'Cap is Cap and the mRNA is fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1- methylpseudouridine), the mutations K830R, C839A and L339D (amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 52; mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 736 where the polyA tail of approximately 140 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence, 5'Cap is Cap (e.g., Capl) and the mRNA is fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1-methylpseudouridine) or the mutations K830R and C839A (amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 54; mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 737 where the polyA tail of approximately 140 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence, 5 'Cap is Cap and the mRNA is fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1- methylpseudouridine).

[01069] mRNA encoding mouse LDLR mutants for this study include the mutations N317A, K832R and C841 A (amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 724; mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 732 where the polyA tail of approximately 140 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence, 5 'Cap is Cap and the mRNA is fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1- methylpseudouridine), the mutations L340D, K832R and C841A (amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 726; mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 733 where the polyA tail of approximately 140 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence, 5'Cap is Cap and the mRNA is fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1-methylpseudouridine) or the mutations K832R and C841 A (amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 728; mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 734 where the polyA tail of approximately 140 nucleotides is not shown in the sequence, 5 'Cap is Cap and the mRNA is fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1- methylpseudouridine).

[01070] Mouse livers are harvested between 30 minutes post mRNA administration and 96 hours mRNA post-administration. The livers are processed for mRNA expression (qPCR) and/or and protein expression (western blot).

Example 20. Expression of wild-type LDLR and PCSK9 binding-deficient mutants

[01071] Human embryonic kidney epithelial (HEK293) cells (LGC standards GmbH, Wesel, Germany) are seeded on 48-well plates (BD Biosciences, San Jose, USA). HEK293 are seeded at a density of about 60,000 cells per well in 0.2 mL cell culture medium. Formulations containing 1 uL lipofectamine and 150 ng of wild type (WT) LDLR mRNA (mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 738; polyA tail of approximately 160 nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5 'cap, Capl; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1-methylpseudouridine) or 150 ng of a mutant LDLR sequence mRNA or a control of G-CSF mRNA (mRNA shown in SEQ ID NO: 739; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and pseudouridine; 5'cap, capl; polyA tail of approximately 160 nucleotides not shown in sequence) are added directly after seeding the cells at quantities of 60,000 per well and incubated.

[01072] The mutant LDLR mRNA sequences prepared and tested include: a four amino acid substitutional variant (4A: N316A, E317A, D331A, and Y336A) (mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 69; polyA tail of approximately 160 nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5'cap, Capl; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1-methylpseudouridine), or the following single amino acid substitution variants Y336A (mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 68; polyA tail of approximately 160 nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5'cap, Capl; fully modified with 5- methylcytosine and 1-methylpseudouridine), E317A (mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 67; polyA tail of approximately 160 nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5'cap, Capl; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1-methylpseudouridine), N316A (mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 66; polyA tail of approximately 160 nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5'cap, Capl; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1-methylpseudouridine), L339D (mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 65; polyA tail of approximately 160 nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5'cap, Capl; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1-methylpseudouridine), D331E (mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 64; polyA tail of approximately 160 nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5'cap, Capl; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1- methylpseudouridine).

[01073] As controls G-CSF mRNA transfected cells were treated with anti-LDLR antibody (R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN; Human LDL R Affinity Purified Polyclonal AbAF2148) and one set of LDLR transfected cells were treated with normal goat IgG (R&D Systems,

Minneapolis, MN; Purified goat IgG R&D Systems catalog number AC-108-C). Bound primary antibodies were detected by FACS analysis following treatment with a Phycoerythrin (PE)- labeled antibody (R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN). Conjugation to PE was completed with the Innova biosciences lightning-link conjugation kit (Lightning-Link R-PE Antibody Labeling Kit Novus Biologicals catalog number: 703-0010).

[01074] As shown in Figure 14, the FACS analysis shows 32% of all gated live cells were detected to express LDLR at the 150 ng dose of wild type LDLR mRNA (WT in Figure 14). Similarly, for cells transfected with the LDLR mRNA mutants, between 12-33%) of all gated live cells were detected to express LDLR at the 150 ng dose. No staining was observed in LDLR mRNA treated cells stained with the control non-immune IgG (LDLR WT transfect Isotype stain) and no LDLR positive cells were detected in cells transfected with G-CSF mRNA (GCSF transfect LDLR stain).

Example 21. Down-modulation of LDLR by Exogenous PCSK9

[01075] Human embryonic kidney epithelial (HEK293) cells (LGC standards GmbH, Wesel, Germany) are seeded on 48-well plates (BD Biosciences, San Jose, USA). HEK293 are seeded at a density of about 60,000 cells per well in 0.2 mL cell culture medium. Formulations containing 1 uL of lipofectamine 2000 and 150 ng of wild type (WT) LDLR mRNA (mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 738; polyA tail of approximately 160 nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5'cap, Capl; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1-methylpseudouridine) or 150 ng of an LDLR sequence mutant mRNA or 150 ng of a control of G-CSF mRNA (mRNA shown in SEQ ID NO: 739; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and pseudouridine; 5'cap, capl; poly A tail of approximately 160 nucleotides not shown in sequence) are added directly after seeding the cells at quantities of 800 ng per well and incubated in the presence and in the absence of exogenous human PCSK9 at 60 μg/mL.

[01076] The LDLR mRNA sequence mutants prepared and tested include: a four amino acid substitution variant (4A: N316A, E317A, D331A, and Y336A) (mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 69; poly A tail of approximately 160 nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5'cap, Capl; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1-methylpseudouridine), or the following single amino acid substitution variants Y336A (mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 68; polyA tail of approximately 160 nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5'cap, Capl; fully modified with 5- methylcytosine and 1-methylpseudouridine), E317A (mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 67; poly A tail of approximately 160 nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5'cap, Capl; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1-methylpseudouridine), N316A (mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 66; poly A tail of approximately 160 nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5'cap, Capl; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1-methylpseudouridine), L339D (mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 65; poly A tail of approximately 160 nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5'cap, Capl; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1-methylpseudouridine), D331E (mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 64; polyA tail of approximately 160 nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5'cap, Capl; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1- methylpseudouridine).

[01077] After fifteen hours at 37°C, the transfection media were removed, the cells were washed, and were treated with anti-LDLR antibody conjugated to Phycoerythrin (PE) (R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN; Human LDL R Affinity Purified Polyclonal AbAF2148) as described above. One set of LDLR transfected cells were treated with normal goat IgG conjugated to PE (R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN; Purified goat IgG R&D Systems catalog number AC-108-C) and another set of untransfected cells were used as controls. Cells transfected with G-CSF modified mRNA were used as an additional negative control. Conjugation to PE was completed with the Innova biosciences lightning-link conjugation kit (Lightning-Link R-PE Antibody Labeling Kit Novus Biologicals catalog number: 703-0010). Bound primary antibodies were detected by flow cytometry as described above.

[01078] As shown in Figure 15, the FACS analysis showed that cell surface LDLR expression in cells transfected with wild-type LDLR mRNA was 51.6% of gated live cells. This value decreased to 21.5% of gated live cells when exogenous PCSK9 was added to the media during cell transfection. In contrast, each of the LDLR mRNA mutants with substitutions in the PCSK9 binding domain showed less sensitivity to down-modulation by exogenous PCSK9 (Table 12) with values of percent reduction ranging from -8.1% to 29% (compared to 58% reduction observed with wild-type LDLR). Table 12. Down-Modulation of Cell Surface LDLR Expression by Exogenous PCSK9

Figure imgf000289_0001

[01079] To evaluate whether the expressed LDLR were functional, BODIPY-labeled LDL was used. 60,000 HEK293 cells per well were transfected overnight with formulations containing 1 uL lipofectamine 2000 and 150 ng encoding wild type (WT) LDLR mRNA

(mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 738; polyA tail of approximately 160 nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5 'cap, Capl; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1- methylpseudouridine) or 150 ng of an LDLR mutant mRNA or 150 of a control of G-CSF mRNA (mRNA shown in SEQ ID NO: 739; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and pseudouridine; 5 'cap, capl; poly A tail of approximately 160 nucleotides not shown in sequence).

[01080] The LDLR mutant mRNA sequences prepared and tested include: a four amino acid substitution variant (4A: N316A, E317A, D331A, and Y336A) (mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 69; poly A tail of approximately 160 nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5 'cap, Capl; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1-methylpseudouridine), or the following single amino acid substitution variants Y336A(mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 68; polyA tail of approximately 160 nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5'cap, Capl; fully modified with 5- methylcytosine and 1-methylpseudouridine), E317A (mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 67; polyA tail of approximately 160 nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5'cap, Capl; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1-methylpseudouridine), N316A (mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 66; polyA tail of approximately 160 nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5'cap, Capl; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1-methylpseudouridine), L339D (mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 65; polyA tail of approximately 160 nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5'cap, Capl; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1-methylpseudouridine), D331E (mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 64; polyA tail of approximately 160 nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5 'cap, Capl; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1- methylpseudouridine).

[01081] The cells were washed and incubated with increasing amounts (0 ug/ml, 0.1 ug/ml, 1.0 ug/ml, 10 ug/ml or 50 ug/ml) of BODIPY-LDL. Following incubation for 1 hour at 37°C, the cells were washed and the cell associated BODIPY-LDL was assessed by flow cytometry. The contour plots are shown in Figure 16A. For wild-type (WT) and LDLR PCSK9 binding variants, the binding of BODIPY-LDL to LDLR mRNA transfected cells was evident as a right-ward shift in the gated cell population that increased with BODIPY-LDL concentration. A similar rightward shift in the gated cell population was seen for cells transfected with each of the LDLR mRNA constructs. As is shown in Figure 16B, half-maximal cell association was the same for BODIPY-LDL binding to cells transfected with either wild type or the PCSK9 binding-deficient LDLR mRNAs. For each construct, BODIPY-LDL binding was of high affinity (half-maximal binding between 0.6-0.7 ng/mL) and saturable. No BODIPY-LDL binding was observed for cells transfected with G-CSF mRNA.

Example 23. Evaluate of half-life on cell surface LDLR

[01082] To assess whether exogenous PCSK9 can modulate the apparent half-life of cell surface LDL receptors in cells transfected with LDLR mRNA, HEK293 cells were plated on 24 well plates, 130,000 cells per well, transfected with LDLR mRNA and incubated for 14 hours as described above. The cell monolayers were washed and fresh media with PCSK9 (60 μg/mL) or without PCSK9 was added. After various times of incubation at 37°C, cell surface LDLR expression was monitored by flow cytometry using anti-LDLR antibodies as described above. As is shown in Figure 17A, cell surface LDLR in cells transfected with 300 ng of wild-type LDLR mRNA (mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 738; poly A tail of approximately 160 nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5'cap, Capl; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1- methylpseudouridine) decreased in a time-dependent manner with an apparent half-life of approximately 13 hours. The addition of PCSK9 to the media of cells transfected with wild-type LDLR mRNA decreased the apparent half-life of cell surface LDLR to about 4 hours. In Figure 17A, "*" represents a significant difference by statistical test.

[01083] In contrast, the addition of PCSK9 to the media of cells transfected with 300 ng of PCSK9 binding-deficient LDLR mRNA produced little or no change in the apparent half-life of cell surface LDLR (Figures 17B-17G). The PCSK9 binding-deficient LDLR mRNA sequences (mutant LDLR mRNA) prepared and tested include: a four amino acid substitution variant (4A: N316A, E317A, D331A, and Y336A) (mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 69; polyA tail of approximately 160 nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5'cap, Capl; fully modified with 5- methylcytosine and 1-methylpseudouridine), or the following single amino acid substitution variants Y336A(mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 68; polyA tail of approximately 160 nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5'cap, Capl; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1- methylpseudouridine), E317A (mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 67; polyA tail of approximately 160 nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5'cap, Capl; fully modified with 5- methylcytosine and 1-methylpseudouridine), N316A (mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 66; polyA tail of approximately 160 nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5'cap, Capl; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1-methylpseudouridine), L339D (mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 65; polyA tail of approximately 160 nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5'cap, Capl; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1-methylpseudouridine), D331E (mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 64; polyA tail of approximately 160 nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5'cap, Capl; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1-methylpseudouridine).

[01084] These data in Figures 17B- 17G show that cells transfected with LDLR mRNA encoding LDLR with variants in the PCSK9 binding site fail to respond to exogenous PCSK9, suggesting that these binding mutants may have a longer half-life than wild-type LDLR in vivo and be useful for treating patients with hypercholesterolemia.

Example 24. Effect of increasing PCSK9 amount on cell surface LDLR

[01085] To evaluate the down-modulation of cell surface LDLR expression by increasing amounts of PCSK9 added to the complete cell media, MEM (GlutaMAX, Life Science

Catalog#41090-036) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. HEK293 cells were plated at 300,000 cells per well, incubated for 6 hours, and transfected for 15 hours with 300 ng of either wild-type LDLR mRNA (mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 738; polyA tail of

approximately 160 nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5'cap, Capl; fully modified with 5- methylcytosine and 1-methylpseudouridine) or an LDLR mRNA encoding a PCSK9 binding mutant. The PCSK9 binding mutant mRNA sequences prepared and tested include the single amino acid substitution variants of N316A (mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 66; polyA tail of approximately 160 nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5'cap, Capl; fully modified with 5- methylcytosine and 1-methylpseudouridine), and D331E (mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 64; polyA tail of approximately 160 nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5'cap, Capl; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1-methylpseudouridine). A control of mRNA encoding UGT1A1 (mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 740; polyA tail of approximately 160 nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5'cap, Capl; fully modified with 5-methylcyostine and 1- methylpseudouridine) was also used.

[01086] After 15 hours of incubation, the cell monolayers were washed and either buffer alone or buffer containing increasing amounts of PCSK9 were added. Cells were incubated for 5 hours and cell surface LDLR expression was measured by flow cytometry as described above. As is shown in Figure 18, cell surface LDL receptors in cells transfected with wild-type LDLR mRNA were decreased in a dose-dependent manner by PCSK9. Maximal reduction in LDLR was achieved at 20 μg/mL of exogenous PCSK9. In contrast, PCSK9 had no effect on cell surface LDLR in cells transfected with LDLR mRNA encoding the PCSK9 binding-deficient variants N316A or D33 IE. No cell surface LDLR was detected in HEK293 cells transfected with mRNA encoding UGT1 Al . These data show that LDLR expressed from LDLR mRNAs encoding variants in the binding site for PCSK9 are insensitive to exogenous PCSK9.

Example 25. Liver Cell Transducing Formulations of LDLR

[01087] Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) are formulated using methods known in the art, described herein and/or described in International Patent Publication No. WO2013090648 entitled

"Modified Nucleoside, Nucleotide, and Nucleic Acid Composition," herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. The LNPs used herein can comprise the ionizable lipid DLin-KC2- DMA or the cationic lipid C12-200.

[01088] Modified mRNA encoding LDLR or LDLR mutants (e.g., SEQ ID NOs: 63-69;

poly A tail of at least 140 nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5'cap, Capl; modified with at least one chemical modification described herein) is formulated in LNPs comprising DLin-KC2-DMA or C 12-200. The formulated LDLR or LDLR mutants are administered to wild type mice and LDLR deficient mice. The expression of LDLR in the liver cells of the wild type and LDLR deficient mice is measured, using methods known in the art or described herein, at predetermined intervals after administration of the modified mRNA.

Example 26. Delivery of LNP formulated modified mRNA

[01089] Luciferase mRNA (mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 741; polyA tail of at least 140 nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5'cap, Capl) is fully modified with either 5- methylcytosine and pseudouridine, fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1- methylpseudouridine, fully modified with pseudouridine, fully modified with 1- methylpseudouridine or 25% of the uridine residues are modified with 2-thiouridine and 25% of the cytosine residues are modified with 5-methylcytosine. The luciferase mRNA is then formulated in a lipid nanoparticle comprising the cationic lipid DLin-KC2-DMA (KC2) or CI 2- 200. The formulated LNP in PBS or a control of PBS alone is administered intraveneously to LDLR -/- or normal mice as outlined in Table 13. The mice are imaged at 2 hours, 8 hours, 24 hours and 48 hours after injection. Ten minutes prior to imaging, mice are injected

intraperitoneally with a D-luciferin solution at 150 mg/kg. Animals are then anesthetized and images are acquired with an IVIS Lumina II imaging system (Perkin Elmer).

Table 13. Dosing Regimen

Figure imgf000294_0001

Example 27. Mouse Model for In Vivo Studies of LDLR

[01090] A mouse model (LDLR -/- mouse) was developed from a C57BL/6 background strain using a neo cassette inserted into exon 4 of the LDLR receptor gene. The mouse model has an elevated serum cholesterol level of 200-400 mg/dl (80-100 mg/dl is considered a normal level) and rises to greater than 200 mg/dl when fed a high fat diet.

Example 28. In Vivo Studies of LDLR [01091] 1.1 mg/kg of mouse LDLR mRNA (SEQ ID NO: 63; polyA tail of approximately 140 nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5' cap, Capl; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1- methylpseudouridine) or luciferase (SEQ ID NO: 741; poly A tail of approximately 140 nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5' cap, Capl; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1- methylpseudouridine) was formulated in a lipid nanoparticle comprising C12-200 (molar ratio 40%), Cholesterol (molar ratio 25%), PEG lipid (molar ratio 5%) and DSPC (molar ratio 30%). The mean size of the lipid nanoparticle was 105 nm, a PDI of 0.15, zeta at pH 7.4 was 0.7 mV, the encapsulation efficiency (RiboGreen) was 55% and the total lipid to modified mRNA mass ratio was 20: 1. The formulated mRNA was administered intravenously to LDLR -/- mice in 100 uL. 1.4 ng/ml of recombinant LDLR was used as a control. Livers were harvested at 6 hours and 24 hours after administration and microsomal preparations were made and analyzed using Licor Western Blot and CE assay. For CE assay the concentrations were normalized to Calnexin loading controls. LDLR expression was seen at 6 hours and 24 hours post-administration.

Example 29. In Vivo Studies of LDLR Variants

A. Mouse LDLR

[01092] mRNA encoding mouse LDLR double mutant (PCSK9 and IDOL variants), mRNA encoding a mouse LDLR PCSK9 mutant, mRNA encoding a mouse LDLR IDOL mutant and mRNA encoding mouse wild type LDLR are formulated and administered to LDLR -/- mice. Samples are collected 2, 4, 5, 6, 8 and/or 24 hours post-administration and are evaluated using a method known in the art (e.g., CE assay or Western Blot) for expression.

[01093] To determine the effects of multiple administrations, the mRNA of the most promising LDLR mutant construct is administered to the mice repeatedly (e.g., 3 consecutive doses). 2, 4, 5, 6, 8 and/or 24 hours post-administration samples are collected and evaluated using a method known in the art (e.g., CE assay or Western Blot) for expression.

[01094] To determine the effects of multiple administration and double mutants, mRNA encoding a mouse LDLR double variant (N317A and K832R) is administered to the mice repeatedly (e.g., 3 consecutive doses). 2, 4, 5, 6, 8 and/or 24 hours post-administration samples are collected and evaluated using a method known in the art (e.g., CE assay or Western Blot) for expression.

B. Human LDLR

[01095] mRNA encoding human LDLR double mutant (PCSK9 and IDOL variants), mRNA encoding a human LDLR PCSK9 mutant, mRNA encoding a human LDLR IDOL mutant and mRNA encoding mouse wild type LDLR are formulated and administered to LDLR -/- mice. Samples are collected 2, 4, 5, 6, 8 and/or 24 hours post-administration and are evaluated using a method known in the art (e.g., CE assay or Western Blot) for expression.

Example 30. In Vivo Studies of PCSK9 IDOL LDLR Variant - resistance to negative LDLR regulators PCSK9 and IDOL

[01096] LDLR -/- mice were administered intravenously 100 ul of 0.5 mg/kg, 0.1 mg/kg or 0.05 mg/kg mouse LDLR mRNA (SEQ ID NO: 742; polyA tail of approximately 140

nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5' cap, Capl; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1- methylpseudouridine), mouse LDLR mutant 1 (comprising the mutations N317A, K832R and C841A as compared to the wild type sequence (SEQ ID NO: 742) mRNA (SEQ ID NO: 724; poly A tail of approximately 140 nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5' cap, Capl; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1-methylpseudouridine), mouse LDLR mutant 2 (comprising the mutations L340D, K832R and C841A as compared to the wild type sequence (SEQ ID NO: 742) mRNA (SEQ ID NO: 733; poly A tail of approximately 140 nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5' cap, Capl; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1-methylpseudouridine) or mouse IDOL mutant (comprising the mutations K832R and C841 A as compared to the wild type sequence (SEQ ID NO: 742) mRNA (SEQ ID NO: 734; polyA tail of approximately 140 nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5' cap, Capl; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and 1- methylpseudouridine) was formulated in a lipid nanoparticle comprising C12-200 (molar ratio 40%), Cholesterol (molar ratio 25%), PEG2000-DOMG lipid (molar ratio 5%) and DSPC (molar ratio 30%)). The mean size of the lipid nanoparticle was 105 nm, a PDI of 0.15, zeta at pH 7.4 was 0.7 mV, the encapsulation efficiency (RiboGreen) was 55% and the total lipid to modified mRNA mass ratio was 20: 1. A control of 0.5 mg/kg of luciferase (SEQ ID NO: 741; polyA tail of approximately 140 nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5' cap, Capl; fully modified with 5- methylcytosine and 1-methylpseudouridine) formulated in a CI 2-200 lipid nanoparticle comprising cholesterol, DSPC and PEG2000-DOMG (40:25:30:5 molar ratio), a wild type mouse and recombinant mouse LDLR standards were used as a control. 24 hours post-administration livers were harvested at 6 hours after administration and microsomal preparations were made using a Licor Western Blot. As shown in Figure 19 and Table 14, the mouse LDLR variant expressed better that wild-type LDLR at all concentrations evaluated. Table 14. Expression of Mouse LDLR

Figure imgf000297_0002

Example 31. LDLR IDOL binding mutant in vitro study

[01097] 100 ng of wild type mouse mRNA encoding LDLR (SEQ ID NO: 742; polyA tail of approximately 140 nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5' cap, Capl; fully modified with 5- methylcytosine and 1-methylpseudouridine) and mouse LDLR mutant 1 (comprising the mutations N317A, K832R and C841A as compared to the wild type sequence (SEQ ID NO: 742) mRNA (SEQ ID NO: 724; poly A tail of approximately 140 nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5' cap, CapO; fully modified with 1-methylpseudouridine) was transfected in HeLa and Hepal-6. The cells were also transfected with 100 ng of luciferase mRNA (SEQ ID NO: 741; polyA tail of approximately 140 nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5' cap, Capl; fully modified with 5- methylcytosine and 1-methylpseudouridine) in 100 uL or 1.1 mg/kg IDOL mRNA (SEQ ID NO: 743; polyA tail of approximately 140 nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5' cap, Capl; fully modified with 1-methylpseudouridine) in 100 uL. LDLR expression was analyzed after 14 hours by flow cytometry.

[01098] As shown in Table 15, the mouse LDLR mutant 1 shows resistance to IDOL mediated LDLR downmodulation. In Hepal-6, mouse LDLR wild type which was co-transfected with mouse IDOL was reduced to 16.7% of the baseline, the mouse LDLR mutant 1 was reduced to 62.9% of the baseline expression and wild-type LDLR expression was reduced to 62.3% of the baseline. In HeLa cells, mouse LDLR wild type which was co-transfected with mouse IDOL was reduced to 50.5% of the baseline, the mouse LDLR mutant 1 was reduced to 84.2% of the baseline expression and there was little to no wild-type LDLR expression expression in HeLa.

Table 15. LDLR Expression

Figure imgf000297_0001
Example 32: In vitro resistance to negative LDLR regulators PCSK9 and IDOL

[01099] Resistance to negative regulators PCSK9, IDOL, and the combination thereof was tested in vitro using LDLR-/- cells transfected with mouse mRNA encoding wild-type LDLR (SEQ ID NO: 742; poly A tail of approximately 140 nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5' cap, Capl; fully modified with 5-methylcytosine and l-methylpseudouridine), PCSK9m (comprising the mutations N317A as compared to the wild type sequence (SEQ ID NO: 742) mRNA disclosed above), IDOLm (comprising the mutations K832R and C841 A as compared to the wild type sequence (SEQ ID NO: 742) mRNA disclosed above), or PCSK9/IDOL Double Mut.

(comprising the mutations N317A, K832R and C841 A as compared to the wild type sequence (SEQ ID NO: 742) mRNA (SEQ ID NO: 724; polyA tail of approximately 140 nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5' cap, CapO; fully modified with l-methylpseudouridine); (and non- translatable Factor IX (NT -FIX) as a negative control). LDLR-/- hepatocytes were seeded in 6 well plates and incubated for 14 hours at 37°C. The cells were co-transfected with wild-type or mutant LDLR mRNA (or NT-FIX control) and LDLR negative regulator mRNA (IDOL, PCSK9, and IDOL + PCSK9) (or untreated control). After transfection, the cells were incubated for 22 hours at 37°C. The transfection media was washed off and the cell ly sates were prepared. LDLR expression was measured by capillary electrophoresis. The LDLR expression (AUC) for each group is shown in Figure 20. These results showed that the cells transfected with mRNA encoding LDLR mutants were more resistant to negative LDLR expression regulators compared to the cells transfected with wild-type LDLR (see Figure 20).

Example 33: Expression of LDLR in LDLR -/- mice administered modified mRNA encoding LDLR PCSK9 IDOL domain double mutant

[01100] LDLR expression after administration of mRNA fully modified with 5-methylcytidine and l-methylpseudouridine encoding mouse LDLR-773 compared to mRNA encoding wild-type mouse LDLR were tested in vivo. LDLR-/- mice were intravenously administered 0.5 mg/kg mRNA with C 12-200 lipid nanoparticles (LNP) as a delivery agent. Twenty -four (24) hours after administration, LDLR expression was measured using a Li-Core Western Blotting system.

Luciferase (Luc) mRNA was used as a negative control. Figure 21 shows LDLR expression 24 hours post administration of modified mRNA encoding LDLR-773 compared to wild-type. Low levels of mutant LDLR expression were detected (Figure 21). Example 34: Increased expression of LDLR in LDLR -/- mice administered LDLR PCSK9 IDOL domain double mutant

[01101] LDLR expression was analyzed in LDLR knockout mice after administration of modified mRNA encoding mouse LDLR-773.

[01102] LDLR-/- mice were intravenously administered 0.5 mg/kg of reverse phase purified mRNA encoding LDLR-773 (comprising the mutations N316A, K830R and C839A as compared to the wild type sequence (SEQ ID NO: 43); mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 735; polyA tail of approximately 140 nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5 'cap, Capl; fully modified with 1- methylpseudouridine) with KL22 lipid nanoparticles (LNP) as a delivery agent. Luciferase (Luc) mRNA was used as a negative control. Livers were harvested 6 and 24 hours after

administration. LDLR expression was determined using capillary electrophoresis. As shown in Figure 22, LDL expression in LDLR -/- mice dosed with LDLR-773 was about 30-40% of wild- type.

[01103] The LDLR expression in LDLR -/- mice administered LDLR-773 was similar to the level of LDLR expression in heterozygous (+/-) LDLR mice (see Table 16).

Table 16. Human LDLR mutants

Figure imgf000299_0001

Example 35: Decreased lipoprotein levels in LDLR -/- mice administered LDLR PCSK9 IDOL domain double mutants

[01104] Plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels were analyzed in LDLR knockout mice after administration of modified mRNA encoding mouse LDLR-773.

[01105] LDLR-/- mice were intravenously administered 0.5 mg/kg of reverse phase purified mRNA encoding LDLR-773 (comprising the mutations N316A, K830R and C839A as compared to the wild type sequence (SEQ ID NO: 43); mRNA sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 735; polyA tail of approximately 140 nucleotides not shown in sequence; 5 'cap, Capl; fully modified with 1- methylpseudouridine) with KL22 lipid nanoparticles (LNP) as a delivery agent. Luciferase (Luc) mRNA was used as a negative control.

[01106] Plasma lipoprotein levels were analyzed using CLiP (Column Lipoprotein Profile) and gel-filtration HPLC (Skylight Biotech Inc.). LDLR-773 expression in LDLR -/- mice resulted in significant lowering of cholesterol and triglycerides. The gel-filtration HPLC results for cholesterol and triglycerides are shown in Figures 23A and 23B, respectively. A decrease in LDL-C in LDLR -/- mice administered LDLR-773 compared to Luc control is shown in Figure 23C

[01107] These results show that in vivo expression and therapeutically relevant lipoprotein modulation was achieved upon a single dose administration of modified mRNA encoding double mutant LDLR-773 in LDLR -/- mice.

Other Embodiments

[01108] It is to be understood that the words which have been used are words of description rather than limitation, and that changes can be made within the purview of the appended claims without departing from the true scope and spirit of the invention in its broader aspects.

[01109] While the present invention has been described at some length and with some particularity with respect to the several described embodiments, it is not intended that it should be limited to any such particulars or embodiments or any particular embodiment, but it is to be construed with references to the appended claims so as to provide the broadest possible interpretation of such claims in view of the prior art and, therefore, to effectively encompass the intended scope of the invention.

[OHIO] All publications, patent applications, patents, and other references mentioned herein are incorporated by reference in their entirety. In case of conflict, the present specification, including definitions, will control. In addition, section headings, the materials, methods, and examples are illustrative only and not intended to be limiting.

Claims

Claims:
1. A polynucleotide comprising an open reading frame of linked nucleosides encoding a human low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) or functional fragment thereof comprising at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain and at least one or a single amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain, wherein the at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain abrogates binding of PCSK9 to the LDLR or functional fragment thereof, and wherein the open reading frame is optionally codon-optimized.
2. A polynucleotide comprising an open reading frame of linked nucleosides encoding a human low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) or functional fragment thereof comprising at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain and at least one amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain, wherein the at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain abrogates binding of PCSK9 to the LDLR or functional fragment thereof and, optionally, at least one of the amino acids corresponding to K830 or C839 of human LDLR is intact, and wherein the open reading frame is optionally codon-optimized.
3. The polynucleotide of claim 1 or 2, wherein the at least one mutation in the EGF-A domain is at an amino acid residue corresponding to N316, L339, or the combination of N316 and L339 of human LDLR (SEQ ID NO:43).
4. The polynucleotide of any one of claims 1-3, wherein the at least one mutation in the EGF-A domain comprises a deletion of the amino acid.
5. The polynucleotide of claim 4, wherein the at least one mutation in the EGF-A domain further comprises an insertion of at least one amino acid.
6. The polynucleotide of any one of claims 1-3, wherein the at least one mutation in the EGF-A domain comprises a conservative substitution.
7. The polynucleotide of claim 3, wherein the at least one mutation in the EGF-A domain is a substitution from the N (asparagine) corresponding to amino acid residue 316 of SEQ ID NO:43 to an amino acid selected from the group consisting of glycine, alanine, valine, leucine, and isoleucine.
8. The polynucleotide of claim 3, wherein the at least one mutation in the EGF-A domain is a substitution from the L (leucine) corresponding to amino acid residue 339 of SEQ ID NO:43 to an amino acid selected from the group consisting of aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, and asparagine.
9. The polynucleotide of any one of claims 1-8, wherein the single mutation or at least one mutation in the intracellular domain is at an amino acid residue corresponding to K816, K830, or C839 of human LDLR (SEQ ID NO:43).
10. The polynucleotide of any one of claims 1-9, wherein the single mutation or at least one mutation in the intracellular domain comprises a deletion of the amino acid.
11. The polynucleotide of claim 10, wherein the single mutation or at least one mutation in the intracellular domain further comprises an insertion of at least one amino acid.
12. The polynucleotide of any one of claims 1-9, wherein the single mutation or at least one mutation in the intracellular domain comprises a conservative substitution.
13. The polynucleotide of claim 9, wherein the single mutation or at least one mutation in the intracellular domain is a substitution from the K (lysine) corresponding to an amino acid residue 816 or 830 of SEQ ID NO:43 to an amino acid selected from the group consisting of histidine or arginine.
14. The polynucleotide of claim 9, wherein the single mutation or at least one mutation in the intracellular domain is a substitution from the C (cysteine) corresponding to an amino acid residue 839 of SEQ ID NO:43 to an amino acid selected from the group consisting of glycine, alanine, valine, leucine, and isoleucine.
15. The polynucleotide of claim 1 or 2, wherein the LDLR or functional fragment thereof comprises one mutation in the EGF-A domain and one mutation in the intracellular domain.
16. The polynucleotide of claim 15, wherein the one mutation in the EGF-A domain corresponds to N316A of human LDLR and the one mutation in the intracellular domain corresponds to K830R of human LDLR.
17. The polynucleotide of any one of claims 1-16, comprising at least one chemically modified nucleoside.
18. The polynucleotide of claim 17, wherein the at least one chemically modified nucleoside is selected from any of those listed in Table 5.
19. The polynucleotide of claim 17, wherein the at least one chemically modified nucleoside is selected from the group consisting of pseudouridine, Nl-methylpseudouridine, 5- methylcytosine, 5-methoxyuridine, and a combination thereof.
20. The polynucleotide of any one of claims 1-19, wherein the nucleosides in the open reading frame are chemically modified by at least 10%, at least 20%, at least 30%>, at least 40%, at least 50%, at least 60%, at least 70%, at least 80%, at least 90%, at least 95%, at least 99%, or 100%.
21. The polynucleotide of any one of claims 17-20, wherein the chemically modified nucleosides in the open reading frame are selected from the group consisting of uridine, adenine, cytosine, guanine, and any combination thereof.
22. The polynucleotide of any one of claims 1-21, wherein the uridine nucleosides in the open reading frame are chemically modified by at least 10%, at least 20%, at least 30%, at least 40%, at least 50%, at least 60%, at least 70%, at least 80%, at least 90%, at least 95%, at least 99%, or 100%.
23. The polynucleotide of any one of claims 1-22, wherein the adenine nucleosides in the open reading frame are chemically modified by at least 10%, at least 20%, at least 30%, at least 40%, at least 50%, at least 60%, at least 70%, at least 80%, at least 90%, at least 95%, at least 99%, or 100%.
24. The polynucleotide of any one of claims 1-23, wherein the cytosine nucleosides in the open reading frame are chemically modified by at least at least 10%, at least 20%, at least 30%, at least 40%, at least 50%, at least 60%, at least 70%, at least 80%, at least 90%, at least 95%, at least 99%, or 100%.
25. The polynucleotide of any one of claims 1-24, wherein the guanine nucleosides in the open reading frame are chemically modified by at least at least 10%, at least 20%, at least 30%, at least 40%, at least 50%, at least 60%, at least 70%, at least 80%, at least 90%, at least 95%, at least 99%, or 100%.
26. The polynucleotide of any one of claims 1-25, wherein the open reading frame comprises a sequence at least 50%, at least 60%, at least 70%, at least 80%, at least 85%, at least 90%, at least 95%), at least 99%, or 100% identical to a nucleic acid sequences listed in Table 3 A.
27. The polynucleotide of any one of claims 1-26, wherein the open reading frame is codon optimized.
28. The polynucleotide of claim 27, wherein at least 10%, at least 20%, at least 30%, at least 40%, at least 50%, at last 60%, at least 70%, at least 80%, at least 90%, at least 95%, at least 99%), or 100%) of the open reading frame is codon optimized.
29. The polynucleotide of any one of claims 1-28 which further comprises a 5' UTR.
30. The polynucleotide of claim 29, wherein the 5' UTR comprises a nucleic acid sequence at least 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%, or 100% identical to a sequence selected from SEQ ID NOs: 3-19.
31. The polynucleotide of claim 29, wherein the 5' UTR comprises a nucleic acid sequence at least 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%, or 100% identical to a sequence listed in Table 1.
32. The polynucleotide of any one of claims 29-31, wherein the 5' UTR is codon optimized.
33. The polynucleotide of any one of claims 1-32 which further comprises a 3' UTR.
34. The polynucleotide of claim 33, wherein the 3' UTR comprises a nucleic acid sequence at least 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%, or 100% identical to a sequence selected from SEQ ID NOs: 20-36.
35. The polynucleotide of claim 33, wherein the 3' UTR comprises a nucleic acid sequence at least 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%, or 100% identical to a sequence listed in Table 2.
36. The polynucleotide of any one of claims 33-35, wherein the 3' UTR is codon optimized.
37. The polynucleotide of any one of claims 1-36, further comprising a 5' terminal cap.
38. The polynucleotide of claim 37, wherein the 5' terminal cap is a CapO, Capl, ARCA, inosine, Nl-methyl-guanosine, 2'fluoro-guanosine, 7-deaza-guanosine, 8-oxo-guanosine, 2- amino-guanosine, LNA-guanosine, 2-azidoguanosine, Cap2, Cap4, 5' methylG cap, or an analog thereof.
39. The polynucleotide of any one of claims 1-38, further comprising a 3' polyA tail.
40. The polynucleotide of any one of claims 1-39 which is RNA.
41. The polynucleotide of claim 40 which is mRNA.
42. The polynucleotide of any one of claims 1-41 which is in vitro transcribed (IVT).
43. The polynucleotide of any one of claims 1-41 which is chimeric.
44. The polynucleotide of any one of claims 1-41 which is circular.
45. The polynucleotide of any one of claims 1-44, wherein the at least one mutation in the EGF-A domain reduces PCSK9-mediated degradation of the LDLR or functional fragment thereof.
46. The polynucleotide of any one of claims 1-45, wherein the single mutation in the intracellular domain reduces IDOL-mediated degradation of the LDLR or functional fragment thereof.
47. The polynucleotide of any one of claims 1-46 which is purified by strong anion exchange FIPLC, weak anion exchange FIPLC, reverse phase FIPLC (RP-HPLC), and hydrophobic interaction HPLC (HIC -FIPLC), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS), capillary electrophoresis (CE) and capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE).
48. A polypeptide comprising a human low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) or functional fragment thereof comprising at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain and at least one or a single amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain, wherein the at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain abrogates binding of PCSK9 to the LDLR or functional fragment thereof.
49. A polypeptide comprising a human low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) or functional fragment thereof comprising at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain and at least one amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain, wherein the at least one amino acid mutation in the EGF-A domain abrogates binding of PCSK9 to the LDLR or functional fragment thereof and, optionally, at least one of the amino acids corresponding to K830 or C839 of human LDLR is intact.
50. The polypeptide of claim 48 or 49, wherein the at least one mutation in the EGF-A domain is at an amino acid residue corresponding to N316, L339, or the combination of N316 and L339 of human LDLR (SEQ ID NO:43).
51. The polypeptide of any one of claims 48-50, wherein the at least one mutation in the EGF-A domain comprises a deletion of the amino acid.
52. The polypeptide of claim 51, wherein the at least one mutation in the EGF-A domain further comprises an insertion of at least one amino acid.
53. The polypeptide of claim any one of claims 48-50, wherein the at least one mutation in the EGF-A domain comprises a conservative substitution.
54. The polypeptide of claim 50, wherein the at least one mutation in the EGF-A domain is a substitution from the N (asparagine) corresponding to amino acid residue 316 of SEQ ID NO:43 to an amino acid selected from the group consisting of glycine, alanine, valine, leucine, and isoleucine.
55. The polypeptide of claim 50, wherein the at least one mutation in the EGF-A domain is a substitution from the L (leucine) corresponding to amino acid residue 339 of SEQ ID NO:43 to an amino acid selected from the group consisting of aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, and asparagine.
56. The polypeptide of any one of claims 48-55, wherein the single mutation or at least one amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain is at an amino acid residue corresponding to K816, K830, or C839 of human LDLR (SEQ ID NO:43).
57. The polypeptide of any one of claims 48-56, wherein the single mutation or at least one amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain comprises a deletion of the amino acid.
58. The polypeptide of claim 57, wherein the single mutation or at least one amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain further comprises an insertion of at least one amino acid.
59. The polypeptide of any one of claims 48-56, wherein the single mutation or at least one amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain comprises a conservative substitution.
60. The polypeptide of claim 56, wherein the single mutation or at least one amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain is a substitution from the K (lysine) corresponding to an amino acid residue 816 or 830 of SEQ ID NO:43 to an amino acid selected from the group consisting of histidine or arginine.
61. The polypeptide of claim 56, wherein the single mutation or at least one amino acid mutation in the intracellular domain is a substitution from the C (cysteine) corresponding to an amino acid residue 839 of SEQ ID NO:43 to an amino acid selected from the group consisting of glycine, alanine, valine, leucine, and isoleucine.
62. The polypeptide of claim 48 or 49, wherein the LDLR or functional fragment thereof comprises one mutation in the EGF-A domain and one mutation in the intracellular domain.
63. The polypeptide of claim 62, wherein the one mutation in the EGF-A domain corresponds to N316A of human LDLR and the one mutation in the intracellular domain corresponds to K830R of human LDLR.
64. A polypeptide encoded by the polynucleotide of any one of claims 1-47.
65. A nucleic acid encoding the polypeptide of any one of claims 48 to 63.
66. A composition comprising the polynucleotide of any one of claims 1-47, the polypeptide of any one of claims 48-63, or the nucleic acid of claim 65 and a delivery agent.
67. The composition of claim 66, wherein the delivery agent is a lipid nanoparticle.
68. The composition of claim 67, wherein the lipid nanoparticle comprises the lipid selected from the group consisting of DLin-DMA, DLin-K-DMA, 98N12-5, C12-200, DLin-MC3 -DMA, DLin-KC2-DMA, DODMA, PLGA, PEG, PEG-DMG, PEGylated lipids, amino alcohol lipids, KL22, and combinations thereof.
69. The composition of any one of claims 66-68 which is formulated for in vivo delivery.
70. The composition of claim 69 which is formulated for intramuscular, subcutaneous, or intradermal delivery.
71. The polynucleotides of any one of claims 1-47, nucleic acid of claim 65, or the composition of any one of claims 66-70 which increases cellular expression of LDLR.
72. The polynucleotide or composition of claim 71, wherein the cellular expression of LDLR is increased by at least 20%, at least 25%, at least 30%, at least 35%, at least 40%, at least 45%, or at least 50%.
73. A method for increasing the expression of LDLR in a subject comprising contacting the subject with a pharmaceutical composition comprising any of the polynucleotides of any one of claims 1-47 and 71-72, the polypeptide of any one of claims 48-63, nucleic acid of claim 65, or the composition of any one of claims 66-70.
74. The method of claim 73, wherein the expression of LDLR in the subject is at least 20%, at least 25%, at least 30%, at least 35%, at least 40%, at least 45%, or at least 50% greater than in a subject not contacted with the pharmaceutical composition.
75. A method for modulating cholesterol levels in the plasma of a subject comprising contacting the subject with a pharmaceutical composition comprising the polynucleotide of any one of claims 1-47 and 71-72, the polypeptide of any one of claims 48-63, nucleic acid of claim 65, or the composition of any one of claims 66-70.
76. The method of claim 75, wherein the LDL, cholesterol, and/or triglyceride level in the subject is at least 20%, at least 25%, at least 30%, at least 35%, at least 40%, at least 45%, or at least 50% lower than in a subject not contacted with the pharmaceutical composition.
77. A method for treating familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) in a subject in need thereof comprising administering to the subject a pharmaceutical composition comprising the polynucleotide of any one of claims 1-47 and 71-72, the polypeptide of any one of claims 48-63, nucleic acid of claim 65, or the composition of any one of claims 66-70.
78. A method for making the polynucleotide of any one of claims 1-47 and 71-72, or the nucleic acid of claim 65, comprising:
(i) transcribing a mRNA from a template polynucleotide encoding the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) or functional fragment thereof in the presence of a polymerase, and optionally, incorporating a 5' terminal cap at the end of the mRNA;
(ii) optionally, enzymatically adding a 5' terminal cap at the end of the mRNA transcribed in (i);
(iii) removing the template polynucleotide and enzymes from steps (i) and (ii); and
(iv) isolating the RNA polynucleotide.
79. A method for producing a lipid nanoparticle (LNP) pharmaceutical composition comprising:
(i) combining a polynucleotide of any one of claims 1-47 and 71-72, or the nucleic acid of claim 65, and a solution comprising a positively-charged lipid;
(ii) mixing the combination formed in (i) to produce a nanoparticle dispersion;
(iii) diluting the nanoparticle dispersion in a buffer;
(iv) concentrating the nanoparticle dispersion of step (iii); and
(v) filter sterilizing the concentrated nanoparticle dispersion of step (iv), wherein the resulting sterilized nanoparticle dispersion is a lipid nanoparticle (LNP) pharmaceutical composition.
80. A host cell comprising the a polynucleotide of any one of claims 1-47 and 71-72, or the nucleic acid of claim 65.
81. A method for making the polypeptide of any one of claims 48-63 comprising culturing the host cell of claim 80 and producing the polypeptide from the host cell.
82. A method for increasing the expression of LDLR in a subject comprising contacting the subject with a pharmaceutical composition comprising the polynucleotide of any one of claims 1- 47 and 71-72 and a delivery agent, wherein the expression of LDLR in the subject is at least 20%, at least 25%, at least 30%, at least 35%, at least 40%, at least 45%, or at least 50% greater than in a subject not contacted with the pharmaceutical composition.
83. A method for modulating LDL, cholesterol, and/or triglyceride levels in the plasma of a subject comprising contacting the subject with a pharmaceutical composition comprising the polynucleotide of any one of claims 1-47 and 71-72 and a delivery agent, wherein the cholesterol level in the subject is at least at least 20%, at least 25%, at least 30%, at least 35%, at least 40%, at least 45%, or at least 50% lower than in a subject not contacted with the pharmaceutical composition.
84. A method for treating familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) in a subject in need thereof comprising administering to the subject a pharmaceutical composition comprising the polynucleotide of any one of claims 1-47 and 71-72, wherein the expression of LDLR in the subject is at least 20%, at least 25%, at least 30%, at least 35%, at least 40%, at least 45%, or at least 50% greater than in a subject not contacted with the pharmaceutical composition.
85. The method of any one of claims 82-84, wherein the delivery agent is a lipid nanoparticle.
86. The method of claim 85, wherein the lipid nanoparticle comprises the lipid selected from the group consisting of DLin-DMA, DLin-K-DMA, 98N12-5, C12-200, DLin-MC3 -DMA, DLin-KC2-DMA, DODMA, PLGA, PEG, PEG-DMG, PEGylated lipids, amino alcohol lipids, KL22, and combinations thereof.
86. The method of claim 86, wherein the lipid nanoparticle is KL22.
87. The method of any one of claims 82-86, wherein the polynucleotide is purified by strong anion exchange HPLC, weak anion exchange HPLC, reverse phase HPLC (RP-HPLC), and hydrophobic interaction HPLC (HIC-HPLC), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS), capillary electrophoresis (CE) and capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE).
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