WO2015157472A1 - Force generating mechanism for intra-oral applications - Google Patents

Force generating mechanism for intra-oral applications Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2015157472A1
WO2015157472A1 PCT/US2015/025010 US2015025010W WO2015157472A1 WO 2015157472 A1 WO2015157472 A1 WO 2015157472A1 US 2015025010 W US2015025010 W US 2015025010W WO 2015157472 A1 WO2015157472 A1 WO 2015157472A1
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WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
end
spring
hinge
member
fixedly attached
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/US2015/025010
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Mustafa A. Ergun
Original Assignee
Ergun Mustafa A
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US201461978199P priority Critical
Priority to US61/978,199 priority
Application filed by Ergun Mustafa A filed Critical Ergun Mustafa A
Publication of WO2015157472A1 publication Critical patent/WO2015157472A1/en

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Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61CDENTISTRY; APPARATUS OR METHODS FOR ORAL OR DENTAL HYGIENE
    • A61C7/00Orthodontics, i.e. obtaining or maintaining the desired position of teeth, e.g. by straightening, evening, regulating, separating, or by correcting malocclusions
    • A61C7/36Devices acting between upper and lower teeth

Abstract

An intra-oral device for applying forces to the mandibular and maxillary dental arches is described that includes a rotating rigid body, a restraining member, and a spring assembly that adjustably connects to mandibular and maxillary dental arches applying push forces to the same to move them to their ideal orientation in case of Class II or Class III malocclusions. Rigid body rotates with any discrepancy of dental arches from their ideal relative position allowing the spring assembly to generate the required forces to urge dental arches to return to their ideal position. Forces generated by the device may be constant, or varied according to a desired profile throughout the entire range of jaw movement.

Description

FORCE GENERATING MECHANISM FOR INTRA ORAL APPLICATIONS

CLAIM OF PRIORITY

[0001] This application is related to US Provisional Application Serial Number 61/978, 199, titled "FORCE GENERATING MECHANISM FOR INTRA-ORAL

APPLICATIONS", to Ergun, and filed on April 11, 2014, the entire content of which are hereby incorporated herein by reference in its entirety, and the benefit of priority of each is claimed herein.

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0002] The invention relates generally, but not by way of limitation, to orthodontic devices.

BACKGROUND

[0003] As illustrated in FIG. 1 , human mouth includes an upper jaw bone or maxilla

10 and a lower jaw bone or mandible 11, both operationally linked to perform chewing function. A set of upper teeth 12, and a set of lower teeth 13 are located on the respective jaw bones. Generally, as shown in FIG. 1, maxilla 10 is protracted a certain distance (A) anteriorly with respect to mandible 11. A malocclusion where maxilla 14 is positioned posteriorly with respect to mandible 15 a certain distance (B) as shown in FIG. 2 is classified as Class III malocclusion. On the other hand, a malocclusion where maxilla 16 is positioned anteriorly with respect to mandible 17 a certain distance (C) as shown in FIG. 3 is classified as Class II malocclusion.

[0004] Force generating or position control devices between upper and lower jaws are commonly used in orthodontics to treat patients with Class II or Class III malocclusions.

One such device 20 is shown in FIGS. 3 and 4. Energy generated by the compression spring applies a force on the mandible to reposition it relative to the maxilla to correct Class II malocclusion. In some appliances, reactivation by the clinician is required to maintain the level of force as the jaws move relative to each other. These appliances require frequent office visits, and increased chair time. In other devices where patient needs to wear rubber bands to maintain certain level of force, significant level of patient cooperation is required. Therefore, patients are expected to be compliant and to remember replacing their bands on a continuous basis.

[0005] With the existing appliances, the force between the upper and lower jaws varies significantly as the patient moves or opens/closes his/her jaws as shown in FIG. 4.

These varying forces may cause discomfort and reduce the effectiveness of the treatment. Therefore, in many cases, treatment takes longer periods of time.

OVERVIEW

[0006] Embodiments of the invention include a mechanism to generate forces between upper and lower jaws to reposition them and correct patient's bite. Similar mechanisms with slight variations or attachment points to patient's jaws can be used to correct various jaw discrepancies such as Class II or Class III malocclusions. Force generating mechanism according to an embodiment of the current invention includes an energy storing member in terms of an extension or compression spring. Other energy storing members such as torsion springs, constant force springs, compliant materials, etc., may also be applicable within the scope of the current invention. Force generating mechanism is attached to the orthodontic brackets, archwire, or bands and crowns.

Attachment locations and orientation of the device are decided by the practicing orthodontist depending on the bite problem that needs to be corrected.

[0007] A rotating arm assembly is operationally coupled to either a maxilla or a mandible. The arm assembly is rotatingly coupled with either a maxilla or a mandible.

The arm assembly consists of an upper arm and a lower arm. An axle is located at the rotation axis of the arm assembly. The axle is attached to an archwire or an anchoring element located over either maxilla or mandible. One of the arms is operationally coupled with an energy storing member and the other arm is operationally coupled to a tension or compression member. The axle and the energy storing member are both operationally attached to either maxilla or mandible, and the tension or compression member is operationally coupled to the other one of either maxilla or mandible. Force generating mechanism can be attached to the left and right side of patient's jaws, or it can be used only on one side. When attached to the jaws, and loaded with predetermined level of spring energy, force generating mechanism applies a continuous force to move mandible relative to maxilla in desired direction.

[0008] Predetermined forces generated by the mechanism in accordance with an embodiment of the current invention allow controlled anterior or posterior movement of mandible relative to maxilla. These forces can be substantially constant over the entire range of jaw movement, or depending on the application, a varying force profile may be used to achieve the desired treatment result. As a result, faster treatment of malocclusions that result in less chair time, less office visits, less discomfort on the patient can be achieved.

[0009] Advantages and use of the invention will become apparent from the following detailed description and the accompanying drawings that illustrate the features of the invention.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0010] The following drawings are illustrative of particular embodiments of the present invention and therefore do not limit the scope of the invention. The drawings are not to scale and are intended for use in conjunction with the explanations in the following detailed description. Embodiments of the present invention will hereinafter be described in conjunction with the appended drawings. The drawings illustrate generally, by way of example, but not by way of limitation, various embodiments discussed in the present document.

[0011] FIG. 1 illustrates the normal alignment of jaws.

[0012] FIG. 2 illustrates Class III malocclusion.

[0013] FIG. 3 illustrates Class II malocclusion and an orthodontic appliance to correct it.

[0014] FIG. 4 illustrates the orthodontic appliance in an open mouth orientation. [0015] FIG. 5 includes an assembly sketch of the force generating mechanism with arms in accordance with one of the embodiments of the invention.

[0016] FIG. 6 includes the exploded view of the force generating mechanism in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.

[0017] FIG. 7 includes an assembly sketch of the force generating mechanism using an extension spring for spring assembly in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.

[0018] FIG. 8 A includes a side view of the patient's jaws where force generating mechanism is attached to the jaws using arch wires in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.

[0019] FIG. 8B includes the side view of an open mouth with the force generating mechanism attached.

[0020] FIG. 9 includes the plan view of upper and lower jaws with archwire and other attachments to accept the force generating mechanism in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.

[0021] FIG. 10 includes a side view of the patient's jaws where force generating mechanism is attached to the jaws using anchoring elements in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.

[0022] FIG. 11 includes the plan view of upper and lower jaws with anchoring elements and other attachments to accept the force generating mechanism in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.

[0023] FIG. 12 includes active forces and torques on the force generating mechanism in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.

[0024] FIG. 13 includes a side view of the patient's jaws where force generating mechanism is shown as attached to the jaws that are in correct position.

[0025] FIG. 14 includes horizontal forces acting on the axle of the arm assembly and to the upper jaw according to an embodiment of the invention.

[0026] FIG. 15 includes a side view of the patient's jaws where force generating mechanism is shown as attached to the jaws with Class II malocclusion.

[0027] FIG. 16 includes a side view of the patient's jaws where force generating mechanism is shown as attached to the jaws with Class II malocclusion.

[0028] FIG. 17 includes a side view of the patient's jaws where force generating mechanism is shown as attached to the jaws that are in correct position.

[0029] FIG. 18 includes the orientation of the force generating mechanism when it is attached to jaws with Class II malocclusion.

[0030] FIG. 19 includes the orientation of the force generating mechanism when it is attached to jaws with correct orientation.

[0031] FIG. 20 includes a side view of the patient's jaws where force generating mechanism is shown as attached to the jaws with Class II malocclusion with maximum jaw discrepancy at the beginning of the treatment process. [0032] FIG. 21 includes a side view of the patient's jaws where force generating mechanism is shown as attached to the jaws with Class II malocclusion with smaller jaw discrepancy in the middle of the treatment process.

[0033] FIG. 22 includes the orientation of the force generating mechanism when it is attached to jaws with correct orientation.

[0034] FIG. 23 includes a side view of the patient's jaws where force generating mechanism is shown as attached to the jaws with Class II malocclusion.

[0035] FIG. 24 includes the orientation of the force generating mechanism when it is attached to jaws with correct orientation.

[0036] FIG. 25 includes a side view of the patient's jaws where force generating mechanism is shown as attached to the jaws with Class III malocclusion.

[0037] FIG. 26 includes an assembly sketch of the force generating mechanism using a rotating block in accordance with one of the embodiments of the invention.

[0038] FIG. 27 includes an assembly sketch of the force generating mechanism using rods and an arm assembly in accordance with one of the embodiments of the invention.

[0039] FIG. 28 includes an assembly sketch of the force generating mechanism using rods and a rotating block in accordance with one of the embodiments of the invention.

[0040] FIG. 29 includes an assembly sketch of the force generating mechanism with a rotating block, rod and compression spring inside a cylinder in accordance with one of the embodiments of the invention.

[0041] FIG. 30 includes the exploded view and list of components of the force generating mechanism with a rotating block, rod and compression spring inside a cylinder in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.

[0042] FIG. 31 includes a side view of the patient's jaws with Class II malocclusion where force generating mechanism with a rotating block, rod and compression spring inside a cylinder is attached to the jaws in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.

[0043] FIG. 32 includes an assembly sketch of the force generating mechanism with a rotating block, rod and an exposed compression spring in accordance with one of the embodiments of the invention.

[0044] FIG. 33 includes the exploded view and list of components of the force generating mechanism with a rotating block, rod and an exposed compression spring in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.

[0045] FIG. 34 includes a side view of the patient's jaws with Class III malocclusion where force generating mechanism with a rotating block, rod and an exposed

compression spring is attached to the jaws in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.

[0046] FIG. 35 includes active forces and torques on the force generating mechanism with a rotating block, rod and an exposed compression spring in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.

[0047] FIG. 36 includes horizontal forces acting on the axle of the arm assembly and to the upper jaw according to an embodiment of the invention. [0048] FIG. 37 includes a side view of the patient's jaws where force generating mechanism is shown as attached to the jaws with Class III malocclusion with maximum jaw discrepancy at the beginning of the treatment process.

[0049] FIG. 38 includes a side view of the patient's jaws where force generating mechanism is shown as attached to the jaws with Class III malocclusion with smaller jaw discrepancy in the middle of the treatment process.

[0050] FIG. 39 includes the orientation of the force generating mechanism when it is attached to jaws with correct orientation.

[0051] FIG. 40 includes a side view of the patient's jaws with Class II malocclusion where force generating mechanism with a rotating block, rod and an exposed

compression spring is attached to the jaws in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.

[0052] FIG. 41 includes horizontal forces acting on the axle of the arm assembly and to the lower jaw according to an embodiment of the invention.

[0053] FIG. 42 includes the components of a tube assembly in open position according to an embodiment of the invention.

[0054] FIG. 43 includes the components of a tube assembly in half way closed position according to an embodiment of the invention.

[0055] FIG. 44 includes the components of a tube assembly in fully closed position according to an embodiment of the invention.

[0056] FIG. 45A includes an assembly sketch of the force generating mechanism with a rotating block, tube assembly and an exposed compression spring in accordance with one of the embodiments of the invention.

[0057] FIG. 45B includes an assembly sketch of the force generating mechanism where eyelets are attached to the sides of tubes in accordance with one of the

embodiments of the invention.

[0058] FIG. 46 includes a side view of the patient's jaws with Class III malocclusion where force generating mechanism with a rotating block, tube assembly and an exposed compression spring is attached to the jaws in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.

[0059] FIG. 47 includes a side view of the patient's open jaws where force generating mechanism with a rotating block, tube assembly and an exposed compression spring is attached to the jaws in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.

[0060] FIG. 48 includes a side view of the patient's jaws with Class II malocclusion where force generating mechanism with a rotating block, tube assembly and an exposed compression spring is attached to the jaws in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.

[0061] FIG. 49 includes the side view of the patient' s mouth in correct orientation where force generating mechanism with a rotating block, tube assembly and an exposed compression spring is attached to the jaws in accordance with an embodiment of the invention. [0062] FIG. 50 includes a side view of the patient's open jaws where force generating mechanism with a rotating block, tube assembly and an exposed compression spring is attached to the jaws in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.

[0063] FIG. 51 includes a side view of the patient's jaws with normal bite where force generating mechanism is attached to the jaws using anchoring elements in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.

[0064] FIG. 52 includes a side view of the patient's jaws with Class III malocclusion where force generating mechanism is attached to the jaws using anchoring elements in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0065] The following detailed description is exemplary in nature and is not intended to limit the scope, applicability, or configuration of the invention in any way. Rather, the following description provides some practical illustrations for implementing exemplary embodiments of the present invention. Examples of constructions, materials, dimensions, and manufacturing processes are provided for selected elements, and all other elements employ that which is known to those of ordinary skill in the field of the invention. Those skilled in the art will recognize that many of the noted examples have a variety of suitable alternatives.

[0066] FIG. 5 illustrates a force generating mechanism 100a comprising a rotating arm assembly 110, a spring assembly 120, and tension members 106 and 107 according to an embodiment of the current invention. The force generating mechanism illustrated in FIG. 5, when attached to jaws, can be used to generate reaction forces to move a lower jaw relative to an upper jaw. The arm assembly 110 is made up of two arm components.

A first arm 101 and a second arm 102 are rigidly connected to each other to form the arm assembly 110. A hub 103 is located at the intersection of the first arm 101 and the second arm 102. Hub 103 is approximately at the center of the arm assembly 110 according to the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 5. However, in other embodiments, hub may be located at either end of the arm assembly. The first arm 101 and the second arm 102 may be in equal or different lengths. The angle ANG between the first arm 101 and the second arm 102 can be varied from 90 degrees up to 270 degrees. A first tension member 106 and a second tension member 107 are rotatingly coupled with the arm assembly 110 at a first hinge 104 and at a second hinge 105, respectively.

[0067] Exploded view of the force generating mechanism 100a is illustrated in FIG.

6. The first tension member 106 consists of a first rope 121, a first eyelet 115 which is fixedly attached to the first end of the first rope 121, and a second eyelet 116 which is fixedly attached to the second end of the first rope 121. The second tension member 107 consists of a second rope 119, a third eyelet 113 which is fixedly attached to the first end of the second rope 119, and a fourth eyelet 114 which is fixedly attached to the second end of the second rope 119. Eyelets are hollow components, they are approximately round in shape, they allow the tension members 106 and 107 to be rotatingly coupled to the arm assembly 110 or other structural components as it will be apparent in the future sections. Eyelets 113, 114, 115, and 116 can be attached to the ropes via crimps 117, 118, 128, and 129, respectively. Other methods of attachments are also possible without changing the general intent of the invention. In some configurations, eyelets may be formed as an integral part of the ropes 119 and 121, and woven in to the ropes themselves.

[0068] The spring assembly 120 includes an extension spring 124 and a guide member 125 according to an embodiment of the invention. The extension spring 124 has hooks in the first end 122 and in the second end 123. Hooks are approximately round sections bent from the spring wire. Between the hooks there is a section made up of spiraling spring coils. Spring coils are also formed from the spring wire. Spiraling coils form a hollow section, and they are wound around the spring axis 124a. Hooks on each end of the spring are approximately on the same plane as the spring axis 124a. The guide member 125 has a straight portion 126 and an eyelet 127 rigidly attached to the first end of the straight portion 126. Cross-section of the straight portion 126 of the guide member 125 can be approximately round or rectangular in shape. Size of the cross-section of the straight portion 126 is such that it fits inside the coils of the extension spring 124. In the spring assembly 120, the guide member 125 is inserted in to the extension spring 124. Straight portion 126 of the guide member 125 is located inside the coils of the extension spring 124, and eyelet 127 of the guide member 125 is located inside the hook 122 at the first end of the spring. Hook located on the first end 122 of spring 124 is operationally coupled to the eyelet 127 of the guide member 125. Hook located at the second end 123 of the spring 124 is attached to the first eyelet 115 on the first end of the first tension member 106. In some configurations of the force generating mechanism 100a, extension spring 124 may be used without the guide member 125. In other configurations, the first end of the first tension member 106 may be attached to the second end of the extension spring in various other means without changing the general intent of the invention.

[0069] The arm assembly 110 includes a first arm 101 and a second arm 102 as illustrated in FIG. 6. The first arm 101 and the second arm 102 are rigidly attached to a hub 103. Hub 103 provides a round hollow section between the first end 111 and the second end 112 of the arm assembly 110. As it will be apparent in the future sections, an axle is located in hub 103 for mounting purposes. Axle provides the rotation axis for the arm assembly 110. The first end 111 and the second end 112 of the arm assembly 110 includes mounting sections for the first tension member 106 and the second tension member 107, respectively. Second eyelet 116 of the first tension member 106 is rotatingly coupled with the first end 111 of the arm assembly 110 by means of a pin 108. Pin 108 provides the rotation axis for the first tension member 106 relative to the arm assembly 110 at a first hinge 104. The fourth eyelet 114 of the second tension member 107 is rotatingly coupled with the second end 112 of the arm assembly 110 by means of a pin

109. Pin 109 provides the rotation axis for the second tension member 107 relative to the arm assembly 110 at a second hinge 105. Pins 108 and 109 can be a screw or any other mechanical means that allow rotational coupling of tension members with the arm assembly 110. When assembled in to the force generating mechanism 100a as illustrated in FIG. 5, first tension member 106 is approximately in line with the axis 124a of the extension spring 124.

[0070] A force generating mechanism 100b is illustrated in FIG. 7 according to another embodiment of the current invention. In this embodiment, a coil spring 124 is used without the guide member. Also, in this embodiment, the first tension member mentioned in the above sections is eliminated. Second end 123 of the extension spring

124 is rotatingly coupled with the first end 111 of the arm assembly 110 directly.

Coupling of the second end 123 of the extension spring 124 with the first end 111 of the arm assembly 110 can be achieved by various means including but not limited to a hook or a pin with a flat head (not shown) that allows the rotation of the spring relative to the arm assembly, but prevents it from detaching from the arm assembly.

[0071] A force generating mechanism 100b is operably attached to a patient's jaws as illustrated in FIG. 8A according to an embodiment of the current invention. A first archwire 132 is fixedly attached to the lower jaw 130, and a second archwire 133 is fixedly attached to the upper jaw 131. Support bracket 136 is fixedly attached to the first archwire 132. Support bracket may also be an integral part of the dental brackets that holds the archwire. A first hook 134 is fixedly attached to the first archwirel32, and a second hook 135 is fixedly attached to the second archwire 133. The first hook 134 and the second hook 135 are located towards the front of the mouth compared to the support bracket 136. In some configurations, the first hook 134 and the second hook 135 may be replaced by pins that are fixedly attached to the first archwire and second archwire, respectively. In other configurations, the first hook 134 and the second hook 135 may be an integral part of the dental brackets that hold the archwire.

[0072] An axle 137 is fixedly attached to the support bracket 136. Outside diameter of the axle 137 is slightly smaller than the inside diameter of the hub 103. The axle 137 is located inside the hub 103, and it forms the rotation axis for the arm assembly 110 during the operation of the force mechanism. Arm assembly 110 is rotatingly coupled with the support bracket 136. Hook located on the first end 122 of the extension spring 124 is operationally attached to the first hook 134. Extension spring 124 is rotatingly coupled with the lower jaw 130 at the first hook 134. The eyelet 113 located at the first end of the second tension member 107 is operationally attached to the second hook 134. The second tension member 107 is rotatingly coupled with the upper jaw 131 at the second hook 135. During the operation of the force generating mechanism 100, extension spring 124 is always stretched and it is under tension, therefore, second tension member 107 is also under tension. Magnitude of the tension force on the second tension member 107 is proportional to the amount of stretch on the extension spring 124, and a ratio of the length of first arm 102 to the length of the second arm 102. In general, first hook 134 is located proximate the lower canine or lower first premolar, second hook 135 is located proximate the upper canine or upper first premolar, and the support bracket 136 is located proximate the lower first or second molar. However, location of these attachments may vary depending on the size of jaws without changing the general intent of the invention.

[0073] During the opening and closing of the mouth, force mechanism flexes, arm assembly and tension members rotate relative to each other without preventing normal operation of jaws as illustrated in FIG. 8B.

[0074] Plane views of the lower jaw 130 and upper jaw 131 are illustrated in FIG. 9. A first archwire 132 is attached to the lower jaw 130, and a second archwire 133 is attached to the upper jaw 131 by means of orthodontic brackets. A set of hooks and axles are attached to the first archwire 132 and second archwire 133 on both right and left side to receive the force mechanisms on both sides of the jaws. First hooks 134 and 164 are fixedly attached to the first archwire 132 proximate the lower first premolar. Second hooks 135 and 165 are fixedly attached to the second archwire 133 proximate upper first premolar. Support brackets 136 and 166 are fixedly attached to the first archwire 132 proximate the lower first molar. Axles 137 and 167 are fixedly attached to the support brackets 136 and 166, respectively. Axles 137 and 167 form the rotation axes for the arm assemblies. When a first force generating mechanism is attached to the jaws on the first side of the mouth, axle 137 is located inside the hub 103. A first screw 168 is threadingly engaged with the axle 137 to prevent the hub 103 separating from the axle 137. A similar arrangement is done on the second side of the jaws to attach a second force generating mechanism on the other side of the mouth. Screw 169 is used to secure the second force mechanism over the axle 167. In general, the first force generating mechanism is a mirror image of the second force generating mechanism.

[0075] The force generating mechanism 100 can be attached to anchoring brackets as illustrated in FIG. 10 according to an embodiment of the invention. A first anchoring bracket 145 is fitted over the lower first premolar, and a first pin 142 is fixedly attached to the first anchoring bracket 145. A second anchoring bracket 146 is fitted over the upper first premolar, and a second pin 143 is fixedly attached to the second anchoring bracket

146. A third anchoring bracket 147 is fitted over the lower first molar, and a third pin 144 is fixedly attached to the third anchoring bracket 147. Location of anchoring brackets may vary depending on the treatment plan, and size of patient's mouth. The third pin 144 is inserted in to the hub 103 of the arm assembly 110. Arm assembly 110 is rotatingly coupled with the lower jaw at the third pin 144. The hook located on the first end 122 of the extension spring 124 is operationally attached to the first pin 142. Extension spring 124 is rotatingly coupled with the lower jaw 140 at the first pin 142. Eyelet 113 located at the first end of the second tension member 107 is operationally attached to the second pin 143. The second tension member 107 is rotatingly coupled with the upper jaw 141 at the second pin 143.

[0076] Plane view of the upper jaw 141 and lower jaw 140 is illustrated in FIG. 11 according to an embodiment of the invention. Anchoring brackets 145, 146 and 147 are attached proximate lower first premolar, upper first premolar, and lower first molar, respectively, on a first side of jaws. In the second side of upper and lower jaws, anchoring brackets 175, 176, and 177 are also attached to teeth similarly as explained earlier in this paragraph. Anchoring brackets attached to the teeth on the lower jaw can be connected together by means of an archwire 156 as illustrated in FIG. 11. In some configurations, anchoring brackets can be bands or crowns. Location of anchoring brackets may change without changing the general intent of the invention.

[0077] The first pin 142, the second pin 143 and the third 144 pin are fixedly attached to anchoring brackets 145, 146 and 147, respectively. These pins form the rotation axis for various components of the force generating mechanism as explained in earlier sections. After the force generating mechanism is operationally attach to these pins as described in the previous sections, screws 170, 171 , and 178 are threadingly engaged with pins 142, 143 and 144, respectively, to prevent the force generating mechanism from disengaging the pins. Similar arrangement can be done to operationally attach a second force generating mechanism on to pins 172, 173 and 174 located on the opposite side of the jaw. After the second force generating mechanism is attached to pins 172, 173 and 174, screws 179, 180, and 181 are threadingly engaged with pins 172, 173 and 174, respectively, to prevent the second force mechanism from disengaging the pins.

[0078] FIG. 12 illustrates the forces and torques that apply on to the arm assembly according to embodiments of the invention shown in FIGS. 8 A and 10. The extension spring 124 is rotatingly coupled with the lower jaw on its first end 122 at the first hook 134 (or pin 142). The first hook 134 (or the first pin 142) is inserted in to the hook located on the first end 122 of the extension spring 124. Hook located on the second end 123 of the extension spring 124 is rotatingly coupled with the first end 111 of the arm assembly 110. As the arm assembly 110 rotates in clockwise direction around the center of the hub 103 as it will be apparent in future sections, it pulls the second end 123 of the extension spring 124, and thus, stretches the extension spring 124. Extension spring 124 creates a spring force 152 as it is stretched. The spring force 152 is related to the spring stiffness, initial spring tension, and an amount of spring deflection.

[0079] The spring force 152 acts on the first end 111 of the arm assembly 110. The spring force 152 coincides approximately with the axis 124a of the extension spring 124. The spring force 152 biases the arm assembly 110 to rotate in counterclockwise direction. The spring force 152 applies a first torque 154 on to the arm assembly 110. The magnitude of the first torque 154 is proportional to the spring force 152 and the perpendicular distance from the center of arm rotation located at the center of the hub 103 of the arm assembly 110 to the axis 124a of the extension spring 124. Hub 103 is rotatingly coupled to the lower jaw at an axle 137 (or 144). The first torque 154 is in counterclockwise direction.

[0080] First end of the second tension member 107 is rotatingly coupled with the upper jaw at the second hook 135 (or the second pin 143) that is inserted in to the eyelet

113 located on the first end of the second tension member 107. The second end of the second tension member 107 is rotatingly coupled with the arm assembly 110 at the second hinge 105. Second tension member 107 is in tension between the second hook 135 (or the second pin 143) located on the upper jaw and the second hinge 105. Due to the tension on the second tension member 107, a second force 153 is applied on to the arm assembly 110 at the second hinge 105. The second force 153 coincides approximately with the second tension member 107. Second force 153 applies a second torque 155 on to the arm assembly. Second torque 155 is proportional to the second force 153 and the perpendicular distance from the center of arm rotation located at the center of the hub 103 of the arm assembly 110 to the second tension member 107. The second torque 155 is in clockwise direction. For the arm assembly 110 to be in equilibrium, the magnitude of the first torque 154 is equal to the magnitude of the second torque 155. Therefore, the second force 153 is a resultant of the torque equilibrium on the arm assembly 110. The magnitude of the second force 153 can easily be calculated from the magnitude of the first torque 154, length of the second arm 102, and the angle between the tension member

107 and the second arm 102 of the arm assembly 110. Magnitude of the second force 153 is important to move the upper and lower jaws relative to each other as it will be apparent in the following sections.

[0081] The geometry of the force generating mechanism is determined by the relative locations of the first hook 134 (or first pin 142), second hook 135 (or second pin 143), axle 137 (or third pin 144), lengths of the first arm 101 and the second arm 102, and the angle between the first 101 arm and the second arm 102. These locations and lengths are helpful in calculating the angles between the tension members and the arms of the arm assembly 110. Spring parameters are pre-set to provide the desired magnitude of the second force. Amount of spring deflection depends on the relative motion between the upper and lower jaws. However, an initial spring deflection can be pre-set by adjusting the lengths of the first tension member 106, and the second tension member 107. If the first tension member does not exist as in the case illustrated in FIGS. 8 A and 10, then, the free length of the extension spring 124 can be selected properly to provide the desired initial spring deflection. Another way of setting the initial spring deflection is to slide the first hook 134 and the second hook 135 closer to or away from the axle 137 over the archwires. In practice, both methods of spring adjustment may be employed to achieve best results. [0082] Once the initial spring set up is completed, subsequent level of the spring force 152 depends on the distance lower jaw travels relative to the upper jaw in anterior direction. As the lower jaw moves in anterior direction relative to the upper jaw, center of rotation 137 (or 144) of the arm assembly 110 approaches to the second hook 135 (or second pin 143) in horizontal direction. Since the extension spring 124 continuously pulls on the arm assembly at the first end 111, arm rotates in counterclockwise direction, and causes the spring tension to decrease as illustrated in FIG. 13.

[0083] The second force 153 on the second tension member 107 is illustrated in FIG. 14 according to an embodiment of the invention. Considering the free body diagram of the upper jaw, and the arm assembly 110, the same second force 153 applies to the upper jaw at the second hook 135, and to the arm assembly at the second hinge 105. The second force 153 angle coincides with the second tension member 107, and it acts in opposite directions on the second hook 135 and the second hinge 105. The second tension member 107 is in an angle 182 with respect to the horizontal plane 189. Horizontal component of the second force can be calculated by multiplying the second force 153 with the cosine of angle 182. Horizontal components of the second force 183 and 185 act on the second hinge 105 and the second hook 135, respectively. These forces are in equal magnitude and in opposite directions. Since the arm assembly 110 is a rigid component, the horizontal force 183 can be directly transferred to the center of rotation of the arm assembly 110 where it is rotatingly held by the axle 137 (or third pin 144). The horizontal force 186 is equivalent to the horizontal force 183 in magnitude and direction. Therefore, horizontal forces 185 and 186 acting on the upper jaw and lower jaw, respectively, are in equal magnitude, and in opposite directions.

[0084] A first horizontal force 185 and a second horizontal force 186 are illustrated in FIG. 15 according to an embodiment of the invention. A first horizontal force 185 applies to the second hook 135. Since the second hook 135 is fixedly attached to the upper jaw, the first horizontal force 185 pushes the upper jaw in the first direction 187. A second horizontal force 186 acts on the axle 137. Since the axle 137 is fixedly attached to the lower jaw at the support bracket 136, the second horizontal force 186 pushes the lower jaw in the second direction 188. The first direction 187 and the second direction 188 are parallel and opposite to each other.

[0085] An embodiment of the force generating mechanism shown in FIG. 16 can be used to correct Class II type malocclusions. Force generating mechanism is shown in early stages of the treatment in FIG. 16, when the lower jaw is located furthest in posterior direction relative to the upper jaw, arm assembly is rotated the most in clockwise direction, and spring is stretched the most. As the lower jaw moves anteriorly relative to the upper jaw, arm assembly rotates in counter-clockwise direction and spring tension decreases. At the end of the treatment, force mechanism takes the shape as illustrated in FIG. 17 where lower jaw is located proximate its correct position in a healthy jaw orientation. During this treatment, horizontal push forces 185 and 186 acting on upper and lower jaws, respectively, remains substantially constant. Although the spring force changes due to changing amount of spring deflection, arm angles and angles of the tension members 106 and 107 vary during the process, as illustrated in FIGS. 18 and 19, and therefore, mechanism provides substantially constant horizontal push forces on upper and lower jaws.

[0086] The gap between the front of the teeth on upper and lower jaws in a Class II malocclusion is largest (a) at the beginning of the treatment as illustrated in FIG. 20. With the effect of the forces acting on upper and lower jaws by means of the force generating mechanism as explained in the previous sections, this gap decreases over time during the treatment process as shown in FIG. 21. In the middle of the treatment period, the gap is (b). (b) is substantially smaller than (a). At the end of the treatment, gap is very small or approximately zero as illustrated in FIG. 22.

[0087] Lengths of various components of the force generating mechanism are illustrated in FIG. 23-24 according to an embodiment of the invention. These lengths are critical to create the desired push force profile that acts on upper and lower jaws to treat Class II malocclusion. Length of the first tension member is 201, and length of the second tension member is 202. In the beginning of the treatment as illustrated in FIG. 23, lower jaw is located posteriorly relative to the upper jaw by the amount of (a), and the horizontal distance between the rotation axis 137 of the arm assembly 110 and the second hook is 204. Both first and second tension members are in tension, and the extension spring is stretched to a length 200. If there is no first tension member, and extension spring is directly attached to the first end of the arm assembly, then spring length needs to cover the distance between the first hook and the first end of the arm assembly. In that case, total length of the spring is equal to the sum of distances 200 and 201. At this position, horizontal forces of 185 and 186 are applied to upper and lower jaws, respectively, as illustrated in FIG. 15. As the lower jaw moves in anterior direction, the discrepancy (a) between upper and lower jaws decreases, and the distance 204 decreases as well. However, length of the first and second tension members stays constant. Because of the reduction in the distance 204, arm assembly rotates in counter-clockwise direction. Amount of arm rotation is proportional to the reduction in the distance 204 and lengths of arms 101 and 102. Because of the arm rotation, the stretched length of the extension spring decreases. As a result of the decreasing length of the spring, spring force also decreases, however, due to relative angles between arms of the arm assembly and tension member, the horizontal forces 185 and 186 stays constant. At the end of the treatment, there is none or very little discrepancy between upper and lower jaws as illustrated in FIG. 24. At this position, extension spring is at its smallest length 203. In some configurations, an optional stop bracket 206 may be located on the archwire as illustrated in FIGS. 23-24. When the first arm 101 hits this stop bracket 206 at the end of the treatment process, there will be no more force acting on the upper and lower jaws. All the spring force is transferred to the stop bracket 206.

[0088] Above explanation of the mechanism is given using exemplary embodiments to correct Class II malocclusions as illustrated in FIGS. 7-24. According to these embodiments, spring assembly and the axis of arm rotation were attached to the lower jaw, and first end of the second tension member was attached to the upper jaw. In other embodiments as illustrated in FIG. 25, the first end of the spring assembly 212 and the support bracket 217 can be attached to the upper jaw 214, and the first end of the second tension member 206 can be attached to the lower jaw 213 to correct Class III

malocclusions. The first hook 211 is fixedly attached to the lower jaw 213. The first end of the tension member 206 is rotatingly coupled with the lower jaw at the first hook 211. The second hook 210 is fixedly attached to the upper jaw 214. The first end of the spring assembly 212 is rotatingly coupled with the upper jaw 214 at the second hook 210. In a Class III malocclusion, since the lower jaw is located ahead of the upper jaw in anterior direction, Lower jaw needs to be pushed in posterior direction relative to the upper jaw. By reversing the attachment points as illustrated in FIG. 25, similar horizontal forces explained in the previous sections act on the upper and lower jaws in opposite directions. In this configuration, directions of the horizontal forces acting on upper and lower jaws are in the opposite direction to those shown in FIG. 15, and therefore, upper and lower jaws move in directions 215 and 216, respectively.

[00089] The force mechanism described in the previous sections can also be built using a rigid rotating block 221 instead of an arm assembly as illustrated in FIG. 26 according to an embodiment of the current invention. All the other features of the invention still apply to the force mechanism 223 using a rigid rotating block 221. First tension member 106 is attached to the rigid rotating block 221 at the first hinge 224, and the second tension member 107 is attached to the rigid rotating block 221 at the second hinge 225. The first tension member 106 is rotatingly coupled with the rigid rotating block 221 at the first rotation axis 228 located in the first hinge 224, and the second tension member 107 is rotatingly coupled with the rigid rotating block 221 at the second rotation axis 229 located in the second hinge 225. Rigid rotating block 221 also has a hub 222. Rigid rotating block 221 is rotatingly coupled with the support bracket 136 wherein the support bracket 136 is fixedly attached to the archwire as illustrated in FIG. 15. The distance between the center of the hub 222 and the first rotation axis 228 is equivalent to the length of the first arm described in previous sections, and the distance between the center of the hub 222 and the second rotation axis 229 is equivalent to the length of the second arm described in the previous sections. Rigid rotating block can be formed from various materials including but not limited to cast aluminum, molded plastic, steel, or other known engineering materials.

[0090] Various types of springs can be used as the energy source for the force generating mechanism. These springs may include coil springs, rubber bands, and other types of compliant mechanisms. In some configurations, these springs may be attached directly between the arm and the hook without the assistance of the first tension member.

[0091] The first and second tension members can be built from rods as illustrated in FIGS. 27 and 28 according to an embodiment of the current invention. A first rod 231 (or 241) and a second rod 232 (or 242) are rotatingly coupled with the arm assembly 237 (or with rigid rotating block 247) at a first hinge 234 and at a second hinge 235 (or 244 and 245), respectively. A first eyelets 233 and a second eyelet 238 (or 243 and 248) are used to attach the second rod 232 (or 242) and the spring assembly 236 (or 246) to hooks located on upper and lower jaws, respectively. These force mechanisms using rods as tension members act the same way as described in the previous sections.

[0092] A compression spring can also be used as the energy storing member of the force mechanism according to an embodiment of the invention as illustrated in FIG. 29-

31. Basic principle of the force mechanism is the same as explained in previous sections. Mechanism can have a rigid rotating block 257. Rigid rotating block 257 can freely rotate around the center of the hub 258 when it is in operation. In some embodiments, rigid rotating block can be replaced by an arm assembly or other components that would perform the same function without changing the general intent of the invention. Rigid rotating block 257 is rotatingly coupled with a spring assembly 250 at the first hinge 255, and it is rotatingly coupled with a rod 254 at the second hinge 256. In some embodiments of the invention, rod 254 may be replaced by a tension member. Tension member can be made up of rope, wire, rod, or any other mechanical component that can transfer tension force between its end points. First end of the spring assembly 250 is rotatingly coupled with the rigid rotating block 257 at the first hinge 255, and an eyelet 251 is fixedly attached to the second end of the spring assembly. Similarly, first end of the rod 254 is rotatingly coupled with the rigid rotating block 257 at the second hinge 256, and an eyelet 252 is fixedly attached to the second end of the rod.

[0093] Components of the force mechanism is illustrated in FIG. 30 according to an embodiment of the invention. Rigid rotating block 257 has a hub 258, and mounting sections 268 and 269 on each end. Rod 254 has eyelets 267 and 252 fixedly attached to its first and second ends, respectively. Eyelet 267 on the first end of the rod is rotatingly coupled with the mounting section 269 on the rigid rotating block by means of a screw or pin to form the second hinge 256. Spring assembly includes a spring rod 253, a compression spring 260, and a cylindrical container 270. For ease of assembly, container can be made up of two pieces including container body 261, and container cap 262. The first end of the container body includes bent tabs 265 to provide pressure surfaces for the compression spring while in use, and the second end of the container body has an opening 263. Outside surface of the container body 261 close to the opening 263 is threaded. Container cap 262 can also be in cylindrical shape and fits over the container body. The first end of the container cap 262 has an opening. Inside surface of the opening 264 close to the first end of the container cap is threaded to match the threads on the second end of the container body. Second end of the container cap is closed. An eyelet 251 is fixedly attached to the second end of the container cap. Spring rod 253 also has an eyelet 266 fixedly attached to its first end, and a pressure plate 259 is fixedly attached to its second end. During the buildup of the spring assembly 250, compression spring 260 is inserted in to the container body 261 through its open end 263. Spring rod 253 is inserted through the compression spring 260 located inside the container body 261, and the eyelet 266 comes out of the first end of the container body 261. Compression spring 260 is trapped between the tabs 265 on the first end of the container body 261, and the pressure plate 259 of the spring rod 253. Container cap 262 threadingly engages the second end of the container body 261 to seal it. Eyelet 266 located on the first end of the spring rod is rotatingly coupled with the first mounting section 268 of the rigid rotating block 257 by means of a screw or a pin to form the first hinge 255.

[0094] The force generating mechanism shown in FIG. 29 can be attached to a patient's mouth as illustrated in FIG. 31 according to an embodiment of the current invention to correct a Class II type malocclusion. A support bracket 274 and a first hook 272 are fixedly attached to the archwire located on the lower jaw. A second hook 273 is fixedly attached to the archwire located on the upper jaw. A pin 275 inserted through hub 258 of the rigid rotating block 257 is attached to the support bracket 274. Rigid rotating block 257 is rotatingly coupled with the support bracket 274. And thus, rigid rotating block 257 is rotatingly coupled with the lower jaw. The pin 275 can be replaced by other mechanical means include but not limited to screws, rivets, hooks, and other known mechanical couplers to provide rotational coupling between the rigid rotating block 257 at the support bracket 274.

[0095] A first hook 272 is inserted through the eyelet 251 located on the second end of the spring assembly 250. First hook 272 forms the rotation axis for the spring assembly 250 relative to the lower jaw. Spring assembly 250 is rotatingly coupled with the lower jaw at the first hook 272. A second hook 273 is inserted through the eyelet 252 located on the second end of the rod 254. Second hook 273 forms the rotation axis for the rod 254 relative to the upper jaw. Rod 254 is rotatingly coupled with the upper jaw at the second hook 273. Rod and the spring assembly can be rotatingly coupled with the upper and lower jaws, respectively, by means of various methods. These methods include but not limited to hooks, pins, screws, or other mechanical attachments. In some configurations of the force generating mechanism, coupling of the rod 254 to rigid rotating block 257 in the first end, and coupling of the rod 254 to upper archwire in the second end can be done using ball socket joints. Ball socket joints provide some lateral flexibility between upper and lower jaws when the force mechanism is installed in to patent's mouth.

[0096] Length of the rod 254, length of the spring assembly 250 from eyelet 251 to eyelet 266, and locations of the support bracket 274 and hooks 272 and 273 can be selected such that when the front teeth on the upper and lower jaws are on top of each other as is the case in a correct bite formation as illustrated in FIG. 1 , force mechanism applies little or no force to the jaws. When the jaws are misaligned as in the case of Class II malocclusion as illustrated in FIG. 31, lower jaw is located posteriorly relative to the upper jaw, and thus, horizontal distance between the support bracket 274 which is fixedly attached to the lower jaw and the second hook 273 which is fixedly attached to the upper jaw increases. To compensate for this increased distance, rod 254 pulls the second hinge 256 in anterior direction causing the rigid rotating block 257 rotate in clockwise direction around the center of the hub 275. This causes the second hinge 255 move away from the container 270 in posterior direction. Spring rod 253 pulls out of the container body 261, and compression spring 260 is compressed between the tabs 265 located on the first end of the container body 261 and the pressure plate 259 located on the second end of the spring rod 253. As a result, a spring force is generated. Direction of the spring force coincides with the axis of the spring rod 253, and it applies to the rigid rotating block 257 at the first hinge 255. Spring force biases the rigid rotating block 257 to rotate in counterclockwise direction. Spring force is converted to a horizontal force that applies to upper and lower jaws as explained in the previous sections. Horizontal forces move the upper jaw in the first direction 276, and move the lower jaw in the second direction 277 as illustrated in FIG. 31.

[0097] In other embodiments of the invention, force generating mechanism attachment points to the jaws shown in FIG. 31 can be changed to the opposite jaw to correct Class III malocclusion. Support bracket and first hook can be attached to the upper jaw, and second hook can be attached to the lower jaw. In this configuration, force mechanism can be attached to the support bracket, first hook and second hook as explained in previous sections.

[0098] A force generating mechanism using a compression spring as the energy storing member is illustrated in FIG. 32 according to an embodiment of the current invention. A rigid rotating block 285 is intended to freely rotate around the center of its hub 286 when it is in operation. In some embodiments of the invention, rigid rotating block may be replaced by an arm assembly or other components that would perform the same function without changing the general intent of the invention. Rigid rotating block 285 is rotatingly coupled with a spring assembly 280 at the first hinge 283, and it is rotatingly coupled with a rod 282 at the second hinge 284. First end of the spring assembly 280 is rotatingly coupled with the rigid rotating block 285 at the first hinge 283, and an eyelet 287 is fixedly attached to the second end of the spring assembly. The first end of the rod 282 is rotatingly coupled with the rigid rotating block 285 at the second hinge 284, and an eyelet 288 is fixedly attached to the second end of the rod 282.

[0099] Components of the force generating mechanism are illustrated in FIG. 33 according to an embodiment of the current invention. Rigid rotating block 285 can have a hub 286, and mounting sections 295 and 296 on its first end and second end, respectively. Rod 282 has eyelets 294 and 288 fixedly attached to its first end and second end, respectively. Eyelet 294 located on the first end of the rod 282 is rotatingly coupled with the mounting section 296 of the rigid rotating block by means of a screw or pin to form the second hinge 284. Spring assembly includes a spring rod 281, a compression spring

289, and a tube 290. Spring rod 281 generally has a round cross-section. Spring rod diameter is in 1mm to 3mm range. An eyelet 293 is fixedly attached to the first end of the spring rod 281. Eyelet 293 is rotatingly coupled with the mounting section 295 of the rigid rotating block 285 by means of a screw or pin to form the first hinge 283. A first pressure plate 292 is fixedly attached to the spring rod 281. The first pressure plate 292 is located between the first end and second end of the spring rod 281. The first pressure plate 292 is perpendicular to the axis 281b of the spring rod 281. Tube 290 is an elongated hollow component with a longitudinal axis 290b. Tube 290 generally has a round cross-section. Inside diameter of the tube 290 is slightly larger than the diameter of the spring rod 281. First end of the tube 290 is open to accept the spring rod 281 during the operation of the force generating mechanism. An eyelet 287 is fixedly attached to the second end of the tube 290. A second pressure plate 291 is fixedly attached to the outside of the tube 290. Second pressure plate 291 is located between the first end and second end of the tube 290. Second pressure plate 291 is perpendicular to the axis 290b of the tube

290. Spring assembly 280 is built by sliding the compression spring 289 over the tube 290. Second end of the compression spring 289 rests on the second pressure plate 291. Spring rod 281 is inserted in to the tube 290 through the first end of the tube. At least some part of the spring rod 281 is located inside the tube 290 during the operation of the force mechanism. Second end of the spring rod 281 is slidingly engaged with the tube 290. The first pressure plate 292 rests against the first end of the compression spring 289. In the spring assembly 280, axis 281b of the spring rod, axis 290b of the tube, and axis 289b of the compression spring are coincident. Therefore, first pressure plate 292 and second pressure plate 291 are parallel to each other. Spring rod 281 is allowed to move in axial direction relative to the tube 290 during the operation of the force mechanism. Therefore, the distance between the first pressure plate 292 and the second pressure plate 291 varies during the operation of the force mechanism. The distance between the first pressure plate 292 and second pressure plate 291 determines the magnitude of compression that exist on the compression spring at any instant during the use of the force generating mechanism. The distance between the first pressure plate 292 and second pressure plate 291 is always smaller than the free length of the compression spring 289, therefore, compression spring 289 is always under compression between the first pressure plate 292 and second pressure plate 291.

[0100] Force mechanism illustrated in FIG. 32 can be attached to a patient's mouth as illustrated in FIG. 34 to correct a Class III malocclusion according to an embodiment of the current invention. Upper arch wire 133 and lower arch wire 132 are fixedly attached to the upper jaw 214 and lower jaw 213, respectively. A support bracket 302 and a first hook 298 are fixedly attached to the lower archwire 132. A second hook 297 is fixedly attached to the upper archwire 133. Location of hooks and the support bracket may vary depending on the size of the force mechanism, however, in general, hook 297 is located proximate upper canine or upper first premolar, and hook 298 is located proximate lower canine or lower first premolar. Support bracket 302 is located proximate the lower first or second molar. In some configurations, eyelets 287 and 288, and the rigid rotating block

285 may be attached to the jaws using anchoring brackets as described in relation to FIG. 10. [0101] Rod 282 and the spring assembly 280 can be rotatingly coupled with the upper 214 and lower 213 jaws, respectively, by means of various methods. These methods include but not limited to hooks, pins, screws, rivets or other known mechanical attachments. In some configurations, coupling of the rod 282 to rigid rotating block 285 in the first end, and coupling of the rod 282 to upper archwire 133 in the second end can be done using ball socket joints. Ball socket joints provide some lateral flexibility between upper and lower jaws when the force mechanism is installed in to patent's mouth.

[0102] Rigid rotating block 285 is rotatingly coupled with the support bracket 302. A screw or pin 279 inserted through hub 286 secures the rigid rotating block 285 on to the support bracket 302 and forms the rotation axis for the rigid rotating block 285 relative to the support bracket 302. Spring assembly 280 is rotatingly coupled with the lower jaw at the first hook 298. The first hook 298 is inserted through the eyelet 287. The first hook 298 secures the spring assembly 280 to the lower jaw and forms the rotation axis for the spring assembly relative to the lower jaw. Rod 282 is rotatingly coupled with upper jaw at the second hook 297. The second hook 297 is inserted through the eyelet 288 to secure the rod 282 to the upper jaw, and to form the rotation axis for the rod 282 relative to the upper jaw.

[0103] When the force mechanism is attached to the upper and lower jaws as explained above, movement of the jaws relative to each other creates the forces and torques as illustrated in FIG. 35 according to an embodiment of the invention. In FIG. 35, force mechanism is grayed out to make the rest of the components more understandable. Lengths of the rod 282 and spring assembly 280, and location of the support bracket 302 and hooks 297 and 298 are selected such that when the front teeth on the upper and lower jaws are on top of each other as is the case of a correct bite as illustrated in FIG. 1, force mechanism applies little or no force to the jaws. However, when the jaws are misaligned as in the case of Class III malocclusion as illustrated in FIG. 34, it creates the forces on the force mechanism as shown in FIG. 35. These forces are transferred to upper and lower jaws as explained in later sections.

[0104] In Class III malocclusion, lower jaw is located anteriorly compared to the upper jaw, and therefore, it moves the support bracket 302 horizontally towards the second hook 297. Rod 282 is a strong compression element. Length of the rod 282 does not get smaller under compression. Therefore, rod pushes against the second hinge 284 causing the rigid rotating block 285 rotate in counter-clockwise direction around the rotation axis 279. As a result, first hinge 283 moves towards the spring assembly 280.

This causes the spring rod 281 move further in to the tube 290, and reduce the distance between the first pressure plate 292 and the second pressure plate 291. Therefore, compression spring 289 is compressed between the first pressure plate 292 and the second pressure plate 291. As a result, an increasing compression force 303 is generated by the compression spring 289. Force 303 is applied to the rigid rotating block 285 at the first hinge 283, and it biases the rigid rotating block 285 in clockwise direction. Spring force 303 is proportional to the spring stiffness, pre-stress on the spring, and the amount of compression on the spring. Direction of the compression force 303 is coincident with the spring rod. Compression spring force 303 acting on the first hinge 283 creates the first torque 305 in clockwise direction on the rigid rotating block 285. First torque 305 is proportional to the spring force 303, the distance between the rotation axis of the first hinge 283 and the rotation axis of the rigid rotating block 285, and the first angle 309 between the spring rod 281 and the imaginary line 307 connecting the rotation axis of the first hinge 283 and the rotation axis of rigid rotating block 285. First torque 305 is counteracted by the second torque 306. Second torque 306 is in counter-clockwise direction, and it is created by the rod 282 pushing on to the rigid rotating block 285 at the second hinge 284. First torque 305 and second torque 306 are equal in magnitude and in opposite directions. From the second torque 306, a force 304 on the rod 282 can be calculated. Direction of the force 304 is coincident with the rod 282. Second torque 306 is proportional to the magnitude of the force 304, the distance between the rotation axis of the second hinge 284 and the rotation axis of the rigid rotating block 285, and the second angle 310 between the rod 282 and the imaginary line 308 connecting the rotation axis of the second hinge 284 and the rotation axis of the rigid rotating block 285. From these relations, force 304 acting on the second hinge 284 can be calculated.

[0105] Force 304 acts on the second hinge 284 as well as on to the second hook 297 as illustrated in FIG. 36 according to an embodiment of the invention. Force 304 is in line with the rod 282. There is a third angle 311 between the rod 282 and the horizontal plane 315. The third angle 311 varies during the operation of the force generating mechanism when the upper jaw moves relative to the lower jaw. Horizontal component 312 of the force 304 acts on the second hinge 284. Magnitude of the horizontal force 312 can be calculated as a multiplication of the magnitude of the force 304 and cosine of the third angle 311. Horizontal force 312 can be translated to the center of the hub 286 as a horizontal force 314. Forces 314 and 312 are equal in magnitude and acts in the same direction. Similarly, horizontal force 313 acting on the second hook 297 can be calculated as a multiplication of the magnitude of the force 304 and cosine of the angle 311.

[0106] The first horizontal force 313 and the second horizontal force 314 are equal in magnitude and in opposite directions. Since the second hook 297 is fixedly attached to the upper jaw, the first horizontal force 313 acts on the upper jaw forcing it to move in the direction 301. And, since the support bracket 302 is fixedly attached to the lower jaw, the second horizontal force 314 acts on the lower jaw forcing it to move in direction 300, as illustrated in FIG. 34. Due to variations in the first angle 309, the second angle 310, and the third angle 311, and the amount of deflection on the compression spring, the first horizontal force 313 and the second horizontal force 314 can stay approximately constant or varied according to a desired force profile during the operation of the force generating mechanism. To achieve the desired force profile, spring parameters, and initial deflection of the compression spring can be selected properly in association with the proper selection of the initial angles 309, 310, 311, and the lengths of the imaginary lines 307 and 308.

[0107] Various stages of jaw movement during the treatment of a Class III malocclusion utilizing the force generating mechanism are illustrated in FIGS. 37-39 according to an embodiment of the current invention. Rotation of rigid rotating block 319 and spring deflection are also illustrated in FIGS. 37-39 at various stages of jaw movement. The gap between the front of the teeth on upper and lower jaws in a Class III malocclusion (a), and the spring compression are maximum at the beginning of the treatment as illustrated in FIG. 37. With the effect of forces acting on upper and lower jaws by means of the force generating mechanism as explained in the previous sections, upper jaw moves in direction 324 and lower jaw moves in the opposite direction 325 relative to each other, and thus, the gap between the front teeth on the upper and lower jaws decreases over time during the treatment process as illustrated in FIG. 38. In the middle of the treatment period, the gap is (b). (b) is substantially smaller than (a). At the end of the treatment process, gap is very small or approximately zero as illustrated in FIG. 39. Rigid rotating block 319 rotates in clockwise direction during the treatment as the lower jaw moves posteriorly relative to the upper jaw, and thus, spring compression decreases. Therefore, compression forces 321, 322, 323 acting on rod 318 vary during the treatment process. However, with changing angles between various components of the force generating mechanism as explained in previous sections, the push forces 326, 327,

328 acting on the lower jaw stays constant or varies according to a predetermined profile as explained in association with FIG. 36. In some configurations, a stop block 320 can be attached to the archwire on the lower jaw. Location of the stop block 320 is selected such that at the end of the treatment process, when the gap between the front teeth on the upper and lower jaws is substantially zero, rigid rotating block 319 touches the stop block 320, and the push force acting on the lower jaw becomes zero. After the contact, all the force generated by the compression spring is taken by the stop block 320.

[0108] Force mechanism with the compression spring as described above in association with FIGS. 32-39 can also be used to correct Class II malocclusions. In this configuration, first hook 332, and the support bracket 342 are fixedly attached to the archwire located on the upper jaw, and the second hook 331 is fixedly attached to the archwire located on the lower jaw as illustrated in FIG. 40 according to an embodiment of the invention. First hook 332 is inserted in to the eyelet 334 located at the second end of the spring assembly 341. Spring assembly is rotatingly coupled with the upper jaw at the first hook 332. The first end of the spring assembly 341 is rotatingly coupled with the rigid rotating block 344 at the first hinge 338. Second hook 331 is inserted in to the eyelet 333 located at the second end of the rod 335. Rod 335 is rotatingly coupled with the lower jaw at the second hook 331. The first and of the rod 335 is rotatingly coupled with the rigid rotating block 344 at the second hinge 337. Rigid rotating block 344 is rotatingly coupled with the support bracket 342 at its hub 343. An axle 345 in the form of a pin or a screw can be used to attach the rigid rotating block 344 to the support bracket 342. In a Class II malocclusion, lower jaw is shifted posteriorly from its neutral position relative to the upper jaw. Neutral position of the lower jaw is where the front teeth on the upper and lower jaws are over each other as illustrated in FIG. 1.

[0109] Spring rod and tube are in sliding engagement inside the spring assembly 341.

A first pressure plate is fixedly attached to the spring rod, and a second pressure plate is fixedly attached to the tube as explained in previous sections in relation to FIG. 33. A compression spring is in contact with the first pressure plate on one end, and in contact with the second pressure plate on the other end. Compression spring is coaxial with the spring rod and the tube. When the lower jaw is displaced posteriorly from its neutral position, rod 335 pushes the rigid rotating block 344 at the second hinge 337, and rigid rotating block 344 rotates around the axle 345 in clockwise direction. Rigid rotating block 344 pushes on to the spring rod 336 at the first hinge 338 and causes it to slide in axial direction into the tube. As a result, the distance between the first and second pressure plates decreases, and the compression spring put under compression. In return, compression spring creates a force on the spring rod which is than causes an axial force 351 on the rod 335 as explained in relation to FIG. 35.

[0110] Forces created on the rod 335 are illustrated in FIG. 41 according to an embodiment of the invention. Axial force 351 is created on the rod 335 by means of the jaw movement. Axial force 351 pushes against the rigid rotating block 344 at the second hinge 337. Since the rod 335 is also operationally attached to the lower jaw at the eyelet 333, a force 352 also acts on the lower jaw at the hook 331. Force 352 is equal in magnitude but in opposite direction with the force 351. Horizontal forces 354 and 353 acting on the second hinge of the rigid rotating block and acting on the hook 331, respectively, can be calculated as explained in relation to FIG. 36. Horizontal forces 353 and 354 are equal in magnitude but in opposite direction. Force 354 can be translated to the hub of the rigid rotating block as the force 356. Force 356 is equal in magnitude and in same direction as the force 354. Force 354 acts on the axle that is fixedly attached to the support bracket 342, and transfers the force 356 on to the support bracket 342. Since the support bracket is fixedly attached to the archwire located on the upper jaw, force 356 pushes the upper jaw in direction 330 as illustrated in FIG. 40. Similarly, force 353 pushes on to the hook 331. Since hook 331 is fixedly attached to the archwire located on the lower jaw, force 353 pushes the lower jaw in direction 340.

[0111] A force generating mechanism 357 is illustrated in FIGS. 42-45A according to an embodiment of the current invention. Main components of the force mechanism 357, as illustrated in FIG. 45 A, are the spring assembly 368, rigid rotating block 370 and the telescoping tube assembly 359. Spring assembly and rigid rotating block are similar to the ones as described above in relation to the FIGS. 32-33. Rod 282 shown in FIG. 32 is replaced by a telescoping tube assembly 359 as illustrated in FIG. 45A. Telescoping tube assembly allows flexibility of the distance between the second hinge of the rigid rotating block 374 and the eyelet 366 at the end of the tube assembly where the tube assembly is attached to a hook at the upper jaw as explained in the following sections.

[0112] The rigid rotating block 370 rotates freely around the center of the hub 372 when it is in operation. In some embodiments of the invention, rigid rotating block may be replaced by an arm assembly or other components that would perform the same function without changing the general intent of the invention. Rigid rotating block 370 is rotatingly coupled with a spring assembly 368 at the first hinge 373, and it is rotatingly coupled with a telescoping tube assembly 359 at the second hinge 374. First end of the spring assembly 368 is rotatingly coupled with the rigid rotating block 370 at the first hinge 373, and an eyelet 367 is fixedly attached to the second end of the spring assembly. Similarly, first end of the telescoping tube assembly 359 is rotatingly coupled with the rigid rotating block 370 at the second hinge 374, and an eyelet 366 is fixedly attached to the second end of the telescoping tube assembly 359.

[0113] Tube assembly 359 is illustrated in FIGS. 42-44. Main components of the tube assembly 359 are a rod 362, and a tube 365. Rod 362 is typically cylindrical in cross- section with l-3mm diameter. However, in some embodiments, various other rod cross- sections such as square, oval, or rectangle may also be used without changing general intention of the invention. An eyelet 360 is fixedly attached to the first end of the rod 362.

A third pressure plate 361 is fixedly attached to the rod 362. Third pressure plate 361 is located proximate the first end of rod 362. Second end 363 of the rod is free from any hindrances.

[0114] Cross-section of the tube 365 can be in any shape. In general, cross-section of the tube 365 matches the cross-section of the rod 362, and in general, they are round.

Inside diameter of the tube 365 is slightly larger than the diameter of the rod 362. First end 364 of the tube is open, and it is ready to engage with the second end 363 of the rod. An eyelet 366 is fixedly attached to the second end of the tube 365.

[0115] Rod 362 and tube 365 are located on the same axis 358. The second end 363 of the rod is located inside the tube 365 during the operation of the force mechanism as illustrated in FIG. 43. During the operation of the force mechanism 357, rod 362 is slidingly engaged with the tube 365. Depending on the position of the jaws, rod 362 slides inside the tube 365 as explained in the following sections, and in closed position of the jaws, first end 364 of the tube presses against the pressure plate 361 as illustrated in FIG. 44. In some embodiments, pressure plate 361 may not be used, in that case, in closed position of the jaws, first end 364 of the tube 365 presses directly against the eyelet 360.

[0116] Assembly of the force generating mechanism 357 is illustrated in FIG. 45A according to an embodiment of the invention. Spring assembly 368 and tube assembly 359 are rotatingly coupled with the rigid rotating block 370 at the first hinge 373 and the second hinge 374, respectively. Compression spring 376 is compressed between the pressure plates 375 and 377. Force generating mechanism 357 is attached to the patient's mouth at three locations as explained in the following sections, these locations are eyelets

366 and 377, and the hub 372 of the rigid rotating block 370. Depending on the relative locations of these attachment points over patient's jaws at various jaw positions, force mechanism re-orients itself, and applies forces to patients jaws as explained in the previous sections. As an example, force mechanism 357 shown in FIG. 45A, represents closed position of the jaws where the rod 362 is completely inserted in to the tube 365, and first end of the tube is pressing against the first pressure plate 361.

[0117] In some configurations, force mechanism 347 may be constructed slightly differently as illustrated in FIG. 45B according to an embodiment of the invention. Eyelet

366 can be attached to the tube assembly 349 on the side of the tube 365. This allows the second end of the tube 365 to be open as well. A slightly longer rod 346 can be used in the tube assembly 349 allowing it to penetrate out of the second end of the tube 365 in closed position of the jaws. This may be helpful to prevent the rod 346 from disengaging from the tube 365 when the mouth is opened extremely wide. Eyelet 367 can also be attached to the side of tube 378 in the spring assembly 348. This may provide some flexibility in attachment of the force mechanism 347 in patient's mouth. Eyelets 366 and

367 can be fixedly attached to the sides of tubes 365 and 378 anywhere around their periphery proximate to second ends.

[0118] Force generating mechanism 357 shown in FIG. 45A is attached to the patient's mouth as illustrated in FIG. 46 to correct a Class III malocclusion according to an embodiment of the current invention. A first archwire 132 is attached to the lower jaw

213 through a series of first set of dental brackets, and a second archwire 133 is attached to the upper jaw 214 through a series of second set of dental brackets. A first hook 382 is fixedly attached to the first archwire 132, and the second hook 383 is fixedly attached to the second archwire 133, and a support bracket 384 is fixedly attached to the first archwire 132. Location of hooks and the support bracket can vary depending on the size of the force mechanism, however, in general, second hook 383 is located proximate to upper canine or upper first premolar, and first hook 382 is located proximate to lower canine or lower first premolar. Support bracket 384 is located proximate to the lower first or second molar. Rigid rotating block 370 is rotatingly coupled with the support bracket 384 at its hub 372. Rigid rotating block 370 is allowed to freely rotate around the axis 385 located at the center of the hub 372 during the operation of the force mechanism. First hook 382 can be inserted in to the eyelet 367, and spring assembly is rotatingly coupled with the lower jaw 213 at the first hook 382. Second hook 383 is inserted in to eyelet 366, and tube assembly 359 is rotatingly coupled with the upper jaw 214 at the second hook 383. With these attachments, force generating mechanism 357 is operationally coupled to patient's jaws. Depending on the relative position of jaws with respect to each other, force generating mechanism re-orients itself and apply varying levels of push forces to upper and lower jaws as explained in previous sections. As a result, upper jaw is pushed in the first direction 380, and lower jaw is pushed in the second direction 381 to correct Class III malocclusion. Push forces on upper and lower jaws are equal in magnitude, and in opposite directions.

[0119] Telescoping tube assembly 359 and the spring assembly 368 can be rotatingly coupled with the upper jaw 214 and lower jaw 213, respectively, by means various methods. These methods include but not limited to hooks, pins, screws, or other known mechanical attachments. In some configurations, coupling of the tube assembly 359 to rigid rotating block in the first end, and coupling of the tube assembly 359 to upper archwire 133 in the second end can be done using ball socket joints. Ball socket joints provide some lateral flexibility between upper and lower jaws when the force mechanism is installed in to patent' s mouth.

[0120] An optional stop bracket 386 can be fixedly attached to the lower archwire 132. Stop bracket 386 when used preforms two functions. It prevents excessive rotation of the rigid rotating block when patient opens or closes his/her mouth, and thus, prevents any undesired position of the force generating mechanism. The other function of the stop bracket 386 is to take the force generated by the force generating mechanism at the end of the treatment process, and stop pushing the jaws.

[0121] An embodiment of the force generating mechanism can be attached to patient's mouth as illustrated in FIG. 46 using archwires. Force generating mechanism can also be attached to the jaws using anchoring elements as explained in relation to FIG.

10. In a sample configuration, anchoring elements can be fitted over lower canine, upper canine, and the lower first molar. Location of these anchoring elements may vary depending on the size of the force generating mechanism, and size of the patient's jaws. Locations of these anchoring elements correspond to proximate locations of eyelets attached to the spring and tube assemblies, and the hub of the rigid rotating block. Eyelets and the rigid rotating block can be rotatingly coupled with the anchoring elements through some axles. Axles are in general formed as part of the anchoring elements.

[0122] Open position of the jaws is illustrated in FIG. 47. In this position, rod 395 extends out of the tube 394 to allow opening of the jaws without disengaging the force mechanism. Since the tube 394 is not pressing against the pressure plate 398 there is no torque on the rigid rotating block 396 in counter-clockwise direction against the compression spring. Therefore, compression spring pushes the rigid rotating block, and rotates it in clockwise direction. Rotation of the rigid rotating block stops either when it hits a stop block 386, or by reaching the free length of the compression spring.

[0123] The force generating mechanism 400 can also be used to correct Class II malocclusions as illustrated in FIGS. 48 and 49 according to an embodiment of the current invention. In this configuration, similar to previous configurations, archwires are fixedly attached to upper and lower jaws using a set of dental brackets. Support bracket 406 is fixedly attached to the upper archwire located over the upper jaw proximate to first or second molar. The first hook 407 is fixedly attached to the archwire over the lower jaw near canine or first premolar. The second hook 408 is fixedly attached to the archwire over the upper jaw near canine or first premolar. The first end of the tube assembly 401 is rotatingly coupled with the rigid rotating block 403 at hinge 404, and the eyelet 409 located at the second end of the tube assembly is rotatingly coupled with the lower jaw at first hook 407. The first end of the spring assembly 402 is rotatingly coupled with the rigid rotating block 403 at hinge 405, and the eyelet 410 located at the second end of the spring assembly 402 is rotatingly coupled with the upper jaw at the second hook 408. [0124] At the neutral position of the jaws as illustrated in FIG. 49, front teeth on upper and lower jaws are aligned. At this position of the jaws, compression spring has very little or no force. As a result there is very little or no push force on the jaws.

However, at the beginning of the treatment for Class II malocclusion, lower jaws are located posteriorly relative to the upper jaw as illustrated in FIG. 48. Since the second end of the tube assembly 401 is attached to the lower jaw at hook 407, as the lower jaw located posteriorly relative to the upper jaw, tube assembly 401 pushes on to the rigid rotating block 403 at hinge 404, and causes it to rotate in clockwise direction around the axis 411. Rigid rotating block 403 is rotatingly coupled with the spring assembly 402 at hinge 405. Therefore, as the rigid rotating block 403 rotates in clockwise direction it pushes the rod in to the tube and shortens the distance between the pressure plates 417 and 418 as illustrated in FIG. 48. Since the compression spring is located between the pressure plates 417 and 418, as the distance between the pressure plates decrease, spring is compressed more, and the spring force increases. This increasing spring force creates reaction forces that apply to upper and lower jaws as explained in previous sections in association with FIG. 41. Forces acting on upper and lower jaws move them in directions 416 and 415, respectively, and make the jaws return to the neutral teeth orientation shown in FIG. 49. During this process, due to changing angles between various components of the force generating mechanism, push force on the upper and lower jaws stay constant or vary in a predetermined fashion as explained in previous sections.

[0125] When the mouth is open as illustrated in FIG. 50, no force is applied to the jaws. Rod 424 extends out of the tube 425. When the mouth is closed, rod slides in to the tube, and the first end of the tube once again contacts the pressure plate 428, and starts pushing on to the rigid rotating block causing the spring force increase.

[0126] FIGS. 51 and 52 illustrate how the force mechanism is attached to the jaws using anchoring elements or bands according to an embodiment of the invention.

Anchoring elements 432, 436 and 437 are fixedly attached to lower second molar, lower first premolar, and upper first premolar, respectively. Anchoring elements can also be attached to the other teeth adjacent to the ones shown in FIG. 51 depending on the size and shape of patient's jaws without changing the general intent of the invention.

Anchoring elements can be attached to teeth on both sides of the mouth, and in some configurations they are connected together by means of archwire as shown in FIG. 11.

[0127] Pins 431, 435, and 438 are fixedly attached to the anchoring elements as illustrated in FIG. 51. These pins form the rotation axes for various components of the force mechanism as explained below. Rigid rotating block 430 is rotatingly coupled with the anchoring element 432 at its center hub located over the pin 431. Rigid rotating block 430 also has the first hinge 433 and second hinge 440. The first end of the spring assembly 434 is rotatingly coupled with the rigid rotating block 430 at the first hinge 433, and the second end of the spring assembly is rotatingly coupled with the anchoring element 436 over the pin 435. The first end of the telescoping tube assembly 439 is rotatingly coupled with the rigid rotating block 430 at the second hinge 440, and the second end of the telescoping tube assembly 439 is rotatingly coupled with the anchoring element 437 over the pin 438.

[0128] Position of the upper jaw 441 and lower jaw 442 relative to each other is illustrated for a normal bite in FIG. 51. Also, the force generating mechanism

corresponding to the normal bite is illustrated in FIG. 51 according to an embodiment of the invention. In this configuration, there is very little compression on the spring, and there is very little or no push force on the jaws. In a Class III malocclusion, lower jaw is located anteriorly relative to the upper jaw as illustrated in FIG. 52. As a result, tube assembly 439 pushes on the rigid rotating block 430 at the second hinge 440 and rigid rotating block 430 rotates in counterclockwise direction 445, and increases the compression of the spring, and thus, push forces are applied on the upper 441 and lower

442 jaws in the directions of 443 and 444, respectively. The push force is continuously applied to the jaws until they return to the normal bite position shown in FIG. 51.

[0129] Telescoping tube assembly 439 and the spring assembly 434 can be rotatingly coupled with the upper jaw 441 and lower jaw 442, respectively, by means various methods. These methods include but not limited to hooks, pins, screws, or other mechanical attachments. In some configurations, coupling of the tube assembly 439 to rigid rotating block 430 in the first end, and coupling of the tube assembly 439 to upper jaw 441 in the second end can be done using ball socket joints. Ball socket joints provide some lateral flexibility between upper and lower jaws when the force mechanism is installed in to patent's mouth.

[0130] While a particular form of the disclosure has been illustrated and described, it will be apparent that various modifications can be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the disclosure. Accordingly, it is not intended that the disclosure be limited, except as by the appended claims.

Claims

WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:
1. An orthodontic appliance for applying a continuous force to jaws having an upper jaw and a lower jaw to move a mandibular arch relative to a maxillary arch comprising; a block having a first hinge, a second hinge, and a hub; wherein said hinges and hub are spaced apart from each other;
a support bracket rotatingly coupled with the block at the hub; wherein said support bracket is fixedly attached to one of upper jaw or lower jaw;
a spring assembly with a first end and a second end; wherein said spring assembly is rotatingly coupled with the block at the first hinge at its first end, and rotatingly coupled with a first connecting member at its second end; wherein said first connecting member is fixedly attached to one of upper jaw or lower jaw; and the spring assembly is fully contained within the same jaw as the first connecting member when the mouth is closed; and the spring assembly is capable of generating forces with a rotation of the block; and
a restraining member with a first end and a second end; wherein said restraining member is rotatingly coupled with the block at the second hinge at its first end, and rotatingly coupled with a second connecting member at its second end; wherein said second connecting member is fixedly attached to the jaw opposite the jaw where the support bracket is attached to; and the restraining member causes the block to rotate when mouth is closed.
2. The orthodontic appliance according to Claim 1 , wherein the support bracket is a bent wire.
3. The orthodontic appliance according to Claim 1, wherein the block is a rigid body; first hinge, second hinge, and hub are formed as part of the said block.
4. The orthodontic appliance according to Claim 1 , wherein the block is an arm assembly comprising a first arm and a second arm; wherein the first arm is fixedly attached to the hub at a first end and the first hinge is formed in to a second end, and the second arm is fixedly attached to the hub in a first end and the second hinge is formed in to a second end.
5. The orthodontic appliance according to Claim 1, wherein the spring assembly is an extension spring.
6. The orthodontic appliance according to Claim 1 , wherein the spring assembly further comprises a first rod and a first tube; the first rod and the first tube are coaxial; and the first rod is at least partially located inside the first tube.
7. The orthodontic appliance according to Claim 6, wherein the first rod is rotatingly coupled with the block at the first hinge at a first end, and slidingly engaged with the first tube at a second end; and a first pressure plate is fixedly attached to the first rod between a first end and a second end.
8. The orthodontic appliance according to Claim 6, wherein the first tube is slidingly engaged with the first rod at its first end, and rotatingly coupled with the first connecting member at its second end via a first eyelet; wherein the first eyelet is fixedly attached to the first tube proximate its second end; and a second pressure plate is fixedly attached to the first tube between its first end and second end.
9. The orthodontic appliance according to Claim 1, wherein the spring assembly further comprises a compression spring; wherein a first rod and a first tube are at least partially located inside the compression spring; the compression spring is in contact with a first pressure plate on one end, and in contact with a second pressure plate on the other end; said compression spring urges the first rod and the first tube in a direction away from each other and said spring assembly is contained
10. The orthodontic appliance according to Claim 1, wherein the restraining member is a tension member; eyelets are fixedly attached to the ends of the tension member; wherein tension member is rotatingly coupled with the block at the second hinge at a first end, and rotatingly coupled with the second connecting member at a second end;
11. The orthodontic appliance according to Claim 1 , wherein the restraining member is a telescoping assembly comprising a first member and a second member; the first member is a rod defining a longitudinal axis; the second member is a tube and it is coaxial with the first member; and the first member is at least partially located inside the second member; and the first member is slidingly engaged with the second member.
12. The orthodontic appliance according to Claim 11, wherein the first member is rotatingly coupled with the block at the second hinge on its first end, and slidingly connected to the second member on its second end; and a third pressure plate is fixedly attached to the first member between its first end and second end;
13. The orthodontic appliance according to Claim 11, wherein the second member is slidingly engaged with the first member on its first end, and rotatingly coupled with the second connecting member on its second end via a second eyelet; wherein second eyelet is fixedly attached to the second member proximate its second end.
14. The orthodontic appliance according to Claim 11, wherein the first end of the second member presses against the third pressure plate when the mouth is closed thereby pushing on to the block at the second hinge, and rotating it around its hub; said rotation of the block causes the first rod to slide further in to the first tube and thus compresses the spring assembly; said compression of spring assembly generates forces that apply to the jaws, and moves mandibular arch relative to the maxillary arch.
15. The orthodontic appliance according to Claim 1, wherein the first and second connecting members are hooks; each one of said hooks is fixedly attached to one of upper or lower jaws.
16. A dental appliance for generating and applying a continuous force to a jaw having an upper jaw and a lower jaw for moving a mandibular arch relative to a maxillary arch comprising:
a first anchoring element fixedly attached to a tooth on one of the upper or lower jaws; the first anchoring element is proximate a first molar;
a second anchoring element fixedly attached to a tooth on one of the upper or lower jaws; the second anchoring element is located proximate a first premolar;
a third anchoring element fixedly attached to a tooth on the jaw opposite the jaw where the first anchoring element is attached to; the third anchoring element is located proximate a first premolar;
a block having a first hinge, a second hinge, and a hub; said block is rotatingly coupled with the first anchoring element at the hub;
a spring assembly having a first end and a second end; said spring assembly is rotatingly coupled with the block at the first hinge at the first end, and rotatingly coupled with the second anchoring element at the second end; and the spring assembly is fully contained within the same jaw as the second anchoring element when the mouth is closed; spring assembly being capable of generating spring force with the rotation of the block; and
a restraining member having a first end and a second end; said restraining member is rotatingly coupled with the block at the second hinge at the first end, and rotatingly coupled with the third anchoring element at the second end; and the restraining member causes the block to rotate when the jaws are in a closed position.
17. The dental appliance according to Claim 16, wherein the first, second, and third anchoring elements are orthodontic bands.
18. The dental appliance according to Claim 16, wherein the spring assembly is an extension spring.
19. The dental appliance according to Claim 16, wherein the block is an arm assembly having a first arm and a second arm each with respective first ends and second ends; the first arm and the second arm are fixedly attached to the hub at their first ends, and the first hinge and the second hinge are fixedly attached to the second ends of the first arm and second arm, respectively.
20. The dental appliance according to Claim 16 further including a stop bracket which prevents the block from rotating at the end of the treatment; wherein said stop bracket is fixedly attached to the same jaw as the block.
PCT/US2015/025010 2014-04-11 2015-04-08 Force generating mechanism for intra-oral applications WO2015157472A1 (en)

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