WO2016094870A1 - Olefin polymerization catalyst system comprising mesoporous organosilica support - Google Patents

Olefin polymerization catalyst system comprising mesoporous organosilica support

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Publication number
WO2016094870A1
WO2016094870A1 PCT/US2015/065389 US2015065389W WO2016094870A1 WO 2016094870 A1 WO2016094870 A1 WO 2016094870A1 US 2015065389 W US2015065389 W US 2015065389W WO 2016094870 A1 WO2016094870 A1 WO 2016094870A1
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WO
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Patent type
Prior art keywords
group
atom
alkyl
catalyst
formula
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/US2015/065389
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Matthew W. Holtcamp
Matthew S. Bedoya
Charles J. HARLAN
Original Assignee
Exxonmobil Chemical Patents Inc.
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Abstract

A catalyst system comprising a combination of: 1) one or more catalyst compounds comprising at least one nitrogen linkage; 2) a support comprising an organosilica material, which is a mesoporous organosilica material; and 3) an optional activator. Useful catalysts include pyridyldiamido transition metal complexes, HN5 compounds, and bis(imino)pyridyl complexes. The organosilica material is a polymer of at least one monomer of Formula [Z1OZ2SiCH2]3(l), where Z1represents a hydrogen atom, a C1-C4alkyl group, or a bond to a silicon atom of another monomer and Z2represents a hydroxyl group, a C1-C4alkoxy group, a C1-C6 alkyl group, or an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another monomer. This invention further relates to processes to polymerize olefins comprising contacting one or more olefins with the above catalyst system.

Description

TITLE: OLEFIN POLYMERIZATION CATALYST SYSTEM COMPRISING MESOPOROUS ORGANOSILICA SUPPORT

INVENTOR(S): Matthew W. Holtcamp, Matthew S. Bedoya, and Charles J. Harlan CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application claims the benefit of and priority to U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/091,071 filed on December 12, 2014 and U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/091,077 filed on December 12, 2014. The entire disclosures of each of the above applications are fully incorporated herein by reference.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[0002] The present disclosure relates to novel olefin polymerization catalyst compositions comprising olefin polymerization catalyst compound, optional activator, and organosilica material support, and uses thereof.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0003] Supported olefin polymerization catalysts are of great use in industry. Hence, there is interest in finding new supported catalyst systems that increase the commercial usefulness of the catalyst and allow the production of polymers having improved properties.

[0004] Catalysts for olefin polymerization are often based on cyclopentadienyl based transition metal compounds as catalyst precursors, which are activated either with alumoxane or with an activator containing a non-coordinating anion.

[0005] Porous inorganic solids have found great utility as catalysts and separation media for industrial application. In particular, mesoporous materials, such as silicas and aluminas, having a periodic arrangement of mesopores are attractive materials for use in adsorption, separation and catalytic processes due to their uniform and tunable pores, high surface areas and large pore volumes. The pore structure of such mesoporous materials is large enough to adsorb large molecules and the pore wall structure can be as thin as about 1 nm. Further, such mesoporous materials are known to have large specific surface areas (e.g. , 1000 m2/g) and large pore volumes (e.g. , 1 cc/g). For these reasons, such mesoporous materials enable reactive catalysts, adsorbents composed of a functional organic compound, and other molecules to rapidly diffuse into the pores and therefore, can be advantageous over zeolites, which have smaller pore sizes. Consequently, such mesoporous materials can be useful not only for catalysis of high-speed catalytic reactions, but also as large capacity adsorbents. [0006] Mesoporous organosilica (MOS) supports are conventionally formed by the self- assembly of a silsequioxane precursor in the presence of a structure directing agent, porogen and/or framework element. The precursor is hydrolysable and condenses around the structure directing agent. For example, Landskron, K., et al. report the self-assembly of 1,3,5- tris[diethoxysila]cylcohexane [(EtO)2SiCH2]3 in the presence of a base and the structure directing agent, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. Landskron, K., et al., Science, 302:266- 269 (2003). The citation of references herein does not constitute an admission that those references are prior art or have any relevance to the patentability of this description disclosed herein. All references cited in the Background and Description sections of this specification are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety.

[0007] However, the use of a structure directing agent, such as a surfactant, in the preparation of an organosilica material, such as a MOS, requires a more complicated, energy intensive process that limits the ability to scale-up the process for industrial applications. Additionally, structure directing agents present during formation impact the morphology of the organosilica material product. Furthermore, introduction of additional agents or processing steps to remove structure directing agents from MOS can introduce additional reactive and undesirable compositions into the system, potentially leading to additional species that could cause catalyst poisoning.

[0008] There remains a need in the art for new and improved supported catalysts and catalyst systems for the polymerization of olefins to obtain new and improved polyolefins, polymerization processes, and the like. Such new and improved catalyst systems can desirably achieve specific polymer properties, such as high melting point, high molecular weights, increasing conversion or comonomer incorporation, or altering comonomer distribution without deteriorating the resulting polymer's properties. Thus, there is a need to provide organosilica materials having desirable pore size, pore volume and surface area, which can be prepared in the absence of a structure directing agent, a porogen and/or a framework element (aside from C, O, Si and hydrogen). Such materials will be described further herein. For more information, see also, U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/091,071 filed on December 12, 2014 and U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/091,077 filed on December 12, 2014, the disclosures of which were fully incorporated herein by reference above. Accordingly, new and improved supported catalyst systems for the polymerization of olefins are contemplated by the present disclosure, in order to achieve enhanced properties, such as molecular weight, and/or comonomer incorporation, typically along with improvements in catalyst function, such as activity, by way of non- limiting example.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0009] This invention relates to a catalyst system comprising the combination of: (1) one or more olefin polymerization catalyst compounds; (2) a support comprising an organosilica material; and (3) an optional activator. The organosilica material may be a polymer of at least one monomer of Formula [Z1OZ2SiCH2]3, wherein Z1 represents a hydrogen atom, a Ci- C4 alkyl group, or a bond to a silicon atom of another monomer and Z2 represents a hydroxyl group, a Ci-C4 alkoxy group, a Ci-C6 alkyl group or an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another monomer.

[0010] This invention also relates to a catalyst system comprising the combination of: (1) one or more olefin polymerization catalyst compounds having nitrogen linkages; (2) a support comprising an organosilica material; and (3) an optional activator.

[0011] In other aspects, the invention relates to a process to produce a polymer comprising: i) contacting, preferably in the gas phase or slurry phase, one or more olefin monomers, with a catalyst system as described herein. The process further comprises ii) obtaining a polymer.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0012] The present disclosure is directed to catalyst systems and their use in a polyolefin polymerization reaction process.

[0013] The catalyst system may comprise (i) a support comprising an organosilica material; (ii) one or more catalyst metals or compounds; and (iii) an activator, for example, comprising alumoxane or a non-coordinating anion. The organosilica material may be a polymer of at least one monomer of Formula [Z1OZ2SiCH2]3, where Z1 represents a hydrogen atom, a Ci-C4 alkyl group, or a bond to a silicon atom of another monomer and Z2 represents a hydroxyl group, a Ci-C4 alkoxy group, a Ci-C6 alkyl group or an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another monomer.

[0014] The one or more catalyst compounds may be one or more catalyst compounds having one or more nitrogen linkages as will be discussed further herein.

I. Definitions

[0015] For purposes of this invention and the claims hereto, the numbering scheme for the Periodic Table Groups is according to the IUPAC Periodic Table of Elements. [0016] The terms "substituent," "radical," "group," and "moiety" may be used interchangeably.

[0017] The term "Cn" means hydrocarbon(s) having n carbon atom(s) per molecule, wherein n is a positive integer.

[0018] The term "hydrocarbon" means a class of compounds containing hydrogen bound to carbon, and encompasses (i) saturated hydrocarbon compounds, (ii) unsaturated hydrocarbon compounds, and (iii) mixtures of hydrocarbon compounds (saturated and/or unsaturated), including mixtures of hydrocarbon compounds having different values of n.

[0019] The terms "hydrocarbyl radical," "hydrocarbyl," "hydrocarbyl group," "alkyl radical," and "alkyl" are used interchangeably throughout this document. Likewise, the terms "group," "radical," and "substituent," are also used interchangeably in this document. For purposes of this disclosure, "hydrocarbyl radical" is defined to be Ci-Cioo radicals, that may be linear, branched, or cyclic, and when cyclic, aromatic or non-aromatic. Examples of such radicals include, but are not limited to, methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, isobutyl, sec-butyl, tert-butyl, pentyl, iso-amyl, hexyl, octyl cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, cyclooctyl, and the like including their substituted analogues. Substituted hydrocarbyl radicals are radicals in which at least one hydrogen atom of the hydrocarbyl radical has been substituted with at least one heteroatom or heteroatom containing group, such as halogen (such as Br, CI, F or I) or at least one functional group such as NR*2, OR*, SeR*, TeR*, PR*2, AsR*2, SbR*2, SR*, BR*2, SiR*3, GeR*3, SnR*3, PbR*3, and the like, or where at least one heteroatom has been inserted within a hydrocarbyl ring.

[0020] The term "alkyl" refers to a saturated hydrocarbon radical having from 1 to 12 carbon atoms (i.e. , Ci-Ci2 alkyl), particularly from 1 to 8 carbon atoms (i.e., Ci-C8 alkyl), particularly from 1 to 6 carbon atoms (i.e. , Ci-C6 alkyl), and particularly from 1 to 4 carbon atoms (i.e. , C1-C4 alkyl). Examples of alkyl groups include, but are not limited to, methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl, hexyl, heptyl, octyl, decyl, and so forth. The alkyl group may be linear, branched or cyclic. "Alkyl" is intended to embrace all structural isomeric forms of an alkyl group. For example, as used herein, propyl encompasses both n-propyl and isopropyl; butyl encompasses n-butyl, sec-butyl, isobutyl and tert-butyl and so forth. As used herein, "d alkyl" refers to methyl (-CH3), "C2 alkyl" refers to ethyl (-CH2CH3), "C3 alkyl" refers to propyl (-CH2CH2CH3) and "C4 alkyl" refers to butyl (e.g. , -CH2CH2CH2CH3 - (CH3)CHCH2CH3, -CH2CH(CH3)2, etc.). Further, as used herein, "Me" refers to methyl, and "Et" refers to ethyl, "i-Pr" refers to isopropyl, "t-Bu" refers to tert-butyl, and "Np" refers to neopentyl.

[0021] The term "alkylene" refers to a divalent alkyl moiety containing 1 to 12 carbon atoms (i.e. , Ci-Ci2 alkylene) in length and meaning the alkylene moiety is attached to the rest of the molecule at both ends of the alkyl unit. For example, alkylenes include, but are not limited to, -CH2- -CH2CH2- -CH(CH3)CH2- -CH2CH2CH2- etc. The alkylene group may be linear or branched.

[0022] The term "nitrogen-containing alkyl" refers to an alkyl group as defined herein wherein one or more carbon atoms in the alkyl group is substituted with a nitrogen atom or a nitrogen-containing cyclic hydrocarbon having from 2 to 10 carbon atoms (i.e. , a nitrogen- containing cyclic C2-Cio hydrocarbon), particularly having from 2 to 5 carbon atoms (i.e. , a nitrogen-containing cyclic C2-Cs hydrocarbon), and particularly having from 2 to 5 carbon atoms (i.e. , a nitrogen-containing cyclic C2-Cs hydrocarbon). The nitrogen-containing cyclic hydrocarbon may have one or more nitrogen atoms. The nitrogen atom(s) may optionally be substituted with one or two Ci-C6 alkyl groups. The nitrogen-containing alkyl can have from 1 to 12 carbon atoms (i.e. , Ci-Ci2 nitrogen-containing alkyl), particularly from 1 to 10 carbon atoms (i.e. , Ci-Cio nitrogen-containing alkyl), particularly from 2 to 10 carbon atoms (i.e., C2-Cio nitrogen-containing alkyl), particularly from 3 to 10 carbon atoms (i.e. , C3-C10 nitrogen-containing alkyl), and particularly from 3 to 8 carbon atoms (i.e., C1-C10 nitrogen- contai ,

Figure imgf000006_0001

[0023] The term "nitrogen-containing alkylene" refers to an alkylene group as defined herein wherein one or more carbon atoms in the alkyl group is substituted with a nitrogen atom. The nitrogen atom(s) may optionally be substituted with one or two Ci-C6 alkyl groups. The nitrogen-containing alkylene can have from 1 to 12 carbon atoms (i.e. , Ci-Ci2 nitrogen-containing alkylene), particularly from 2 to 10 carbon atoms (i.e., C2-Cio nitrogen- containing alkylene), particularly from 3 to 10 carbon atoms (i.e., C3-C 10 nitrogen-containing alkylene), particularly from 4 to 10 carbon atoms (i.e. , C4-C 10 nitrogen-containing alkylene), and particularly from 3 to 8 carbon atoms (i.e. , C3-C8 nitrogen-containing alkyl). Examples of nitrogen-containing alkylenes include, but are not limited to,

Figure imgf000007_0001

[0024] Term "alkenyl" refers to an unsaturated hydrocarbon radical having from 2 to 12 carbon atoms (i.e. , C2-C12 alkenyl), particularly from 2 to 8 carbon atoms (i.e. , C2-C8 alkenyl), particularly from 2 to 6 carbon atoms (i.e. , C2-C6 alkenyl), and having one or more (e.g. , 2, 3, etc.) carbon-carbon double bonds. The alkenyl group may be linear, branched or cyclic. Examples of alkenyls include, but are not limited to ethenyl (vinyl), 2-propenyl, 3- propenyl, 1 ,4-pentadienyl, 1 ,4-butadienyl, 1-butenyl, 2-butenyl and 3-butenyl. "Alkenyl" is intended to embrace all structural isomeric forms of an alkenyl. For example, butenyl encompasses 1 ,4-butadienyl, 1-butenyl, 2-butenyl and 3-butenyl, etc.

[0025] The term "alkenylene" refers to a divalent alkenyl moiety containing 2 to about 12 carbon atoms (i.e. , C2-C12 alkenylene) in length and meaning that the alkylene moiety is attached to the rest of the molecule at both ends of the alkyl unit. For example, alkenylenes include, but are not limited to, -CH=CH-,-CH=CHCH2-, -CH=CH=CH- - CH2CH2CH=CHCH2-, -CH2CH2- -CH(CH3)CH2- -CH2CH2CH2-, etc. The alkenylene group may be linear or branched.

[0026] The term "alkynyl" refers to an unsaturated hydrocarbon radical having from 2 to 12 carbon atoms (i.e. , C2-C12 alkynyl), particularly from 2 to 8 carbon atoms (i.e. , C2-C8 alkynyl), particularly from 2 to 6 carbon atoms (i.e. , C2-C6 alkynyl), and having one or more (e.g. , 2, 3, etc.) carbon-carbon triple bonds. The alkynyl group may be linear, branched or cyclic. Examples of alkynyls include, but are not limited to ethynyl, 1-propynyl, 2-butynyl, and 1,3-butadiynyl. "Alkynyl" is intended to embrace all structural isomeric forms of an alkynyl. For example, butynyl encompasses 2-butynyl, and 1,3-butadiynyl and propynyl encompasses 1-propynyl and 2-propynyl (propargyl).

[0027] The term "alkynylene" refers to a divalent alkynyl moiety containing 2 to about 12 carbon atoms (i.e. , C2-C12 alkenylene) in length and meaning that the alkylene moiety is attached to the rest of the molecule at both ends of the alkyl unit. For example, alkenylenes include, but are not limited to, -C≡C- -C≡CCH2- -C≡CCH2C≡C- -CH2CH2C≡CCH2-, etc. The alkynylene group may be linear or branched.

[0028] The term "alkoxy" refers to — O-alkyl containing from 1 to about 10 carbon atoms. The alkoxy may be straight-chain or branched-chain. Non-limiting examples include methoxy, ethoxy, propoxy, butoxy, isobutoxy, tert-butoxy, pentoxy, and hexoxy. "Ci alkoxy" refers to methoxy, "C2 alkoxy" refers to ethoxy, "C3 alkoxy" refers to propoxy and "C4 alkoxy" refers to butoxy. Further, as used herein, "OMe" refers to methoxy and "OEt" refers to ethoxy.

[0029] The term "aromatic" refers to unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons having a delocalized conjugated π system and having from 5 to 20 carbon atoms (aromatic C5-C20 hydrocarbon), particularly from 5 to 12 carbon atoms (aromatic C5-C12 hydrocarbon), and particularly from 5 to 10 carbon atoms (aromatic C5-C12 hydrocarbon). Exemplary aromatics include, but are not limited to benzene, toluene, xylenes, mesitylene, ethylbenzenes, cumene, naphthalene, methylnaphthalene, dimethylnaphthalenes, ethylnaphthalenes, acenaphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene, tetraphene, naphthacene, benzanthracenes, fluoranthrene, pyrene, chrysene, triphenylene, and the like, and combinations thereof. Additionally, the aromatic may comprise one or more heteroatoms. Examples of heteroatoms include, but are not limited to, nitrogen, oxygen, and/or sulfur. Aromatics with one or more heteroatom include, but are not limited to furan, benzofuran, thiophene, benzothiophene, oxazole, thiazole and the like, and combinations thereof. The aromatic may comprise monocyclic, bicyclic, tricyclic, and/or polycyclic rings (in some embodiments, at least monocyclic rings, only monocyclic and bicyclic rings, or only monocyclic rings) and may be fused rings.

[0030] The term "aryl" refers to any monocyclic or polycyclic cyclized carbon radical containing 6 to 14 carbon ring atoms, wherein at least one ring is an aromatic hydrocarbon. Likewise, heteroaryl means an aryl group where a ring carbon atom (or two or three ring carbon atoms) has been replaced with a heteroatom, preferably N, O, or S. As used herein, the term "aromatic" also refers to pseudoaromatic heterocycles which are heterocyclic substituents that have similar properties and structures (nearly planar) to aromatic heterocyclic ligands, but are not by definition aromatic; likewise the term aromatic also refers to substituted aromatics. Examples of aryls include, but are not limited to phenyl, naphthyl, pyridinyl, indolyl, 2-methyl-phenyl, xylyl, and 4-bromo-xylyl.

[0031] The term "aralkyl" refers to an alkyl group substituted with an aryl group. The alkyl group may be a C1-C10 alkyl group, particularly a Ci-C6, particularly a C1-C4 alkyl group, and particularly a C1-C3 alkyl group. Examples of aralkyl groups include, but are not limited to phenymethyl, phenylethyl, and naphthylmethyl. The aralkyl may comprise one or more heteroatoms and be referred to as a "heteroaralkyl." Examples of heteroatoms include, but are not limited to, nitrogen (i.e. , nitrogen-containing heteroaralkyl), oxygen (i.e. , oxygen- containing heteroaralkyl), and/or sulfur (i.e. , sulfur-containing heteroaralkyl). Examples of heteroaralkyl groups include, but are not limited to, pyridinylethyl, indolylmethyl, furylethyl, and quinolinylpropyl.

[0032] The term "heterocyclo" refers to fully saturated, partially saturated or unsaturated or polycyclic cyclized carbon radical containing from 4 to 20 carbon ring atoms and containing one or more heteroatoms atoms. Examples of heteroatoms include, but are not limited to, nitrogen (i.e. , nitrogen-containing heterocyclo), oxygen (i.e. , oxygen-containing heterocyclo), and/or sulfur (i.e. , sulfur-containing heterocyclo). Examples of heterocyclo groups include, but are not limited to, thienyl, furyl, pyrrolyl, piperazinyl, pyridyl, benzoxazolyl, quinolinyl, imidazolyl, pyrrolidinyl, and piperidinyl.

[0033] The term "heterocycloalkyl" refers to an alkyl group substituted with heterocyclo group. The alkyl group may be a Ci-Cio alkyl group, particularly a Ci-C6, particularly a Ci- C4 alkyl group, and particularly a C1-C3 alkyl group. Examples of heterocycloalkyl groups include, but are not limited to thienylmethyl, furylethyl, pyrrolylmethyl, piperazinylethyl, pyridylmethyl, benzoxazolylethyl, quinolinylpropyl, and imidazolylpropyl.

[0034] The term "ring atom" means an atom that is part of a cyclic ring structure. By this definition, a benzyl group has six ring atoms and tetrahydrofuran has 5 ring atoms.

[0035] Unless otherwise indicated, the term "substituted" means that a hydrogen group has been replaced with a heteroatom, or a heteroatom containing group. For example, a "substituted hydrocarbyl" is a radical made of carbon and hydrogen where at least one hydrogen is replaced by a heteroatom or heteroatom containing group.

[0036] A heterocyclic ring is a ring having a heteroatom in the ring structure as opposed to a heteroatom substituted ring where a hydrogen on a ring atom is replaced with a heteroatom. For example, tetrahydrofuran is a heterocyclic ring and 4-N,N-dimethylamino- phenyl is a heteroatom substituted ring.

[0037] Unless otherwise indicated, where isomers of a named alkyl, alkenyl, alkoxy, or aryl group exist (e.g., n-butyl, iso-butyl, sec-butyl, and tert-butyl) reference to one member of the group (e.g., n-butyl) shall expressly disclose the remaining isomers (e.g., iso-butyl, sec- butyl, and tert-butyl) in the family. Likewise, reference to an alkyl, alkenyl, alkoxide, or aryl group without specifying a particular isomer (e.g., butyl) expressly discloses all isomers (e.g., n-butyl, iso-butyl, sec-butyl, and tert-butyl).

[0038] The term "hydroxyl" refers to an -OH group. [0039] The term "oxygenate" refers to a saturated, unsaturated, or polycyclic cyclized hydrocarbon radical containing from 1 to 40 carbon atoms and further containing one or more oxygen heteroatoms.

[0040] The term "aluminum alkyl adducts" refers to the reaction product of aluminum alkyls and/or alumoxanes with quenching agents, such as water and/or methanol.

[0041] The term "mesoporous" refers to solid materials having pores that have a diameter within the range of from about 2 nm to about 50 nm.

[0042] The term "organosilica" refers to an organosiloxane compound that comprises one or more organic groups bound to two or more Si atoms.

[0043] The term "silanol" refers to a Si-OH group and the term "silanol content" refers to the percent of the Si-OH groups in a compound and can be calculated by standard methods, such as NMR.

[0044] As used herein, the terms "structure directing agent," "SDA," and/or "porogen" refer to one or more compounds added to the synthesis media to aid in and/or guide the polymerization and/or polycondensing and/or organization of the building blocks that form the organosilica material framework. Further, a "porogen" is understood to be a compound capable of forming voids or pores in the resultant organosilica material framework. As used herein, the term "structure directing agent" encompasses and is synonymous and interchangeable with the terms "templating agent" and "template."

[0045] An "olefin," alternatively referred to as "alkene," is a linear, branched, or cyclic compound of carbon and hydrogen having at least one double bond. For purposes of this specification and the claims appended thereto, when a polymer or copolymer is referred to as comprising an olefin, the olefin present in such polymer or copolymer is the polymerized form of the olefin. For example, when a copolymer is said to have an "ethylene" content of 35 wt% to 55 wt%, it is understood that the mer unit in the copolymer is derived from ethylene in the polymerization reaction and said derived units are present at 35 wt% to 55 wt%, based upon the weight of the copolymer.

[0046] A "polymer" has two or more of the same or different mer units. A "homopolymer" is a polymer having mer units that are the same. A "copolymer" is a polymer having two or more mer units that are distinct or different from each other. A "terpolymer" is a polymer having three mer units that are distinct or different from each other. "Distinct" or "different" as used to refer to mer units indicates that the mer units differ from each other by at least one atom or are different isomerically. Accordingly, the definition of copolymer, as used herein, includes terpolymers and the like. An "ethylene polymer" or "ethylene copolymer" is a polymer or copolymer comprising at least 50 mole% ethylene derived units, a "propylene polymer" or "propylene copolymer" is a polymer or copolymer comprising at least 50 mole% propylene derived units, and so on.

[0047] As used herein, Mn is number average molecular weight, Mw is weight average molecular weight, and Mz is z average molecular weight, wt% is weight percent, and mol% is mole percent. Molecular weight distribution (MWD), also referred to as polydispersity (PDI), is defined to be Mw divided by Mn. Unless otherwise noted, all molecular weight units (e.g., Mw, Mn, Mz) are g/mol. The following abbreviations may be used herein: Me is methyl, Et is ethyl, Pr is propyl, cPr is cyclopropyl, nPr is n-propyl, iPr is isopropyl, Bu is butyl, nBu is normal butyl, iBu is isobutyl, sBu is sec -butyl, tBu is tert-butyl, Oct is octyl, Ph is phenyl, Bn is benzyl, MAO is methylalumoxane, dme is 1 ,2-dimethoxyethane, TMS is trimethylsilyl, TIBAL is triisobutylaluminum, TNOAL is tri(n-octyl)aluminum, THF (also referred to as thf) is tetrahydrofuran, RT is room temperature (and is 25°C unless otherwise indicated), tol is toluene, EtOAc is ethyl acetate, Np is neopentyl, and Cy is cyclohexyl.

[0048] Ethylene is considered an a-olefin for purposes of certain aspects of the present disclosure. An oligomer is a polymer having a low molecular weight, such an Mn of less than 25,000 g/mol, or less than 2,500 g/mol, or a low number of mer units, such as 75 mer units or less or 50 mer units or less.

[0049] The term "continuous" means a system that operates without interruption or cessation. For example a continuous process to produce a polymer would be one where the reactants are continually introduced into one or more reactors and polymer product is continually withdrawn.

[0050] A "solution polymerization" means a polymerization process in which the polymer is dissolved in a liquid polymerization medium, such as an inert solvent or monomer(s) or their blends. A solution polymerization is typically homogeneous. A homogeneous polymerization is one where the polymer product is dissolved in the polymerization medium. Such systems are preferably not turbid as described in J. Vladimir Oliveira, C. Dariva and J. C. Pinto, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 29, 2000, 4627.

[0051] A "bulk polymerization" means a polymerization process in which the monomers and/or comonomers being polymerized are used as a solvent or diluent using little or no inert solvent as a solvent or diluent. A small fraction of inert solvent might be used as a carrier for catalyst and scavenger. A bulk polymerization system contains less than 25 wt% of inert solvent or diluent, preferably less than 10 wt%, preferably less than 1 wt%, preferably 0 wt%.

[0052] A "catalyst system" is the combination of at least one catalyst compound, an organosilica support material, an optional activator, and an optional co-activator. For the purposes of this invention and the claims thereto, when catalyst systems are described as comprising neutral stable forms of the components, it is well understood by one of ordinary skill in the art, that the ionic form of the component is the form that reacts with the monomers to produce polymers. For example, when "catalyst system" is used to describe a catalyst/activator/support combination before activation, it means the unactivated catalyst complex (precatalyst) together with an activator, support and, optionally, a co-activator. When it is used to describe such after activation, it means the support, the activated complex, and the activator or other charge-balancing moiety. The transition metal compound may be neutral as in a precatalyst, or a charged species with a counter ion as in an activated catalyst system.

[0053] Coordination polymerization is an addition polymerization in which successive monomers are added to the organometallic active center.

[0054] The terms "cocatalyst" and "activator" are used herein interchangeably and are defined to be any compound which can activate any one of the catalyst compounds herein by converting the neutral catalyst compound to a catalytically active catalyst compound cation.

II. Organosilica Materials

[0055] In certain aspects, the invention relates to organosilica materials used as catalyst support materials. The organosilica material supports may be a polymer formed of at least one monomer, as will be described further below. In certain variations, the organosilica material may be a polymer formed of multiple distinct monomers.

A. Monomers of Formula (I)

[0056] In a first embodiment, the organosilica material supports may be a polymer of at least one monomer of Formula [Z1OZ2SiCH2]3 (I), where Z1 represents a hydrogen atom, a C1-C4 alkyl group, or a bond to a silicon atom of another monomer and Z2 represents a hydroxyl group, a C1-C4 alkoxy group, a Ci-C6 alkyl group, or an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another monomer.

[0057] As used herein, and unless otherwise specified, "a bond to a silicon atom of another monomer" means the bond can advantageously displace a moiety (particularly an oxygen-containing moiety such as a hydroxyl, an alkoxy or the like), if present, on a silicon atom of another monomer so there may be a bond directly to the silicon atom of the another monomer thereby connecting the two monomers, e.g. , via a Si-O-Si linkage. As used herein, and unless otherwise specified, "an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another monomer" means that the oxygen atom can advantageously displace a moiety (particularly an oxygen-containing moiety such as a hydroxyl), if present, on a silicon atom of the another monomer so the oxygen atom may be bonded directly to the silicon atom of the another monomer thereby connecting the two monomers, e.g. , via a Si-O-Si linkage. For clarity, in the aforementioned bonding scenarios, the "another monomer" can be a monomer of the same type or a monomer of a different type.

[0058] In various embodiments, each Z1 can be a hydrogen atom. Each Z1 can be a C1-C4 alkyl group, a C1-C3 alkyl group, a Ci-C2 alkyl group, or methyl. Each Z1 can be bonded to a silicon atom of another monomer. Each Z1 can be a hydrogen atom, a Ci-C2 alkyl group, or a bond to a silicon atom of another monomer. Each Z2 can be a hydroxyl group. Each Z2 can be a Ci-C6 alkyl group, a C1-C5 alkyl group, a C1-C4 alkyl group, a C1-C3 alkyl group, a Ci-C2 alkyl group, or methyl. Each Z2 can be a C1-C4 alkoxy group, a C1-C3 alkoxy group, a Ci-C2 alkoxy group, or methoxy. Each Z2 can be an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another monomer. Each Z2 can be a hydroxyl group, a C1-C4 alkoxy group, or an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another monomer. Each Z2 can be a hydroxyl group, a Ci- C2 alkyl group (methyl or ethyl), a Ci-C2 alkoxy group (methoxy or ethoxy), or an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another monomer. Each Z1 can be a hydrogen atom, a Ci- C2 alkyl group, or a bond to a silicon atom of another monomer and Z2 can be a hydroxyl group, a C1-C2 alkyl group, a Ci-C2 alkoxy group, or an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another monomer. In another embodiment, each Z1 can be a hydrogen atom, ethyl or a bond to a silicon atom of another monomer and each Z2 can be a hydroxyl group, ethoxy, or an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another monomer. In another embodiment, each Z1 can be a hydrogen atom, ethyl or a bond to a silicon atom of another monomer and each Z2 can be methyl.

[0059] In certain variations, the organosilica material may be a polymer of at least one monomer of Formula (I) and also further comprises at least one additional monomer of Formula (I). For example, the polymer may comprise a first monomer of Formula (I), as well as a second distinct monomer of Formula (I).

[0060] In a particular embodiment, the polymer may comprise a first monomer of Formula (I), wherein each Z1 can be a hydrogen atom, ethyl or a bond to a silicon atom of another monomer and each Z2 can be a hydroxyl group, ethoxy, or an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another monomer; and second distinct monomer of Formula (I), wherein each Z1 can be a hydrogen atom, ethyl or a bond to a silicon atom of another monomer and each Z2 can be methyl.

B. Monomers of Formula (II)

[0061] In certain other aspects, the organosilica material support may be a polymer formed of multiple distinct monomers, including a monomer of Formula I in combination with one or more additional monomers.

[0062] In a second embodiment, the organosilica material support may be a polymer of at least one monomer of Formula (I) and a monomer of Formula Z3OZ4Z5Z6Si (II), where Z3 independently represents a hydrogen atom or a C1-C4 alkyl group, or a bond to a silicon atom of another monomer; and each of Z4, Z5 and Z6 are independently selected from the group consisting of a hydroxyl group, a C1-C4 alkyl group (preferably methyl, ethyl, propyl, or butyl), a C1-C4 alkoxy group (preferably methoxy, ethoxy, proposy or butoxy), a nitrogen- containing C1-C10 alkyl group, a nitrogen-containing heteroaralkyl group, and a nitrogen- containing optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl group, and an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another monomer.

[0063] In various aspects, each Z3 can be a C1-C3 alkyl group, a Ci-C2 alkyl group (preferably ethyl, methyl, propyl, butyl) or a bond to a silicon atom of another monomer, and/or each Z4, Z5 and Z6 each independently can be a hydroxyl group. Alternately, each Z3 can be a hydrogen atom, a Ci-C2 alkyl group, or a bond to a silicon atom of another monomer and Z4, Z5 and Z6 each independently can be a hydroxyl group or a Ci-C2 alkyl group.

[0064] Each Z4, Z5 and Z6 independently can be a C1-C4 alkyl group, a C1-C3 alkyl group, a C1-C2 alkyl group, or methyl, preferably a hydroxyl group, or a Ci-C2 alkyl group, alternately each Z4, Z5 and Z6 independently can be a C1-C4 alkoxy group, a C1-C3 alkoxy group, a C1-C2 alkoxy group, or methoxy, preferably each Z4, Z5 and Z6 is independently can be selected from the group consisting of a hydroxyl group, a Ci-C2 alkyl group and a Ci-C2 alkoxy group.

[0065] Alternately, each Z3 can be a hydrogen atom, a Ci-C2 alkyl group, or a bond to a silicon atom of another monomer; and Z4, Z5 and Z6 each independently can be selected from the group consisting of a hydroxyl group, a Ci-C2 alkyl group and a Ci-C2 alkoxy group.

[0066] Each Z4, Z5 and Z6 independently can be a nitrogen-containing C1-C10 alkyl group, a nitrogen-containing C1-C9 alkyl group, a nitrogen-containing Ci-C8 alkyl group, a nitrogen- containing Ci-C7 alkyl group, a nitrogen-containing Ci-C6 alkyl group, a nitrogen-containing C1-C5 alkyl group, a nitrogen-containing C1-C4 alkyl group, a nitrogen-containing C1-C3 alkyl group, a nitrogen-containing Ci-C2 alkyl group, or a methylamine. In particular, Z4, Z5 and Z6 independently can be a nitrogen-containing C2-C10 alkyl group, a nitrogen-containing C3- Cio alkyl group, a nitrogen-containing C3-C9 alkyl group, or a nitrogen-containing C3-C8 alkyl group. The aforementioned nitrogen-containing alkyl groups may have one or more nitrogen atoms (e.g. , 2, 3, etc.). Examples of nitrogen-containing C1-C10 alkyl groups include, but are not limited to,

Figure imgf000015_0001

[0067] Each Z4, Z5 and Z6 independently can be selected from the group consisting of a hydroxyl group, a Ci-C2 alkyl group, a Ci-C2 alkoxy group and a nitrogen-containing C3-C10 alkyl group, a nitrogen-containing heteroaralkyl group. The nitrogen-containing heteroaralkyl group can be a nitrogen-containing C4-C12 heteroaralkyl group, a nitrogen- containing C4-C10 heteroaralkyl group, or a nitrogen-containing C4-Cs heteroaralkyl group. Examples of nitrogen-containing heteroaralkyl groups include but are not limited to pyridinylethyl, pyridinylpropyl, pyridinylmethyl, indolylmethyl, pyrazinylethyl, and pyrazinylpropyl. The aforementioned nitrogen-containing heteroaralkyl groups may have one or more nitrogen atoms (e.g. , 2, 3, etc.), preferably Z4, Z5 and Z6 each independently can be selected from the group consisting of a hydroxyl group, a Ci-C2 alkyl group, a Ci-C2 alkoxy group, nitrogen-containing C3-C10 alkyl group and a nitrogen-containing heteroaralkyl group.

[0068] Each Z4, Z5 and Z6 each independently can be a nitrogen-containing heterocycloalkyl group, wherein the heterocycloalkyl group may be optionally substituted with a Ci-C6 alkyl group, particularly a C1-C4 alkyl group. The nitrogen-containing heterocycloalkyl group can be a nitrogen-containing C4-Ci2 heterocycloalkyl group, a nitrogen-containing C4-Cio heterocycloalkyl group, or a nitrogen-containing C4-Cs heterocycloalkyl group. Examples of nitrogen-containing heterocycloalkyl groups include but are not limited to piperazinylethyl, piperazinylpropyl, piperidinylethyl, piperidinylpropyl. The aforementioned nitrogen-containing heterocycloalkyl groups may have one or more nitrogen atoms (e.g. , 2, 3, etc.).

[0069] In a particular embodiment, each Z3 can be a hydrogen atom, ethyl or a bond to a silicon atom of another monomer; and Z4, Z5 and Z6 each independently can be selected from the group consisting of a hydroxyl group, ethoxy, and an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another monomer.

[0070] In another particular embodiment, each Z3 can be a hydrogen atom, ethyl or a bond to a silicon atom of another comonomer; Z4 and Z5 each independently can be selected from the group consisting of a hydroxyl group, ethoxy, and an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another monomer; and Z6 can be methyl.

[0071] In another particular embodiment, each Z3 can be a hydrogen atom, methyl or a bond to a silicon atom of another comonomer; Z4 and Z5 each independently can be selected from the group consisting of a hydroxyl group, gen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another monomer; and Z can be

Figure imgf000016_0001

[0072] In another particular embodiment, each Z3 can be a hydrogen atom, ethyl or a bond to a silicon atom of another comonomer; Z4 and Z5 each independently can be selected from the group consisting of a hydroxyl onded to a silicon atom of another monomer; and Z c

Figure imgf000016_0002

[0073] In another particular embodiment, each Z3 can be a hydrogen atom, ethyl or a bond to a silicon atom of another comonomer; Z4 and Z5 each independently can be selected from the group consisting of a hydroxy atom bonded to a

silicon atom of another monomer; and Z

Figure imgf000016_0003

[0074] In another particular embodiment, each Z3 can be a hydrogen atom, ethyl or a bond to a silicon atom of another comonomer; Z4 and Z5 each independently can be selected from the group consisting of a hydroxy xygen atom bonded to a

silicon atom of another monomer; and Z

Figure imgf000016_0004

[0075] In another particular embodiment, each Z can be a hydrogen atom, ethyl or a bond to a silicon atom of another comonomer; Z4 and Z5 each independently can be selected from the group consisting of a hydroxyl en atom bonded to a

silicon atom of another monomer; and Z c

Figure imgf000016_0005
[0076] In another particular embodiment, each Z3 can be a hydrogen atom, ethyl or a bond to a silicon atom of another comonomer; Z4 and Z5 each independently can be selected from the group consisting of a hydroxyl gen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another monomer; and Z6 c
Figure imgf000017_0001

C. Monomers of Formula (III)

[0077] In a third embodiment, the organosilica material support may be a polymer of at least one monomer of Formula (I) and a monomer having at least one unit of Formula: Z7Z8Z9Si-R1-SiZ7Z8Z9 (III), where each Z7 independently represents a hydroxyl group, a C - C4 alkoxy group, or an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another comonomer; each of Z8 and Z9 independently represent a hydroxyl group, a Ci-C4 alkoxy group, a Ci-C4 alkyl group, or an oxygen bonded to a silicon atom of another monomer; and R1 is selected from the group consisting of a Ci-C8 alkylene group, a C2-C8 alkenylene group, a C2-C8 alkynylene group, a nitrogen-containing C2-C10 alkylene group, an optionally substituted C6-C20 aralkyl and an optionally substituted C4-C2o heterocycloalkyl group.

[0078] In various aspects, each Z7 can be a hydroxyl group or a Ci-C4 alkoxy group, a Ci- C3 alkoxy group, a Ci-C2 alkoxy group, or methoxy, preferably a hydroxyl group, or a Ci-C2 alkoxy group or oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another comonomer. Each Z8 and Z9 can independently be a hydroxyl group a Ci-C4 alkoxy group, a C1-C3 alkoxy group, a Ci- C2 alkoxy group, or methoxy, a Ci-C4 alkyl group, a C1-C3 alkyl group, a Ci-C2 alkyl group, or methyl. Alternately, each Z8 and Z9 independently can be an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another comonomer. Each Z7 can be a hydroxyl group, a Ci-C2 alkoxy group, or an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another comonomer; and Z8 and Z9 each independently can be a hydroxyl group, a Ci-C2 alkoxy group, a Ci-C2 alkyl group, or an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another comonomer. When present with Formula (I), each Z7 can be a hydroxyl group, ethoxy, methoxy or an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another comonomer; and each Z8 and Z9 independently can be a hydroxyl group, ethoxy, methyl, or an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another comonomer.

[0079] Each R1 can be a Ci-C8 alkylene group, a C1-G7 alkylene group, a Ci-C6 alkylene group, a C1-C5 alkylene group, a Ci-C4 alkylene group, a C1-C3 alkylene group, a Ci-C2 alkylene group, or -CH2-.

[0080] Each R1 can be a nitrogen-containing C2-C10 alkylene group, a nitrogen- containing C3-C10 alkylene group, a nitrogen-containing C4-Cio alkylene group, a nitrogen- containing C4-C9 alkylene group, a nitrogen-containing C4-Cs alkylene group, or nitrogen containing C3-C8 alkylene group. The aforementioned nitrogen-containing alkylene groups may have one or more nitrogen atoms (e.g. , 2, 3, etc.). Examples of nitrogen-containing ut are not limited to,

Figure imgf000018_0001

[0081] Each Z7 can be a hydroxyl group, a Ci-C2 alkoxy group, or an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another comonomer; each Z8 and Z9 independently can be a hydroxyl group, a Ci-C2 alkoxy group, a Ci-C2 alkyl group, or an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another comonomer; and R1 can be selected from the group consisting of a C1-C4 alkylene group, a C2-C4 alkenylene group, a C2-C4 alkynylene group and a nitrogen- containing C4-C10 alkylene group.

[0082] Each R1 can be an optionally substituted C6-C20 aralkyl, an optionally substituted C6-Ci4 aralkyl, or an optionally substituted C6-Cio aralkyl. Examples of C6-C20 aralkyls include, but are not limited to, phenymethyl, phenylethyl, and naphthylmethyl. The aralkyl may be optionally substituted with a Ci-C6 alkyl group, particularly a C1-C4 alkyl group.

[0083] Each R1 can be an optionally substituted C4-C20 heterocycloalkyl group, an optionally substituted C4-C16 heterocycloalkyl group, an optionally substituted C4-C12 heterocycloalkyl group, or an optionally substituted C4-C10 heterocycloalkyl group. Examples of C4-C20 heterocycloalkyl groups include, but are not limited to, thienylmethyl, furylethyl, pyrrolylmethyl, piperazinylethyl, pyridylmethyl, benzoxazolylethyl, quinolinylpropyl, and imidazolylpropyl. The heterocycloalkyl may be optionally substituted with a Ci-C6 alkyl group, particularly a C1-C4 alkyl group.

[0084] Each Z7 can be a hydroxyl group, ethoxy, methoxy or an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another comonomer; each Z8 and Z9 independently can be a hydroxyl group, ethoxy, methoxy, methyl, or an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another comonomer; and R1 can be selected from the group consisting of -CH2-, -CH2CH2-, -

Figure imgf000018_0002

[0085] Each Z7 can be a hydroxyl group, or an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another comonomer; each Z8 and Z9 independently can be a hydroxyl group, methyl, or an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another comonomer; and R can be selected from the group consisting of -CH2- -CH2CH2- -HC=CH-

Figure imgf000019_0001

[0086] In a particular embodiment, each Z7 can be a hydroxyl group, ethoxy or an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another comonomer; each Z8 can be a hydroxyl group, ethoxy, and an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another monomer; each Z9 can be methyl; and R1 can be -CH2CH2-.

[0087] In another particular embodiment, each Z7 can be a hydroxyl group, ethoxy or an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another comonomer; each Z8 and Z9 independently can be selected from the group consisting of a hydroxyl group, ethoxy, and an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another monomer; and R1 can be -CH2- or -HC=CH-.

[0088] In another particular embodiment, each Z7 can be a hydroxyl group, ethoxy or an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another comonomer; each Z8 can be a hydroxyl group, ethoxy, and an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another monomer; each Z9 can be methyl; and R can be

Figure imgf000019_0002

D. Monomers of Formula (IV)

[0089] In a fourth embodiment, the organosilica material support may be a polymer of at least one monomer of Formula (I) and a monomer having at least one trivalent metal oxide monomer of Formula M1(OZ10)3 (IV), where M1 represents a Group 13 metal (preferably B, Al, Ga, In, or Tl, preferably B, Al or Ga, preferably Al) and Z10 represents a hydrogen atom, a Ci-C6 alkyl (preferably methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl or hexyl) or a bond to a silicon atom of another monomer.

[0090] Each M1 can be B, Al, Ga, In Tl, or Uut. In particular, M1 can be Al or B. Preferably M1 can be Al or B andZ10 can be a hydrogen atom, methyl, ethyl, propyl or butyl.

[0091] Each Z10 can be a Ci-C6 alkyl group, a C1-C5 alkyl group, a C1-C4 alkyl group, a C1-C3 alkyl group, a Ci-C2 alkyl group, or methyl. In particular, Z10 can be methyl, ethyl, propyl or butyl.

[0092] When present with Formula (I), each Z1 and Z2 each independently can be can be a hydrogen atom, a Ci-C2 alkyl group (methyl or ethyl), or a bond to a silicon atom of another monomer; each M1 can be Al or B; and each Z10 can be a hydrogen atom, methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl or a bond to a silicon atom of another monomer.

E. Monomers of Formula (V)

[0093] In a fifth embodiment, the organosilica material support may be a polymer of at least one monomer of Formula (I) and a monomer having at least one trivalent metal oxide monomer of Formula (ZnO)2M2-0-Si(OZ12)3 (V), wherein M2 represents a Group 13 metal (preferably B, Al, Ga, In, or Tl, preferably B, Al or Ga, preferably Al) and Z11 and Z12 each independently represent a hydrogen atom, a Ci-C6 alkyl group (such as methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl or hexyl) or a bond to a silicon atom of another monomer.

[0094] Additionally or alternatively, each M2 can be B, Al, Ga, In Tl, or Uut. In particular, each M2 can be Al or B. Preferably each M2 can be Al or B and each Z11 and Z12 are a hydrogen atom.

[0095] Additionally or alternatively, each Z11 and/or Z12can be a Ci-C6 alkyl group, a Ci- C5 alkyl group, a C1-C4 alkyl group, a C1-C3 alkyl group, a C1-C2 alkyl group, or methyl. In particular, each Z11 and/or Z12 can be methyl, ethyl, propyl or butyl.

[0096] In a particular embodiment, each M2 can be Al; and Z11 and/or Z12 each independently can be a hydrogen atom, methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, or a bond to a silicon atom of another monomer.

F. Monomers of Formula (VI)

[0097] In a sixth embodiment, the organosilica material support may be a polymer of at least one cyclic polyurea monomer. The organosilica material may be a polymer formed of multiple distinct monomers, including a monomer of Formula I in combination with one or more cyclic polyurea monomers. A suitable c clic polyurea monomer of Formula

Figure imgf000020_0001

where R2 is a Z13OZ14Z15SiZ16 group, wherein each Z13 represents a hydrogen atom, a C1-C4 alkyl group, or a bond to a silicon atom of another monomer unit; each Z14 and Z15 independently represents a hydroxyl group, a C1-C4 alkyl group, a C1-C4 alkoxy group or an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another monomer unit; and each Z represents a Q- C8 alkylene group bonded to a nitrogen atom of the cyclic polyurea.

[0098] In certain other aspects, the organosilica material support may be a polymer formed of monomers of Formula VI, with or without any other monomers, including those of Formula I.

[0099] In various embodiments, each Z13 can be methyl, ethyl, propyl, or butyl, preferably methyl or ethyl. Alternately, each Z14 and Z15 independently can be a hydroxyl group. Each Z14 and Z15 independently can be methyl, ethyl, propyl, or butyl, preferably methyl or ethyl. Each Z14 and Z15 independently can be a C1-C4 alkoxy group, a C1-C3 alkoxy group, a C1-C2 alkoxy group or methoxy.

[0100] Each Z16 can be a C1-C7 alkylene group bonded to a nitrogen atom of the cyclic polyurea, a C1-G7 alkylene group bonded to a nitrogen atom of the cyclic polyurea, a Ci-C6 alkylene group bonded to a nitrogen atom of the cyclic polyurea, a C1-C4 alkylene group bonded to a nitrogen atom of the cyclic polyurea, a C1-C3 alkylene group bonded to a nitrogen atom of the cyclic polyurea, a Ci-C2 alkylene group bonded to a nitrogen atom of the cyclic polyurea, or -CH2- bonded to a nitrogen atom of the cyclic polyurea.

[0101] Each Z13 can be a hydrogen atom, a Ci-C2 alkyl group or a bond to a silicon atom of another monomer; each Z14 and Z15 independently can be a hydroxyl group, a Ci-C2 alkyl group, a C1-C2 alkoxy group, or an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another monomer unit; and Z16 can be a C1-C4 alkylene group bonded to a nitrogen atom of the cyclic polyurea. Each Z13 can be a hydrogen atom, methyl, or a bond to a silicon atom of another monomer; each Z14 and Z15 independently can be a hydroxyl group, methoxy or an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another monomer unit; and each Z16 can be -CH2CH2CH2- bonded to a nitrogen atom of the cyclic polyurea.

G. Organosilica Material Characterization

[0102] In certain aspects, the invention relates to organosilica material supports that may be a polymer formed from a reaction of any of the monomers of Formulas (I)-(VI), although in certain alternative variations, the organosilica materials are not limited to only these monomers. Furthermore, in certain embodiments, the organosilica material support may be a polymer formed of multiple distinct monomers, including any combinations of monomers of Formula (I) with one or more monomers of Formulas (II)-(VI). As noted above, in certain alternative embodiments, the organosilica material support may be a polymer formed of one or more monomers of Formula (VI), with or without other monomers of Formulas (I)-(V). [0103] The inventive technology thus uses the monomer building blocks described above to form an organosilane having a high surface area and high porosity without use of any structure directing agent (SDA), porogen. However, in certain aspects, the pores in the organosilane materials of the invention are not arranged in an ordered structure as they would be if formed with a structure directing agent (SDA). Conventional periodic mesoporous organosilicas (PMO) materials have highly ordered pore structures that occur by use of SDAs (typically surfactants) during reaction formations. In contrast, in certain aspects, the organosilica material support of the present disclosure may be formed without use of any SDAs or porogens as a template, while still exhibiting relatively ordered pore structures and desirably high surface area and porosity levels.

[0104] In various aspects, the organosilica materials described herein can be characterized as described in the following sections. Further description and characterization of suitable organosilica materials for use as catalyst supports can be found in "CO-FILED CASES" which are defined to be: 1) USSN 14/966,001; filed December 11, 2015; 2) USSN 14/965,992; filed December 11, 2015; 3) USSN 14/965,984; filed December 11, 2015; 4) USSN 14/966,383; filed December 11, 2015; 5) USSN 14/966,015; filed December 11, 2015; 6) USSN 14/966,284; filed December 11, 2015, which are incorporated herein by reference in their entireties.

i. X-Rav Diffraction Peaks

[0105] The organosilica material supports described herein can exhibit powder X-ray diffraction patterns with one broad peak between about 1 and about 4 degrees 2Θ, particularly one peak between about 1 and about 3 degrees 2Θ, or particularly one peak between about 1 and about 2 degrees 2Θ. The organosilica materials can exhibit substantially no peaks in the range of about 0.5 to about 10 degrees 2Θ, or about 0.5 to about 70 degrees 2Θ, or about 2 to about 10 degrees 2Θ, or about 2 to about 70 degrees 2Θ, or about 3 to about 10 degrees 2Θ, or about 3 to about 70 degrees 2Θ.

ii. Silanol Content

[0106] The organosilica material supports can have a silanol content that varies within wide limits, depending on the composition of the synthesis solution. The silanol content can conveniently be determined by solid state silicon NMR, more specifically by using solid state 29Si or Η NMR.

[0107] In various aspects, the organosilica material supports can have a silanol content of greater than about 5%. In certain embodiments, the silanol content can be greater than about 30% or greater than about 41%. The organosilica material supports may have a silanol content of about 5% to about 80%, or about 5% to about 50%, or about 5% to about 25%, or about 5% to about 10%, or about 10% to about 50%, or about 10% to about 20%, or about 20% to about 30%, or about 30% to about 50%.

iii. Pore Size

[0108] The organosilica material supports described herein are advantageously in a mesoporous form. As indicated previously, the term mesoporous refers to solid materials having pores with a diameter within the range of from greater than or equal to about 2 nm to less than or equal to about 50 nm. The average pore diameter of the organosilica material can be determined, for example, using nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm techniques within the expertise of one of skill in the art, such as the BET (Brunauer Emmet Teller) method. Pore size can be measured by the Brunauer-Emmett- Teller (BET) method using adsorption- desorption of nitrogen (temperature of liquid nitrogen, 77 K) with a Micromeritics Tristar II 3020 instrument after degassing of the powders for 4 hrs. at 350°C. Typically, the samples are pre-treated with 120°C/vacuum/4hours before the BET analysis is conducted. More information regarding the method can be found, for example, in S. Lowell et al., "Characterization of Porous Solids and Powders: Surface Area, Pore Size and Density," Springer (2004).

[0109] The organosilica material supports can have an average pore diameter of about 0.2 nm to less than about 2.0 nm in certain variations. The organosilica material supports can advantageously have an average pore diameter within the mesopore range of about 2.0 nm to about 50 nm. The organosilica material supports can have an average pore diameter of 0.2 nm to about 50 nm, or about 1.0 nm to about 50 nm, or in the mesopore range of about 2.0 nm to about 50 nm, about 2.0 nm to about 40 nm, about 2.0 nm to about 30 nm, about 2.0 nm to about 20 nm, about 2.0 nm to about 10 nm, about 2.0 nm to about 5.0 nm, and about 2.0 nm to about 4.0 nm.

[0110] Using surfactant as a template to synthesize mesoporous materials can create highly ordered structure, e.g. well-defined cylindrical-like pore channels. In some circumstances, there may be no hysteresis loop observed from N2 adsorption isotherm. In other circumstances, for instance where mesoporous materials can have less ordered pore structures, a hysteresis loop may be observed from N2 adsorption isotherm experiments. In such circumstances, without being bound by theory, the hysteresis can result from the lack of regularity in the pore shapes/sizes and/or from bottleneck constrictions in such irregular pores.

iv. Surface Area

[0111] The surface area of the organosilica material supports can be determined, for example, using nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm techniques within the expertise of one of skill in the art, such as the BET (Brunauer Emmet Teller) method. This method may determine a total surface area, an external surface area, and a microporous surface area. As used herein, and unless otherwise specified, "total surface area" refers to the total surface area as determined by the BET method. As used herein, and unless otherwise specified, "microporous surface area" refers to microporous surface are as determined by the BET method. Surface area determined by the BET method uses adsorption-desorption of nitrogen (temperature of liquid nitrogen, 77 K) with a Micromeritics Tristar II 3020 instrument after degassing of the powders for 4 hrs. at 350°C. Typically, the samples are pre-treated with 120°C/vacuum/4hours before the BET analysis is conducted. More information regarding the method can be found, for example, in S. Lowell et al., "Characterization of Porous Solids and Powders: Surface Area, Pore Size and Density," Springer (2004).

[0112] In various embodiments, the organosilica material supports have a total (e.g. , BET) surface area greater than or equal to 2 m2/g to less than or equal to about 2,500 m2/g, about 50 m2/g to about 2,500 m2/g, about 100 m2/g to about 2,500 m2/g, about 200 m2/g to about 2,500 m2/g, about 300 m2/g to about 2,500 m2/g, or 400 m2/g to 2,500 m2g.

v. Pore Volume

[0113] The pore volume of the organosilica material supports described herein can be determined, for example, using nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm techniques within the expertise of one of skill in the art, such as the total (Brunauer Emmet Teller) method. Pore volume is determined by the Brunauer-Emmett- Teller (BET) method using adsorption- desorption of nitrogen (temperature of liquid nitrogen, 77 K) with a Micromeritics Tristar II 3020 instrument after degassing of the powders for 4 hrs. at 350°C. Typically, the samples are pre-treated with 120°C/vacuum/4hours before the BET analysis is conducted. More information regarding the method can be found, for example, in S. Lowell et al., "Characterization of Porous Solids and Powders: Surface Area, Pore Size and Density," Springer (2004). [0114] The pore volume of the organosilica material supports described herein can be determined, for example, using nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm techniques within the expertise of one of skill in the art, such as the BET (Brunauer Emmet Teller) method.

[0115] Additionally or alternatively, the organosilica material supports can have a pore volume of about 0.1 cm3/g to about 10.0 cm3/g, about 0.1 cm3/g to about 5.0 cm3/g, about 0.1 cm3/g to about 2.0 cm3/g, about 0.1 cm3/g to about 1.0 cm3/g, or about 0.1 cm3/g to about 0.5 cm3/g. In a particular embodiment, the organosilica material supports can have a pore volume of about 0.1 cm3/g to about 5.0 cm3/g, particularly about 0.1 cm3/g to about 3.0 cm3/g, particularly about 0.2 cm3/g to about 2.5 cm3/g, or particularly about 0.2 cm3/g to about 1.5 cm3/g.

vi. Particle Size

[0116] Additionally or alternatively, the organosilica material supports can have an average particle size of from greater than or equal to about 5 μιη to about 500 μιη.

vii. Dried Particles

[0117] Additionally or alternatively, the organosilica material support material may be dry, that is, free of absorbed water. Drying of the organosilica material can be effected by heating or calcining at a range of greater than or equal to about 100°C to less than or equal to about 1000°C for a time of about 1 minute to about 100 hours. The calcined material preferably has at least some reactive oxygen containing groups, such as hydroxyl (OH) groups.

[0118] In another particular embodiment, an organosilica material as described herein i) has an X Ray Diffraction Spectrum exhibiting substantially no peaks above 4 degrees 2Θ; and/or ii) is made using substantially no added structure directing agent or porogen.

III. Methods of Making Organosilica Material Supports

[0119] In another embodiment, methods of producing the organosilica material supports described herein are provided. The method comprises: (a) providing an aqueous mixture that contains essentially no structure directing agent and/or porogen; (b) adding at least one compound of Formula [R3R4SiCH2]3 (la) into the aqueous mixture to form a solution, wherein R3 can be a C1-C4 alkoxy group and R4 can be a C1-C4 alkoxy group or a C1-C4 alkyl group; (c) aging the solution to produce a pre-product (for example, a gel); and (d) drying the pre-product to obtain an organosilica material which is a polymer comprising at least one monomer of Formula (I) as described herein. A. Aqueous Mixture

[0120] The organosilica material supports described herein may be made using essentially no structure directing agent or porogen. Thus, the aqueous mixture contains essentially no added structure directing agent and/or no added porogen.

[0121] As used herein, "no added structure directing agent," and "no added porogen" means either (i) there is no component present in the synthesis of the organosilica material that aids in and/or guides the polymerization and/or polycondensing and/or organization of the building blocks that form the framework of the organosilica material; or (ii) such component is present in the synthesis of the organosilica material in a minor, or a non- substantial, or a negligible amount such that the component cannot be said to aid in and/or guide the polymerization and/or polycondensing and/or organization of the building blocks that form the framework of the organosilica material. Further, "no added structure directing agent" is synonymous with "no added template" and "no added templating agent."

i. Structure Directing Agent

[0122] Examples of a structure directing agent can include, but are not limited to, non- ionic surfactants (e.g., nonionic polyoxyethylene alkyl ethers), ionic surfactants, cationic surfactants, silicon surfactants, amphoteric surfactants, polyalkylene oxide surfactants, fluorosurfactants, colloidal crystals, polymers, hyper branched molecules, star-shaped molecules, macromolecules, dendrimers, and combinations thereof. Additionally or alternatively, the surface directing agent can comprise or be a poloxamer (e.g. , block copolymers of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide), a triblock polymer, a tetraalkylammonium salt, a nonionic polyoxyethylene alkyl, a Gemini surfactant, or a mixture thereof. Examples of a tetraalkylammonium salt can include, but are not limited to, cetyltrimethylammonium halides, such as cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC), cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and octadecyltrimethylammonium chloride. Other exemplary surface directing agents can additionally or alternatively include hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride and/or cetylpyridinium bromide.

ii. Porogen

[0123] A porogen material is capable of forming domains, discrete regions, voids and/or pores in the organosilica material. An example of a porogen is a block copolymer (e.g. , a di- block polymer). As used herein, porogen does not include water. Examples of polymer porogens can include, but are not limited to, polyvinyl aromatics, such as polystyrenes, polyvinylpyridines, hydrogenated polyvinyl aromatics, poly aery lonitriles, polyalkylene oxides, such as polyethylene oxides and polypropylene oxides, poly ethylenes, polylactic acids, polysiloxanes, polycaprolactones, polycaprolactams, polyure thanes, polymethacrylates, such as polymethylmethacrylate or polymethacrylic acid, poly aery lates, such as polymethylacrylate and polyacrylic acid, polydienes such as polybutadienes and polyisoprenes, polyvinyl chlorides, polyacetals, and amine-capped alkylene oxides, as well as combinations thereof.

[0124] Additionally or alternatively, porogens can be thermoplastic homopolymers and random (as opposed to block) copolymers. Additionally or alternatively, the porogen can be a solvent. As noted above, further examples of various surface directing agents and porogens are included in USSN 14/965,992; filed December 11, 2015, incorporated herein by reference in their entireties.

iii. Base/Acid

[0125] In various embodiments, the aqueous mixture used in methods provided herein can comprise a base and/or an acid. In certain embodiments where the aqueous mixture comprises a base, the aqueous mixture can have a pH from about 8 to about 15, from about 8 to about 14, from about 9 to about 14, from about 10 to about 14, from about 10 to about 13, or from about 11 to about 13. In a particular embodiment comprising a base, the pH can be from about 9 to about 15 or from about 9 to about 14. Exemplary bases can include, but are not limited to, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, lithium hydroxide, pyridine, pyrrole, piperazine, pyrrolidine, piperidine, picoline, monoethanolamine, diethanolamine,

dimethylmonoethanolamine, monomethyldiethanolamine, triethanolamine,

diazabicyclooctane, diazabicyclononane, diazabicycloundecene, tetramethylammonium hydroxide, tetraethylammonium hydroxide, tetrapropylammonium hydroxide,

tetrabutylammonium hydroxide, ammonia, ammonium hydroxide, methylamine, ethylamine, propylamine, butylamine, pentylamine, hexylamine, octylamine, nonylamine, decylamine, N,N-dimethylamine, Ν,Ν-diethylamine, N,N-dipropylamine, N,N-dibutylamine,

trimethylamine, triethylamine, tripropylamine, tributylamine, cyclohexylamine,

trimethylimidine, l-amino-3-methylbutane, dimethylglycine, 3-amino-3-methylamine, and the like. These bases may be used either singly or in combination. In a particular embodiment, the base can comprise or be sodium hydroxide and/or ammonium hydroxide.

[0126] In certain embodiments where the aqueous mixture comprises an acid, the aqueous mixture can have a pH from about 0.01 to about 6.0, about 0.2 to about 5.0, from about 0.5 to about 4.0, from about 1.0 to about 4, or from about 2 to about 4. In a particular embodiment comprising an acid, the pH can be from about 0.01 to about 6.0, about 0.2 to about 6.0, about 0.2 to about 5.0 or about 0.2 to about 4.5. Exemplary acids can include, but are not limited to, inorganic acids such as hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, sulfuric acid, hydrofluoric acid, phosphoric acid, boric acid and oxalic acid; and organic acids such as acetic acid, propionic acid, butanoic acid, pentanoic acid, hexanoic acid, heptanoic acid, octanoic acid, nonanoic acid, decanoic acid, oxalic acid, maleic acid, methylmalonic acid, adipic acid, sebacic acid, gallic acid, butyric acid, mellitic acid, arachidonic acid, shikimic acid, 2-ethylhexanoic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, salicylic acid, benzoic acid, p-amino-benzoic acid, p-toluenesulfonic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, monochloroacetic acid, dichloroacetic acid, trichloroacetic acid, trifluoroacetic acid, formic acid, malonic acid, sulfonic acid, phthalic acid, fumaric acid, citric acid, tartaric acid, succinic acid, itaconic acid, mesaconic acid, citraconic acid, malic acid, a hydrolysate of glutaric acid, a hydrolysate of maleic anhydride, a hydrolysate of phthalic anhydride, and the like. These acids may be used either singly or in combination. In a particular embodiment, the acid can comprise or be hydrochloric acid.

[0127] In various aspects, adjusting the pH of the aqueous mixture can affect the total surface area, microporous surface area and pore volume of the organosilica material support made. Thus, the porosity of the organosilica material may be adjusted by adjusting the pH of the aqueous mixture. For example, when the aqueous mixture is basic and has a pH between about 8 to about 14, in particular about 9 to about 14, the organosilica material support made may have one or more of the following characteristics: a) a total surface area of about 200 m2/g to about 1800 m2/g, particularly about 300 m2/g to about 1700 m2/g, and particularly about 400 m2/g to about 1700 m2/g; b) a microporous surface area of about 0 m2/g to about 700 m2/g, and particularly about 0 m2/g to about 700 m2/g; and c) a pore volume of about 0.2 cm3/g to about 3 cm3/g, and particularly of about 0.8 cm3/g to about 1.4 cm3/g.

[0128] When the aqueous mixture is acidic and has a pH between about 0.1 to about 7, particularly about 0.1 to about 5, particularly about 0.1 to about 4.5, the organosilica material made may have one or more of the following characteristics: a) a total surface area of about 100 m2/g to about 1500 m2/g, particularly about 100 m2/g to about 900 m2/g, and particularly about 200 m2/g to about 900 m2/g; b) a microporous surface area of about 100 m2/g to about 600 m2/g, and particularly about 0 m2/g to about 500 m2/g; c) a pore volume of about 0.1 cm3/g to about 1.2 cm3/g, and particularly of about 0.1 cm3/g to about 0.6 cm3/g. [0129] Thus, the total surface area of an organosilica material support made with a basic aqueous mixture may increase when compared to an organosilica material made with an acidic aqueous mixture. Further, the pore volume of an organosilica material support made with a basic aqueous mixture may increase when compared to an organosilica material made with an acidic aqueous mixture. However, the microporous surface area of an organosilica material support made with a basic aqueous mixture may decrease when compared to an organosilica material made with an acidic aqueous mixture.

iv. Compounds of Formula la

[0130] The methods provided herein comprise the step of adding at least one compound of Formula [R3R4SiCH2]3 (la) into the aqueous mixture to form a solution to obtain an organosilica material support which is a homopolymer or copolymer comprising at least one unit of Formula (I), wherein R3 can be a C1-C4 alkoxy group and R4 can be a C1-C4 alkoxy group or a C1-C4 alkyl group.

[0131] In one embodiment, R3 can comprise a C1-C3 alkoxy or methoxy or ethoxy. Each, R3 can be a Ci-C2 alkoxy group and R4 can be a Ci-C2 alkoxy group or a Ci-C2 alkyl group.

[0132] Each R4 can comprise a C1-C4 alkoxy, a C1-C3 alkoxy or methoxy or ethoxy. Additionally or alternatively, R4 can comprise methyl, ethyl or propyl, such as a methyl or ethyl.

[0133] Each R3 can be methoxy or ethoxy and R4 can be methyl or ethyl. In a particular embodiment, R3 and R4 can be ethoxy, such that the compound corresponding to Formula (la) can be l,l,3,3,5,5-hexaethoxy-l,3,5-trisilacyclohexane, ([(EtO)2SiCH2]3). In a particular embodiment, R3 can be ethoxy and R4 can be methyl, such that compound corresponding to Formula (la) can be l,3,5-trimethyl-l,3,5-triethoxy-l,3,5-trisilacyclohexane, ([EtOCH3SiCH2]3).

v. Compounds of Formula Ila

[0134] In additional embodiments, the methods provided herein can further comprise adding to the aqueous solution a compound of Formula R5OR6R7R8Si (Ila) to obtain an organosilica material support which is a copolymer comprising at least one unit of Formula (I), at least one unit of Formula (II) and optionally at least one unit of Formulas (III)-(VI) as described herein. R5 of Formula (Ila) can be a Ci-C6 alkyl group, and R6, R7 and R8 each independently can be selected from the group consisting of a Ci-C6 alkyl group, a Ci-C6 alkoxy group, a nitrogen-containing C1-C10 alkyl group, a nitrogen-containing heteroaralkyl group, and a nitrogen-containing optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl group. [0135] In other particular embodiments, compounds corresponding to Formula (Ila) can be tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) ((EtO)4Si), methyltriethoxysilane (MTES) ((EtO)3CH3Si), (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (H2N(CH2)3(EtO)3Si), (N,N- dimethylaminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (((CH3)2N(CH2)3)(MeO)3Si), (N-(2-aminoethyl)-3- aminopropyltriethoxysilane ((H2N(CH2)2NH (CH2)3)(EtO)2Si), 4-methyl-l-(3- triethoxysilylpropyl)-piperazine, 4-(2-(triethoxysilyl)ethyl)pyridine, and/or l-(3- (triethoxysilyl)propyl)-4,5-dihydro-lH-imidazole.

[0136] In another particular embodiment, a compound of Formula (la) can be 1,1,3,3,5,5- hexaethoxy-l,3,5-trisilacyclohexane ([(EtO)2SiCH2]3 can be combined with any of the compounds of Formula (Ila) described above. In certain other embodiments, these compounds can be further combined with a trivalent metal oxide source, such as aluminum tri-sec-butoxide.

vi. Compounds of Formula Ilia

[0137] In additional embodiments, the methods provided herein can further comprise adding to the aqueous solution a compound of Formula Z17Z18Z19Si-R9-Si Z17Z18Z19 (Ilia) to obtain an organosilica material support which is a copolymer comprising at least one unit Formula (I) as described herein, at least one unit Formula (III) as described herein, and optionally at least one unit of Formulas (II) or (IV)-(VI) as described herein. In Formula (Ilia), each Z17 can independently be a Ci-C4 alkoxy group; each Z18 and Z19 independently can be a Ci-C4 alkoxy group or a Ci-C4 alkyl group; and R9 can be selected from the group consisting a Ci-C8 alkylene group, a C2-Cs alkenylene group, a C2-Cs alkynylene group, a nitrogen-containing C2-Cio alkylene group, an optionally substituted C6-C2o aralkyl group, and an optionally substituted C4-C2o heterocycloalkyl group.

[0138] In other particular embodiments, compounds corresponding to Formula (Ilia) can be l,2-bis(methyldiethoxysilyl)ethane (CH3(EtO)2Si-CH2CH2-Si(EtO)2CH3), 1,2- bis(triethoxysilyl)ethylene ((EtO)3Si-HC=CH-Si(EtO)3) , N,N'-bis [(3 - trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ethylenediamine, and/or bis [(methyldiethoxysilyl)propyl] amine, bis[(methyldimethoxysilyl)propyl]-N-methylamine.

[0139] In a particular embodiment, compounds corresponding to Formula In another particular embodiment, a compound of Formula (la) can be 1,1, 3,3,5, 5-hexaethoxy-l, 3,5- trisilacyclohexane ([(EtO)2SiCH2]3 can be combined with any of the compounds of Formula (Ilia) described above. In certain other embodiments, these compounds can be further combined with a trivalent metal oxide source, such as aluminum tri-sec-butoxide. vii. Compounds of Formula IVa

[0140] In additional embodiments, the methods provided herein can comprise adding to the aqueous solution a source of a trivalent metal oxide to obtain an organosilica material support which is a copolymer comprising at least one unit Formula (I) as described herein, at least one unit Formula (IV) as described herein, and optionally at least one unit of Formulas (II), (III), (V) or (VI) as described herein.

[0141] In various aspects, the source of trivalent metal oxide may be a compound of

3 20 3 20

formula MJ (OZ"u)3 (IVa), wherein MJ can be a Group 13 metal and Z can be a Ci-C6 alkyl group. In one embodiment, M3 can be B, Al, Ga, In, II, or Uut. In particular, M3 can be Al or

20

B. Additionally or alternatively, Z can be a Ci-C6 alkyl group, a C1-C5 alkyl group, a C1-C4 alkyl group, a C1-C3 alkyl group, a C1-C2 alkyl group or methyl. In particular, Z15 can be methyl, ethyl, propyl or butyl.

[0142] In other particular embodiments, compounds corresponding to Formula (IVa) can be aluminum trimethoxide, aluminum triethoxide, aluminum isopropoxide and/or aluminum tri-sec-butoxide.

[0143] Additionally or alternatively, sources of trivalent metal oxides can include, but are not limited to, corresponding salts, alkoxides, oxides, and/or hydroxides of the trivalent metal, e.g. , aluminum sulphate, aluminum nitrate, colloidal alumina, aluminum trihydroxide, hydroxylated alumina, AI2O3, aluminum halides (e.g. , AICI3), NaAlC>2, boron nitride, B2O3 and/or H3BO3. Additionally or alternatively, the source of a trivalent metal oxide may be a source of a compound of Formula (IV).

viii. Compounds of Formula Va

[0144] In yet other additional embodiments, the methods provided herein can comprise adding to the aqueous solution another source of a trivalent metal oxide to obtain an organosilica material support which is a copolymer comprising at least one unit Formula (I) as described herein, at least one unit Formula (V) as described herein, and optionally at least one unit of Formulas (II), (III), (IV) or (VI) as described herein.

[0145] Additionally or alternatively, the source of trivalent metal oxide may be a compound of Formula (Z210)2M5-0-Si(OZ22)3 (Va), wherein M5 can be a Group 13 metal and Z21 and Z22 each independently can be a Ci-C6 alkyl group. In one embodiment, M2 can be B, Al, Ga, In, II, or Uut. In particular, M5 can be Al or B. Additionally or alternatively,

21 22

Z and Z each independently can be a Ci-C6 alkyl group, a C1-C5 alkyl group, a C1-C4 alkyl group, a C1-C3 alkyl group, a Ci-C2 alkyl group or methyl. In particular, Z and Z each independently can be methyl, ethyl, propyl or butyl.

[0146] As noted above, sources of trivalent metal oxides can include, but are not limited to, corresponding salts, alkoxides, oxides, and/or hydroxides of the trivalent metal, e.g. , aluminum sulphate, aluminum nitrate, colloidal alumina, aluminum trihydroxide, hydroxylated alumina, AI2O3, aluminum halides (e.g. , AICI3), NaAlC>2, boron nitride, B2O3 and/or H3BO3. Additionally or alternatively, the source of a trivalent metal oxide may be a source of a compound of Formula (Va).

ix. Compounds of Formula Via

[0147] The methods provided herein comprise the step of adding at least one cyclic compound of Formula:

Figure imgf000032_0001

into the aqueous mixture to form a solution to obtain an organosilica material support which is a copolymer comprising at least one unit Formula (I) as described herein, at least one unit Formula (VI) as described herein, and optionally at least one unit of Formulas (II)-(V) as described herein, wherein each R10 independently can be a X^X^SiX4 group, wherein each X1 can independently be a C1-C4 alkyl group; each X2 and X3 independently can be a Ci- C4 alkyl group or a C1-C4 alkoxy group; and each X4 can be a Ci-C8 alkylene group bonded to a nitrogen atom of the cyclic compound.

[0148] In another particular embodiment, a compound of Formula (Ila) can be tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) ((EtO^Si) and a compound of Formula (Via) can be tris(3- trimethoxysilylpropyl)isocyanurate.

[0149] In another particular embodiment, a compound of Formula (la) can be 1,1,3,3,5,5- hexaethoxy-l,3,5-trisilacyclohexane, ([(EtO)2SiCH2]3) and a compound of Formula (Via) can be tris(3-trimethoxysilylpropyl)isocyanurate.

x. Metal Chelate Sources

[0150] In additional embodiments, the methods provided herein can further comprise adding to the aqueous solution a source of metal chelate compounds. Examples of metal chelate compounds, are disclosed in U.S. Pat. App. Nos. 14/966,001, filed on December 11, 2015. Of these, the chelate compounds of titanium or aluminum can be of note, of which the chelate compounds of titanium can be particularly of note. These metal chelate compounds may be used either singly or in combination.

xi. Molar Ratio

[0151] In the methods described herein, in certain variations, where a plurality of monomers is selected to form the organosilica support polymer, molar ratios of Formula (la): Formula (la), Formula (la): Formula (Ila), Formula (la): Formula (Ilia) Formula (la): Formula (IVa), Formula (la): Formula (Va), or Formula (la): Formula (Via) may optionally be about 99:1 to about 1:99, about 75:1 to about 1:75, about 50:1 to about 1:50, about 25:1 to about 1:25, about 15: 1 to about 1:15, or about 10:1 to about 1:10. For example, a molar ratio of Formula (la): Formula (la) can be about 3:2. A molar ratio of Formula (la): Formula (II) can be about 2:3, about 4:3, about 4: 1 or about 3:2. A molar ratio of Formula (la): Formula (III) can be about 2:3, and about 4:1. A molar ratio of Formula (III): Formula (II) can be about 5:2, about 1:1, about 1:2 or about 2:3. A molar ratio of Formula (la): Formula (IV), Formula (la): Formula (V), or Formula (la): Formula (VI) can be about 15:1 or about 5:1. xii. Aging the Solution

[0152] The solution formed in the methods described herein can be aged for at least about 4 hours.

[0153] Additionally or alternatively, the solution formed in the methods described herein can be aged for about 4 hours to about 144 hours (6 days), or about 96 hours (4 days) to about 120 hours (5 days), or about 120 hours (5 days) to about 144 hours (6 days).

[0154] Additionally or alternatively, the solution formed in the method can be aged at temperature of about 10°C to about 300°C, about 50°C to about 300°C, about 100°C to about 300°C, 130°C to about 250°C, about 130°C to about 200°C, about 130°C to about 150°C, or about 130°C to about 140°C.

[0155] In various aspects, adjusting the aging time and/or aging temperature of the solution formed in the methods described herein can affect the total surface area; microporous surface area, pore volume, pore radius and pore diameter of the organosilica material made. Thus, the porosity of the organosilica material may be adjusted by adjusting aging time and/or temperature. [0156] For example, when the solution is aged for about 1 hour to about 7 hours (e.g. , 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 hours) at a temperature of about 80°C to about 100°C (e.g. , 80°C, 85°C, 90°C, 95°C, etc.), the organosilica material support may have one or more of the following:

a total surface area of about 200 m2/g to about 1400 m2/g, particularly about 400 m2/g to about 1300 m2/g, and particularly about 400 m2/g to about 1200 m2/g;

(i) a microporous surface area of about 200 m2/g to about 600 m2/g, particularly about 200 m2/g to about 500 m2/g;

(ii) a pore volume of about 0.2 cm3/g to about 1.0 cm3/g, particularly about 0.2 cm3/g to about 0.8 cm3/g; and

(iii) an average pore radius of about 0.5 nm to about 2.0 nm, particularly about 0.5 nm to about 2.0 nm, and particularly about 1.0 nm to about 1.5 nm.

[0157] Additionally or alternatively, when the solution is aged for greater than about 7 hours to about 150 hours (e.g. , 23, 48, 72, 144 hours) at a temperature of about 80°C to about 100°C (e.g. , 80°C, 85°C, 90°C, 95°C, etc.), the organosilica material support may have one or more of the following:

(i) a total surface area of about 600 m2/g to about 1400 m2/g, particularly about 800 m2/g to about 1400 m2/g, and particularly about 800 m2/g to about 1200 m2/g;

(ii) substantially no microporous surface area;

(iii) a pore volume of about 0.8 cm3/g to about 1.4 cm3/g, particularly about 0.9 cm3/g to about 1.4 cm3/g; and

(iv) an average pore radius of about 1.0 nm to about 4.0 nm, particularly about 1.0 nm to about 4.0 nm.

[0158] Additionally or alternatively, when the solution is aged for about 1 hour to about 7 hours (e.g. , 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 hours) at a temperature of about 110°C to about 130°C (e.g. , 110°C, 115°C, 120°C, 125°C, etc.), the organosilica material support may have one or more of the following:

(i) a pore volume of about 1.0 cm3/g to about 1.8 cm3/g, particularly about 1.2 cm3/g to about 1.8 cm3/g, particularly about 1.4 cm3/g to about 1.7 cm3/g; and

(ii) an average pore diameter of about 2.0 nm to about 8.0 nm, particularly 4.0 nm to about 6.0 nm.

[0159] Additionally or alternatively, when the solution is aged for greater than about 7 hours to about 150 hours (e.g. , 23, 48, 72, 144 hours) at a temperature of aboutl l0°C to about 130°C (e.g. , 110°C, 115°C, 120°C, 125°C, etc.), the organosilica material support may have one or more of the following:

(i) a pore volume of about 1.0 cm3/g to about 1.8 cm3/g, particularly about 1.2 cm3/g to about 1.8 cm3/g; and

(ii) an average pore diameter of about 8.0 nm to about 16.0 nm, particularly about 10.0 nm to about 16.0 nm, particularly about 10.0 nm to about 14.0 nm.

[0160] Thus, at shorter aging times (e.g. , 7, 6, 5, 4 hours, etc.) the surface area of an organosilica material made is microporous and mesoporous, but as aging time increase, the surface area transitions to primarily mesoporous. Further, as aging time increases, pore volume, average pore radius and average pore diameter increases. Increasing aging temperature along with aging time, accelerates the above-described surface area transition and increase in pore volume, average pore radius and average pore diameter.

B. Drying the Pre-Product

[0161] The methods described herein comprise drying the pre-product to produce an organosilica material support. In certain variations, the pre-product may be a gel.

[0162] In some embodiments, the pre-product (e.g. , gel) formed in the method can be dried at a temperature of about 50°C to about 600°C. In a particular embodiment, the pre- product (e.g. , gel) formed in the method can be dried at temperature from about 70°C to about 200°C.

[0163] Additionally or alternatively, the pre-product (e.g. , gel) formed in the method can be dried in a N2 and/or air atmosphere.

C. Additional Organosilica Support Processing Steps

[0164] Additionally or alternatively, the organosilica material support material is dry, that is, free of absorbed water. Drying of the support material can be effected by heating or calcining at about 100°C to about 1000°C, preferably at least about 600°C. When the support material is an organosilica, it is typically heated to about 200°C to about 850°C; and for a time of about 1 minute to about 100 hours, from about 12 hours to about 72 hours, or from about 24 hours to about 60 hours.

[0165] In some embodiments, as noted above, the method can further comprise calcining the organosilica material to obtain a silica material. The calcining can be performed in air or an inert gas, such as nitrogen or air enriched in nitrogen. Calcining can take place at a temperature of at least about 175°C, for example, calcining can be performed at a temperature of about 175 °C to about 650°C. [0166] The calcined support material comprising the organosilica material support may then be contacted with at least one polymerization catalyst comprising at least one olefin catalyst compound and an activator.

D. Introducing Additional Catalyst Metals And Activators

[0167] In various embodiments, the organosilica material support can further comprise at least one catalyst metal incorporated within the pores of the organosilica material support, as will be described below. Exemplary catalyst metals can include, but are not limited to, a Group 6 element, a Group 8 element, a Group 9 element, a Group 10 element or a combination thereof. Exemplary Group 6 elements can include, but are not limited to, chromium, molybdenum, and/or tungsten, particularly including molybdenum and/or tungsten. Exemplary Group 8 elements can include, but are not limited to, iron, ruthenium, and/or osmium. Exemplary Group 9 elements can include, but are not limited to, cobalt, rhodium, and/or iridium, particularly including cobalt. Exemplary Group 10 elements can include, but are not limited to, nickel, palladium and/or platinum.

[0168] The catalyst metal can be incorporated into the organosilica material by any convenient method, such as by impregnation, by ion exchange, or by complexation to surface sites. The catalyst metal so incorporated may be employed to promote any one of a number of catalytic transformations commonly conducted in petroleum refining or petrochemicals production. Examples of such catalytic processes can include, but are not limited to, hydrogenation, dehydrogenation, aromatization, aromatic saturation, hydrodesulfurization, olefin oligomerization, polymerization, hydrodenitrogenation, hydrocracking, naphtha reforming, paraffin isomerization, aromatic transalkylation, saturation of double/triple bonds, and the like, as well as combinations thereof.

[0169] Thus, in another embodiment, a catalyst material comprising the organosilica material described herein is provided. The catalyst material may optionally comprise a binder. Suitable binders, include but are not limited to silica, alumina, zirconia, titania, silica- alumina, cerium oxide, magnesium oxide, or combinations thereof. Thus, in another embodiment, a catalyst material comprising the organosilica material described herein is provided. The catalyst material may optionally comprise a binder or be self -bound. Suitable binders, include but are not limited to active and inactive materials, synthetic or naturally occurring zeolites, as well as inorganic materials such as clays and/or oxides such as silica, alumina, zirconia, titania, silica-alumina, cerium oxide, magnesium oxide, or combinations thereof. In particular, the binder may be silica-alumina, alumina and/or a zeolite, particularly alumina. Silica-alumina may be either naturally occurring or in the form of gelatinous precipitates or gels including mixtures of silica and metal oxides. It should be noted it is recognized herein that the use of a material in conjunction with a zeolite binder material, i.e. , combined therewith or present during its synthesis, which itself is catalytically active may change the conversion and/or selectivity of the finished catalyst. It is also recognized herein that inactive materials can suitably serve as diluents to control the amount of conversion if the present invention is employed in alkylation processes so that alkylation products can be obtained economically and orderly without employing other means for controlling the rate of reaction. These inactive materials may be incorporated into naturally occurring clays, e.g. , bentonite and kaolin, to improve the crush strength of the catalyst under commercial operating conditions and function as binders or matrices for the catalyst. The catalysts described herein typically can comprise, in a composited form, a ratio of support material to binder material ranging from about 80 parts support material to 20 parts binder material to 20 parts support material to 80 parts binder material, all ratios being by weight, typically from 80:20 to 50:50 support material: binder material, prefer ably from 65:35 to 35:65. Compositing may be done by conventional means including mulling the materials together followed by extrusion of pelletizing into the desired finished catalyst particles.

[0170] In some embodiments, the organosilica material can further comprise cationic metal sites incorporated into the network structure. Such cationic metal sites may be incorporated by any convenient method, such as impregnation or complexation to the surface, through an organic precursor, or by some other method. This organometallic material may be employed in a number of hydrocarbon separations conducted in petroleum refining or petrochemicals production. Examples of such compounds to be desirably separated from petrochemicals/fuels can include olefins, paraffins, aromatics, and the like.

[0171] Additionally or alternatively, the organosilica material can further comprise a surface metal incorporated within the pores of the organosilica material. The surface metal can be selected from a Group 1 element, a Group 2 element , a Group 13 element, and a combination thereof. When a Group 1 element is present, it can preferably comprise or be sodium and/or potassium. When a Group 2 element is present, it can include, but may not be limited to, magnesium and/or calcium. When a Group 13 element is present, it can include, but may not be limited to, boron and/or aluminum.

[0172] One or more of the Groups 1, 2, 6, 8-10 and/or 13 elements may be present on an exterior and/or interior surface of the organosilica material. For example, one or more of the Groups 1, 2 and/or 13 elements may be present in a first layer on the organosilica material and one or more of the Groups 6, 8, 9 and/or 10 elements may be present in a second layer, e.g. , at least partially atop the Group 1, 2 and/or 13 elements. Additionally or alternatively, only one or more Groups 6, 8, 9 and/or 10 elements may present on an exterior and/or interior surface of the organosilica material. The surface metal(s) can be incorporated into/onto the organosilica material by any convenient method, such as by impregnation, deposition, grafting, co-condensation, by ion exchange, and/or the like.

[0173] In certain embodiments, the support material, having reactive surface groups, typically hydroxyl groups, may be slurried in a non-polar solvent and the resulting slurry is contacted with a solution of a catalyst compound and optionally an activator. In certain variations, the catalyst compound comprises a catalyst compound comprising one or more nitrogen linkages, so that the solution comprises a catalyst compound comprising nitrogen linkages. In some embodiments, the slurry of the support material is first contacted with the activator for a period of time in the range of from about 0.5 hours to about 24 hours, from about 2 hours to about 16 hours, or from about 4 hours to about 8 hours. The solution of the catalyst compound is then contacted with the isolated support/activator. In some embodiments, the supported catalyst system is generated in situ. In alternate embodiments, the slurry of the support material is first contacted with the catalyst compound for a period of time in the range of from about 0.5 hours to about 24 hours, from about 2 hours to about 16 hours, or from about 4 hours to about 8 hours. The slurry of the supported catalyst compound is then contacted with the activator solution.

[0174] The mixture of the catalyst compound, activator and support is heated from greater than or equal to about 0°C to less than or equal to about 70°C, preferably to about 23 °C to about 60°C, preferably at room temperature. Contact times typically range from about 0.5 hours to about 24 hours, from about 2 hours to about 16 hours, or from about 4 hours to about 8 hours.

[0175] Suitable non-polar solvents are materials in which the activator and the catalyst compound, e.g., catalyst compound comprising nitrogen linkages, are at least partially soluble and which are liquid at reaction temperatures. Useful non-polar solvents are alkanes, such as isopentane, hexane, n-heptane, octane, nonane, and decane, although a variety of other materials including cycloalkanes, such as cyclohexane, aromatics, such as benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene, may also be employed. IV. Organosilica Material Product-By-Process

[0176] Organosilica materials can be made from the methods described herein. In another particular embodiment, organosilica materials made from an aqueous mixture as described herein that contains essentially no structure directing agent or porogen as described herein, wherein the organosilica material may be a polymer comprising at least one unit of Formula (I) as described herein. In other aspects, organosilica materials made from an aqueous mixture as described herein that contains essentially no structure directing agent or porogen as described herein, wherein the organosilica material may be a polymer comprising at least Formula (VI) as described herein.

[0177] In yet another particular embodiment, organosilica materials made from an aqueous mixture as described herein that contains essentially no structure directing agent or porogen as described herein, wherein the organosilica material may be:

(i) a copolymer of:

(a) at least one unit of Formula (I) as described herein;

(b) at least one unit of Formula (II) as described herein;

(c) at least one unit of Formula (III) as described herein;

(d) at least one unit of Formula (IV) as described herein;

(e) at least one unit of Formula (V) as described herein; and/or

(f) at least Formula (VI) as described herein.

[0178] The organosilica materials made from the methods described herein may exhibit an X Ray Diffraction (XRD) pattern as described herein, particularly with only one peak between about 1 and about 4 degrees 2Θ. Additionally or alternatively, the organosilica materials may have an average pore diameter as described herein, particularly, between about 1.5 nm and about 20.0 nm.

[0179] In another particular embodiment, an organosilica material made from aqueous mixture as described herein that contains essentially no structure directing agent or porogen as described herein i) has an X Ray Diffraction Spectrum exhibiting substantially no peaks above 4 degrees 2Θ; and/or ii) is made using substantially no added structure directing agent or porogen.

[0180] Additionally or alternatively, the organosilica materials can exhibit substantially no peaks in the range of about 0.5 to about 10 degrees 2Θ, about 0.5 to about 12 degrees 2Θ range, about 0.5 to about 15 degrees 2Θ, about 0.5 to about 70 degrees 2Θ, about 2 to about 10 degrees 2Θ, about 2 to about 12 degrees 2Θ range, about 2 to about 15 degrees 2Θ, about 2 to about 20 degrees 2Θ, about 2 to about 70 degrees 2Θ, about 3 to about 10 degrees 2Θ, or about 3 to about 70 degrees 2Θ.

[0181] In yet another variation, the organosilica material made from aqueous mixture as described herein that contains essentially no structure directing agent or porogen as described herein may have (i) an average pore diameter between about 1.5 nm and about 25.0 nm; (ii) a pore volume about 0.1 cm /g to about 10.0 cm /g; and/or (ii) a surface area of about 200 m2/g to about 2,500 m2/g.

V. Catalyst Metals

[0182] In addition to the organosilica support described above, the catalyst system according to the present disclosure includes one or more catalyst metals or compounds. In preferred aspects, the present disclosure pertains to one or more catalyst compounds for polyolefin polymerization. Thus, in certain embodiments, an organosilica material comprising one or more catalyst materials described herein is provided.

A. Catalyst Compounds Having Nitrogen Linkages

[0183] In certain aspects, the one or more catalyst compounds may be one or more olefin polymerization catalyst compounds. The one or more catalyst compounds may be one or more catalyst compounds having one or more nitrogen linkages. Useful catalysts include pyridyldiamido transition metal complexes, HN5 compounds, and bis(imino)pyridyl complex compounds. Such catalyst compounds may be combined together or mixed with other catalyst compounds.

Pyridyldiamido Compound

[0184] The term "pyridyldiamido compound," "pyridyldiamido complex," or "pyridyldiamide complex," or "pyridyldiamido catalyst" or pyridyldiamide catalyst" refers to a class of coordination complexes described in U.S. Patent No. 7,973,116 B2; U.S. Pub. No. 2012/0071616 Al; U.S. Pub. No.2011/0224391 Al; U.S. Pub. No. 2011/0301310 Al; U.S. Pub. No. 2014/0221587 Al ; U.S. Pub. No. 2014/0256893 Al ; U.S. Pub. No. 2014/0316089 Al; U.S. Pub. No. 2015/0141590 Al; and U.S. Pub. No. 2015/0141601 Al that feature a dianionic tridentate ligand that is coordinated to a metal center through one neutral Lewis basic donor atom (e.g., a pyridine group) and a pair of anionic amido or phosphido (i.e., deprotonated amine or phosphine) donors. In these complexes, the pyridyldiamido ligand is coordinated to the metal with the formation of one five-membered chelate ring and one seven-membered chelate ring. It is possible for additional atoms of the pyridyldiamido ligand to be coordinated to the metal without affecting the catalyst function upon activation; an example of this could be a cyclometalated substituted aryl group that forms an additional bond to the metal center.

[0185] In one aspect of the invention, the catalyst system comprises a pyridyldiamido transition metal com lex represented by the Formula (VII):

Figure imgf000041_0001

where: M* is a Group 4 metal (preferably hafnium); each E' group is independently selected from carbon, silicon, or germanium (preferably carbon); each X' is an anionic leaving group (preferably alkyl, aryl, hydride, alkylsilane, fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, triflate, carboxylate, alkylsulfonate); L* is a neutral Lewis base (preferably ether, amine, thioether); R'1 and R'13 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrocarbyls, substituted hydrocarbyls, and silyl groups (preferably aryl); R'2, R'3, R4, R5, R6 R7 , R8, R9, R'10, R'11, and R'12 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, hydrocarbyls, alkoxy, silyl, amino, aryloxy, substituted hydrocarbyls, halogen, and phosphino; n' is 1 or 2; m' is 0, 1, or 2; and two X' groups may be joined together to form a dianionic group; two L* groups may be joined together to form a bidentate Lewis base; an X' group may be joined to an L* group to form a monoanionic bidentate group; R'7 and R'8 may be joined to form a ring (preferably an aromatic ring, a six-membered aromatic ring with the joined R'7R'8 group being -CH=CHCH=CH-); and R10 and R11 may be joined to form a ring (preferably a five-membered ring with the joined R'10R'n group being -CH2CH2-, a six- membered ring with the joined R'10Rn group being -CH2CH2CH2-).

[0186] In any embodiment described herein, M* is preferably Zr, or Hf, preferably Hf.

[0187] In any embodiment described herein, the R' groups above (R'1, R'2, R3, R'4, R5, R6, R7, R8, R9, R10, R'11 R12, and R'13) preferably contain up to 30, preferably no more than 30 carbon atoms, especially from 2 to 20 carbon atoms. [0188] In a preferred embodiment of the invention, R' 1 is selected from phenyl groups that are variously substituted with between zero to five substituents that include F, CI, Br, I, CF3, NO2, alkoxy, dialkylamino, aryl, and alkyl groups having 1 to 10 carbons, such as methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl, hexyl, heptyl, octyl, nonyl, decyl, and isomers thereof.

[0189] In any embodiment described herein, preferably R'1 and R'13 are independently selected from phenyl groups that are variously substituted with between zero to five substituents that include F, CI, Br, I, CF3, NO2, alkoxy, dialkylamino, aryl, and alkyl groups with between one to ten carbons, such as methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl, hexyl, heptyl, octyl, nonyl, decyl, and isomers thereof.

[0190] In any embodiment described herein, preferably E is carbon, and R'1 and R'13 are independently selected from phenyl groups that are variously substituted with between zero to five substituents that include F, CI, Br, I, CF3, NO2, alkoxy, dialkylamino, hydrocarbyl, and substituted hydrocarbyls, groups with from one to ten carbons.

[0191] In any embodiment described herein, preferably R'1 and R'13 are selected from aryl or alkyl groups containing from 6 to 30 carbon atoms, especially phenyl groups. It is preferred that R'1 and R'13 be chosen from aryl or alkyl groups and that R'2, R'3, R'11, and R'12, be independently chosen from hydrogen, alkyl, and aryl groups, such as phenyl. The phenyl groups may be alkyl substituted. The alkyl substituents may be straight chain alkyls, but include branched alkyls.

[0192] Preferably, each R'1 and R'13 is a substituted phenyl group with either one or both of R2 and R11 being substituted with a group containing between one to ten carbons. Some specific examples would include, R1 and R13 being chosen from a group including 2- methylphenyl, 2-isopropylphenyl, 2-ethylphenyl, 2,6-dimethylphenyl, mesityl, 2,6- diethylphenyl, and 2,6-diisopropylphenyl.

[0193] In a preferred embodiment, R'7 and R'8 may be joined to form a four- to ten- membered ring. One example has the R'7R'8 group being -CH=CHCH=CH-, with the formation of an aromatic six-membered ring.

[0194] In a preferred embodiment, R'10 and R'11 may be joined to form a four- to ten- membered ring. One specific example has the R'10R'n group being -CH2CH2-, with the formation of a five-membered ring. Another example has the R'10R'n being -CH2CH2CH2-, with the formation of a six-membered ring.

[0195] In a preferred embodiment, E' is carbon. [0196] In a preferred embodiment, R'2 is an aromatic hydrocarbyl group containing between 6 to 12 carbon atoms and R'13 is a saturated hydrocarbon containing between 3 to 12 carbon atoms. A specific example has R'2 = 2-isopropylphenyl and R'13 = cyclohexyl.

[0197] In any embodiment described herein, R'2, R'3, R4, R5, R'6 R7 , R'8, R9, R10, R'11, and R'12 may be hydrogen or alkyl from 1 to 4 carbon atoms. Preferably 0, 1, or 2 of R'2, R'3, R4, R5, R6 R'7 , R'8, R'9, R'10, R'11, and R'12 are alkyl substituents.

[0198] In any embodiment described herein, preferably X' is selected from alkyl, aryl, hydride, alkylsilane, fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, triflate, carboxylate, alkylsulfonate, alkoxy, amido, hydrido, phenoxy, hydroxy, silyl, allyl, alkenyl, and alkynyl.

[0199] In any embodiment described herein, preferably L* is selected from ethers, thio- ethers, amines, nitriles, imines, pyridines, and phosphines, preferably ethers.

[0200] In one aspect of the invention, catalyst system comprises a pyridyldiamido transition metal complex represented by the Formula (X):

Figure imgf000043_0001
(X)

M is a Group 4 metal, preferably a group 4 metal, more preferably Ti, Zr or Hf; Z is - (R14)pC-C(R15)q-, where R14 and R15 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, hydrocarbyls, and substituted hydrocarbyls, (preferably hydrogen and alkyls), and wherein adjacent R14 and R15 groups may be joined to form an aromatic or saturated, substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl ring, where the ring has 5, 6, 7, or 8 ring carbon atoms and where substitutions on the ring can join to form additional rings, p is 1 or 2, and q is 1 or 2; R1 and R11 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrocarbyls, substituted hydrocarbyls, and silyl groups (preferably alkyl, aryl, heteroaryl,

2 10 12 13

and silyl groups); R and R are each, independently, -E(R )(R )- with E being carbon, silicon, or germanium, and each R12 and R13 being independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, hydrocarbyl, and substituted hydrocarbyl, alkoxy, silyl, amino, aryloxy, halogen, and phosphino (preferably hydrogen, alkyl, aryl, alkoxy, silyl, amino, aryloxy, heteroaryl, halogen, and phosphino), R and R may be joined to each other or to R14 or R15 to form a saturated, substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl ring, where the ring has 4, 5, 6, or 7 ring carbon atoms and where substitutions on the ring can join to form additional rings, or R12 and R13 may be joined to form a saturated heterocyclic ring, or a saturated substituted heterocyclic ring where substitutions on the ring can join to form additional rings; R3, R4, and R5 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, hydrocarbyls, substituted hydrocarbyls, alkoxy, aryloxy, halogen, amino, and silyl, (preferably hydrogen, alkyl, alkoxy, aryloxy, halogen, amino, silyl, and aryl), and wherein adjacent R groups (R3 & R4 and/or R4 & R5) may be joined to form a substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl or heterocyclic ring, where the ring has 5, 6, 7, or 8 ring atoms and where substitutions on the ring can join to form additional rings; L is an anionic leaving group, where the L groups may be the same or different and any two L groups may be linked to form a dianionic leaving group; n is 1 or 2; L' is a neutral Lewis base; and w is 0, 1, or 2.

[0201] In another preferred embodiment, Z is defined as an aryl so that the complex is represented by the Formula XI):

Figure imgf000044_0001

wherein R6, R7, R8, and R9 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, hydrocarbyls, substituted hydrocarbyls, alkoxy, halogen, amino, and silyl, and the pairs of positions, and wherein adjacent R groups (R6 & R7, and/or R7 & R8, and/or R8 & R9, and/or R9 & R10) may be joined to form a saturated, substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl or heterocyclic ring, where the ring has 5, 6, 7, or 8 ring carbon atoms and where substitutions on the ring can join to form additional rings; and M, L, L', w, n, R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R10, and R11 are as defined above.

[0202] In a more preferred embodiment, the pyridyldiamido complexes useful in this invention are represented by the Formula (XII):

Figure imgf000045_0001

where R and R1 ' are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, hydrocarbyls, substituted hydrocarbyls, alkoxy, halogen, amino, and silyl, and wherein adjacent R groups (R6 & R7 and/or R7 & R16 and/or R16 & R17, and/or R8 & R9) may be joined to form a saturated, substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl or heterocyclic ring, where the ring has 5, 6, 7, or 8 ring carbon atoms and where substitutions on the ring can join to form additional rings; and M, L, L\ w, n, R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, R9, R10, and R11 are defined as above.

[0203] In any embodiment of Formula I, II, or III described herein, M is preferably Ti, Zr, or Hf, preferably HF or Zr.

[0204] In any embodiment of Formula I, II, or III described herein, the R groups above (R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, R9, R10, R11, R12, R13, R14, R15, R16, and R17) preferably contain up to 30 carbon atoms, preferably no more than 30 carbon atoms, especially from 2 to 20 carbon atoms.

[0205] In any embodiment of Formula I, II, or III described herein, preferably R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, R9, R10, R11, R12, to R13 contain up to 30 carbon atoms, especially from 2 to 20 carbon atoms.

[0206] In a preferred embodiment, R1 is selected from phenyl groups that are variously substituted with between zero to five substituents that include F, CI, Br, I, CF3, NO2, alkoxy, dialkylamino, aryl, and alkyl groups having 1 to 10 carbons, such as methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl, hexyl, heptyl, octyl, nonyl, decyl, and isomers thereof.

[0207] In any embodiment of Formula X, XI, or XII described herein, preferably R1 and R11 are independently selected from phenyl groups that are variously substituted with between zero to five substituents that include F, CI, Br, I, CF3, NO2, alkoxy, dialkylamino, aryl, and alkyl groups with between one to ten carbons, such as methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl, hexyl, heptyl, octyl, nonyl, decyl, and isomers thereof. [0208] In any embodiment of Formula X, XI, or XII described herein, preferably E is carbon, and R1 and R11 are independently selected from phenyl groups that are variously substituted with between zero to five substituents that include F, CI, Br, I, CF3, NO2, alkoxy, dialkylamino, hydrocarbyl, and substituted hydrocarbyls, groups with from one to ten carbons.

[0209] In any embodiment of Formula X, XI, or XII described herein, preferably R1 and R11 are selected from aryl or alkyl groups containing from 6 to 30 carbon atoms, especially phenyl groups. It is preferred that R1 and R11 be chosen from aryl or alkyl groups and that R12, R13, R14, and R15, be independently chosen from hydrogen, alkyl, and aryl groups, such as phenyl. The phenyl groups may be alkyl substituted. The alkyl substituents may be straight chain alkyls, but include branched alkyls.

[0210] Preferably, each R1 and R11 is a substituted phenyl group with either one or both of the carbons adjacent to the carbon joined to the amido nitrogen being substituted with a group containing between one to ten carbons. Some specific examples would include R1 and R11 being chosen from a group including 2-methylphenyl, 2-isopropylphenyl, 2-ethylphenyl, 2,6-dimethylphenyl, mesityl, 2,6-diethylphenyl, and 2,6-diisopropylphenyl.

[0211] In any embodiment of Formula X, XI, or XII described herein, R2 is preferably selected from moieties where E is carbon, especially a moiety -C(R12)(R13)- where R12 is hydrogen and R13 is an aryl group or a benzyl group (preferably a phenyl ring linked through an alkylene moiety such as methylene to the C atom). The phenyl group may then be substituted as discussed above. Useful R^ groups include CH2, CMe2, SiMe2, SiEt2, SiPr2, SiBu2, SiPh2, Si(aryl)2, Si(alkyl)2, CH(aryl), CH(Ph), CH(alkyl), and CH(2- isopropylphenyl).

[0212] In any embodiment of Formula X, XI, or XII described herein, R10 is preferably selected from moieties where E is carbon, especially a moiety -C(R12)(R13)- where R12 is hydrogen and R13 is an aryl group or a benzyl group (preferably a phenyl ring linked through an alkylene moiety such as methylene to the C atom). The phenyl group may then be substituted as discussed above. Useful R10 groups include CH2, CMe2, SiMe2, SiEt2, SiPr2, SiBu2, SiPh2, Si(aryl)2, Si(alkyl)2, CH(aryl), CH(Ph), CH(alkyl), and CH(2- isopropylphenyl). [0213] In any embodiment of Formula X, XI, or XII described herein R10 and R2 are selected from CH2, CMe2, SiMe2, SiEt2, SiPr2, SiBu2, SiPh2, Si(aryl)2, Si(alkyl)2, CH(aryl), CH(Ph), CH(alkyl), and CH(2-isopropylphenyl).

[0214] In any embodiment of Formula X, XI, or XII described herein, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, and R9 may be hydrogen or alkyl from 1 to 4 carbon atoms. Preferably 0, 1, or 2 of R , R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, and R9 are alkyl substituents.

[0215] In any embodiment of Formula X, XI, or XII described herein, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, R9, R12, R13, R14, and R15 are, independently, hydrogen, a Ci to C20 alkyl, preferably methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl, hexyl, heptyl, octyl, nonyl, decyl, undecyl, dodecyl, or an isomer thereof), or a C5 to C40 aryl group (preferably a Cfr to C20 aryl group, preferably phenyl or substituted phenyl or an isomer thereof, preferably phenyl, 2-isopropylphenyl, or 2- tertbutylphenyl).

[0216] In any embodiment of Formula X, XI, or XII described herein, preferably L is selected from halide, alkyl, aryl, alkoxy, amido, hydrido, phenoxy, hydroxy, silyl, allyl, alkenyl, and alkynyl.

[0217] In any embodiment of Formula X, XI, or XII described herein, preferably L' is selected from ethers, thio-ethers, amines, nitriles, imines, pyridines, and phosphines, preferably ethers.

[0218] The pyridyldiamido-metal complex is coordinated at the metal center as a tridentate ligand through two amido donors and one pyridyl donor. The metal center, M or M*, is a transition metal from Group 4. While in its use as a catalyst, according to current theory, the metal center is preferably in its four valent state, it is possible to create compounds in which M has a reduced valency state and regains its formal valency state upon preparation of the catalyst system by contacting with an activator (e.g., the organoaluminum treated layered silicate). Preferably, in addition to the pyridyldiamido ligand, the metal M or M* is also coordinated to n number of anionic ligands, with n being from 1 or 2. The anionic donors are typically halide or alkyl, but a wide range of other anionic groups are possible, including some that are covalently linked together to form molecules that could be considered dianionic, such as oxalate. For certain complexes, it is likely that up to three neutral Lewis bases (L or L*), typically ethers, could also be coordinated to the metal center. In a preferred embodiment, w is 0, 1, or 2.

[0219] In a preferred embodiment, L or L* may be selected from halide, alkyl, aryl, alkoxy, amido, hydrido, phenoxy, hydroxy, silyl, allyl, alkenyl, and alkynyl. The selection of the leaving groups depends on the synthesis route adopted for arriving at the complex and may be changed by additional reactions to suit the later activation method in polymerization. For example, a preferred L or L* group is alkyl when using non-coordinating anions such as Ν,Ν-dimethylanilinium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)-borate or tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane. In another embodiment, two L or two L* groups may be linked to form a dianionic leaving group, for example, oxalate.

[0220] In a preferred embodiment, X may be selected from halide, alkyl, aryl, alkoxy, amido, hydrido, phenoxy, hydroxy, silyl, allyl, alkenyl, and alkynyl. The selection of the leaving groups depends on the synthesis route adopted for arriving at the complex and may be changed by additional reactions to suit the later activation method in polymerization. For example, a preferred X is alkyl when using non-coordinating anions such as N,N- dimethylanilinium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)-borate or tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane. In another embodiment, two X groups may be linked to form a dianionic leaving group, for example, oxalate.

[0221] In another embodiment, each L* is independently selected from the group consisting of ethers, thio-ethers, amines, nitriles, imines, pyridines, and phosphines, preferably ethers.

[0222] Preferred compounds useful as catalysts herein include the pyridyldiamide complexes A through D shown below:

Figure imgf000049_0001

Pyridyldiamido Transition Metal Complex Synthesis

[0223] A typical synthesis of the pyridyldiamido complexes is reaction of the neutral pyridyldiamine ligand with a metalloamide, such as Hf(NMe2)2Cl2(l,2-dimethoxyethane), Zr(NMe2)4, Zr(NEt2)4, Hf(NMe2)4, and Hf(NEt2)4. Another synthesis route for the pyridyldiamido complexes is the reaction of the neutral pyridyldiamine ligand precursors with an organolithium reagent to form the dilithio pyridyldiamido derivative followed by reaction of this species with either a transition metal salt, including ZrCl4, HfCl4, ZrCl4(l,2- dimethoxy ethane) , HfCl4( 1 ,2-dimethoxyethane), ZrCl4(tetrahydrofuran)2, HfCl4(tetrahydrofuran)2, ZrBn2Cl2(OEt2), HfBn2Cl2(OEt2). Another preferred synthesis route for the pyridyldiamido complexes is reaction of the neutral pyridyldiamine ligands with an organometallic reactant, such as ZrBn4, ZrBn2Cl2(OEt2), Zr(CH2SiMe3)4, Zr(CH2CMe3)4, HfBn4, HfBn2Cl2(OEt2), Hf(CH2SiMe3)4, Hf(CH2CMe3)4.

[0224] The general synthetic routes used for the complexes presented herein are described in US 2014/0221587 A 1 and US 2015/0141601A1. HN5

[0225] Other useful catalysts having nitrogen linkages include substituted non- metallocene catalysts, termed HN5 catalysts. Such HN5 compounds may be represented by Formula :

R3

Figure imgf000050_0001

(VIII)

where:

M is a group 3-12 transition metal or a group 13 or 14 main group metal, preferably a group 4, 5, or 6 metal, preferably zirconium or hafnium; each X is independently an anionic leaving group, preferably hydrogen, a hydrocarbyl group, a heteroatom or a halogen; n is the formal oxidation state of M, preferably +3, +4, or +5, preferably +4;

m is the formal charge of the ligand comprising Y, Z, and L, preferably 0, -1, -2 or -3, preferably -2; L is a group 15 or 16 element, preferably nitrogen; Y is a group 15 element, preferably nitrogen or phosphorus; Z is a group 15 element, preferably nitrogen or phosphorus; R1 and R2 are independently a Ci to C20 hydrocarbon group, a heteroatom- containing group having up to twenty carbon atoms, silicon, germanium, tin, lead, phosphorus, a halogen, preferably a C2 to C6 hydrocarbon group, preferably a C2 to C20 alkyl, aryl or aralkyl group, preferably a linear, branched or cyclic C2 to C20 alkyl group, R1 and R2 may also be interconnected to each other; R3 is absent or a hydrocarbon group, hydrogen, a halogen, a heteroatom-containing group, preferably a linear, cyclic or branched alkyl group having 1 to 20 carbon atoms, more preferably R3 is absent or hydrogen; R4 and R5 are independently an aryl group, a substituted aryl group, a cyclic alkyl group, a substituted cyclic alkyl group, a cyclic aralkyl group, a substituted cyclic aralkyl group or multiple ring system, preferably having up to 20 carbon atoms, preferably between 3 and 10 carbon atoms, preferably a Ci to C20 hydrocarbon group, a Ci to C20 aryl group or a Ci to C20 aralkyl group; and R6 and R7 are independently absent, or hydrogen, halogen, heteroatom or a hydrocarbyl group, preferably a linear, cyclic or branched alkyl group having 1 to 20 carbon atoms, more preferably absent. [0226] In any embodiment, L may be bound to one of Y or Z and one of R1 or R2 may be bound to L and not to Y or Z. In an alternate embodiment, R3 and L do not form a heterocyclic ring.

[0227] In particular embodiments, R4 and R5 are independently a group represented by the following Formula:

Figure imgf000051_0001

Bound to Y or Z

(XIII)

where: R8 to R12 are each independently hydrogen, a Ci to C4o alkyl group, a heteroatom, a heteroatom-containing group containing up to 40 carbon atoms, preferably a Q to C20 linear or branched alkyl group, preferably a methyl, ethyl, propyl or butyl group, any two R groups may form a cyclic group and/or a heterocyclic group. The cyclic groups may be aromatic. In a preferred embodiment, R9, R10, and R12 are independently a methyl, ethyl, propyl, or butyl group, in a preferred embodiment R9, R10, and R12 are methyl groups, and R8 and R11 are hydrogen and the position identified by the asterisk between R9 and R10 of the phenyl ring is bonded to Y or Z.

[0228] In some embodiments, at least one of, particularly both of, R4 and R5 is represented by the following Formula:

Bound to Y or Z

Figure imgf000051_0002

[0229] Such a group may be referred to herein as a pentamethyl phenyl group, abbreviated as Ph(CH3)s.

[0230] In such embodiments, M is preferably zirconium or hafnium, most preferably zirconium. Additionally or alternatively, in such embodiments, each of L, Y, and Z may be nitrogen; each of R1 and R2 may be a -CH2CH2- group; R3 may be hydrogen; and R6 and R7 may be absent. For example, one such compound has a structure according to Formula (XV):

Figure imgf000052_0001

or Formula (XVa) where the Zr in Formula (XV) is replaced by Hf .

[0231] In some embodiments, at least one of, particularly both of, R4 and R5 is a group represented by the following Formula:

Bound to Y or Z

Figure imgf000052_0002
the position identified by the asterisk of the phenyl ring is bonded to Z or L.

[0232] In such embodiments, M is preferably zirconium or hafnium, most preferably zirconium. Additionally or alternatively, in such embodiments, each of L, Y, and Z may be nitrogen; each of R1 and R2 may be a -CH2CH2- group; R3 may be hydrogen; and R6 and R7 may be absent. For example, one such compound has the Formula:

Figure imgf000053_0001

or Formula (XVIIa) where the Zr in Formula (XVII) is replaced by Hf.

Complex Synthesis

[0233] These catalyst compounds may be prepared by any known method. Particular methods are described in U.S. Patent Nos. 5,889,128 and 6,271,325 and the references cited therein, the disclosures of which each are fully incorporated herein by reference in their entirety. One synthesis of these compounds comprises reacting the neutral ligand with Mn Xn, where M may be a Group 3-14 metal, n is the formal oxidation state of M, X is an anionic group, such as halide, in a non-coordinating or weakly coordinating solvent, such as ether, toluene, xylene, benzene, methylene chloride, and/or hexane or other solvent having a boiling point above 60°C, at about 20 to about 150°C (preferably 20 to 100°C), preferably for 24 hours or more, then treating the mixture with an excess (such as four equivalents) of an alkylating agent, such as methyl magnesium bromide in ether. The magnesium salts are removed by filtration, and the metal complex isolated by standard techniques.

[0234] In some embodiments, particularly those where a multimodal product, e.g., a bimodal ethylene polymer, is desired, the catalyst systems described herein include a first catalyst compound according to any catalyst of Formula (XIII), Formula (XIV), Formula (XlVa), Formula (XV), or Formula (XVa), and a second catalyst compound. The second catalyst compound may also be any catalyst compound according of Formula (XIII), Formula (XIV), Formula (XlVa), Formula (XV), or Formula (XVa). In particular embodiments, the first catalyst comprises a catalyst according to Formula (XIII) and the second catalyst comprises a catalyst according to Formula (XIV), Formula (XlVa), Formula (XV), or Formula (XVa). In particular embodiments, the catalyst system includes a first catalyst according to Formula (XIV) and a second catalyst according to Formula (XV).

[0235] Alternatively, the second catalyst may comprise a catalyst compound according to Formula (XVIII):

Figure imgf000054_0001

(XVIII).

[0236] In Formula (XVIII), each solid line represents a covalent bond and each dashed line represents a coordinative link; where:

M is a Group 3, 4, 5, or 6 transition metal;

N1 and N2 are nitrogen;

O is oxygen;

each of X1 and X2 is, independently, a univalent Ci to C20 hydrocarbyl radical, a functional group comprising elements from Groups 13 to 17 of the periodic table of the elements, or X1 and X2 join together to form a C4 to C62 cyclic or polycyclic ring structure, provided, however, when M is trivalent, X2 is not present;

each R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R12, R13, R14, R15, R16, and R17 is, independently, hydrogen, a Ci-C4o hydrocarbyl radical, a functional group comprising elements from Groups 13 to 17 of the periodic table of the elements, two or more of R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R12, R13, R14, R15, R16, and R17 independently join together to form a C4 to C62 cyclic or polycyclic ring structure, or a combination thereof;

R*1 and R*2 are independently, a hydrogen, a Ci to C4o hydrocarbyl radical, a functional group comprising elements from Group 13 to 17 of the periodic table of the elements, or two or more of R*1, R*2, and R1 to R17 may independently join together to form a C4 to C62 cyclic or polycyclic ring structure;

wherein at least one of R*1 and R*2 independently comprises a bulky functional group, an electron withdrawing group, or a combination thereof; and

Y is a divalent Ci to C20 hydrocarbyl radical. [0237] In some such embodiments, the catalyst system includes a first catalyst according to Formula (XIV), Formula (XlVa), Formula (XV), or Formula (XVa) and a second catalyst according to Formula (XVIII), particularly wherein at least one of X1 or X2 of Formula IV is a benzyl group, particularly where both of X1 and X2 in Formula IV are benzyl. Additionally or alternatively, particular embodiments include those where Y, in any formula described herein, is selected from the group consisting of -CH2CH2-. 1,2-cyclohexylene, and -CH2CH2CH2-. Additionally or alternatively, in particular embodiments, at least one of R*1 or R*2 is a cyclopentadienyl-containing group, a pyrrole radical, a substituted or unsubstituted phenyl group, or a diphenyl amine group. In particular embodiments, the cyclopentadienyl group is a substituted or unsubstituted cyclopentadienyl group, e.g., substituted or unsubstituted carbazole. The pyrrole radical may be selected from substituted or unsubstituted pyrrole radicals, particularly where two substituents of the pyrrole form a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring fused to the pyrrole ring. In another embodiment, the pyrrole ring shares a first side with a first substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring and a second side with a first substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The diphenyl amine group may be a substituted or unsubstituted diphenyl amine radical.

[0238] Particular catalysts according to Formula (XVIII) are further described in U.S.

Pat. App. Nos. 61/679,488, filed August 3 2012; 13/921,532, filed June 19, 2013;

61/679,505, filed August 3, 2012; 13/921,709, filed June 19, 2013; 61/679,527, filed August 3, 2012; 13/921,761, filed June 19, 2013; 61/722,110, filed November 2, 2012; 14/059,081, filed October 21, 2013; 61/779,435, filed March 13, 2013; 61/837,593, filed June 20, 2013;

14/076,750, filed November 11, 2013; 61/837,554, filed June 20, 2013; 14/289,075, filed

May 28, 2014; 61/837,569, filed June 20, 2013; 14/298,575, filed June 6, 2014; 61/837,588, filed June 20, 2013; 14/289,186, filed May 28, 2014; 61/982,823, filed April 22, 2014; and 14/557,813, filed December 2, 2014, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

Bis(imino)pyridyl Complex

[0239] Other useful catalysts having nitrogen linkages include bis(imino)pyridyl complexes. Such compounds may be represented by Formula :

Figure imgf000056_0001

wherein M comprises a transition metal from Groups 7, 8 or 9 of the Periodic Table of Elements; X is an atom or group covalently or ionically bonded to the transition metal M; n is 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 (preferably 2 or 3) ; and Rl to R7 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogens, hydrocarbyls, and substituted hydrocarbyls, provided that when any two or more of Rl to R7 are hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl, two or more can be linked to form one or more cyclic substituents.

[0240] In certain variations the transition metal M may be selected from the group consisting of Fe[II] Fe[III], Co[I], Co[II], Co[III], Mn[I], Mn[II], Mn[III], Mn[IV], Ru[II], Ru[III] and Ru[IV].

[0241] In certain aspects, the bis(imino)pyridyl complex is represented by the Formula:

Figure imgf000057_0001
wherein M comprises a transition metal from Groups 7, 8 or 9 of the Periodic Table of Elements; X represents an atom or group bonded to the transition metal M; T is the oxidation state of the transition metal M and b is the valency of the atom or group X; R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R19, R20, R21, R22, R23, R24, R25, R26, R27 and R28 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogens, hydrocarbyls and substituted hydrocarbyls, provided that when any two or more of R1, R2, R3, R4, and R5 are hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl, two or more can be linked to form one or more cyclic substituents.

[0242] In certain variations, the transition metal M may be selected from Fe[II] Fe[III], Co[I], Co[II], Co[III], Mn[I], Mn[II], Mn[III], Mn[IV], Ru[II], Ru[III] and Ru[IV]. In certain variations, M comprises Fe[II].

[0243] In other variations, X comprises a halide, optionally a chloride.

[0244] In certain variations, R1, R2, R3, R23, R24, R25, R26, R27 and R28 are hydrogen, R4 and R5 are alkyl, and R19, R20, R21 and R22 are independently selected from hydrogen, alkyl, and aryl.

[0245] In other variations, R4 and R5 are methyl, and R19, R20, R21 and R22 are independently selected from hydrogen, methyl, and tolyl. [0246] The bis(imino)pyridyl complexes may be further accompanied by a neutral or ionic activator or a co-catalyst. In certain variations, the activator comprises a perfluorinated aryl borate. In other variations, a trialkylaluminum co-catalyst. Such a co-catalyst may comprise triisobutylaluminum.

[0247] In certain embodiments described herein one catalyst compound is used, e.g., the catalyst compounds are not different. For purposes of this invention one catalyst compound is considered different from another if they differ by at least one atom. In other embodiments, two or more different catalyst compounds are present in the catalyst system used herein.

[0248] In some embodiments, two or more different catalyst compounds are present in the reaction zone where the process(es) described herein occur. When two metal compound based catalysts are used in one reactor as a mixed catalyst system, the two metal compounds are preferably chosen such that the two are compatible. A simple screening method such as by 1H or 13C NMR, known to those of ordinary skill in the art, can be used to determine which transition metal compounds are compatible. It is preferable to use the same activator for the transition metal compounds, however, two different activators, such as a non- coordinating anion activator and an alumoxane, can be used in combination, as described further below. If one or more transition metal compounds contain an X6 ligand which is not a hydride, hydrocarbyl, or substituted hydrocarbyl, then the alumoxane should be contacted with the transition metal compounds prior to addition of the non-coordinating anion activator.

[0249] Where two catalyst compounds are used, the two metal compounds (pre-catalysts) may be used in any ratio. Preferred molar ratios of (A) metal compound to (B) metal compound fall within the range of (A:B) 1 : 1000 to 1000: 1, alternatively 1 : 100 to 500: 1, alternatively 1 : 10 to 200: 1, alternatively 1: 1 to 100: 1, and alternatively 1: 1 to 75: 1, and alternatively 5: 1 to 50: 1. The particular ratio chosen will depend on the exact pre-catalysts chosen, the method of activation, and the end product desired. In a particular embodiment, when using the two pre-catalysts, where both are activated with the same activator, useful mole percentages, based upon the molecular weight of the pre-catalysts, are about 10 to about 99.9% A to about 0.1 to about 90% B, alternatively about 25 to about 99% A to about 0.5 to about 50% B, alternatively about 50 to about 99% A to about 1 to about 25% B, and alternatively about 75 to about 99% A to about 1 to about 10% B.

[0250] Typically, the catalyst compound is present on the support at from 0.01 micromols of catalyst per gram of support to 100 micromols of catalyst per gram of support (preferably from 0.1 micromols of catalyst per gram of support to 10 micromols of catalyst per gram of support, preferably from 1 micromols of catalyst per gram of support to 5 micromols of catalyst per gram of support, preferably from 3 micromols of catalyst per gram of support to 5 micromols of catalyst per gram of support.

B. Catalyst Binder

[0251] The catalyst material may optionally comprise a binder. Suitable binders, include but are not limited to silica, alumina, zirconia, titania, silica-alumina, cerium oxide, magnesium oxide, or combinations thereof. Thus, in another embodiment, an organosilica material comprising a catalyst material described herein is provided.

VI. Activators

[0252] In addition to the organosilica support and catalyst(s) described above, the catalyst system according to the present disclosure includes one or more activator compounds.

[0253] After the catalyst complexes described above are synthesized, catalyst compounds may be activated by combining them with activators in any manner known in the art by supporting them for use in slurry or gas phase polymerization. Non- limiting activators, for example, include alumoxanes, aluminum alkyls, ionizing activators, which may be neutral or ionic, and conventional-type cocatalysts. Preferred activators typically include alumoxane compounds, modified alumoxane compounds, and ionizing anion precursor compounds that abstract a reactive, σ-bound, metal ligand making the metal complex cationic and providing a charge-balancing noncoordinating or weakly coordinating anion.

[0254] After the catalyst complexes described above are synthesized, catalyst compounds may be activated by combining them with activators in any manner known in the art by supporting them for use in slurry or gas phase polymerization. Non- limiting activators, for example, include alumoxanes, aluminum alkyls, ionizing activators, which may be neutral or ionic, and conventional-type cocatalysts. Preferred activators typically include alumoxane compounds, modified alumoxane compounds, and ionizing anion precursor compounds that abstract a reactive, σ-bound, metal ligand making the metal complex cationic and providing a charge-balancing noncoordinating or weakly coordinating anion.

A Alumoxane Activators

[0255] In one embodiment, alumoxane activators are utilized as an activator in the catalyst system. Alumoxanes are generally oligomeric compounds containing -A^R^-O- sub- units, where R1 is an alkyl group. Examples of alumoxanes include methylalumoxane (MAO), modified methylalumoxane (MMAO), ethylalumoxane and isobutylalumoxane. Alkylalumoxanes and modified alkylalumoxanes are suitable as catalyst activators, particularly when the abstractable ligand is an alkyl, halide, alkoxide or amide. Mixtures of different alumoxanes and modified alumoxanes may also be used. It may be preferable to use a visually clear methylalumoxane. A cloudy or gelled alumoxane can be filtered to produce a clear solution or clear alumoxane can be decanted from the cloudy solution. A useful alumoxane is a modified methyl alumoxane (MMAO) cocatalyst type 3A (commercially available from Akzo Chemicals, Inc. under the trade name Modified Methylalumoxane type 3A and described in U.S. Patent No. 5,041,584).

[0256] When the activator is an alumoxane (modified or unmodified), some embodiments select the maximum amount of activator typically at up to a 5000-fold molar excess Al/M over the catalyst compound (per metal catalytic site). The minimum activator-to-catalyst-compound is a 1:1 molar ratio. Alternate preferred ranges include from 1:1 to 500:1, alternately from 1:1 to 200:1, alternately from 1:1 to 100:1, or alternately from 1:1 to 50:1.

[0257] In an alternate embodiment, little or no alumoxane is used in the polymerization processes described herein. Preferably, alumoxane is present at zero mole %, alternately the alumoxane is present at a molar ratio of aluminum to catalyst compound transition metal less than 500:1, preferably less than 300: 1, preferably less than 100:1, preferably less than 1:1. B. Non-Coordinating Anion Activators

[0258] A non-coordinating anion (NCA) is defined to mean an anion either that does not coordinate to the catalyst metal cation or that does coordinate to the metal cation, but only weakly. The term NCA is also defined to include multicomponent NCA-containing activators, such as Ν,Ν-dimethylanilinium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate, that contain an acidic cationic group and the non-coordinating anion. The term NCA is also defined to include neutral Lewis acids, such as tris(pentafluorophenyl)boron, that can react with a catalyst to form an activated species by abstraction of an anionic group. An NCA coordinates weakly enough that a neutral Lewis base, such as an olefinically or acetylenically unsaturated monomer can displace it from the catalyst center. Any metal or metalloid that can form a compatible, weakly coordinating complex may be used or contained in the noncoordinating anion. Suitable metals include, but are not limited to, aluminum, gold, and platinum. Suitable metalloids include, but are not limited to, boron, aluminum, phosphorus, and silicon. A stoichiometric activator can be either neutral or ionic. The terms ionic activator, and stoichiometric ionic activator can be used interchangeably. Likewise, the terms neutral stoichiometric activator, and Lewis acid activator can be used interchangeably. The term non-coordinating anion includes neutral stoichiometric activators, ionic stoichiometric activators, ionic activators, and Lewis acid activators.

[0259] "Compatible" non-coordinating anions are those which are not degraded to neutrality when the initially formed complex decomposes. Further, the anion will not transfer an anionic substituent or fragment to the cation so as to cause it to form a neutral transition metal compound and a neutral by-product from the anion. Non-coordinating anions useful in accordance with this invention are those that are compatible, stabilize the transition metal cation in the sense of balancing its ionic charge at +1, and yet retain sufficient lability to permit displacement during polymerization.

[0260] In certain aspects, an ionizing or stoichiometric activator, neutral or ionic, such as tri (n-butyl) ammonium tetrakis (pentafluorophenyl) borate, a tris perfluorophenyl boron metalloid precursor or a tris perfluoronaphthyl boron metalloid precursor, polyhalogenated heteroborane anions (PCT International Publication No. WO 98/43983), boric acid (U.S. Patent No. 5,942,459), or combination thereof can be used. Neutral or ionic activators alone or in combination with alumoxane or modified alumoxane activators can also be used.

[0261] The catalyst systems of this invention can include at least one non-coordinating anion (NCA) activator.

[0262] In a preferred embodiment, boron containing NCA activators represented by the formula:

Figure imgf000061_0001

where:

Z 24

is (L-H) or a reducible Lewis acid; L is a neutral Lewis base; H is hydrogen;

(L-H) is a Bronsted acid; Ad" is a boron containing non-coordinating anion having the charge d-; d is 1, 2, or 3.

24

[0263] The cation component, Z may include Bronsted acids such as protons or protonated Lewis bases or reducible Lewis acids capable of protonating or abstracting a moiety, such as an alkyl or aryl, from portions of the catalyst precursor, resulting in a cationic transition metal species.

24

[0264] The activating cation Z d+ may also be a moiety such as silver, tropylium, carboniums, ferroceniums and mixtures, preferably carboniums and ferroceniums. Most

24

preferably Z d+ is triphenyl carbonium. Preferred reducible Lewis acids can be any triaryl carbonium (where the aryl can be substituted or unsubstituted, such as those represented by the formula: (Ar3C+), where Ar is aryl or aryl substituted with a heteroatom, a Ci to C40 hydrocarbyl, or a substituted Ci to C40 hydrocarbyl), preferably the reducible Lewis acids in

24

formula above as "Z " include those represented by the formula: (PI13C), where Ph is a substituted or unsubstituted phenyl, preferably substituted with Ci to C40 hydrocarbyls or substituted a Ci to C40 hydrocarbyls, preferably Ci to C20 alkyls or aromatics or substituted Ci to C20 alkyls or aromatics, preferably V is a triphenylcarbonium.

24

[0265] When Z d + is the activating cation (L-H)d +, it is preferably a Bronsted acid, capable of donating a proton to the transition metal catalytic precursor resulting in a transition metal cation, including ammoniums, oxoniums, and/or phosphoniums.

[0266] The anion component Ad" includes those having the formula [M8k+Qn]d~ wherein k is 1, 2, or 3; n is 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 (preferably 1, 2, 3, or 4); n - k = d; M8 is an element selected from Group 13 elements, preferably boron or aluminum, and Q is independently a hydride, bridged or unbridged dialkylamido, halide, alkoxide, aryloxide, hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, halocarbyl, substituted halocarbyl, and halosubstituted-hydrocarbyl radicals, said Q having up to 20 carbon atoms with the proviso that in not more than 1 occurrence is Q a halide.

[0267] Illustrative, but not limiting examples of boron compounds which may be used as an activating cocatalyst are the compounds described as (and particularly those specifically listed as) activators in U.S. Patent No. 8,658,556, which is incorporated by reference herein.

[0268] Most preferably, the ionic stoichiometric activator Z24 d +(Ad") is one or more of Ν,Ν-dimethylanilinium tetra(perfluorophenyl)borate, N,N-dimethylanilinium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate, Ν,Ν-dimethylanilinium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate, Ν,Ν-dimethylanilinium tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate, triphenylcarbenium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate, triphenylcarbenium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate, triphenylcarbenium tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate, or triphenylcarbenium tetra(perfluorophenyl)borate.

[0269] A list of particularly useful Bulky Activators is described in U.S. Patent No. 8,658,556, which is incorporated by reference herein.

[0270] In another embodiment, one or more of the NCA activators is chosen from the activators described in U.S. Patent No. 6,211,105.

[0271] The typical activator-to-catalyst ratio, e.g., all NCA activators-to-catalyst ratio is about a 1 : 1 molar ratio. Alternate preferred ranges include from 0.1: 1 to 100: 1, alternately from 0.5:1 to 200:1, alternately from 1: 1 to 500: 1 alternately from 1:1 to 1000:1. A particularly useful range is from 0.5:1 to 10: 1, preferably 1:1 to 5:1.

[0272] It is also within the scope of this invention that the catalyst compounds can be combined with combinations of alumoxanes and NCA's (see for example, U.S. Patent Nos. 5,153,157 and 5,453,410, European Patent Publication No. 0573120 Bl, and International PCT Publications WO 94/07928, and WO 95/14044 which discuss the use of an alumoxane in combination with an ionizing activator).

VII. Optional Scavengers, Chain Transfer Agents and/or Co-Activators

[0273] In addition to the activator compounds, scavengers, chain transfer agents or co- activators may be used. Aluminum alkyl compounds which may be utilized as scavengers or co-activators include, for example, one or more of those represented by the formula A1R193, where each R19 is, independently, a Ci-C8 aliphatic radical, preferably methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl, hexyl octyl or an isomer thereof), especially trimethylaluminum, triethylaluminum, triisobutylaluminum, tri-n-hexylaluminum, tri-n-octylaluminum or mixtures thereof.

[0274] Useful chain transfer agents that may also be used herein are typically a compound represented by the formula AIR 20 20 20

3, ZnR 2 (where each R is, independently, a Ci-C8 aliphatic radical, preferably methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl, hexyl octyl or an isomer thereof) or a combination thereof, such as diethyl zinc, trimethylaluminum, triisobutylaluminum, trioctylaluminum, or a combination thereof.

VIII. Polymerization Processes

[0275] In certain embodiments, the catalytic systems of the present disclosure include organosilica materials as described herein as support matrices for separation and/or catalysis processes. For example, the organosilica materials may be supports in used for a polymerization process.

[0276] In embodiments herein, the invention relates to polymerization processes where monomer (such as propylene and or ethylene), and optionally comonomer, are contacted with a catalyst system comprising an activator, an organosilica material support and at least one catalyst, such as a catalyst compound having a nitrogen linkage, as described above. The support, catalyst compound, and activator may be combined in any order, and are combined typically prior to contacting with the monomers.

[0277] Monomers useful herein include substituted or unsubstituted C2 to C40 alpha olefins, preferably C2 to C20 alpha olefins, preferably C2 to Ci2 alpha olefins, preferably ethylene, propylene, butene, pentene, hexene, heptene, octene, nonene, decene, undecene, dodecene and isomers thereof.

[0278] In an embodiment of the invention, the monomer comprises propylene and an optional comonomers comprising one or more ethylene or C4 to C4Q olefins, preferably C4 to C20 olefins, or preferably Cg to olefins. The C4 to C4Q olefin monomers may be linear, branched, or cyclic. The C4 to C4Q cyclic olefins may be strained or unstrained, monocyclic or polycyclic, and may optionally include heteroatoms and/or one or more functional groups.

[0279] In another embodiment of the invention, the monomer comprises ethylene and optional comonomers comprising one or more C3 to C4Q olefins, preferably C4 to C20 olefins, or preferably C¾ to olefins. The C3 to C4Q olefin monomers may be linear, branched, or cyclic. The C3 to C4Q cyclic olefins may be strained or unstrained, monocyclic or polycyclic, and may optionally include heteroatoms and/or one or more functional groups.

[0280] Exemplary C2 to C4Q olefin monomers and optional comonomers include ethylene, propylene, butene, pentene, hexene, heptene, octene, nonene, decene, undecene, dodecene, norbornene, norbornadiene, dicyclopentadiene, cyclopentene, cycloheptene, cyclooctene, cyclooctadiene, cyclododecene, 7-oxanorbornene, 7-oxanorbornadiene, substituted derivatives thereof, and isomers thereof, preferably hexene, heptene, octene, nonene, decene, dodecene, cyclooctene, 1,5-cyclooctadiene, l-hydroxy-4-cyclooctene, 1- acetoxy-4-cyclooctene, 5-methylcyclopentene, cyclopentene, dicyclopentadiene, norbornene, norbornadiene, and their respective homologs and derivatives, preferably norbornene, norbornadiene, and dicyclopentadiene.

[0281] In a preferred embodiment one or more dienes are present in the polymer produced herein at up to 10 weight %, preferably at 0.00001 to 1.0 weight %, preferably 0.002 to 0.5 weight %, even more preferably 0.003 to 0.2 weight %, based upon the total weight of the composition. In some embodiments 500 ppm or less of diene is added to the polymerization, preferably 400 ppm or less, preferably or 300 ppm or less. In other embodiments at least 50 ppm of diene is added to the polymerization, or 100 ppm or more, or 150 ppm or more.

[0282] Diolefin monomers useful in this invention include any hydrocarbon structure, preferably C4 to C30, having at least two unsaturated bonds, wherein at least two of the unsaturated bonds are readily incorporated into a polymer by either a stereospecific or a non- stereospecific catalyst(s). It is further preferred that the diolefin monomers be selected from alpha, omega-diene monomers (i.e., di-vinyl monomers). More preferably, the diolefin monomers are linear di-vinyl monomers, most preferably those containing from 4 to 30 carbon atoms. Examples of preferred dienes include butadiene, pentadiene, hexadiene, heptadiene, octadiene, nonadiene, decadiene, undecadiene, dodecadiene, tridecadiene, tetradecadiene, pentadecadiene, hexadecadiene, heptadecadiene, octadecadiene, nonadecadiene, icosadiene, heneicosadiene, docosadiene, tricosadiene, tetracosadiene, pentacosadiene, hexacosadiene, heptacosadiene, octacosadiene, nonacosadiene, triacontadiene, particularly preferred dienes include 1,6-heptadiene, 1,7-octadiene, 1,8- nonadiene, 1,9-decadiene, 1,10-undecadiene, 1,11 -dodecadiene, 1,12-tridecadiene, 1,13- tetradecadiene, and low molecular weight polybutadienes (Mw less than 1000 g/mol). Preferred cyclic dienes include cyclopentadiene, vinylnorbornene, norbornadiene, ethylidene norbornene, divinylbenzene, dicyclopentadiene or higher ring containing diolefins with or without substituents at various ring positions.

[0283] Polymerization processes according to the present disclosure can be carried out in any manner known in the art. Any suspension, slurry, or gas phase polymerization process known in the art can be used. Such processes can be run in a batch, semi-batch, or continuous mode. Heterogeneous polymerization processes (such as gas phase and slurry phase processes) are preferred. A heterogeneous process is defined to be a process where the catalyst system is not soluble in the reaction media. Alternately the polymerization process is not homogeneous. A homogeneous polymerization process is defined to be a process where at least 90 wt% of the product is soluble in the reaction media. Alternately, the polymerization process is not a bulk process is particularly preferred. A bulk process is defined to be a process where monomer concentration in all feeds to the reactor is 70 volume % or more). Alternately, no solvent or diluent is present or added in the reaction medium, (except for the small amounts used as the carrier for the catalyst system or other additives, or amounts typically found with the monomer; e.g., propane in propylene). In another embodiment, the process is a slurry process. As used herein the term "slurry polymerization process" means a polymerization process where a supported catalyst is employed and monomers are polymerized on the supported catalyst particles. At least 95 wt% of polymer products derived from the supported catalyst are in granular form as solid particles (not dissolved in the diluent).

[0284] Suitable diluents/solvents for polymerization include non-coordinating, inert liquids. Examples include straight and branched-chain hydrocarbons, such as isobutane, butane, pentane, isopentane, hexanes, isohexane, heptane, octane, dodecane, and mixtures thereof; cyclic and alicyclic hydrocarbons, such as cyclohexane, cycloheptane, methylcyclohexane, methylcycloheptane, and mixtures thereof, such as can be found commercially (Isopar™); perhalogenated hydrocarbons, such as perfluorinated C4.10 alkanes, chlorobenzene, and aromatic and alkylsubstituted aromatic compounds, such as benzene, toluene, mesitylene, and xylene. Suitable solvents also include liquid olefins which may act as monomers or comonomers including ethylene, propylene, 1-butene, 1-hexene, 1-pentene, 3-methyl-l-pentene, 4-methyl- 1-pentene, 1-octene, 1-decene, and mixtures thereof. In a preferred embodiment, aliphatic hydrocarbon solvents are used as the solvent, such as isobutane, butane, pentane, isopentane, hexanes, isohexane, heptane, octane, dodecane, and mixtures thereof; cyclic and alicyclic hydrocarbons, such as cyclohexane, cycloheptane, methylcyclohexane, methylcycloheptane, and mixtures thereof. In another embodiment, the solvent is not aromatic; preferably aromatics are present in the solvent at less than 1 wt%, preferably less than 0.5 wt%, preferably less than 0 wt% based upon the weight of the solvents.

[0285] In a preferred embodiment, the feed concentration of the monomers and comonomers for the polymerization is 60 vol% solvent or less, preferably 40 vol% or less, or preferably 20 vol% or less, based on the total volume of the feedstream. Preferably the polymerization is run in a bulk process.

[0286] Preferred polymerizations can be run at any temperature and/or pressure suitable to obtain the desired ethylene polymers. Typical temperatures and/or pressures include a temperature in the range of from about 0°C to about 300°C, preferably about 20°C to about 200°C, preferably about 35°C to about 150°C, preferably from about 40°C to about 120°C, preferably from about 45°C to about 80°C; and at a pressure in the range of from about 0.35 MPa to about 10 MPa, preferably from about 0.45 MPa to about 6 MPa, or preferably from about 0.5 MPa to about 4 MPa.

[0287] In a typical polymerization, the run time of the reaction is up to 300 minutes, preferably in the range of from about 5 to 250 minutes, or preferably from about 10 to 120 minutes.

[0288] In some embodiments, hydrogen is present in the polymerization reactor at a partial pressure of 0.001 to 50 psig (0.007 to 345 kPa), preferably from 0.01 to 25 psig (0.07 to 172 kPa), more preferably 0.1 to 10 psig (0.7 to 70 kPa).

[0289] In one embodiment of the invention, the polymerization is performed in the gas phase, preferably in a fluidized gas bed process. Generally, in a fluidized gas bed process used for producing polymers, a gaseous stream containing one or more monomers is continuously cycled through a fluidized bed in the presence of a catalyst under reactive conditions. The gaseous stream is withdrawn from the fluidized bed and recycled back into the reactor. Simultaneously, polymer product is withdrawn from the reactor and fresh monomer is added to replace the polymerized monomer. (See for example U.S. Patent No's 4,543,399; 4,588,790; 5,028,670; 5,317,036; 5,352,749; 5,405,922; 5,436,304; 5,453,471; 5,462,999; 5,616,661 ; and 5,668,228; all of which are fully incorporated herein by reference.)

[0290] In another embodiment of the invention, the polymerization is performed in the slurry phase. A slurry polymerization process generally operates between 1 to about 50 atmosphere pressure range (15 psi to 735 psi, 103 kPa to 5068 kPa) or even greater and temperatures in the range of 0°C to about 120°C. In a slurry polymerization, a suspension of solid, particulate polymer is formed in a liquid polymerization diluent medium to which monomer and comonomers, along with catalysts, are added. The suspension including diluent is intermittently or continuously removed from the reactor where the volatile components are separated from the polymer and recycled, optionally after a distillation, to the reactor. The liquid diluent employed in the polymerization medium is typically an alkane having from 3 to 7 carbon atoms, preferably a branched alkane. The medium employed should be liquid under the conditions of polymerization and relatively inert. When a propane medium is used, the process is typically operated above the reaction diluent critical temperature and pressure. Often, a hexane or an isobutane medium is employed.

[0291] In an embodiment, a preferred polymerization technique useful in the invention is referred to as a particle form polymerization, or a slurry process where the temperature is kept below the temperature at which the polymer goes into solution. Such technique is known in the art, and described in for instance U.S. Patent No. 3,248,179, which is fully incorporated herein by reference. A preferred temperature in the particle form process is within the range of about 85 °C to about 110°C. Two preferred polymerization methods for the slurry process are those employing a loop reactor and those utilizing a plurality of stirred reactors in series, parallel, or combinations thereof. Non- limiting examples of slurry processes include continuous loop or stirred tank processes. Also, other examples of slurry processes are described in U.S. Patent No. 4,613,484, which is herein fully incorporated by reference.

[0292] In another embodiment, the slurry process is carried out continuously in a loop reactor. The catalyst, as a slurry in isobutane or as a dry free flowing powder, is injected regularly to the reactor loop, which is itself filled with circulating slurry of growing polymer particles in a diluent of isobutane containing monomer and comonomer. Hydrogen, optionally, may be added as a molecular weight control. In one embodiment 500 ppm or less of hydrogen is added, or 400 ppm or less or 300 ppm or less. In other embodiments at least 50 ppm of hydrogen is added, or 100 ppm or more, or 150 ppm or more.

[0293] The slurry reactor may be maintained at a pressure of 3620 kPa to 4309 kPa and at a temperature in the range of about 60°C to about 104°C depending on the desired polymer melting characteristics. Reaction heat is removed through the loop wall since much of the reactor is in the form of a double-jacketed pipe. The slurry is allowed to exit the reactor at regular intervals or continuously to a heated low pressure flash vessel, rotary dryer and a nitrogen purge column in sequence for removal of the isobutane diluent and all unreacted monomer and comonomers. The resulting hydrocarbon free powder is then compounded for use in various applications.

[0294] In certain embodiments, little or no alumoxane is used in the process to produce the polymers. Alumoxane is optionally present at zero mol%, alternately the alumoxane is present at a molar ratio of aluminum to transition metal less than 500: 1, preferably less than 300: 1, preferably less than 100: 1, preferably less than 1: 1.

[0295] In a preferred embodiment, little or no scavenger is used in the process to produce the polymer, such as ethylene polymer. Preferably, scavenger (such as trialkyl aluminum, A^R1^ as defined above) is present at zero mol%, alternately the scavenger is present at a molar ratio of scavenger metal to transition metal of less than 100: 1, preferably less than 50: 1, preferably less than 15: 1, preferably less than 10: 1.

[0296] In a preferred embodiment, the catalyst system used in the polymerization comprises no more than one catalyst compound. A "reaction zone" also referred to as a "polymerization zone" is a vessel where polymerization takes place, for example a batch reactor. When multiple reactors are used in either series or parallel configuration, each reactor is considered as a separate polymerization zone. For a multi-stage polymerization in both a batch reactor and a continuous reactor, each polymerization stage is considered as a separate polymerization zone. In a preferred embodiment, the polymerization occurs in one reaction zone.

[0297] Other additives may also be used in the polymerization, as desired, such as one or more scavengers, promoters, modifiers, chain transfer agents (such as diethyl zinc), reducing agents, oxidizing agents, hydrogen, aluminum alkyls, or silanes. [0298] In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the polymerization occurs within the mesopores of the organosilica material support and preferably the mesopores have an average diameter as discussed above, for example, from about 2 nm to about 50 nm, alternately about 3 nm to about 20 nm.

A. Polyolefin Products

[0299] This invention also relates to polymer compositions of matter produced by the methods described herein.

[0300] In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the process described herein produces homopolymers copolymers of one, two, three, four or more C2 to C40 olefin monomers, preferably C2 to C20 alpha olefin monomers. Particularly useful monomers include ethylene, propylene, butene, pentene, hexene, heptene, octene, nonene, decene, undecene, dodecene, isomers thereof and mixtures thereof.

[0301] Likewise, the process of this invention produces olefin polymers, preferably polyethylene and polypropylene homopolymers and copolymers. In a preferred embodiment, the polymers produced herein are homopolymers of ethylene or homopolymers of propylene.

[0302] Alternately, the polymers produced herein are copolymers of a C2 to C40 olefin and one, two or three or more different C2 to C40 olefins, (where the C2 to C40 olefins are preferably C3 to C20 olefins, preferably are C3 to Ci2 alpha-olefin, preferably are propylene, butene, hexene, octene, decene, dodecene, preferably propylene, butene, hexene, octene or a mixture thereof).

[0303] Alternately, the polymers produced herein are copolymers of ethylene preferably having from 0 to 25 mole% (alternately from 0.5 to 20 mole%, alternately from 1 to 15 mole%, preferably from 3 to 10 mole%) of one or more C3 to C20 olefin comonomer (preferably C3 to Ci2 alpha-olefin, preferably propylene, butene, hexene, octene, decene, dodecene, preferably propylene, butene, hexene, octene).

[0304] Alternately, the polymers produced herein are copolymers of are copolymers of propylene preferably having from 0 to 25 mole% (alternately from 0.5 to 20 mole%, alternately from 1 to 15 mole%, preferably from 3 to 10 mole%) of one or more of C2 or C4 to C20 olefin comonomers (preferably ethylene or C4 to Ci2 alpha-olefin, preferably ethylene, butene, hexene, octene, decene, dodecene, preferably ethylene, butene, hexene, octene).

[0305] Typically, the polymers produced herein have an Mw of 5,000 to 1,000,000 g/mol (preferably 25,000 to 750,000 g/mol, preferably 50,000 to 500,000 g/mol), and/or an Mw/Mn of greater than 1 to 40 (alternately 1.2 to 20, alternately 1.3 to 10, alternately 1.4 to 5, 1.5 to 4, alternately 1.5 to 3).

[0306] In a preferred embodiment, the polymer produced herein has a unimodal or multimodal molecular weight distribution as determined by Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). By "unimodal" is meant that the GPC trace has one peak or inflection point. By "multimodal" is meant that the GPC trace has at least two peaks or inflection points. An inflection point is that point where the second derivative of the curve changes in sign (e.g., from negative to positive or vice versus).

[0307] Unless otherwise indicated Mw, Mn, MWD are determined by GPC as described in U.S. Publication No. 2006/0173123, at pages 24-25, paragraphs [0334] to [0341].

[0308] In a preferred embodiment the polymer produced herein has a composition distribution breadth index (CDBI) of 50% or more, preferably 60% or more, preferably 70 % or more. CDBI is a measure of the composition distribution of monomer within the polymer chains and is measured by the procedure described in PCT International Publication No. WO 93/03093, specifically at columns 7 and 8 as well as in Wild et al, J. Poly. Sci., Poly. Phys. Ed., Vol. 20, p. 441 (1982) and U.S. Patent No. 5,008,204, including fractions having a weight average molecular weight (Mw) below 15,000 are ignored when determining CDBI.

B. Blends

[0309] In another embodiment, the polymer (preferably the polyethylene or polypropylene) produced herein is combined with one or more additional polymers prior to being formed into a film, molded part or other article. Other useful polymers include polyethylene, isotactic polypropylene, highly isotactic polypropylene, syndiotactic polypropylene, random copolymer of propylene and ethylene, and/or butene, and/or hexene, polybutene, ethylene vinyl acetate, LDPE, LLDPE, HDPE, ethylene vinyl acetate, ethylene methyl acrylate, copolymers of acrylic acid, polymethylmethacrylate or any other polymers polymerizable by a high-pressure free radical process, polyvinylchloride, polybutene- 1, isotactic polybutene, ABS resins, ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR), vulcanized EPR, EPDM, block copolymer, styrenic block copolymers, polyamides, polycarbonates, PET resins, cross linked polyethylene, copolymers of ethylene and vinyl alcohol (EVOH), polymers of aromatic monomers such as polystyrene, poly-1 esters, polyacetal, polyvinylidine fluoride, polyethylene glycols, and/or polyisobutylene.

[0310] In a preferred embodiment, the polymer (preferably the polyethylene or polypropylene ) is present in the above blends, at from 10 to 99 wt%, based upon the weight of the polymers in the blend, preferably 20 to 95 wt%, even more preferably at least 30 to 90 wt%, even more preferably at least 40 to 90 wt%, even more preferably at least 50 to 90 wt%, even more preferably at least 60 to 90 wt%, even more preferably at least 70 to 90 wt%.

[0311] The blends described above may be produced by mixing the polymers of the invention with one or more polymers (as described above), by connecting reactors together in series to make reactor blends or by using more than one catalyst in the same reactor to produce multiple species of polymer. The polymers can be mixed together prior to being put into the extruder or may be mixed in an extruder.

C. Films

[0312] Specifically, any of the foregoing polymers, such as the foregoing polypropylenes or blends thereof, may be used in a variety of end-use applications. Such applications include, for example, mono- or multi-layer blown, extruded, and/or shrink films.

VI. EXPERIMENTAL

Examples

[0313] The following examples are merely illustrative, and do not limit this disclosure in any way.

General Methods

Small Angle X-ray Diffraction Analysis

[0314] X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) patterns were collected on a PANalytical X'pert diffractometer equipped with an accessory for low angle measurements. XRD analyses were recorded using the Cu Ka (=1.5405980A) line in the 2Θ range from 0.5 to 10° with a step size of 0.0167° and a counting time of 1.2 s.

29Si MAS NMR. 13C CPMAS NMR and 27A1 MAS NMR spectra

[0315] The 29Si MAS NMR spectra were recorded on a Varian InfinityPlus-400 spectrometer (operating at 9.4T) and Varian InfinityPlus-500 (operating at 11.74T), corresponding to 29Si Larmor frequencies of 79.4 MHz and 99.2 MHz, respectively, with a 7.5 mm MAS probe heads using 5 kHz spinning, 4.0μ8 90° pulses, and at least 60 s recycle delay, with proton decoupling during data acquisition. The 29Si chemical shifts are referenced with respect to an external tetramethyl silane (5si = 0.0 ppm). The 13C CPMAS NMR spectra were recorded on a Varian InfinityPlus-500 spectrometer corresponding to 13C Larmor frequency of 125 MHz, with 1.6 mm MAS probe head using 40 kHz spinning, 1H-13C cross-polarization (CP) contact time of 1 ms, a recycle delay of 1 s, with proton decoupling during data acquisition. The 13C chemical shifts are referenced with respect to an external tetramethyl silane (5c = 0.0 ppm). The Al MAS NMR spectra were recorded on a Varian InfinityPlus-500 corresponding to 27 Al Larmor frequency of 130.1 MHz using a 4 mm MAS probe head using 12 kHz spinning, with a π/12 radian pulse length, with proton decoupling during data acquisition, and a recycle delay of 0.3 s. The chemical shifts are referenced with respect to an external solution of A1(H20)63+ (5AI = 0.0 ppm). All NMR spectra were recorded at room temperature using air for spinning.

1H NMR

[0316] Products were characterized by H NMR as follows: A Bruker 400 MHz Advance

III Spectrometer was used.

[0317] In certain experiments, H NMR data are collected at 22°C in a 5 mm probe using the 400 MHz Bruker spectrometer with deuterated solvent in which the sample is completely soluble. Data is recorded using a maximum pulse width of 45°, 8 seconds between pulses and signal averaging 16 transients.

Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA)

[0318] Thermal stability results were recorded on Q5000 TGA. Ramp rate was 5°C/min, temperature range was from 25 °C to 800°C. All the samples were tested in both air and nitrogen.

Example 1- Organosilica Material Syntheses using Formula [R3R4SiCH?1^ (IA) in Basic or Acidic Media

1A. Synthesis Using r(EtO)7.SiCH?,"h in Basic Aqueous Medium - Without Surfactant.

[0319] A solution with 18.6 g of 30% NH4OH and 23.76 g deionized water (DI) water was made. The pH of the solution was 12.55. To the solution, 3.0 g of 1,1,3,3,5,5- hexaethoxy-l,3,5-trisilacyclohexane ([(EtO)2SiCH2]3) was added, producing a mixture having the molar composition:

1.0 [(EtO)2SiCH2]3 : 21 OH : 270 H20

and stirred for 1 day at room temperature (20-25 °C). The solution was transferred to an autoclave and aged at 80°C-90°C for 1 day to produce a gel. The gel was dried at 80°C in a vacuum to remove most of the water and then fully dried at 110°C for three hours. This produced Sample 1A as a clear solid, which was converted to white powder after grinding. No surface directing agent or porogen were used in this preparation.

[0320] The procedure was repeated with the following molar composition:

4.0 [(EtO)2SiCH2]3 : 21 OH : 270 H20 to produce Sample IB. XRD, TGA weight loss studies, nitrogen adsorption desorption analysis and 29Si MAS NMR were performed on Sample 1A. Those data are reported in USSN 14/965,992; filed December 11, 2015.

Figure imgf000073_0001

Surfactant.

[0321] In this example, an organosilica material was prepared according to Landskron, K., et al., Science 302:266-269 (2003). Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMABr, 0.9 mmol, 0.32 g, Aldrich) was dissolved in a mixture of 2.16 g NH4OH (35 wt%) and 3.96 g de- ionized water at 20°C to form a solution. [(EtO)2SiCH2]3 (1.26 mmol, 0.5 g) was added to the solution, producing a solution having the molar composition:

1.0 [(EtO)2SiCH2]3 : 17 OH : 236 H20 : 0.7 CTMABr which was stirred for 1 day at 20°C and a white precipitate formed. Afterwards, the solution was aged for 1 day at 80°C. Then the precipitate was filtered off and washed with water. The sample was then stirred for 48 hours in a solution of 12 g HCl (36 wt%) and 80 g of methanol. The sample was then filtered off again and washed with MeOH, resulting in Comparative Sample 2. XRD, TGA weight loss studies, and Nitrogen adsorption/desorption analysis were performed Comparative Sample 2. Those data are reported in USSN 14/965,992; filed December 11, 2015 entitled "Organosilica Materials and Uses Thereof filed on December 11, 2015. Compared to the XRD pattern of Sample 1A, the XRD pattern of Comparative Sample 2 exhibits a shoulder at about 3 degrees 2Θ. The surface area, average pore diameter, and pore volume obtained by the nitrogen adsorption/esorption analysis for Sample 1A and Comparative Sample 2 are shown below in Table 1.

Table 1

Figure imgf000073_0002

[0322] Comparative Sample 2 was characterized with Si MAS NMR as shown and those data are reported in USSN 14/965,992; filed December 11, 2015. As shown below in Table 2, Sample 1A had a higher silanol content (i.e. , 47%) compared to Comparative Sample 2 (i.e. , 41%). Table 2

Figure imgf000074_0002

Figure imgf000074_0001

[0323] A 14 g HC1 solution with a pH of 2 was made by adding 0.778 mol water and 0.14 mmol HC1. To the solution, 1.0 g (2.52 mmol) of [(EtO)2SiCH2]3 was added producing a solution having the molar composition:

18 [(EtO)2SiCH2]3 : 1 HC1 : 5556 H20

which was stirred for 1 day at room temperature (20-25 °C). The solution was transferred to an autoclave and aged at 94°C for 1 day to produce a gel. The gel was dried in a vacuum at 120°C overnight (16-24 hours) to produce Sample 3. No surface directing agent or porogen were used. XRD, Nitrogen adsorption/desorption were performed on Sample 3. Those data are reported in USSN 14/965,992; filed December 11, 2015.

ID. Synthesis using KEtO tSiCIkTt and TCH^EtOSiCH^

[0324] A solution with 6.21 g of 30% NH4OH and 7.92 g DI water was made. To the solution, 0.6 g of [(EtO)2SiCH2]3 and 0.306 g of l,3,5-trimethyl-l,3,5-triethoxy-l,3,5- trisilacyclohexane ([CH3Et02SiCH2] 3) was added producing a solution having the molar composition:

1.5 [(EtO)2SiCH2]3 : 1.0 [CH3EtOSiCH2] 3 : 53 OH : 682 H20 which was stirred for 1 day at room temperature (20-25 °C). The solution was transferred to an autoclave and aged at 90°C for 1 day to produce a gel. The gel was dried in a vacuum at 120°C overnight (16-24 hours) and Sample 4A was obtained. No structure directing agent or porogen were used.

Nitrogen Adsorption/Desorption Analysis

[0325] This above preparation method was repeated, except the relative ratio of [(EtO)2SiCH2]3 (Reagent 1) to [CH3Et02SiCH2]3 (Reagent 2) was varied. Nitrogen adsorption/desorption analysis was performed on each material and the results for each material is given below in Table 3. Table 3

Figure imgf000075_0001

[0326] As Reagent 2 increased, the average pore diameter was observed to increase, which without being bound by theory may be due to Reagent 2 containing less reactive -OR groups compared to Reagent 1. The porosity of the material decreased as Reagent 2 was greater than 60% (mol ratio). The materials in Table 3 were characterized with 29Si MAS NMR, and those data are reported in USSN 14/965,992; filed December 11, 2015.

Example 2-Calcining Study

[0327] Sample 1A was calcined at temperatures of 300°C, 400°C, 500°C, and 600°C in air to obtain Samples lA(i), lA(ii), lA(iii) and lA(iv), respectively. After calcining at 500°C Sample lA(iii) still exhibited good mesoporosity (e.g. , 3 nm pore diameter and over 600 m2/g surface area).

Example 3: Synthesis of Catalyst System Including Organosilica Support Reacted with Alumoxane Activator and Catalyst

[0328] Three mesoporous organosilica materials, Samples 1A, 3, and 4A are formed as described in Example 1. All materials to be tested as catalyst supports (Samples 1A, 3, and 4A) were dried at 250°C overnight in a muffle furnace equipped with nitrogen purge. The dried organosilica supports were removed from the furnace while hot and allowed to cool under vacuum and then stored inside a nitrogen filled box.

[0329] In an initial experiment, Sample 1A was reacted with methyl alumoxane (MAO) to obtain an initial understanding of MAO reactivity with the organosilica support material and the level of reactivity -OH groups. MAO is methyl alumoxane (30 wt% in toluene) obtained from Albemarle. A first portion of the Sample 1A was used as received and reacted with MAO. High levels of MAO were found to react with Sample 1A organosilica support material. A second portion of the Sample 1A material was calcined at 200°C prior to reaction with the MAO. These activated supports were then reacted with Catalyst 1 (1,3- Me,BuCp)2 rCl2 and tested in slurry and phase reactors. 3A. Organosilica Material Reacted with Alumoxane Activator

[0330] 0.5992 g Sample 1A was calcined at 200°C overnight under vacuum was slurried in 17 mL of toluene. 1.36 g of MAO (30% wt solution in toluene) was added to the slurry. The slurry was heated to 70°C for lhr. 1H NMR analysis showed no MAO in solution. A second batch of MAO (1.0135 g) was added. The slurry was stirred for another 30 minutes. A second !Η NMR revealed excess MAO. The slurry was filtered, washed three times with 15 mL of toluene each, washed twice with pentane, and dried under vacuum to give 1.0694 g of white solid.

3B. Organosilica Material Reacted with Alumoxane Activator

[0331] 1.0250 g of Sample 1A was slurried in 20 mL of toluene. 4.680 g of MAO (30% wt solution in toluene) was added to the slurry. The slurry was heated to 70°C for lhr. H NMR analysis did not show any excess MAO. An additional batch of MAO (2.4965 g, 30 wt % solution in toluene) was then added to the slurry. The slurry was stirred for another 20 minutes. A second 1H NMR showed a slight excess of MAO. The slurry was filtered, washed three times with 15 mL of toluene each, washed twice with pentane, and dried under vacuum to give 2.87 g of white solid. The resultant Sample 5 is an organosilica support material reacted with MAO activator.

3C. Activation with Alumoxane

[0332] 1.0250 g of Sample 1A was slurried in 20 mL of toluene. 4.680 g of a 30 wt % MAO solution in toluene was slowly added to the slurry. The slurry was stirred for 1 hr at 70°C. 1H NMR analysis did not show any excess MAO. An additional batch of MAO (2.4965g of 30 wt% solution in toluene) was then added to the slurry. After an additional 20 minutes, !Η NMR analysis showed a slight excess of MAO. The slurry was filtered, washed three times with 15 milliters each of toluene, washed twice with pentane, and dried under vacuum to give 2.87 grams of white solid.

3D. Reaction with Metallocene Catalyst

[0333] 0.5141 g of Sample 5 MC20092-MAO produced in Example 3B was slurried in 15 mL of toluene. Catalyst 1 (l,3-Me,BuCp)2ZrCl2 (8.8mg, 0.0203mmol) was dissolved in 5mL of toluene and added to the slurry. The slurry was stirred for 45 min. The slurry was filtered, washed three times with 15 mL of toluene each, washed twice with pentane, and dried under vacuum to give 0.4018 g of white solid (Sample 6). 3E. Calcined Organosilica Activation with Alumoxane

[0334] 0.5992 g Sample 1A was calcined at 200°C overnight under vacuum and was then slurried in 17 mL of toluene. 1.363 g of MAO (a 30%wt solution in toluene) was added to the slurry. The slurry was heated to 70°C for 1 hr. 1H NMR analysis showed no MAO in solution. A second batch of MAO (1.0135g) was added to the slurry. The slurry was stirred for another 30 min. A second !Η NMR analysis revealed excess MAO. The slurry was filtered, washed three times with 15mL of toluene each, washed twice with pentane, and dried under vacuum to give 1.0694 g of white solid. The resultant Sample 7 is a calcined organosilica support material reacted with MAO activator.

3F. Reaction of Calcined Organosilica-Alumoxane with Metallocene Catalyst

[0335] 0.4309 g of Sample 7 produced in Example 3E was slurried in 15 mL of toluene. 7.4 mg, 0.0174 mmol of Catalyst 1 (l,3-Me,BuCp)2ZrCl2 was dissolved in 5 mL of toluene and added to the slurry. The slurry was stirred for 1 hr. The slurry was filtered, washed three times with 15 mL of toluene each, washed twice with pentane, and dried under vacuum to give 0.4011 g of white solid (Sample 8).

Example 4: Synthesis of Comparative Example of Methyl Alumoxane Supported Activator (SMAO) Catalyst System

[0336] Ineos ES757 silica (741 g), dehydrated at 610 °C, was added to a stirred (overhead mechanical conical stirrer) mixture of toluene (2 L) and methylaluminoxane solution (874 g; Albemarle, 30 wt% in toluene). The silica was chased with toluene (200 mL) then the mixture was heated to 90°C for 3 hours. Afterwards, volatiles were removed by application of vacuum and mild heat (40 °C) overnight then the solid was allowed to cool to room temperature.

[0337] The catalyst support is then reacted with Catalyst 1 (l,3-Me,BuCp)2ZrCl2- The resultant Comparative Sample 9 is a SMAO catalyst system.

Example 5: Synthesis of Catalyst System Including Organosilica Support Reacted with Alumoxane Activator and Catalyst

Example 5A. Organosilica Material Reacted with Alumoxane Activator

[0338] 1. 0 g of Sample 3 was slurried in 20 mL of toluene in a 50 mL Celstir™ flask. 2.5 g of a 30 wt % MAO solution in toluene was slowly added to the slurry. The slurry was stirred for 1 hr at 70°C. The slurry was filtered, rinsed with toluene, 10 mL, and dried under vacuum to give 1.15 g of white solid (Sample 10). Example 5B. Reaction with Metallocene Catalyst

[0339] A 247 mg amount of Sample 10 was slurried in approximately 10 mL of toluene using a Celstir™ flask. Next, 4.3 mg (10 μιηοΐ) of Catalyst A bis(lmethyl,3-n- propylcyclopentadienyl)ZrCl2 was added to the Celestir™ vessel from a stock solution (1 mg/g toluene). This mixture was stirred for three hours, after which the mixture was filtered using a glass frit. It was washed with two 10 mL portions of hexane and then dried under vacuum for two hours. The yield was 160 mg of off-white powder (Sample 11).

Example 6: Organosilica Support Material Reacted with Alumoxane Activator

Example 6A. Activation with Alumoxane

[0340] 2.55 g of Sample 4A was slurried in about 20 mL of toluene in a 50 mL round bottom flask with a stir bar. While stirring, 9.9 mis of a 30 wt % MAO solution in toluene was added in four portions over several minutes. The slurry was heated to 70°C for 1.5 hours. The solid was isolated by filtration, washed 2 x 20 mL with toluene and 2 x 20 mL pentane, then dried under vacuum at room temperature. The yield was 3.51 grams. The resultant Sample 12 is an organosilica support material reacted with MAO activator.

Example 6B. Activation with Alumoxane

[0341] 1.0 g of Sample 4A was slurried in about 20 mL of toluene in a 50 mL Celstir™ flask. While stirring, 9.9 mis of a 30 wt % MAO solution in toluene was added in four portions over several minutes. The slurry was heated to 70°C for 1 hour. The solid was isolated by filtration, washed 2 x 20 mL with toluene and 2 x 20 mL pentane, and then dried under vacuum at room temperature. The yield was 1.86 grams. The resultant Sample 13 is an organosilica support material reacted with MAO activator.

Example 6C. Reaction with Metallocene Catalyst

[0342] A 245 mg amount of Sample 13 was slurried in approximately 10 mL of toluene using a Celstir™ flask. Next, 4.3 mg (10 μιηοΐ) of Catalyst A (bis(l-methyl, 3-n-propyl cyclopentadienyl)ZrCl2) was added to the Celestir™ vessel from a stock solution (1 mg/g toluene). This mixture was stirred for three hours, after which the mixture was filtered using a glass frit. It was washed with two 10 mL portions of hexane and then dried under vacuum for two hours. The yield was 240 mg of off-white powder (Sample 14).

Example 6D. Reaction with Catalyst

[0343] Solid catalyst was weighed out into a 20 mL scintillation vial; approximately 5 mL toluene was added. With rapid stirring, the catalyst support of Sample 36 was added. The slurry was stirred for 15 - 30 minutes; the solid was isolated by filtration, washed with about 5 mL of toluene and dried under vacuum at room temperature for about 30 minutes. Amounts and types of each catalyst are indicated in Table 4.

Table 4

Figure imgf000079_0001
Figure imgf000080_0001

[0344] 138 mg of Sample 13 was slurried in approximately 10 mL of toluene

Celstir1M flask. Next, 5.3 mg

Figure imgf000080_0002
was added to the Celestir vessel from a stock solution (1 mg/g toluene). This mixture was stirred for three hours, after which the mixture was filtered using a glass frit. It was washed with two 10 mL portions of hexane and then dried under vacuum for 2 hrs. The yield was 62 mg of off-white powder (Sample 20).

Example 6F. Reaction with Catalyst

[0345] 200 mg of Sample 13 was slurried in approximately 10 mL of toluene using a Celstir™ flask. Next, 4.5 mg (5.5 μιηοΐ) of Catalyst H:

Figure imgf000081_0001

H

was added to the Celestir™ vessel. This mixture was stirred for three hours, after which the mixture was filtered using a glass frit. It was washed with two 10 mL portions of hexane and then dried under vacuum overnight. The yield was 132 mg of grey powder (Sample 21). Example 6G. Reaction with Catalyst

[0346] 213 mg of Sample 13 was slurried in approximately 10 mL of toluene using a Celstir™ vessel. Next, 9.

Figure imgf000081_0002
was added to the Celestir vessel. This mixture was stirred for three hours, after which the mixture was filtered using a glass frit. It was washed with two 10 mL portions of hexane and then dried under vacuum overnight. The yield was 141 mg of off-white powder (Sample 22). Example 7: Synthesis of Catalyst System Including Organosilica Material Reacted with Alumoxane Activator

[0347] 0.5992 g of Sample 1A was calcined at 200°C overnight under vacuum was slurried in 17 mL of toluene in a 50 ml Celstir™ flask. MAO (1.36 g of a 30% wt solution in toluene) was added to the slurry. The slurry was heated to 70°C for lhr. 1H NMR analysis showed no MAO in solution. A second batch of MAO (1.01 g) was added. The slurry was stirred for another 30 minutes. A second 1H NMR revealed excess MAO. The slurry was filtered, washed three times with 15 mL of toluene each, washed twice with pentane, and dried under vacuum to give 1.07 g of white solid.

[0348] In certain aspects, the organosilica material catalyst supports prepared in accordance with certain aspects of the present disclosure increase a catalyst activity by greater than or equal to about 100% as compared to a convention support, or greater than about 150%, or greater than about 200%, or greater than about 250%, or greater than about 300%, and in certain variations, catalyst activity is increased by greater than about 350% as compared to activity of the same catalyst on a conventional catalyst support (e.g., SMAO support).

VII. Various Embodiments

[0349] The invention can additionally or alternately include one or more of the following lettered embodiments:

[0350] Embodiment A: A catalyst system comprising (1) one or more olefin polymerization catalyst compounds; (2) a catalyst support comprising an organosilica material that is a polymer of at least one monomer of Formula [Z1OZ2SiCH2]3 (I), wherein Z1 represents a hydrogen atom, a C1-C4 alkyl group, or a bond to a silicon atom of another monomer and Z2 represents a hydroxyl group, a C1-C4 alkoxy group, a Ci-C6 alkyl group, or an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another monomer; and (3) an activator.

[0351] Embodiment B: A catalyst system comprising (1) one or more olefin polymerization catalyst compounds comprising a nitrogen linkage; (2) a catalyst support comprising an organosilica material that is a polymer of at least one monomer of Formula [Z1OZ2SiCH2]3 (I), wherein Z1 represents a hydrogen atom, a C1-C4 alkyl group, or a bond to a silicon atom of another monomer and Z2 represents a hydroxyl group, a C1-C4 alkoxy group, a Ci-C6 alkyl group, or an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another monomer; and (3) an activator.

[0352] Embodiment C: The catalyst system of Embodiment B, where (1) the one or more olefin polymerization catalyst compounds comprise pyridyldiamido transition metal complexes, HN5 compounds, and bis(imino)pyridyl complex compounds, and combinations thereof.

[0353] Embodiment D: A process to produce polymer comprising: i) contacting, in the gas phase or slurry phase, one or more olefin monomers, with a catalyst system comprising: 1) one or more olefin polymerization catalyst compounds; 2) a catalyst support comprising an organosilica material that is a polymer of at least one monomer of Formula [Z1OZ2SiCH2]3 (I), wherein Z1 represents a hydrogen atom, a C1-C4 alkyl group, or a bond to a silicon atom of another monomer and Z2 represents a hydroxyl group, a C1-C4 alkoxy group, a Ci-C6 alkyl group, or an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another monomer; and 3) an optional activator. The method further comprises ii) obtaining a polymer. [0354] Embodiment E: A catalyst system comprising (1) one or more olefin polymerization catalyst compounds comprising a nitrogen linkage; (2) a catalyst support comprising an organosilica material that is a polymer of at least one monomer of Formula:

Figure imgf000083_0001

where each R2 is a Z13OZ14Z15SiZ16 group, and Z13 represents a hydrogen atom, a C1-C4 alkyl group, or a bond to a silicon atom of another monomer unit; Z14 and Z15 each independently represent a hydroxyl group, a C1-C4 alkyl group, a C1-C4 alkoxy group, or an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another monomer unit; and Z16 represents a Ci-C8 alkylene group bonded to a nitrogen atom of the cyclic polyurea; and (3) an optional activator.

[0355] Embodiment F: The process of Embodiment E, where the organosilica material further comprises at least one monomer selected from the group consisting of:

a monomer of Formula [Z1OZ2SiCH2]3 (I), wherein Z1 represents a hydrogen atom, a C1-C4 alkyl group, or a bond to a silicon atom of another monomer and Z2 represents a hydroxyl group, a C1-C4 alkoxy group, a Ci-C6 alkyl group, or an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another monomer;

a monomer of Formula Z3OZ4Z5Z6Si (II), wherein Z3 represents a hydrogen atom or a C1-C4 alkyl group, or a bond to a silicon atom of another monomer; and Z4, Z5 and Z6 are each independently selected from the group consisting of a hydroxyl group, a C1-C4 alkyl group, a C1-C4 alkoxy group, a nitrogen-containing C1-C10 alkyl group, a nitrogen- containing heteroaralkyl group, and a nitrogen-containing optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl group, and an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another monomer;

a monomer of Formula Z7Z8Z9Si-R1-SiZ7Z8Z9 (III), wherein Z7 represents a hydroxyl group, a C1-C4 alkoxy group, or an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another comonomer; Z8 and Z9 each independently represent a hydroxyl group, a C1-C4 alkoxy group, a C1-C4 alkyl group, or an oxygen bonded to a silicon atom of another monomer; and R1 is selected from the group consisting of a Ci-C8 alkylene group, a C2-C8 alkenylene group, a C2-C8 alkynylene group, a nitrogen-containing C2-C10 alkylene group, an optionally substituted C6-C2o aralkyl and an optionally substituted C4-C20 heterocycloalkyl group;

a trivalent metal oxide monomer of Formula M1(OZ10)3 (IV), wherein M1 represents a Group 13 metal and Z10 represents a hydrogen atom, a Ci-C6 alkyl or a bond to a silicon atom of another monomer;

a trivalent metal oxide monomer of Formula (ZnO)2M2-0-Si(OZ12)3 (V), wherein M2 represents a Group 13 metal and Z11 and Z12 each independently represent a hydrogen atom, a Ci-C6 alkyl group, or a bond to a silicon atom of another monomer; and any combinations thereof.

[0356] Embodiment G: A process to produce a polymer comprising i) contacting, in the gas phase or slurry phase, one or more olefin monomers, with the catalyst system of any of Embodiments E-F; and ii) obtaining a polymer.

[0357] All documents described herein are incorporated by reference herein, including any priority documents and/or testing procedures to the extent they are not inconsistent with this text.

Claims

CLAIMS What is claimed is:
1. A catalyst system comprising:
(1) one or more olefin polymerization catalyst compounds comprising a nitrogen linkage;
(2) a catalyst support comprising an organosilica material that is a polymer of at least one monomer of Formula [Z1OZ2SiCH2]3 (I), wherein Z1 represents a hydrogen atom, a Ci- C4 alkyl group, or a bond to a silicon atom of another monomer and Z2 represents a hydroxyl group, a Ci-C4 alkoxy group, a Ci-C6 alkyl group, or an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another monomer; and
(3) an optional activator.
2. The catalyst system of claim 1, wherein Z2 represents a hydroxyl group, a Ci-C4 alkoxy group, or an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another monomer.
3. The catalyst system of claim 1 or 2, wherein Z1 represents a hydrogen atom, methyl, ethyl or a bond to a silicon atom of another monomer and Z2 represents a hydroxyl group, methyl, ethyl, ethoxy, methoxy, or an oxygen bonded to a silicon atom of another monomer.
4. The catalyst system of claim 1, 2 or 3, wherein the polymer further comprises a second distinct monomer of Formula [Z1OZ2SiCH2]3 (I).
5. The catalyst system of claim 1, 2, 3 or 4, wherein the organosilica material further comprises at least one monomer selected from the group consisting of:
(i) a monomer of Formula Z3OZ4Z5Z6Si (II), wherein Z3 represents a hydrogen atom or a Ci-C4 alkyl group, or a bond to a silicon atom of another monomer; and Z4, Z5 and Z6 are each independently selected from the group consisting of a hydroxyl group, a Ci-C4 alkyl group, a Ci-C4 alkoxy group, a nitrogen-containing C1-C10 alkyl group, a nitrogen-containing heteroaralkyl group, and a nitrogen-containing optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl group, and an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another monomer;
(ii) a monomer of Formula Z^zPSi-R^SiZ^Z9 (III), wherein Z7 represents a hydroxyl group, a Ci-C4 alkoxy group, or an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another comonomer; Z8 and Z9 each independently represent a hydroxyl group, a Ci- C4 alkoxy group, a C1-C4 alkyl group, or an oxygen bonded to a silicon atom of another monomer; and R1 is selected from the group consisting of a Ci-C8 alkylene group, a C2-C8 alkenylene group, a C2-C8 alkynylene group, a nitrogen-containing C2-C10 alkylene group, an optionally substituted C6-C20 aralkyl and an optionally substituted C4-C2o heterocycloalkyl group;
(iii) a trivalent metal oxide monomer of Formula M1(OZ10)3 (IV), wherein M1 represents a Group 13 metal and Z10 represents a hydrogen atom, a Ci-C6 alkyl or a bond to a silicon atom of another monomer;
(iv) a trivalent metal oxide monomer of Formula (ZnO)2M2-0-Si(OZ12)3 (V), wherein M2 represents a Group 13 metal and Z11 and Z12 each independently represent a hydrogen atom, a Ci-C6 alkyl group, or a bond to a silicon atom of another monomer;
(v) a cyclic polyurea monomer of Formula
Figure imgf000086_0001
wherein each R2 is a Z13OZ14Z15SiZ16 group, wherein Z13 represents a hydrogen atom, a Ci-C4 alkyl group, or a bond to a silicon atom of another monomer unit; Z14 and Z15 each independently represent a hydroxyl group, a Ci-C4 alkyl group, a Ci-C4 alkoxy group, or an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another monomer unit; and Z16 represents a Ci-C8 alkylene group bonded to a nitrogen atom of the cyclic polyurea; and
(vi) any combinations thereof.
6. The catalyst system of any of claims 1 to 5, wherein the catalyst support comprising the organosilica material has:
(i) an average pore diameter between about 2 nm and about 50 nm;
(ii) a pore volume about 0.1 cm3/g to about 10 cm3/g; and/or
(iii) a surface area of about 100 m2/g to about 2,500 m2/g.
7. The catalyst system any of claims 1 to 6, wherein the catalyst support comprising the organosilica material has an X-Ray Diffraction Spectrum exhibiting substantially no peaks above 4 degrees 2Θ, and/or is made using substantially no added structure directing agent or porogen.
8. The catalyst system of any of claims 1 to 7, wherein the one or more olefin polymerization catalyst compounds comprise at least one catalyst compound selected from the group consisting of:
(A) a com ound represented by Formula (VII):
Figure imgf000087_0001
wherein:
M* is a Group 4 metal;
each E' group is independently selected from carbon, silicon, or germanium;
each X' is an anionic leaving group;
L* is a neutral Lewis base;
R'1 and R'13 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrocarbyls, substituted hydrocarbyls, and silyl groups;
R'2, R'3, R4, R'5, R6 R'7 , R'8, R'9, R10, R11, and R12 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, hydrocarbyls, alkoxy, silyl, amino, aryloxy, substituted hydrocarbyls, halogen, and phosphino;
n' is 1 or 2;
m' is 0, 1, or 2; and
two X' groups may be joined together to form a dianionic group;
two L* groups may be joined together to form a bidentate Lewis base; an X' group may be joined to an L* group to form a monoanionic bidentate group; R'7 and R'8 may be joined to form a ring; and
R'10 and R'11 may be joined to form a ring);
(B) a compound represented by Formula (VIII):
Figure imgf000088_0001
(VIII)
wherein:
M is a Group 3-12 transition metal or a Group 13 or 14 main group metal;
each X is independently an anionic leaving group;
n is the formal oxidation state of M;
m is the formal charge of the ligand comprising Y, Z, and L;
Y is a Group 15 element;
Z is a Group 15 element;
R1 and R2 are independently a Ci to C20 hydrocarbon group, a heteroatom-containing group having up to twenty carbon atoms, silicon, germanium, tin, lead, phosphorus, or a halogen, where R1 and R2 may also be interconnected to each other;
R3 is absent or a hydrocarbon group, hydrogen, a halogen, or a heteroatom-containing group;
R4 and R5 are independently an aryl group, a substituted aryl group, a cyclic alkyl group, a substituted cyclic alkyl group, a cyclic aralkyl group, a substituted cyclic aralkyl group or multiple ring system; and
R6 and R7 are independently absent, or hydrogen, halogen, heteroatom or a hydrocarbyl group;
(C) a compound represented by Formula (IX).
Figure imgf000089_0001
wherein:
M comprises a transition metal from Group 7, 8 or 9 of the Periodic Table of Elements;
X is an atom or group covalently or ionically bonded to the transition metal M;
n is 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5; and
R1 to R7 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogens, hydrocarbyls, and substituted hydrocarbyls, provided that when any two or more of R1 to R7 are hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl, two or more can be linked to form one or more cyclic substituents; and combinations thereof.
9. The catalyst system of claim 8, wherein the one or more olefin polymerization catalyst compounds comprise a catalyst compound of Formula (VII), wherein M* is hafnium, each E' group is carbon, each X' is an alkyl, aryl, hydride, alkylsilane, fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, triflate, carboxylate, or alkylsulfonate, each L* is a an ether, amine, or thioether, each R1 and R13 is an aryl group, each R7 and R8 is joined to form a six-membered
7 8 10 11 aromatic ring with the joined R and R group being -CH=CHCH=CH-, and R and R may be a five-membered ring with the joined R'10Rn group being -CH2CH 2- or a six-membered ring with the joined R10Rn group being -CH2CH2CH2-).
10. The catalyst system of claim 8 or 9, wherein the one or more olefin polymerization catalyst compounds comprise a catalyst compound of Formula (VIII), wherein M is zirconium or hafnium, n is +3, +4, or +5, m is 0, -1, -2 or -3, L is nitrogen; Y is nitrogen or phosphorus, Z is nitrogen or phosphorus, R1 and R2 are a C2 to C2o alkyl, aryl or aralkyl group, R3 is absent, a linear, cyclic or branched alkyl Ci to C2o group, or hydrogen, R4 and R5 independently are a Ci to C20 hydrocarbon group, a Ci to C20 aryl group or a Ci to C20 aralkyl group, and R6 and R7 are independently a linear, cyclic or branched C2 to C20 alkyl group or absent.
11. The catalyst system of claim 8, wherein the one or more olefin polymerization catalyst compounds comprise a catalyst compound of Formula (IX) and n is 2 or 3.
12. A process to produce polymer comprising: i) contacting, in the gas phase or slurry phase, one or more olefin monomers, with the catalyst system any of claims 1 to 11, and ii) obtaining a polymer.
13. The process of claim 12, wherein (2) the organosilica material comprises at least one monomer selected from the group consisting of:
(i) a monomer of Formula Z3OZ4Z5Z6Si (II), wherein Z3 represents a hydrogen atom or a C1-C4 alkyl group, or a bond to a silicon atom of another monomer; and Z4, Z5 , and Z6 are each independently selected from the group consisting of a hydroxyl group, a C1-C4 alkyl group, a C1-C4 alkoxy group, a nitrogen- containing C1-C10 alkyl group, a nitrogen-containing heteroaralkyl group, and a nitrogen-containing optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl group, and an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another monomer;
(ii) a monomer of Formula Z7Z8Z9Si-R1-SiZ7Z8Z9 (III), wherein Z7 represents a hydroxyl group, a C1-C4 alkoxy group, or an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another comonomer; Z8 and Z9 each independently represent a hydroxyl group, a C1-C4 alkoxy group, a C1-C4 alkyl group, or an oxygen bonded to a silicon atom of another monomer; and R1 is selected from the group consisting of a Ci-C8 alkylene group, a C2-C8 alkenylene group, a C2-C8 alkynylene group, a nitrogen-containing C2-C10 alkylene group, an optionally substituted C6-C20 aralkyl and an optionally substituted C4-C20 heterocycloalkyl group;
(iii) a trivalent metal oxide monomer of Formula M1(OZ10)3 (IV), wherein M1 represents a Group 13 metal and Z10 represents a hydrogen atom, a Ci-C6 alkyl or a bond to a silicon atom of another monomer; (iv) a trivalent metal oxide monomer of Formula (ZnO)2M2-0-Si(OZ12)3 (V), wherein M2 represents a Group 13 metal and Z11 and Z12 each independently represent a hydrogen atom, a Ci-C6 alkyl group, or a bond to a silicon atom of another monomer;
(v) a cyclic polyurea monomer of Formula:
Figure imgf000091_0001
wherein each R2 is a Z13OZ14Z15SiZ16 group, wherein Z13 represents a hydrogen atom, a C1-C4 alkyl group, or a bond to a silicon atom of another monomer unit; Z14 and Z15 each independently represent a hydroxyl group, a C1-C4 alkyl group, a C1-C4 alkoxy group, or an oxygen atom bonded to a silicon atom of another monomer unit; and Z16 represents a Ci-C8 alkylene group bonded to a nitrogen atom of the cyclic polyurea; and
(vi) any combinations thereof.
14. The process of claim 12, wherein (1) the catalyst support comprising the organosilica material has:
(i) an average pore diameter between about 2 nm and about 50 nm;
(ii) a pore volume about 0.1 cm3/g to about 10 cm3/g; and/or
(iii) a surface area of about 100 m2/g to about 2,500 m2/g.
15. The process of claim 12, wherein (1) the catalyst support comprising the organosilica material:
(i) has an X-Ray Diffraction Spectrum exhibiting substantially no peaks above 4 degrees 2Θ; and/or
(ii) is made using substantially no added structure directing agent or porogen.
16. The process of claim 12, wherein the one or more olefin polymerization catalyst compounds comprise at one least catalyst compound selected from the group consisting of:
(A) a com ound represented by Formula (VII):
Figure imgf000092_0001
wherein:
M* is a Group 4 metal;
each E' group is independently selected from carbon, silicon, or germanium;
each X' is an anionic leaving group;
L* is a neutral Lewis base;
R'1 and R'13 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrocarbyls, substituted hydrocarbyls, and silyl groups;
R'2, R'3, R4, R'5, R6 R'7 , R'8, R'9, R10, R11, and R12 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, hydrocarbyls, alkoxy, silyl, amino, aryloxy, substituted hydrocarbyls, halogen, and phosphino;
n' is 1 or 2;
m' is 0, 1, or 2; and
two X' groups may be joined together to form a dianionic group;
two L* groups may be joined together to form a bidentate Lewis base;
an X' group may be joined to an L* group to form a monoanionic bidentate group; R'7 and R'8 may be joined to form a ring; and
R'10 and R'11 may be joined to form a ring);
(B) a compound represented by Formula (VIII):
Figure imgf000093_0001
(VIII)
wherein:
M is a Group 3-12 transition metal or a Group 13 or 14 main group metal;
each X is independently an anionic leaving group;
n is the formal oxidation state of M;
m is the formal charge of the ligand comprising Y, Z, and L;
Y is a Group 15 element;
Z is a Group 15 element;
R1 and R2 are independently a Ci to C20 hydrocarbon group, a heteroatom-containing group having up to twenty carbon atoms, silicon, germanium, tin, lead, phosphorus, or a halogen, where R1 and R2 may also be interconnected to each other;
R3 is absent or a hydrocarbon group, hydrogen, a halogen, or a heteroatom-containing group;
R4 and R5 are independently an aryl group, a substituted aryl group, a cyclic alkyl group, a substituted cyclic alkyl group, a cyclic aralkyl group, a substituted cyclic aralkyl group or multiple ring system; and
R6 and R7 are independently absent, or hydrogen, halogen, heteroatom or a hydrocarbyl group;
(C) a compound represented by Formula (IX).
Figure imgf000094_0001
wherein:
M comprises a transition metal from Group 7, 8 or 9 of the Periodic Table of Elements;
X is an atom or group covalently or ionically bonded to the transition metal M;
n is 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5; and
R1 to R7 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogens, hydrocarbyls, and substituted hydrocarbyls, provided that when any two or more of R1 to R7 are hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl, two or more can be linked to form one or more cyclic substituents; and combinations thereof.
17. The process of claim 16, wherein the one or more olefin polymerization catalyst compounds comprise a catalyst compound of Formula (VII), wherein M* is hafnium, each E' group is carbon, each X' is an alkyl, aryl, hydride, alkylsilane, fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, triflate, carboxylate, or alkylsulfonate, each L* is a an ether, amine, or thioether, each R'1 and R'13 is an aryl group, each R'7 and R'8 is joined to form a six-membered aromatic ring with the joined R7 and R8 group being -CH=CHCH=CH-, and R10 and R11 may be a five- membered ring with the joined R'10Rn group being -CH2CH 2- or a six-membered ring with the joined R'10Rn group being -CH2CH2CH2-).
18. The process system of claim 16, wherein the one or more olefin polymerization catalyst compounds comprise a catalyst compound of Formula (VIII), wherein M is zirconium or hafnium, n is +3, +4, or +5, m is 0, -1, -2 or -3, L is nitrogen; Y is nitrogen or phosphorus, Z is nitrogen or phosphorus, R1 and R2 are a C2 to C2o alkyl, aryl or aralkyl group, R3 is absent, a linear, cyclic or branched alkyl Ci to C2o group, or hydrogen, R4 and R5 independently are a Ci to C20 hydrocarbon group, a Ci to C20 aryl group or a Ci to C20 aralkyl group, and R6 and R7 are independently a linear, cyclic or branched C2 to C20 alkyl group or absent.
19. The process of claim 16, wherein the one or more olefin polymerization catalyst compounds comprise a catalyst compound of Formula (IX) and n is 2 or 3.
20. The process of any of claims 12 to 19, wherein the polymer is an ethylene polymer or a propylene polymer.
21. The process of any of claims 12 to 20, wherein the process occurs at a temperature of from about 0°C to about 300°C, at a pressure in the range of from about 0.35 MPa to about 10 MPa, and at a time up to 300 minutes.
22. The process of any of claims 12 to 21, wherein the one or more olefin monomers comprise ethylene and one or more comonomer selected from propylene, butene, pentene, hexene, heptene, octene, nonene, decene, undecene, dodecene or a mixtures thereof.
23. The process of any of claims 12 to 22, wherein the 2) catalyst support comprising an organosilica material comprises a plurality of mesopores having an average an average pore diameter between about 2 nm and about 50 nm and the polymerization occurs within the mesopores.
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