一种生活废水自动检测分流并循环利用的方法和装置Method and device for automatically detecting shunting and recycling of domestic wastewater
本发明属于节能环保技术领域，尤其涉及一种节水减污的生活废水自动检测分流并循环利用的方法及其相关装置。The invention belongs to the technical field of energy conservation and environmental protection, and particularly relates to a method for automatically detecting and recycling and recycling a domestic wastewater for water and pollution reduction and related devices.
随着社会经济的持续快速发展，城市进程和工业化进程的不断增加，环境污染日益严重，资源亦显得日益匮乏，国家对节能环保的重视程度也越来越高。“十二五”规划纲要提出，节能环保产业重点发展高效节能、先进环保、资源循环利用关键技术装备、产品和服务。中国是12个贫水国家之一，淡水资源还不到世界人均水量的1/4，因此节约用水迫在眉睫。在我国，随着城市人口的增加和和工农业生产的发展，污水排放量也日益增加，水体污染相当严重，而且几乎遍及全国各地。至2008年10月，全国设市城市、县及部分重点建制镇共建成污水处理厂1459座，日处理能力8553万吨(36个大城市共建成288座，日处理能力为3497万吨)，然而全国设市城市污水处理率截止2007年仍只有63％；虽然由于国家和各级政府对环境保护重视程度的不断提高，中国污水处理行业正在快速增长，污水处理总量逐年增加，城镇污水处理率不断提高，但到2013年中国污水处理行业仍处于发展的初级阶。因此，大力发展节水减污的方法和装备具有重要的社会价值和经济价值。With the sustained and rapid development of the social economy, the urban process and the industrialization process are increasing, the environmental pollution is becoming more and more serious, and the resources are becoming increasingly scarce. The state attaches more and more importance to energy conservation and environmental protection. The “Twelfth Five-Year Plan” outlines that the energy conservation and environmental protection industry will focus on the development of key technologies, equipment, products and services for high efficiency, energy conservation, advanced environmental protection and resource recycling. China is one of the 12 poor countries, and freshwater resources are less than a quarter of the world's per capita water. Therefore, water conservation is imminent. In China, with the increase of urban population and the development of industrial and agricultural production, sewage discharge is also increasing, water pollution is quite serious, and it is spread all over the country. By October 2008, 1,459 sewage treatment plants had been built in cities, counties and some key towns in the country, with a daily processing capacity of 85.53 million tons (a total of 288 in 36 large cities, with a daily processing capacity of 34.97 million tons). However, the city's urban sewage treatment rate is still only 63% as of 2007; although the national and provincial governments pay more attention to environmental protection, China's sewage treatment industry is growing rapidly, and the total amount of sewage treatment is increasing year by year. The rate is constantly improving, but by 2013 China's sewage treatment industry is still at the primary stage of development. Therefore, vigorously developing methods and equipment for water saving and pollution reduction have important social and economic value.
节水减污的技术方案和产品装备，大的如污水处理厂，小的如节水水龙头，其方法、形态、成本、效益千差万别。本发明所述的方法和装置，主要用于家庭生活、宾馆、洗浴等生活服务活动中所产生废水的自动检测分流和循环回收利用。目前此种类型的方法和装置，或因较轻污染的水和明显污染的水无法自动分流，或因动力问题，或因回收水量问题，或因水质问题，而无法达到很好的效果。这是现有技术所存在的不足之处。Water-saving and pollution-reducing technical solutions and products and equipment, such as sewage treatment plants, small, such as water-saving faucets, its methods, forms, costs, and benefits vary widely. The method and device of the invention are mainly used for automatic detection and diversion and recycling of waste water generated in living service activities such as family life, hotels and baths. At present, this type of method and device, or because of lightly polluted water and obviously polluted water, cannot be automatically diverted, or due to power problems, or due to problems with water recovery, or due to water quality problems, it is not possible to achieve good results. This is a deficiency of the prior art.
【发明内容】[Summary of the Invention]
本发明方法和装置，利用一系列技术、结构、和自然原理，成功解决了水质自动检测分流、循环回收、无需额外动力支持、充足回收水量、保证水质等多个难题，达到了明显优于目前现有方法和设备的良好效果。如前文所述，本发明所述的方法和装置，主要用于家庭生活、宾馆、洗浴等生活服务活动中所产生废水的自动检测分流和循环回收利用。根据水的导电性原理：纯净水是不导电的，含有杂质、污染物、矿物质越多其导电性能越高。生活中经过使用的废水，其导电性能明显高于日常生活所用自来水。本发明所述的方法和装置，就是利用此原理，使用了通过设定导电值进行控制的电磁阀，实现高污染废水和低污染废水自动检测分流，使高污染废水排入污水管，低污染废水通过分流进入储水箱，供回收利用。储水箱经过特殊设计，在回收水量不足时可以自动补充自来水；使用者还可以自行选择接纳回收水还是自来水，若使用者选择不接纳回收水，则回收水自动导流入下层储水箱的进水管；若回收水量充足且有剩余，亦可自动溢流至下层储水箱进水管，实现循环回收，保证充足的回收水量，节约水资源，减少废水排放，具有显著的社会效益和经济效益。The method and device of the invention successfully solves many problems such as automatic water quality detection and shunting, recycling, no additional power support, sufficient water recovery, and water quality utilization, and achieves a significantly better than the current one, using a series of techniques, structures, and natural principles. Good results of existing methods and equipment. As described above, the method and device of the present invention are mainly used for automatic detection and shunting and recycling of wastewater generated in living services such as family life, hotels, baths, and the like. According to the principle of conductivity of water: pure water is non-conductive, containing more impurities, pollutants, minerals, the higher its conductivity. The conductivity of wastewater used in life is significantly higher than that of tap water used in daily life. The method and device of the present invention utilizes this principle to use a solenoid valve controlled by setting a conductivity value to realize automatic detection and diversion of high-pollution wastewater and low-pollution wastewater, so that high-pollution wastewater is discharged into the sewage pipe, and low pollution The wastewater is diverted into the storage tank for recycling. The water storage tank is specially designed to automatically replenish tap water when the amount of recovered water is insufficient; the user can also choose whether to accept the recycled water or the tap water. If the user chooses not to accept the recycled water, the recovered water will be automatically led into the inlet pipe of the lower storage tank; If the amount of recovered water is sufficient and there is surplus, it can also automatically overflow to the inlet pipe of the lower storage tank to realize recycling, ensure sufficient recovery of water, save water resources, reduce wastewater discharge, and have significant social and economic benefits.
本发明所述的发法和装置，其典型用途和运行方式为：多层楼房，其全部或两层以上若干楼层，每层之每个单元安装一此装置、且上下层由基于本发明所述的方法相连，成为一个独立且完整的系统。为便于理解，本发明中所述之“下层”，是指“下一楼层”，但是在涉及法律意义和法律权利时，应当解释为：所述装置相对于原装置水平位置较低，利用本发明所述的方法和装置，可以实施本发明，则该装置所处的位置，既为“下层”。The typical application and operation mode of the method and device of the present invention are: a multi-storey building, all or two or more floors, one unit per unit of each layer, and the upper and lower layers are based on the present invention. The methods described are connected to form an independent and complete system. For the sake of understanding, the "lower layer" as used in the present invention refers to "the next floor", but when it comes to legal and legal rights, it should be interpreted as: the device has a lower horizontal position relative to the original device, and the use of the device The method and apparatus of the invention can be practiced with the invention, and the location of the apparatus is both "lower layer".
通过设定导电值控制电磁阀开闭的技术和设备，是目前公知的技术，广泛应用于水污染处理、水产养殖等领域。The technology and equipment for controlling the opening and closing of the solenoid valve by setting the conductivity value are well-known technologies and are widely used in the fields of water pollution treatment, aquaculture and the like.
本发明：一种生活废水自动检测分流并循环利用的方法和装置，其技术方案和装置结构如下：The invention relates to a method and a device for automatically detecting and recycling a domestic wastewater, and the technical scheme and device structure thereof are as follows:
窄处安装有一个导电值检测仪，当有水流聚集且流速较慢时，此检测仪自动启动检测功能。废水排水管漏斗状狭窄下方一定距离处安装一电磁阀，电磁阀和漏斗状狭窄之间接装一根分流水管通往回收水储水箱。电磁阀默认为开通状态(此开通状态是指使废水排水管道处于开通状态)，当导电值检测仪检测到导电值处于设定范围时，既通过电磁阀控制器启动电磁阀，使之由开通状态转变成闭断状态。可启动电磁阀的导电值设定范围为：最小数值大于0微西门子每厘米，最大数值以导电值检测仪可检测出的数值为上限。因各地水质不同，其导电值亦不相同，但无论何种水质，凡供生活使用的自来水，必定可检测出导电值，且经使用污染后，其导电值必定明显增高。因不同的水质其原本导电值高低不同，经使用污染后其导电值变化亦不相同，因此，启动电磁阀的导电值设定范围最大数值应在可设定范围内由使用者自行设定，以保证所回收之水为较低污染程度为目的---既眼观不甚浑浊。当未检测到导电值或所检测到导电值不在设定范围时，电磁阀不启动，故保持开通状态，此时无废水通过、或废水通过电磁阀直接排入污水管；当检测到导电值且处于设定范围时，电磁阀启动并由开通状态转变为闭断状态，废水开始聚集，并于高于分流管接口位置时通过分流管流向回收水储水箱方向。(1) Domestic wastewater discharged from the upper or upper reaches (due to the large amount of wastewater generated by washing and bathing, concentrated, less impurities, and more valuable for recycling, so this kind of wastewater represents all domestic wastewater that can be recycled) into the wastewater drainage pipe. First pass through a funnel-shaped stenosis, the diameter of the stenosis is not more than one-third of the diameter of the wastewater drain pipe. When the wastewater discharge amount is large, it will gather here and the flow rate will slow down. This funnel-shaped narrow
A conductivity detector is installed in the narrow position. When there is water flow and the flow rate is slow, the detector automatically starts the detection function. A solenoid valve is installed at a certain distance below the funnel-shaped narrowing of the wastewater drain pipe, and a split water pipe is connected between the solenoid valve and the funnel-shaped narrow to the recovery water storage tank. The solenoid valve is in the open state by default (this open state means that the waste water drainage pipe is in the open state). When the conductivity value detector detects that the conductivity value is within the set range, the solenoid valve is activated by the solenoid valve controller to be turned on. Turned into a closed state. The set value of the startable solenoid valve is: the minimum value is greater than 0 microsiemens per centimeter, and the maximum value is the upper limit of the value detectable by the conductivity detector. Due to the different water quality, the conductivity value is different, but no matter what kind of water quality, the tap water for daily use must be able to detect the conductivity value, and after the pollution is used, the conductivity value must be significantly increased. Due to the different water quality, the original conductivity value is different. After the pollution is used, the conductivity value is different. Therefore, the maximum value of the conductivity value setting range of the starting solenoid valve should be set by the user within the settable range. In order to ensure that the water recovered is for the purpose of lower pollution level - it is not very turbid. When the conductivity value is not detected or the detected conductivity value is not within the set range, the solenoid valve does not start, so it remains open. At this time, no waste water passes, or the wastewater is directly discharged into the sewage pipe through the solenoid valve; when the conductivity value is detected When it is in the set range, the solenoid valve starts and changes from the open state to the closed state, and the waste water begins to collect, and flows to the recovery water storage tank through the branch pipe when the position is higher than the branch pipe interface position.
(2)回收水储水箱为储存回收水之用，此箱主体为密闭或顶部开口的半密闭箱式结构；其形状为侧倒的圆柱形或矩形；制作材料为防水材料，其全部或至少一面为透明防水材料，以利于观察储水箱内水位高低和水的清晰度；容量以一个家庭1-2天的马桶冲水量为最低限度。该回收水储水箱设计两个进水管和两个出水管，分别是自来水进水管、回收水进水管、回收水溢流管、回收水出水管。自来水进水管位于储水箱底部，储水箱内装一浮球阀以控制自来水进水管口的开闭，当水位达到三分之一或以上时，自来水进水管口被闭塞，当水位不足三分之一时，自来水进水管口开放，接纳自来水以补充水量。回收水出水管位于回收水储水箱底部，连接马桶水箱以实现供水，或加装延时阀、去掉马桶水箱，直接连接马桶供水。回收水溢流管位于该水箱顶端数厘米处，当水位达到此管管口高度时，既从此管溢流而出，此溢流管通往下层储水箱方向。回收水进水管由上层储水箱溢流管和本层分流管汇合而成(顶层回收水进水管既为雨水进水管)。溢流管在与分流管汇合前安装一手动阀，手动阀前接装一根导流管，此导流管汇入本层溢流管，手动阀用来控制是否接纳上层溢流出之回收水，若手动阀关闭，则上层溢流之回收水由导流管汇入溢流管后继续流向下层储水箱进水管方向。(2) The recycled water storage tank is used for storing the recovered water. The main body of the box is a semi-closed box structure with a closed or top opening; the shape is a cylindrical or rectangular shape that is inverted; the material is made of waterproof material, all or at least One side is a transparent waterproof material to facilitate the observation of the water level in the water tank and the clarity of the water; the capacity is the minimum for a household 1-2 days of toilet flushing. The recycled water storage tank is designed with two inlet pipes and two outlet pipes, namely a tap water inlet pipe, a recovery water inlet pipe, a recovery water overflow pipe, and a recovery water outlet pipe. The tap water inlet pipe is located at the bottom of the water storage tank, and a float ball valve is installed in the water storage tank to control the opening and closing of the tap water inlet pipe. When the water level reaches one third or more, the tap water inlet pipe port is blocked, when the water level is less than one third. The tap water inlet is open and accepts tap water to replenish water. The recycled water outlet pipe is located at the bottom of the recovery water storage tank, connected to the toilet water tank to realize water supply, or added a time delay valve, removes the toilet water tank, and directly connects the toilet water supply. The recovery water overflow pipe is located a few centimeters from the top of the water tank. When the water level reaches the pipe mouth height, it overflows from the pipe, and the overflow pipe leads to the lower water storage tank. The recycled water inlet pipe is formed by the upper storage tank overflow pipe and the first layer split pipe (the top recovery water inlet pipe is both a rainwater inlet pipe). The overflow pipe is installed with a manual valve before the diverging pipe is merged, and a diversion pipe is connected in front of the manual valve. The diversion pipe is connected to the overflow pipe of the floor, and the manual valve is used to control whether the upper layer overflows the recovered water. If the manual valve is closed, the recovered water of the upper overflow is recirculated into the overflow pipe by the draft pipe and continues to flow in the direction of the inlet pipe of the lower storage tank.
(3)分流管的技术特征：分流管自与废水排水管相接处起始，至与上层溢流管汇合处终止，其终止处的水平位置不高于起始处；其中间部份上升，但高度须低于废水排水管漏斗状狭窄的最低处，以保证：1.回收水进水管的水不会通过分流管逆流进入废水排水管；2.回收水可顺利通过分流管最高处与上层溢流管水汇合；2.电磁阀变为开通时，未通分流管最高处的回收水可自然返回废水排管排出。(3) Technical characteristics of the shunt pipe: the shunt pipe starts from the junction with the waste water drain pipe and ends at the junction with the upper overflow pipe, and the horizontal position at the end is not higher than the start; the middle part rises , but the height must be lower than the lowest point of the funnel-shaped narrowing of the waste water drain pipe to ensure: 1. The water of the recycled water inlet pipe will not flow back into the waste water drain pipe through the shunt pipe; 2. The recovered water can smoothly pass through the highest point of the shunt pipe The upper overflow pipe merges; 2. When the solenoid valve becomes open, the recovered water at the highest point of the un-divided pipe can be naturally returned to the waste pipe for discharge.
(4)水平位置最高处设雨水收集箱，雨水收集箱顶端数厘米处装雨水溢流管，雨水收集箱水位到达此管口时既由此管溢流排入污水管，顶层回收水储水箱的回收水进水管就是连接雨水收集箱底部的雨水进水管，雨水收集箱的雨水为顶层回收水储水箱的唯一回收水来源，故顶层回收水进水管不与任何分流管相连接，但是其手动阀和导流管的位置和形态与下层相同。顶层也可以不使用回收雨水，则雨水收集箱、顶层回收水储水箱及期附属部件全部去除，仅产生废水以供下层检测分流、回收利用。(4) The rainwater collecting box is installed at the highest level of the horizontal position, and the rainwater overflow pipe is installed at the top of the rainwater collecting box. When the water level of the rainwater collecting box reaches the nozzle, the overflow of the pipe is discharged into the sewage pipe, and the top recovery water storage tank The recycled water inlet pipe is the rainwater inlet pipe connected to the bottom of the rainwater collection tank. The rainwater in the rainwater collection tank is the only source of recovered water for the top recovery water storage tank, so the top recovery water inlet pipe is not connected to any shunt pipe, but its manual The position and shape of the valve and the draft tube are the same as those of the lower layer. The top layer can also be used without recycling rainwater. The rainwater collection tank, the top-level recycled water storage tank and the auxiliary components are all removed, and only the wastewater is generated for the lower layer to detect the diversion and recycling.
(5)回收水储水箱顶部至少留一个开口用来投放高锰酸钾，对回收水进行杀菌、除臭和脱色。高锰酸钾用于废水杀菌、除臭和脱色是一项公知的技术，故其投放量在此发明中不再赘述。(5) At least one opening is left at the top of the recycled water storage tank for placing potassium permanganate to sterilize, deodorize and decolorize the recovered water. The use of potassium permanganate for the sterilization, deodorization and decolorization of wastewater is a well-known technique, and the amount thereof is not described in the present invention.
【附图说明】[Description of the Drawings]
图1为本发明方法和装置的结构图。BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS Figure 1 is a block diagram of the method and apparatus of the present invention.
图1中，1为层间隔，2为污水管，3为废水排水管，4为漏斗状狭窄，5为导电值检测仪，6为电磁阀，7为电磁阀控制器，8为电源，9为分流管，10为回收水进水管，11为回收水储水箱，12为自来水进水管，13为浮球，14为自来水进水口，15为溢流管，16为手动阀，17为导流管，18为回收水出水管，19为延时阀，20为雨水收集箱，21为雨水进水管，22为雨水溢流管。In Fig. 1, 1 is the layer interval, 2 is the sewage pipe, 3 is the waste water drain pipe, 4 is the funnel-shaped narrow, 5 is the conductivity value detector, 6 is the solenoid valve, 7 is the solenoid valve controller, 8 is the power source, 9 For the shunt pipe, 10 is the recovery water inlet pipe, 11 is the recovery water storage tank, 12 is the tap water inlet pipe, 13 is the float ball, 14 is the tap water inlet, 15 is the overflow pipe, 16 is the manual valve, 17 is the diversion Tube, 18 is the recovery water outlet pipe, 19 is the time delay valve, 20 is the rainwater collection tank, 21 is the rainwater inlet pipe, and 22 is the rainwater overflow pipe.
以下为本发明所述方法和装置的具体实施方式：The following are specific embodiments of the method and apparatus of the present invention:
有电磁阀6，漏斗状狭窄4与导电值检测仪5结装在一起，并通过电磁阀控制器7控制电磁阀6的启动与否。回收水进水管10、自来水进水管12、浮球13、自来水进水口14、溢流管15、回收水出水管18均连接或安装于回收水储水箱11，分流管9和溢流管15(上层)汇合成为回收水进水管10，溢流管15在与分流管9汇合前安装手动阀16，手动阀16之前接口接导流管17。回收水出水管18上(可)安装延时阀19。水平位置最高处为雨水收集箱20，雨水收集箱20通过雨水进水管21与顶层回收水储水箱11连接、通过雨水溢流管22与污水管2连接。(1) Referring to the drawings, layer interval 1 is used to distinguish upper and lower devices, each layer is a set of independent device units, and two or more device units are connected to form a complete device of the present invention. The sewage pipe 2 is used for receiving sewage, and the waste water drainage pipe 3 is designed with a funnel-shaped narrow 4
There is a solenoid valve 6, and the funnel-shaped narrow 4 is coupled with the conductivity detector 5, and the solenoid valve controller 7 controls the activation of the solenoid valve 6. The recovery water inlet pipe 10, the tap water inlet pipe 12, the float ball 13, the tap water inlet port 14, the overflow pipe 15, and the recovery water outlet pipe 18 are all connected or installed in the recovery water storage tank 11, the branch pipe 9 and the overflow pipe 15 ( The upper layer is combined into a recovery water inlet pipe 10, and the overflow pipe 15 is installed with a manual valve 16 before being merged with the branch pipe 9, and the manual valve 16 is connected to the flow guiding pipe 17 before. A time delay valve 19 is installed on the recovery water outlet pipe 18. The highest horizontal position is the rainwater collecting tank 20, and the rainwater collecting tank 20 is connected to the top layer recovered water storage tank 11 through the rainwater inlet pipe 21, and is connected to the sewage pipe 2 through the rainwater overflow pipe 22.
(2) When the conductivity value is not detected or the detected conductivity value is not within the set range, no wastewater is passed, or the wastewater is directly discharged into the sewage pipe; when the conductivity value is detected within the set range, the wastewater begins to aggregate and When it is higher than the position of the shunt pipe interface, it flows through the branch pipe to the direction of the recovery water storage tank. When the user disconnects the power source 8, the conductivity value detector 5 and the solenoid valve 6 do not work, and the waste water is discharged into the sewage pipe 2; if the user closes the manual valve 16, the overflow water of the upper recovery water storage tank 11 will be The draft tube 17 flows in the direction of the lower layer storage tank 11; if the amount of recovered water continues to be less than the amount of water discharged from the recovered water outlet pipe 18, the water level in the recovered water storage tank 11 may fall below one third, and the float 13 The water inlet 14 is opened, and the tap water is replenished by the tap water inlet pipe 12 into the recovery water storage tank 11. The user can connect the recycled water outlet 18 to the toilet tank, or add the delay valve 19 to directly connect the toilet water supply. The potassium permanganate is supplied through an opening (not shown) at the top of the recovery water storage tank 11, and the recovered water is sterilized, deodorized, and decolored.