WO2016120562A1 - Method and device for manufacturing a component from powder - Google Patents

Method and device for manufacturing a component from powder Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2016120562A1
WO2016120562A1 PCT/FR2016/050169 FR2016050169W WO2016120562A1 WO 2016120562 A1 WO2016120562 A1 WO 2016120562A1 FR 2016050169 W FR2016050169 W FR 2016050169W WO 2016120562 A1 WO2016120562 A1 WO 2016120562A1
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WO
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Patent type
Prior art keywords
powder
layer
means
preceding
activators
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/FR2016/050169
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Pierre Alvarez
Original Assignee
Pierre Alvarez
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
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Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F3/00Manufacture of workpieces or articles from metallic powder characterised by the manner of compacting or sintering; Apparatus specially adapted therefor ; Presses and furnaces
    • B22F3/10Sintering only
    • B22F3/105Sintering only by using electric current other than for infra-red radiant energy, laser radiation or plasma ; by ultrasonic bonding
    • B22F3/1055Selective sintering, i.e. stereolithography
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C64/00Additive manufacturing, i.e. manufacturing of three-dimensional [3D] objects by additive deposition, additive agglomeration or additive layering, e.g. by 3D printing, stereolithography or selective laser sintering
    • B29C64/10Processes of additive manufacturing
    • B29C64/141Processes of additive manufacturing using only solid materials
    • B29C64/153Processes of additive manufacturing using only solid materials using layers of powder being selectively joined, e.g. by selective laser sintering or melting
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B33ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY
    • B33YADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, i.e. MANUFACTURING OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL [3-D] OBJECTS BY ADDITIVE DEPOSITION, ADDITIVE AGGLOMERATION OR ADDITIVE LAYERING, e.g. BY 3-D PRINTING, STEREOLITHOGRAPHY OR SELECTIVE LASER SINTERING
    • B33Y30/00Apparatus for additive manufacturing; Details thereof or accessories therefor
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F3/00Manufacture of workpieces or articles from metallic powder characterised by the manner of compacting or sintering; Apparatus specially adapted therefor ; Presses and furnaces
    • B22F3/10Sintering only
    • B22F3/105Sintering only by using electric current other than for infra-red radiant energy, laser radiation or plasma ; by ultrasonic bonding
    • B22F3/1055Selective sintering, i.e. stereolithography
    • B22F2003/1056Apparatus components, details or accessories
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P10/00Technologies related to metal processing
    • Y02P10/20Process efficiency
    • Y02P10/25Process efficiency by increasing the energy efficiency of the process
    • Y02P10/29Additive manufacturing
    • Y02P10/295Additive manufacturing of metals

Abstract

The present invention relates to a method for manufacturing a component (1) from powder, comprising the following steps: modelling said component (1) in three dimensions and breaking down the model obtained into layers (2) defining, for each layer (2), a zone of material, fusing said zone of material by supplying energy selectively to said zone of material, in which the supply of energy is performed simultaneously across the entire zone of said layer (2) that is to be fused. The present invention also relates to an apparatus for the manufacture of a component (1) from powder, especially designed to implement a method according to one of the preceding claims, comprising a means for applying a layer (2) of powder to a surface, an energy source, a means of directing the energy source toward predetermined zones, in order to fuse said powder to the previous layer (2), said apparatus comprising a plate provided with a plurality of fixed activators (10) distributed over said plate, and said means of directing the energy source consisting in a means of selectively activating said activators (10).

Description

Method and device for manufacturing a part from powder.

The present invention relates to a method of manufacturing a part from powder, in particular by so-called additive manufacturing.

Additive manufacturing means shaping processes a workpiece by addition of material, by stacking successive layers, as opposed to shaping by removal of material, such as machining, or the shaping by casting, forging or the like.

Additive manufacturing is also commonly called 3D printing, compared to ink printing process comprising depositing ink at selected locations, mostly computer controlled.

Several additive manufacturing techniques from the known powder.

Method begins by making a 3D model of the workpiece, and is then divided into segments of a few tens of microns thick, in a direction selected by the expert according to the room configuration.

Is then deposited a layer of powder of the required thickness (e.g. 20 microns) and then made go to the laser beam or electron beam across the surface of said layer which should be part of the room, according to the 3D model. In the following technique will be described with a laser. The laser melts the powder which is welded to the previous layer, or raising the temperature of the powder to a sufficient level so that the latter is sintered or melted. One then deposits a new layer of powder, and so on, to form by degrees the entire room. US2001262655A1 the document, for example, discloses a method of manufacturing by point-to-point sintering.

Nevertheless it has significant drawbacks, since not only the path traveled by the laser takes a long time, but most of the guides and motors to move the laser relative to the workpiece take up space and make the bulky device. Furthermore the motors can cause vibration during manufacture, which can disturb the quality of manufactured parts.

The docu ment S20020931 U 1 5A1, q uencing him, d u ivulgue method of cement construction. This requires a product, the adhesive, and an additional step to the manufacturing process, and the manufactured parts are less resistant parts obtained as by welding.

Finally US2012139167A1 document discloses a method for making an object using a mask, which requires the use of a complex device.

The present invention aims to overcome at least partly these drawbacks.

The present invention aims to provide an additive process for manufacturing a part from powder, which is quick, reliable and accurate.

Another object of the present invention is to provide a device for manufacturing an additive, which is robust, free from unwanted movements and vibrations.

Another object of the present invention is to provide a device for an additive manufacturing precision.

To this end it proposes a one piece fabrication method from powder, comprising the steps of:

- three-dimensional modeling of said workpiece and decomposition of the model obtained in layers defining for each layer a material region,

- welding said energy intake per subject area selectively on said material region,

This method is particular in that the energy input is effected by a plurality of promoters simultaneously on the entire area to be welded of said layer,

Thanks to these features, welds lad ite layer are carried out simultaneously which significantly reduces welding time compared to that required with a beam traveling in succession all the areas to be welded.

According to other features

said method may further comprise the steps of:

- depositing a first powder layer on a support - welding of said material defined area for said first layer,

- depositing a new layer of powder on a support, - welding of said material portion defined for said new layer,

- up to the completion of all the layers, thereby forming the part;

Such provisions allow a significantly reduced time to build step by step a complete piece, which can be complex and detailed,

said powder may be a metal powder, especially a superalloy powder, for carrying out metal parts or superalloy with the advantage of the inherent properties of these materials, titanium or titanium aluminide alloys are examples of useful materials.

The present invention also relates to an apparatus for producing a part from powder, specially designed to implement a method according to the invention. This device comprises means for depositing a powder layer on a surface, a power source, means for directing the power source to predetermined areas, to weld said powder to the preceding layer. This device is peculiar in that it comprises a plate provided with a plurality of fixed activators distributed over said plate, and said means for directing the energy source consists of a selective activating means of said activators.

Through these measures, not only the activation can be done simultaneously to an entire layer, but also the activation can be done in the absence of any room to move, and therefore in the absence of vibrations untimely.

According to other features

said activators may each comprise a nanotube, particularly atoms; such nanotubes allow great precision of realization, due to their small size and their rigidity,

said selective activation means of a nanotube can be a way of supplying a potential to said nanotube; such an arrangement makes the device easy to use,

said apparatus may comprise a selective manner control device of the cooling of the solder powder during and immediately after, to control the structure of the part and its mechanical properties,

said control device (13) is disposed under said support, and may be a heating or cooling, depending on the desired cooling kinematics for the material,

said control device may comprise pins adapted to be pressed into the unsealed powder towards the layer about to be manufactured, thus allowing control of the cooling kinematic closest to said layer,

- said means for depositing a layer of powder may comprise a powder feeder and a horizontal movement means of said support relative to said power supply, thereby allowing a simple means for a homogeneous deposited on said support,

said means for depositing a powder layer may comprise a clipper, in particular rotating in the direction producing a scraping the powder in the direction of the feed, thus improving the homogeneity in thickness of the powder layer.

The advantage provided by the present invention resides primarily in that it becomes possible to perform a piece from powder of a faster, while maintaining excellent accuracy or improving the accuracy.

The invention will be better understood from reading the detailed description of an embodiment which follows, with reference to the attached figure.

Figure 1 is a schematic front view of a device according to the invention in five successive positions.

The method according to the i nvention comprises first w u step con n ue, modeling of a piece 1 to be manufactured, and decomposition layers 2 of the piece 1. This modeling results in a 3D model. For simplicity of presentation, we will take an example of a homogeneous piece 1, in a single part, and in a single material. Said 3D model thus defines material areas in each layer 2.

The device of the invention shown in fig. 1 comprises support means 3 such as a plate 3 arranged on a vertical motion means 4 such as a jack. It is also arranged on a horizontal moving means 5 such as a horizontal rail, shown in schematic form in FIG. 1.

The device includes means for depositing a layer 6 2 powder. The powder may be deposited on a line, for example perpendicular to the drawing of FIG. 1 during the establishment of the plate 3, thereby depositing a layer 2 of the active surface of the platen 3. A stationary clipper 7, or mobile in rotation about its axis, preferably in the direction in which it returns excess powder to the side of the powder feed may be arranged to impart constant thickness to the layer 2 powder. Other means of removing a layer 6 2 powder can be considered. For the presentation of simplicity, shows the same view of the powder removal and selective activation. However, in the powder deposited reality first pass, and once the powder layer 2 is fully registered and in place, we can take the next step.

The device comprises a means of selective activation surface 8. The latter sends it to the plate 3 the energy required for welding the powder in the layer 2 above, by melting or sintering, according to the applied energy. It sends this energy on predetermined points 9, so as to form a layer 2 according to the previously defined 3D model. It will be said in the following discussion it activates such a point. When it comes to the first layer, the term "solder powder to the previous layer" should be understood as solder powder particles together with a non-binding possibility that they are welded together on the plate 3, or on any intermediate disposed on the platen 3 for this purpose and which can be then removed from the finished workpiece 1 by any known means.

According to the invention, the selective surface activation means 8 comprises a plurality of activators 10 arranged on its surface, so as to have an activator 10 at any point of the plate 3 where the 3D model may define a point material. This way, activators 10 do not need to move the items to activate, but at any point to activate an activator 10 is already disposed on the surface through selective activation 8. This has the advantage that all 10 activators can work together, which sharply reduces the activation time required for layer 2. this has the further advantage that during activation, no parts are moving, and n 'there is no risk of interference by possible vibrations from traveling.

The device according to the invention comprises a power supply source 1 1 and a computer 12 configured to receive the 3D model with the decomposition layers 2, and capable of controlling activation of the activators 10 according to said 3D model in particular depending on the configuration of the layer 2 of the 3D model corresponding to the layer 2 about to be manufactured.

The plate 3 then descends to the thickness of a layer 2, by means of vertical displacement, and deviates horizontally to receive a new layer 2 powder. We can then move on to the activation of the points defined in this new layer 2.

It is of course expected that instead of lowering the plate 3 between two layers 2, is raised by the selective activation surface 8, with the aim to maintain a substantially constant distance between the two, and thus setting identical activation; it is also conceivable, for coins 1 very thick to be manufactured, the distance between the plate 3 and the surface selective activation means 8 is sufficient to carry out all the layers 2, and the variation of the distance is compensated by a different setting activators 10.

May be provided also that, instead of horizontally moving the tray 3 to the powder feed, the selective surface activation means 8 which deviates. One can even imagine that the powder feed is performed without any relative movement between the plate 3 and the means of selective activation surface 8, if the distance between the two is sufficient to make this possible.

The means of selective activation surface 8 can also be removed vertically and make room for depositing a powder layer by a translational movement of the means of removal of the clipper 6 and 7. This will remove the powder in both directions of translation by disposing a second clipper 7 on the other side of the means 6 Drop.

The activators 10 may be metal spikes, each of which can emit an electric arc on command from the computer, and thus produce the welding of the powder. More tips are fine, plus it will be possible to make detailed and complex shapes.

Activators 10 may each comprise a nanotube, such as carbon. Indeed such a nanotube has excellent conductivity associated with a point effect, for producing individually on one of the nanotubes an arc of sufficient energy to weld at a point 2 the powder layer on the previous layer 2, that either by fusion or sintering.

A nanotube is in the form of a graphene sheet rolled on itself, conferring substantially a cylindrical shape, with hemispherical or conical ends. The diameter of such a nanotube is a few nanometers, and a length of up to several micrometers.

The small size allows the nanotubes have close to each other, and thus obtain a high accuracy of selective activation of the various layers 2. Their high rigidity further enhances this activation accuracy with the precision of sight to the sinterable powder or melt.

The means of selective activation surface 8 may thus include a plurality of nanotubes arranged on its surface. The axes of the rollers are substantially perpendicular to its surface, directed towards the plate 3. By applying a potential to selected nanotubes, at the means of selective activation surface 8, can thus produce a selective activation of these nanotubes, piloted by the computer 12, and a solder powder to the right of these nanotubes.

According to a particular embodiment of the invention, the apparatus includes a cooling device 13 controlled and selective, placed under the table 3. This feature allows to control the thermal gradient in the in-process layer, and thus of optimize the crystal structure and mechanical characteristics. Due to the simultaneous welding of the entire area of ​​a layer, such a control is easy to achieve by a plate. However one can also selectively heat or cool the plate according to the zones.

This device may be provided with pins 14 adapted to be pressed into the unsintered powder to the layer about to be manufactured, and thus improve the controlled cooling of the subsequent layers.

Claims

A method of manufacturing a workpiece (1) from powder, comprising the steps of:
- three-dimensional modeling of said workpiece (1) and decomposition of the model obtained in layers (2) defining each layer (2) a material region,
- welding said energy intake per subject area selectively on said material region,
characterized in that the energy input is effected pa r a plurality of activators (10) simultaneously over the entire weld area of ​​said layer (2).
Method according to the preceding claim, further comprising the steps of:
- depositing a first layer (2) of powder on a support (3), such as a tray
- welding of said material defined area for said first layer (2),
- depositing a new layer (2) of powder on a support (3),
- welding of said material portion defined for said new layer (2),
- up to the completion of all the layers (2), thereby forming the workpiece (1).
Method according to one of the preceding claims, wherein said powder is a metal powder, especially a powder superalloys.
An apparatus for manufacturing a workpiece (1) from powder, specially designed to implement a method according to one of the preceding claims, comprising means for depositing a layer (2) of powder on a surface, a power source, means for directing the power source to predetermined areas, for welding said powder layer (2) above, characterized in that said apparatus comprises a plate provided with a plurality of activators (10 ) attached distributed over said plate, and said means for directing the energy source consists of a selective activating means of said activators (10).
5. Apparatus according to the preceding claim, wherein said activators (10) each comprise a nanotube, preferably carbon.
6. Apparatus according to the preceding claim, wherein said selective activation means of a nanotube is a means of outputting a potential to said nanotube.
7. Apparatus according to one of claims 4 to 6 comprising a control device (13) selective manner the cooling of the powder during and immediately after welding.
8. Apparatus according to the preceding claim, wherein said control device (13) is disposed below said support (3).
9. Apparatus according to the preceding claim, wherein said control device (13) comprises pins (14) adapted to be pressed into the unsealed powder towards the layer (2) about to be manufactured.
10. Apparatus according to one of claims 4 to 9, wherein said means for depositing a layer (2) of powder comprises a powder supply and a horizontal movement means of said support (3) with respect to said power supply and wherein said means for depositing a layer (2) of powder comprises a clipper, in particular rotating in the direction producing a scraping the powder in the direction of feeding.
PCT/FR2016/050169 2015-01-30 2016-01-27 Method and device for manufacturing a component from powder WO2016120562A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

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FR1550724A FR3032138A1 (en) 2015-01-30 2015-01-30 Method and device for manufacturing a part from powder
FR1550724 2015-01-30

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Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20020093115A1 (en) 2001-01-12 2002-07-18 Jang B. Z. Layer manufacturing method and apparatus using a programmable planar light source
US20110262655A1 (en) * 2008-02-28 2011-10-27 Khaled Morsi Current activated tip-based sintering (cats)
US20120139167A1 (en) 2009-08-18 2012-06-07 Sintermask Gmbh Method and device for producing a three-dimensional object

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20020093115A1 (en) 2001-01-12 2002-07-18 Jang B. Z. Layer manufacturing method and apparatus using a programmable planar light source
US20110262655A1 (en) * 2008-02-28 2011-10-27 Khaled Morsi Current activated tip-based sintering (cats)
US20120139167A1 (en) 2009-08-18 2012-06-07 Sintermask Gmbh Method and device for producing a three-dimensional object

Non-Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
A. NUMULA ET AL: "Reactive Current-Activated Tip-Based Sintering of Ni-Al Intermetallics", METALLOGRAPHY, MICROSTRUCTURE, AND ANALYSIS, vol. 2, no. 3, 11 May 2013 (2013-05-11), pages 148 - 155, XP055233155, ISSN: 2192-9262, DOI: 10.1007/s13632-013-0071-y *

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FR3032138A1 (en) 2016-08-05 application

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