WO2016011095A1 - System for producing graphene in a magnetic field - Google Patents

System for producing graphene in a magnetic field Download PDF

Info

Publication number
WO2016011095A1
WO2016011095A1 PCT/US2015/040473 US2015040473W WO2016011095A1 WO 2016011095 A1 WO2016011095 A1 WO 2016011095A1 US 2015040473 W US2015040473 W US 2015040473W WO 2016011095 A1 WO2016011095 A1 WO 2016011095A1
Authority
WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
graphene
system
generation chamber
magnetic field
magnetic
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/US2015/040473
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Larry W. Fullerton
Mark D. Roberts
Original Assignee
Cedar Ridge Research, Llc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US201462025691P priority Critical
Priority to US62/025,691 priority
Application filed by Cedar Ridge Research, Llc filed Critical Cedar Ridge Research, Llc
Publication of WO2016011095A1 publication Critical patent/WO2016011095A1/en

Links

Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C01INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C01BNON-METALLIC ELEMENTS; COMPOUNDS THEREOF; METALLOIDS OR COMPOUNDS THEREOF NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASS C01C
    • C01B32/00Carbon; Compounds thereof
    • C01B32/15Nano-sized carbon materials
    • C01B32/182Graphene
    • C01B32/184Preparation

Abstract

An improved system for generating graphene involves producing a plurality of ionized carbon atoms in a plasma generation chamber and providing the plurality of ionized carbon atoms to a graphene generation chamber having a magnetic structure that includes a two-dimensional array of alternating polarity magnetic sources that produce a magnetic field having a gradient sufficient to float graphene over the magnetic structure. The graphene generation chamber generates graphene from said plurality of ionized carbon atoms over said magnetic structure such that said graphene floats over said magnetic structure due to said graphene being diamagnetic. The rate at which the plurality of ionized carbon atoms is produced is controlled to control the rate of graphene generation. The magnetic field of the magnetic structure can be controlled to control the rate at which the generated graphene moves through the graphene generation chamber until it exits as a recovered graphene product.

Description

System for Producing Graphene in a Magnetic Field

Ct -oss-Reference to Related Applications

[0001] This Non-Provisional Application is a continuation-in-part of Non-provisional

Application No. 14/275,267, filed May 12, 2014, which is a continuation-in-part of U.S. Patent 8,721,843, issued May 13, 2014, which claims the benefit under 35 USC 119(e) of Provisional Application No. 61/455,211, filed October 15, 2010 by Fullerton et al., titled "System and Method for Producing Graphene".

[0002] This Non-Provisional Application claims the benefit under 35 USC 119(e) of Provisional Application No. 62/025,691, filed July 17, 2014 by Fullerton et al., titled "System for Producing Graphene in a Magnetic Field".

[0003] These applications are hereby incorporated by reference herein in their entirety.

Field of the Invention

[0004] The present invention relates generally to a system for generating a continuous graphene film. More particularly, the present invention relates to a system for producing graphene using a continuous manufacturing web process whereby an even plasma distribution generated by ionization of a carbon atom source produces a glow discharge of carbon atoms at a desired rate allowing the continuous growth of a graphene film floating over a magnetic field.

Background of the Invention

[0005] Current systems and methods for producing graphene film such as using tape to remove a layer of graphene from graphite are generally ad hoc and uncontrollable. It is therefore desirable to have an improved system and method for producing graphene of sufficient quality and quantity for commercial purposes.

Summary of the Invention

[0006] The present invention is an improved system for generating graphene by floating graphene as it is generated over a magnetic field. In accordance with one embodiment of the invention, a system for generating graphene in a magnetic field includes a plasma generator for producing a plurality of ionized carbon atoms, the plurality of ionized carbon atoms exiting the plasma generator as a carbon atom cloud, a graphene generation chamber for receiving the carbon atom cloud as it exits the plasma generator and generating a graphene film from the plurality of ionized carbon atoms, the graphene generation chamber having a magnetic structure that includes a two-dimensional array of alternating polarity magnetic sources that produce a magnetic field having a magnetic field gradient sufficient to float the graphene film over the magnetic structure, the magnetic structure extending from the growth portion to the recovery portion, and a graphene seed source for providing a graphene seed to an initial location over the magnetic field within the growth portion of said graphene generation chamber, the graphene film being generated over the magnetic field such that the graphene film floats over the magnetic field due to the graphene film being diamagnetic, the carbon atom cloud causing the floating graphene film to grow continuously from the initial location, the graphene generation chamber being configured such that the floating graphene film moves away from the initial location and through the graphene generation chamber until it exits the recovery portion of the graphene generation chamber as a recovered graphene product.

[0007] The system may include a carbon atom source, where the carbon atom source may include at least one of methane, carbon dioxide, or carbon monoxide. The chemical formula of the carbon atom source may have only one carbon atom.

[0008] The system may include an inert gas, where the inert gas may include at least one of helium, argon, krypton, neon, or xenon. [0009] The system may include an ionizing energy source, wherein the ionizing energy source may include one of a radio frequency source or a high voltage source, where the radio frequency source may be a microwave signal.

[0010] The system may include at least one control system for controlling the ratio of the carbon atom source to the inert gas, controlling an absolute pressure; and controlling an energy density of a plasma resulting from the ionized energy source to control a glow discharge and a distribution of the plasma, the glow discharge producing the plurality of ionized carbon atoms. The absolute pressure may be controlled to achieve a mean free path of molecules between collisions to produce the glow discharge and an even distribution of the plasma.

[0011] The magnetic structure may be permanent magnetic material, where the permanent magnetic material may be magnetized such that the magnetic field strength of the magnetic field is strongest near the initial location of the graphene seed and the magnetic strength of the magnetic field becomes progressively weaker until it is weakest near the end of the recovery portion of the graphene generation chamber.

[0012] The magnetic structure may comprise one of electromagnets or electro-permanent magnets.

[0013] The system may include at least one laser for trimming said graphene film.

[0014] The system may include a second magnetic structure above said graphene.

[0015] The system may be configured such that the outer edges of the magnetic field along its length exhibit stronger field strengths than the center portion of the magnetic field.

[0016] The system may include a barrier magnetic field source.

[0017] The system may include a processing portion between the growth portion and the recovery portion of said graphene generation chamber for processing the graphene film, where processing may include one of lasers drawing conductive traces, applying other atoms using stereo lithography, activating carbon, or mixing impurities. Brief Description of the Drawings

[0018] The present invention is described with reference to the accompanying drawings. In the drawings, like reference numbers indicate identical or functionally similar elements.

Additionally, the left-most digit(s) of a reference number identifies the drawing in which the reference number first appears.

[0019] FIG. 1A depicts an exemplary graphene production system;

[0020] FIG. IB depicts another exemplary graphene production system;

[0021] FIG. 2A depicts a cross section across the width of an exemplary bowl-shaped magnetic structure;

[0022] FIG. 2B depicts a cross section across the width of an exemplary bowl-shaped magnetic field of a magnetic structure;

[0023] FIG. 2C depicts a side view of the length of an exemplary magnetic structure having a slope that decreases as the graphene film moves through the graphene generation chamber;

[0024] FIGS. 2D and 2E depict an exemplary magnetic structure like that of Figure 2C that has an exemplary barrier magnetic field;

[0025] FIG. 3A depicts an exemplary graphene seed;

[0026] FIG. 3B depicts a top view of the growth of the graphene film from a location that a seed was introduced, where the graphene film is moving away from the location and floating above the magnetic structure of the graphene generation chamber;

[0027] FIG. 4 depicts an exemplary method in accordance with the invention; and

[0028] FIG. 5 depicts an exemplary magnetic structure in accordance with the invention.

Detailed Description of the Invention

[0029] The present invention will now be described more fully in detail with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which the preferred embodiments of the invention are shown. This invention should not, however, be construed as limited to the embodiments set forth herein; rather, they are provided so that this disclosure will be thorough and complete and will fully convey the scope of the invention to those skilled in the art.

[0030] The present invention provides an improved system and method for producing graphene from a source of ionized carbon atoms by generating graphene from the ionized carbon atoms over a magnetic structure such that the generated graphene floats over the magnetic structure.

[0031] Figure 1A depicts an exemplary graphene production system 100 including a plasma generation chamber 102 and a graphene generation chamber 104. The plasma generation chamber 102 may be a so-called hot plasma generation chamber, a so-called cold plasma generation chamber, or a plasma generation chamber that produces plasma at any desired temperature. The graphene generation chamber 104 may have multiple subchambers including a growth portion 104a, one or more optional processing portions 104b, and at least one recovery portion 104c. A carbon atom source 106, for example methane (CH4), an inert gas 107, such as helium, argon, krypton, neon or xenon, and an ionizing energy source 108, for example a radio frequency (RF) or high voltage (HV) source, are provided to the plasma generation chamber 102, whereby a pressure control system 110 (e.g., a vacuum pump) is used to produce an absolute pressure within the plasma generation chamber 102 necessary to achieve a mean free path of molecules between collisions sufficient to produce a glow discharge and an even plasma distribution within the plasma generation chamber 102. A resulting carbon atom cloud 1 14 exiting the plasma generation chamber 102 causes a graphene film 116 to grow continuously from a location of a graphene seed 118 provided by a graphene seed source 132 and introduced into the graphene generation chamber 104. The continuously growing graphene film 1 16, which is diamagnetic, floats over a magnetic structure 1 12 and moves through the graphene production chamber until it exits the graphene generation chamber 104 as a recovered graphene product, for example, a roll of graphene 120. [0032] One skilled in the art will recognize that many different types of carbon atom sources could be used with the invention such as CH4 CO2, CO, and the like. In a preferred embodiment, the carbon atom source would have only one carbon atom to simplify the stripping of the atom. One skilled in the art will also recognize that various ionizing energy sources could be used, for example, a 2.4 Ghz (microwave) signal. Furthermore, one skilled in the art will recognize that various graphene seed sources could be used such as a highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) source, where any one of various types of automated, semi-automated, or manual methods can be employed to provide a graphene seed 118 from the graphene seed source 132 at a desired location in the graphene generation chamber 104.

[0033] As shown in Figure 1A, the graphene film 116 may be pulled down the graphene generation chamber 104 as a result of a rolling process used to produce the roll of graphene 120, whereby a control system (not shown) controls the turning rate of the roll of graphene 120 to correspond to the rate of growth of the graphene film 1 16. The control system also controls the rate of growth of the graphene film 1 16 by controlling the ratio of the carbon atom source 106 to the inert gas 107, the absolute pressure within the chamber 102, and the energy density inside the chamber resulting from the ionizing energy source 108 and thus the glow discharge and plasma distribution in the plasma generation chamber 102. Generally, a control system can be a closed loop control system involving sensors and the like to measure the parameters of the system 100 being controlled.

[0034] In one alternative arrangement, an atomic beam of carbon can be accelerated in a conventional manner and then focused using electric and/or magnetic lensing. Furthermore, it can be passed through an inhomogeneous magnetic field acting in a manner similar to a spectrometer to enable separation (e.g., for atomic species and isotopic purification purposes) of different atoms to make an isotropically pure source beam (of carbon atoms) thereby resulting in a specific graphene composition.

[0035] In still another alternative arrangement, atomic beams could be used to interlace other types of atoms on the growth edge of the graphene film to produce composite materials much like weaving a blanket. Similarly, television raster technique might be employed. Many such similar techniques are possible as long as enough graphene is included in such composite materials whereby the graphene portion of the material will enable it to float above the magnetic structure and thereby move through and exit the graphene generation chamber as would a graphene-only film.

[0036] In yet still another alternative arrangement, the generated graphene film is merely a binder included to cause any other material of interest to be processed via the invention such that it floats through the graphene generation chamber.

[0037] One or more processing portions 104b may reside between the growth portion 104a and the recovery portion 104c of the graphene generation chamber 104. Various types of processing of the graphene film 1 16 are possible including, for example, lasers drawing conductive circuit board traces, applying other atoms using stereo lithography to build nanostructures and nanomachines, activating carbon and mixing impurities to produce semiconductors, etc.

[0038] Under one arrangement, the magnetic structure 1 12 is made up of multiple sources of permanent magnetic material magnetized such that the magnetic field strength of the sources of the magnetic structure 112 are strongest near the location of the graphene seed 1 18 and the magnetic strength of the sources of the magnetic structure 1 12 become progressively weaker until they are weakest near the end of the recovery portion 104c of the graphene generation chamber 104 causing a downward slope of the graphene film 1 16 that causes gravitational forces to move the graphene film through and exit the graphene generation chamber 104. Under another arrangement the magnetic structure 1 12 comprises electromagnets or electro-permanent magnets whereby the magnetic field strength along the magnetic structure 112 is varied to cause gravitational forces to move the graphene film 116 through and exit the graphene generation chamber 104. Under still arrangement, the control system varies the slope of graphene film 1 16 by controlling the magnetic field strength along the magnetic structure 112 so as to control (i.e., speed up or slow down) the rate at which the graphene film 1 16 moves through and exits the graphene generation chamber 104. Under yet another arrangement, one or more slopes of one or more parts of the magnetic structure 112 are mechanically controlled by the control system so as to control the effect of gravitational forces and thereby the rate at which the graphene film 116 moves through and exits the graphene generation chamber 104. [0039] Figure IB depicts another exemplary graphene production system 100, which is similar to the graphene production system of Figure 1 A except the graphene generation chamber is slanted so that gravitational forces can be used to cause the graphite film to move through and exit the graphene generation chamber 104. The intent of this curvature is to create negative feedback to prevent the film from progressing backward into the ionization chamber. Other variations to the system 100 include a second magnetic structure 122, which could be used to control the height of the graphene film 116 particularly during processing but also during other portions of the chamber 104 such as within a recovery portion 104c. As depicted, a cutting mechanism 124 cuts the graphene film 116 into a recovered graphene product, for example, a stack of graphene films 126.

[0040] Also shown in Figure IB is an optional shield 128 used to prevent the ionization energy source from exiting the plasma generation chamber 102 and entering the graphene growth chamber 104. Alternatively, the opening between the plasma generation chamber 102 and the graphene growth chamber 104 can be selected based on waveguide cutoff properties to not allow signals. An optional getter 130 is also depicted, which can be used to remove atomic hydrogen from the plasma generation chamber 102.

[0041] One skilled in the art will recognize that magnetization techniques can be employed to produce magnetic field characteristics for the magnetic structure 1 12 (and optionally the second magnetic structure 122) that assist in controlling movement and also growth characteristics of the graphene film 116. For example, the outer edges of the magnetic structure 112 along its length could exhibit stronger field strengths than the center portion so that the graphene film could be more easily maintained within the boundaries of the magnetic structure 112. Figure 2A depicts a cross section of an exemplary bowl-shaped magnetic structure 1 12, which could alternatively be a bowl-shaped magnetic field 202 of a magnetic structure 1 12 such as shown in Figure 2B. Figure 2C depicts a side view of the length of an exemplary magnetic structure 112 having a slope that decreases as the graphene film 1 16 moves through the graphene generation chamber 104. Such a design is intended to support initial production of a graphene film 116 from a seed 1 18 so as to prevent the seed from growing towards the plasma generation chamber 102. Figures 2D and 2E depict an exemplary magnetic structure 112 like that of Figure 2C that has a barrier magnetic field 204 produced by a barrier magnetic field source 206. The barrier magnetic field 204 may be used to prevent or limit movement of the graphene film 116 down the magnetic structure 1 12 such as during the initial stage of graphene film growth, where it may be desirable that the graphene seed 118 be stationary or substantially stationary.

[0042] One skilled in the art will recognize that various types of barrier magnetic fields 204 can be employed having various magnetic field shapes, which can be produced using electromagnets and/or permanent magnets, where a barrier magnetic field can be reduced or removed or otherwise varied so as to control or prevent movement of a graphene film 1 16.

[0043] Figure 3A depicts an exemplary graphene seed 300.

[0044] Figure 3B depicts a top view of growth of the graphene film 116 from a location 118 that a seed was introduced into the graphene generation chamber 104, where the graphene film 116 is moving away from the location 1 18 and floating above the magnetic structure 1 12 of the graphene generation chamber 104. As shown, lasers 302 can be used to trim the graphene film 1 16 once outside the growth portion 104a of the graphene generation chamber 104 so as to achieve a desired shape. Eventually the growth edge will approach the shape of a flat growth edge.

[0045] One skilled in the art will recognize that various geometries for the graphene are possible such as carbon fiber nanotubes having different spiral (tilt) angles and the like where the seed has a desired number of atoms and atom tile along a cylinder. One skilled in the art will also recognize that different types of atoms such as boron can be used in place of carbon atoms in accordance with the invention. One skilled in the art will recognize that the seed may be initially oriented to produce a film whose hexagonal structure is grown at a preferred angle.

[0046] Figure 4 depicts an exemplary method 400 in accordance with the invention. The method 400 includes five steps. The first step 402 is to provide a carbon atom source and an inert gas to a chamber. The second step 404 is to provide an ionizing energy source to the chamber. The third step 406 is to control the ratio of the carbon atom source to the inert gas, the absolute pressure within the chamber, and the energy density inside the chamber resulting from the ionizing energy source and thus the glow discharge and plasma distribution in the chamber. The fourth step 408 is to provide the ionized atomic carbon produced by the glow discharge to a seed to produce a graphene film and the fifth step 410 is to continue to provide the atomic carbon produced by the glow discharge to the graphene film to grow the film.

[0047] In accordance with one aspect of the invention the magnetic field structure is constructed to produce a sharp magnetic field gradient sufficient to float the graphene film. Under one arrangement a sharp magnetic field gradient is produced by using an alternating polarity pattern of magnetic field sources. Figure 5 depicts an exemplary magnetic structure comprising a two-dimensional (e.g., grid) array of alternating polarity magnetic sources, which could be discrete magnets or magnetic sources magnetized into a magnetizable material. Under one arrangement the size of each magnetic source, or magnetic grid spacing, is on the order of 75% of the smallest dimension of the graphene sheet being levitated, or smaller. Under another arrangement the graphene seed used to start the process will be approximately 125% of the magnet grid spacing or larger.

Smaller seeds may be used but must be mechanically supported until they are edge grown large enough to exceed the magnetic grid spacing used. At that point the seed will be disconnected and the graphene film and will be supported entirely by the magnet grid (i.e., it will float above the grid).

[0048] A very small, or fine, magnet grid spacing may be employed for the purpose of

supporting the seed, with the remaining grid having a coarser grid that is sufficient to support the manufactured film.

[0049] In accordance with another aspect, the magnetic field sources making up the magnetic structure could have shapes other than a flat surface that interacts with the graphene film. For example, the magnets might be rounded, a cone shape, or even a pointed portion.

[0050] In accordance with another aspect of the invention, each magnetic source would have associated with it a pole piece that might have a flat portion that interacts with the magnetic source where the opposing end of the pole piece narrows to a point that is directed towards the graphene film. As such, the graphene film would experience an enhanced gradient resulting from the pole pieces concentrating the field from the surface of each magnetic source.

[0051] In accordance with yet another aspect of the invention, a graphene seed or an initial graphene film portion is placed upon a pedestal associated with the magnetic structure, where the pedestal is used to support the seed or film portion until sufficient growth increases its size such that the resulting graphene film will float above the magnetic structure. The pedestal may be round, e.g., shaped much like sphere, or may be a group of pointed objects intended to hold up the seed/film. Under one arrangement the pedestal could be produced using multiple pole pieces that focus the magnetic fields produced from multiple magnetic sources to a physically smaller array having a grid spacing smaller than the magnetic grid array.

While particular embodiments of the invention have been described, it will be understood, however, that the invention is not limited thereto, since modifications may be made by those skilled in the art, particularly in light of the foregoing teachings.

Claims

Claims
1. A system for generating graphene in a magnetic field, comprising:
a plasma generator configured to produce a plurality of ionized carbon atoms, said plurality of ionized carbon atoms exiting said plasma generator as a carbon atom cloud; a graphene generation chamber coupled to said plasma generator and configured to receive said carbon atom cloud as it exits said plasma generator, said graphene generation chamber being configured to generate a graphene film from said plurality of ionized carbon atoms, said graphene generation chamber comprising:
a growth portion;
a recovery portion; and
a magnetic structure comprising a two-dimensional array of alternating polarity magnetic sources, said magnetic structure producing a magnetic field having a magnetic field gradient sufficient to float the graphene film over said magnetic structure, said magnetic structure extending from said growth portion to said recovery portion; and
a graphene seed source configured to provide a graphene seed to an initial location over said magnetic field within said growth portion of said graphene generation chamber, said graphene film being generated over said magnetic field such that said graphene film floats over said magnetic field due to said graphene film being diamagnetic, said carbon atom cloud causing said floating graphene film to grow continuously from said initial location, said graphene generation chamber being configured such that the floating graphene film moves away from said initial location and through said graphene generation chamber until it exits said recovery portion of said graphene generation chamber as a recovered graphene product.
2. The system of claim 1, further comprising:
a carbon atom source.
3. The system of claim 2, wherein said carbon atom source comprises at least one of methane, carbon dioxide, or carbon monoxide.
4. The system of claim 2, wherein the chemical formula of said carbon atom source has only one carbon atom.
5. The system of claim 1, further comprising:
an inert gas.
6. The system of claim 5, wherein said inert gas comprises at least one of helium, argon, krypton, neon, or xenon.
7. The system of claim 1, further comprising:
an ionizing energy source.
8. The system of claim 7, wherein said ionizing energy source comprises one of a radio frequency source or a high voltage source.
9. The system of claim 8, wherein said radio frequency source is a microwave signal.
10. The system of claim 1, further comprising:
at least one control system configured to control the ratio of said carbon atom source to said inert gas, controlling an absolute pressure; and controlling an energy density of a plasma resulting from said ionized energy source to control a glow discharge and a distribution of said plasma, said glow discharge producing said plurality of ionized carbon atoms.
1 1. The system of claim 10, wherein said absolute pressure is controlled to achieve a mean free path of molecules between collisions to produce said glow discharge and an even distribution of said plasma.
12. The system of claim 1, wherein said magnetic structure comprises permanent magnetic material.
13. The system of claim 12, wherein said permanent magnetic material is magnetized such that the magnetic field strength of the magnetic field is strongest near the initial location of the graphene seed and the magnetic strength of the magnetic field becomes progressively weaker until it is weakest near the end of said recovery portion of said graphene generation chamber.
14. The system of claim 1, wherein said magnetic structure comprises one of electromagnets or electro-permanent magnets.
1 . The system of claim 1, further comprising:
at least one laser for trimming said graphene film.
16. The system of claim 1, said graphene generation chamber further comprising:
a second magnetic structure above said graphene.
17. The system of claim 1, wherein the outer edges of said magnetic field along its length exhibit stronger field strengths than the center portion of said magnetic field.
18. The system of claim 1, further comprising:
a barrier magnetic field source.
19. The system of claim 1, said graphene generation chamber further comprising:
a processing portion between said growth portion and said recovery portion of said graphene generation chamber for processing said graphene film.
20. The system of claim 19, wherein said processing comprises one of lasers drawing conductive traces, applying other atoms using stereo lithography, activating carbon, or mixing impurities.
PCT/US2015/040473 2014-07-17 2015-07-15 System for producing graphene in a magnetic field WO2016011095A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US201462025691P true 2014-07-17 2014-07-17
US62/025,691 2014-07-17

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN201580050017.0A CN107074550A (en) 2014-07-17 2015-07-15 System for manufacturing graphene in magnetic field

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
WO2016011095A1 true WO2016011095A1 (en) 2016-01-21

Family

ID=55079009

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
PCT/US2015/040473 WO2016011095A1 (en) 2014-07-17 2015-07-15 System for producing graphene in a magnetic field

Country Status (2)

Country Link
CN (1) CN107074550A (en)
WO (1) WO2016011095A1 (en)

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20120090982A1 (en) * 2010-10-15 2012-04-19 Cedar Ridge Research, Llc System and method for producing graphene
US20140248190A1 (en) * 2010-10-15 2014-09-04 Cedar Ridge Research, Llc System for producing graphene in a magnetic field
US20150079342A1 (en) * 2013-01-14 2015-03-19 California Institute Of Technology Method and system for graphene formation

Family Cites Families (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103184425B (en) * 2013-03-13 2016-12-28 无锡格菲电子薄膜科技有限公司 A kind of method of low temperature chemical vapor deposition growth graphene film
CN103695869A (en) * 2013-12-20 2014-04-02 上海中电振华晶体技术有限公司 Preparation method of graphene film

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20120090982A1 (en) * 2010-10-15 2012-04-19 Cedar Ridge Research, Llc System and method for producing graphene
US20140248190A1 (en) * 2010-10-15 2014-09-04 Cedar Ridge Research, Llc System for producing graphene in a magnetic field
US20150079342A1 (en) * 2013-01-14 2015-03-19 California Institute Of Technology Method and system for graphene formation

Non-Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
LEVCHENKO ET AL.: "The large scale production of graphite flakes using magnetically-enhanced arc discharge between carbon electrode", CARBON, vol. 48, 2010, pages 4556 - 4577 *

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
CN107074550A (en) 2017-08-18

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
Sato et al. Dynamics of fine particles in magnetized plasmas
CN103766002B (en) Plasma-generating source comprising a belt-type magnet, and thin-film deposition system using same
EP0631358B1 (en) Device for producing magnetic fields in working gaps useful for irradiating a surface with atomic and molecular ions
US4911814A (en) Thin film forming apparatus and ion source utilizing sputtering with microwave plasma
US5646476A (en) Channel ion source
JP2009545178A (en) Method and system for continuous large area scan implantation process
KR20150010946A (en) Method and apparatus for generating electron beams
EP0265365A1 (en) End-hall ion source
Han et al. Growth and microstructure of Ga2O3 nanorods
Anders et al. Transport of vacuum arc plasmas through magnetic macroparticle filters
EP1554412B1 (en) Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition apparatus
US5648701A (en) Electrode designs for high pressure magnetically assisted inductively coupled plasmas
US5517084A (en) Selective ion source
US5032202A (en) Plasma generating apparatus for large area plasma processing
JP2010509757A (en) Method and structure for thick layer transfer using a linear accelerator
Lacoste et al. Multi-dipolar plasmas for uniform processing: physics, design and performance
US20030129305A1 (en) Two-dimensional nano-sized structures and apparatus and methods for their preparation
US5234560A (en) Method and device for sputtering of films
US7118996B1 (en) Apparatus and method for doping
DE69839189T2 (en) Device for surface modification of polymer, metal and ceramic materials using an ion beam
US20040222367A1 (en) Beam source and beam processing apparatus
JPH09223598A (en) High speed atomic beam source
CA2326202C (en) Method and apparatus for deposition of biaxially textured coatings
EP0934600B1 (en) Ion gun
Setsuhara et al. Development of internal-antenna-driven large-area RF plasma sources using multiple low-inductance antenna units

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
121 Ep: the epo has been informed by wipo that ep was designated in this application

Ref document number: 15821849

Country of ref document: EP

Kind code of ref document: A1

NENP Non-entry into the national phase in:

Ref country code: DE

122 Ep: pct application non-entry in european phase

Ref document number: 15821849

Country of ref document: EP

Kind code of ref document: A1