WO2016161465A1 - Fluorinated alkali ion electrolytes with urethane groups - Google Patents

Fluorinated alkali ion electrolytes with urethane groups Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2016161465A1
WO2016161465A1 PCT/US2016/025950 US2016025950W WO2016161465A1 WO 2016161465 A1 WO2016161465 A1 WO 2016161465A1 US 2016025950 W US2016025950 W US 2016025950W WO 2016161465 A1 WO2016161465 A1 WO 2016161465A1
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Prior art keywords
electrolyte
lithium
electrolytes
group consisting
groups
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PCT/US2016/025950
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French (fr)
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WO2016161465A9 (en
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Russell Pratt
Xiao-liang WANG
Steven Lam
Hany Eitouni
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Seeo, Inc.
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Priority to US62/143,011 priority
Priority to US14/811,664 priority
Priority to US14/811,664 priority patent/US9893337B2/en
Application filed by Seeo, Inc. filed Critical Seeo, Inc.
Priority claimed from US15/148,827 external-priority patent/US9923245B2/en
Publication of WO2016161465A1 publication Critical patent/WO2016161465A1/en
Publication of WO2016161465A9 publication Critical patent/WO2016161465A9/en

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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/05Accumulators with non-aqueous electrolyte
    • H01M10/056Accumulators with non-aqueous electrolyte characterised by the materials used as electrolytes, e.g. mixed inorganic/organic electrolytes
    • H01M10/0564Accumulators with non-aqueous electrolyte characterised by the materials used as electrolytes, e.g. mixed inorganic/organic electrolytes the electrolyte being constituted of organic materials only
    • H01M10/0566Liquid materials
    • H01M10/0569Liquid materials characterised by the solvents
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/05Accumulators with non-aqueous electrolyte
    • H01M10/052Li-accumulators
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/05Accumulators with non-aqueous electrolyte
    • H01M10/054Accumulators with insertion or intercalation of metals other than lithium, e.g. with magnesium or aluminium
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M2300/00Electrolytes
    • H01M2300/0017Non-aqueous electrolytes
    • H01M2300/0025Organic electrolyte
    • H01M2300/0028Organic electrolyte characterised by the solvent

Abstract

This invention relates generally to electrolytes for use in electrochemical cells that employ alkali metals, and, more specifically, to fluorinated electrolytes for use in lithium-containing batteries. Perfluoropolyether electrolytes terminated with polar substituents such as dimethylurethanes show enhanced ionic conductivities when formulated with lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide, making them useful for use as lithium cell electrolytes.

Description

FLUORINATED ALKALI ION ELECTROLYTES

WITH URE THANE GROUPS

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Field of the Invention

[0001] This invention relates generally to electrolytes for use in electrochemical cells that employ alkali metals, and, more specifically, to fluorinated electrolytes for use in lithium- containing batteries.

[0002] Batteries based on lithium ion transfer work best with electrolytes that have high ionic conductivities and high stabilities. High ionic conductivities are useful because they facilitate ionic transfer, resulting in high power and low polarization. Highly stable batteries are those that are non-flammable and do not undergo undesired reactions with either anode or cathodes.

[0003] Perfluoropolyethers terminated with methoxycarbonyl groups have been reported as lithium ion electrolytes when formulated with lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide. These electrolytes were reported to have excellent fire resistance and high lithium ion transference, though the ionic conductivities were not particularly high at about 10'5 S cm'1 at 80°C.

[0004] What is needed is an electrolyte that provides high lithium ion transference, excellent stability and high ionic conductivities to realize the full potential of lithium batteries that employ them.

SUMMARY

[0005] In the embodiments of the invention, as disclosed herein, an electrolyte is a mixture that includes perfluoropolyethers that have either one or two terminal urethane groups and an alkali metal salt. The alkali metal salt can be a lithium salt, a sodium salt, a potassium salt, or a cesium salt. The salt can make up between 5 and 30 wt% of the electrolyte composition.

[0006] The perfluoropolyethers can be either of the following:

Figure imgf000002_0001

wherein x is the mole fraction of difluoromethyleneoxy groups in the perfluoropolyether, and x ranges between 0 and 1; 1-x is the mole fraction of tetrafluoroethyleneoxy groups in the perfluoropolyether, and 1-x ranges between 0 and 1; n is the average total number of randomly co-distributed difluoromethyleneoxy and tetrafluoroethyleneoxy groups in the perfluoropolyether and n ranges between 1 and 50; X is either hydrogen or fluorine; and RF is a perfluorinated Cl- C8 straight or branched alkyl group.

[0007] In one arrangement, R1 and R2 are each chosen independently from the group consisting of short chain straight or branched C1-C4 alkyl, 2-methoxy ethyl, 2-(2-methoxy)ethoxy ethyl, and cyanoethyl. In another arrangement, R1 and R2 are combined with the N in a C5-C8

heterocycloalkyl group selected from the group consisting of pyrrolidine, piperidine, morpholine, and 4-methylpiperazine. In yet another arrangement, R1 and/or R2 is hydrogen.

[0008] In another embodiment of the invention, an electrochemical cell has an anode, a cathode, and an electrolyte, as described above, between the anode and the cathode. The electrolyte provides ionic communication between the anode and the cathode. The anode may be made of graphite, lithium titanante, silicon and/or a silicon alloy. The cathode may be made of a material such as nickel cobalt aluminum oxide (NCA), nickel cobalt manganese (NCM), LiCo02, LiFeP04, LiNiP04, LiCoP04, and LiMn204 particles, and any combination thereof. DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0009] The aforementioned needs are satisfied by the process of the present invention which describes perfluoropolyether electrolytes terminated with urethane (a.k.a. carbamate) substituents such as N,N-dimethylurethane which show enhanced ionic conductivities when formulated with lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide, making them useful as lithium cell electrolytes.

[0010] Examples of fluoropolymers and perfluoropolymers include but are not limited to fluoropolyethers and perfluoropolyethers, poly(perfluoroalkyl acrylate), poly(perfluoroalkyl methacrylate), polytetrafluoroethylene, polychlorotrifluoroethylene, and polyvinylidene fluoride, and copolymers thereof.

[0011] Examples of perfluoropolyethers include but are not limited to polymers that include a segment such as a difluoromethylene oxide, tetrafluoroethylene oxide, hexafluoropropylene oxide, tetrafluoroethylene oxide-co-difluoromethylene oxide, hexafluoropropylene oxide-co- difluoromethylene oxide, or a tetrafluoroethylene oxide-cohexafluoropropylene oxide-co- difluoromethylene oxide segments and combinations thereof.

[0012] As stated above, perfluoropolyethers terminated with methoxycarbonyl (MC) groups have been reported as lithium ion electrolytes when formulated with lithium

bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide. Examples of these are shown below.

Figure imgf000004_0001
[0013] The methyl carbonate termini of these polymers enhance the solubility of lithium salt in the electrolyte when compared to the diol precursors. However, linear carbonate groups do not make an inherently good solvent for salts: as analogues, solvents such as dimethyl carbonate and diethyl carbonate have almost no ability to dissolve lithium salts. Therefore it is likely that other functional groups may provide better salt solubilities and higher ionic conductivities.

[0014] Some new materials made from perfluoropolyethers terminated with structures significantly different from the methyl carbonate group have been synthesized and have been found to provide higher ionic conductivities than comparable methyl carbonate-terminated perfluoropolyethers. This represents a new class of compounds that can be especially useful as lithium ion electrolytes.

[0015] This new class of compounds can be generalized as either of the following chemical structures. The first is terminated by a urethane at both ends. The second is terminated by a ur ethane group at one end.

Figure imgf000005_0001

wherein x (0 < x < 1) is the mole fraction of difluoromethyleneoxy groups in the

perfluoropolyether, 1-x (0 < x < 1) is the mole fraction of tetrafluoroethyleneoxy groups in the perfluoropolyether, n (1 < n < 50) is the average total number of randomly codistributed difluoromethyleneoxy and tetrafluoroethyleneoxy groups in the perfluoropolyether, and X is either H or F. RF is a perfluorinated C1-C8 straight or branched alkyl group.

In one arrangement, the R1 and R2 substituents are each chosen independently from short chain straight or branched C1-C4 alkyl, 2-methoxy ethyl, 2-(2-methoxy)ethoxy ethyl, or cyanoethyl. In another arrangement, R1 and R2 can be combined with the N in a C5-C8 heterocycloalkyl group such as pyrrolidine, piperidine, morpholine, or 4-methylpiperazine. In yet another arrangement,

Figure imgf000006_0001

[0016] The terminal group consisting of an oxygen-carbonyl -nitrogen link (0-C(=0)-N) is known as a carbamate or urethane group. This class of compounds may therefore be generally referred to as urethane-terminated perfluoropoly ethers. The urethane group differs from the methyl carbonate group by substitution of a nitrogen. The effect of a nitrogen atom as compared to an oxygen atom is more easily appreciated in small molecules, such as in the properties of an ester and amide. Methyl acetate has a boiling point (57-58 C), has modest miscibility with water, and is a poor solvent for salts. N,N-Dimethylacetamide has a much higher boiling point (165 C), is completely miscible with water, and is a good organic solvent for salts. The last property in particular reflects the advantage of using urethane groups over methyl carbonate groups to terminate perfluoropoly ethers for use as electrolytes: salts are more likely to be dissolved and mobile. It is also more likely for the urethane-terminated perfluoropolyethers to dissolve appreciable amounts of lithium salts other than LiTFSI, which can be useful when formulating electrolytes.

[0017] Salts that can be used in the embodiments of the invention include, but are not limited to, alkali metal salts such as lithium salts, sodium salts, potassium salts, and cesium salts. Examples of lithium salts include, but are not limited to, LiPF6, LiBF4, Li(BOB), LiC104, LiBETI, and LiTCB. Concentration of alkali metal salts in the electrolytes disclosed herein range from 5 to 50 wt%, 5 to 30 wt%, 10 to 20 wt%, or any range subsumed therein.

Figure imgf000006_0002

Methyl acetate N, N- D i m ethy I acetam id e

[0018] The linear carbonate group is not inherently strongly polar and its presence does not enhance the solubility of salts, a property crucial for electrolytes. Incorporation of other more polar groups, such as the urethane group, imparts a higher polarity and results in better salt solubility. Polarity refers to a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment. Polar molecules interact through dipole- dipole intermolecular forces and hydrogen bonds. Molecular polarity is dependent on the difference in electronegativity between atoms in a compound and the asymmetry of the compound's structure. Polarity underlies a number of physical properties including surface tension, solubility, and melting and boiling-points. Polar groups can also facilitate dissociation of lithium salts in an electrolyte; the better the dissociation of lithium salts, the higher the ionic conductivity in the electrolyte.

[0019] Urethane-terminated perfluoropoly ether compounds maintain the advantages of perfluoropolyethers as electrolytes that have been previously cited, including low flammability and vapor pressure (for safety and convenience), low melting point (enabling use at low temperatures, even below 0 C), and electrochemical inertness over a wide voltage range (appropriate for use inside an electrochemical device).

[0020] In another embodiment of the invention, any of the electrolyte disclosed herein is used in an electrochemical cell, such as a battery. The cell has an anode, a cathode, and the electrolyte between the anode and the cathode. The electrolyte provides ionic communication between the anode and the cathode. In one arrangement, the anode is made of lithium metal and alloys, graphite, lithium titanante, silicon and/or a silicon alloy. In one arrangement, the cathode is made of a material such as nickel cobalt aluminum oxide (NCA), nickel cobalt manganese (NCM), LiCo02, LiFeP04, LiNiP04, LiCoP04, and LiMn204 particles, and any combination thereof.

Examples

[0021] The following examples provide details relating to composition, fabrication and performance characteristics of lithium ion electrolytes in accordance with the present invention. It should be understood the following is representative only, and that the invention is not limited by the detail set forth in these examples.

[0022] Synthesis of dimethylurethane-terminated perfluoropoly ether 1 : A solution of lH, lH,8H,8H-octafluoro-3,6-dioxaoctane-l,8-diol (5.0 g) and dimethylcarbamoyl choride (4.39 g) in diethyl ether (80 mL) was prepared in a septum-capped flask and chilled in cold water. A solution of potassium tert-butoxide (4.58 g) in tetrahydrofuran (40 mL) was added by syringe over 5 minutes. The mixture was stirred for 16 hours. Water (50 ml) was added and the organic layer was retained, washed with 40 mL of 1 M hydrochloric acid, dried over magnesium sulfate, and filtered. Evaporation of solvents and volatiles to constant weight left 6.96 g of clear oil, identified by XH- and 19F-NMR methods as the desired product.

Scheme. Synthesis of 1

Figure imgf000008_0001

[0023] Synthesis of dimethylurethane-terminated polyfluoropoly ether 2: A similar procedure was used as for the synthesis of 1, using ΙΗ,ΙΗ,11H, 11H- perfluoro-3,6,9-trioxaundecane-l, l 1- diol (5.0 g) as the starting material and adjusting the amounts of other reagents accordingly. The product was isolated as a clear oil.

[0024] Synthesis of methyl carbonate-terminated polyfluoropolyether 3: A solution of lH, lH,8H,8H-octafluoro-3,6-dioxaoctane-l,8-diol (10.0 g), trimethylamine (8.59 g) and diethyl ether (160 mL) was prepared in a 500 mL flask and chilled in an ice-water bath for 15 minutes. A solution of methyl chloroformate (7.71 g) in diethyl ether (40 mL) was added at 2 mL/min over 20 minutes with continuous stirring and chilling of the reaction flask. The ice bath was removed and the solution was stirred for 16 hours. The reaction was then transferred to a separatory funnel and washed with 2 x 50 mL 1 M hydrochloric acid, 1 x 50 mL distilled water, and 1 x 50 mL saturated aqueous sodium chloride solution. The retained organic layer was dried over magnesium sulfate and filtered before solvent was removed by evaporation leaving a cloudy yellow oil. The oil was washed with 2 x 10 mL hexane, then re-dissolved in 30 mL of 2: 1 ethyl acetate/hexane and treated with 0.5 g of decolorizing charcoal for 30 minutes. The charcoal was removed by centrifugation and filtration and the solvent removed by evaporation leaving 12 g of a clear colorless oil, identified by 1H and 19F- MR methods as the desired product.

Scheme. S nthesis of 3

Figure imgf000009_0001

2 N Et3

diethyl ether

0 °C - RT

Figure imgf000009_0002

[0025] Synthesis of methyl carbonate-terminated polyfluoropolyether 4: A similar procedure was used as for the synthesis of 3, using ΙΗ,ΙΗ,11H, 11H- perfluoro-3,6,9-trioxaundecane-l, l 1- diol (10.0 g) as the starting material and adjusting the amounts of other reagents accordingly. The product was isolated as 11 g of a clear oil.

Electrolytes made from new materials

[0026] Electrolyte solutions were formed by dissolving 10 wt% lithium bis(trifluorom ethane) sulfonimide (LiTFSI) in the appropriate liquid. The ionic conductivities of the electrolytes were measured by constructing symmetric coin cells with porous polyolefin separators soaked through with the LiTFSI solution and performing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results are shown below in Table I. Conductivity results for methyl carbonate-terminated

perfluoropolyethers 3 and 4 are shown for comparison. Table 1

Ionic conductivities of

perfluoropolyether-LiTFSI electrolytes

Electrolyte (with 10 Conductivity at 40 °C Conductivity at 80 °C wt% LiTFSI) (S cm"1) (S cm"1)

1 3.6 x 10"5 1 .1 x 10"4

2 2.8 x 10"5 8.8 x 10"5

3 9.0 x 10"6 1 .5 x 10"5

4 5.6 x 10"6 1 .5 x 10"5

[0027] Thus, urethane-terminated electrolytes (1 and 2) have ionic conductivities 4 to 10 times greater than those of the methyl carbonate-terminated electrolytes (3 and 4) under similar conditions.

[0028] This invention has been described herein in considerable detail to provide those skilled in the art with information relevant to apply the novel principles and to construct and use such specialized components as are required. However, it is to be understood that the invention can be carried out by different equipment, materials and devices, and that various modifications, both as to the equipment and operating procedures, can be accomplished without departing from the scope of the invention itself.

Claims

WE CLAIM:
1. An electrolyte, comprising:
a mixture of
perfluoropolyethers, each having either one or two terminal urethane groups covalently coupled thereto; and
an alkali metal salt.
2. The electrolyte of Claim 1, wherein said alkali metal salt is a lithium salt.
3. The electrolyte of Claim 1, wherein said alkali metal salt is a sodium salt.
4. The electrolyte of Claim 1, wherein the salt composes between 5 to 30 wt% of the composition.
5. The electrolyte of Claim 1, wherein the perfluoropolyethers are selected from the group consisting of:
Figure imgf000011_0001
wherein x is the mole fraction of difluoromethyleneoxy groups in the perfluoropoly ether, and x ranges between 0 and 1;
1-x is the mole fraction of tetrafluoroethyleneoxy groups in the perfluoropoly ether, and 1-x ranges between 0 and 1;
n is the average total number of randomly co-distributed difluoromethyleneoxy and tetrafluoroethyleneoxy groups in the perfluoropolyether and n ranges between 1 and 50;
X is either hydrogen or fluorine; and
RF is a perfluorinated C1-C8 straight or branched alkyl group.
6. The electrolyte of Claim 5 wherein R1 and R2 are each chosen independently from the group consisting of short chain straight or branched C1-C4 alkyl, 2-methoxy ethyl, 2-(2- methoxy)ethoxy ethyl, and cyanoethyl.
7. The electrolyte of Claim 5 wherein R1 and R2 are combined with the N in a C5-C8 heterocycloalkyl group selected from the group consisting of pyrrolidine, piperidine, morpholine, and 4-methylpiperazine.
8. The electrolyte of Claim 5 wherein one or both of R1 and R2 is hydrogen.
9. An electrochemical cell, comprising:
an anode;
a cathode; and
an electrolyte between the anode and the cathode, the electrolyte in ionic communication with the anode and the cathode;
wherein the electrolyte is the electrolyte of Claim 1.
10. The cell of Claim 9, wherein the anode comprises a material selected from the group consisting of lithium metal and alloys, graphite, lithium titanante, silicon, silicon alloys, and combinations thereof.
11. The cell of Claim 9, wherein the cathode comprises a material selected from the group consisting of nickel cobalt aluminum oxide (NCA), nickel cobalt manganese (NCM), LiCo02, LiFeP04, LiNiP04, LiCoP04, and LiMn204 particles, and any combination thereof.
PCT/US2016/025950 2008-02-13 2016-04-05 Fluorinated alkali ion electrolytes with urethane groups WO2016161465A1 (en)

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US201562143011P true 2015-04-03 2015-04-03
US62/143,011 2015-04-03
US14/811,664 2015-07-28
US14/811,664 US9893337B2 (en) 2008-02-13 2015-07-28 Multi-phase electrolyte lithium batteries

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Cited By (2)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US10122049B2 (en) 2014-02-06 2018-11-06 Gelion Technologies Pty Ltd Gelated ionic liquid film-coated surfaces and uses thereof
WO2018044128A1 (en) * 2016-09-02 2018-03-08 주식회사 엘지화학 Polymer electrolyte and lithium secondary battery including same

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