WO2015077290A2 - Large gene excision and insertion - Google Patents

Large gene excision and insertion

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WO2015077290A2
WO2015077290A2 PCT/US2014/066324 US2014066324W WO2015077290A2 WO 2015077290 A2 WO2015077290 A2 WO 2015077290A2 US 2014066324 W US2014066324 W US 2014066324W WO 2015077290 A2 WO2015077290 A2 WO 2015077290A2
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nucleic acid
acid sequence
cell
seq id
dna
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PCT/US2014/066324
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French (fr)
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WO2015077290A3 (en )
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Susan M. Byrne
George M. Church
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President And Fellows Of Harvard College
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    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12NMICROORGANISMS OR ENZYMES; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF; PROPAGATING, PRESERVING OR MAINTAINING MICROORGANISMS; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING; CULTURE MEDIA
    • C12N15/00Mutation or genetic engineering; DNA or RNA concerning genetic engineering, vectors, e.g. plasmids, or their isolation, preparation or purification; Use of hosts therefor
    • C12N15/09Recombinant DNA-technology
    • C12N15/87Introduction of foreign genetic material using processes not otherwise provided for, e.g. co-transformation
    • C12N15/90Stable introduction of foreign DNA into chromosome
    • C12N15/902Stable introduction of foreign DNA into chromosome using homologous recombination
    • C12N15/907Stable introduction of foreign DNA into chromosome using homologous recombination in mammalian cells
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12NMICROORGANISMS OR ENZYMES; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF; PROPAGATING, PRESERVING OR MAINTAINING MICROORGANISMS; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING; CULTURE MEDIA
    • C12N15/00Mutation or genetic engineering; DNA or RNA concerning genetic engineering, vectors, e.g. plasmids, or their isolation, preparation or purification; Use of hosts therefor
    • C12N15/09Recombinant DNA-technology
    • C12N15/10Processes for the isolation, preparation or purification of DNA or RNA
    • C12N15/102Mutagenizing nucleic acids

Abstract

Methods of simultaneously excising large nucleic acid sequences from a target nucleic acid and inserting large foreign nucleic sequences into the target nucleic acid sequence using DNA binding protein nucleases are described.

Description

LARGE GENE EXCISION AND INSERTION

RELATED APPLICATION DATA

This application claims priority to U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61/906,188 filed on November 19, 2013 and is hereby incorporated herein by reference in its entirety for all purposes.

STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTERESTS

This invention was made with government support under Grant No. P50 HG005550 awarded by the National Institutes of Health. The government has certain rights in the invention. BACKGROUND

Bacterial and archaeal CRISPR-Cas systems rely on short guide RNAs in complex with Cas proteins to direct degradation of complementary sequences present within invading foreign nucleic acid. See Deltcheva, E. et al. CRISPR RNA maturation by trans-encoded small RNA and host factor RNase III. Nature All, 602-607 (2011); Gasiunas, G, Barrangou, R., Horvath, P. & Siksnys, V. Cas9-crRNA ribonucleoprotein complex mediates specific DNA cleavage for adaptive immunity in bacteria. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109, E2579-2586 (2012); Jinek, M. et al. A programmable dual-RNA-guided DNA endonuclease in adaptive bacterial immunity. Jinek, M. et al. Science 337, 816-821 (2012); Sapranauskas, R. et al. The Streptococcus thermophilus CRISPR/Cas system provides immunity in Escherichia coli. Nucleic acids research 39, 9275-9282 (2011); and Bhaya, D., Davison, M. & Barrangou, R. CRISPR-Cas systems in bacteria and archaea: versatile small RNAs for adaptive defense and regulation. Annual review of genetics 45, 273-297 (2011). A recent in vitro reconstitution of the S. pyogenes type II CRISPR system demonstrated that crRNA ("CRISPR RNA") fused to a normally trans-encoded tracrRNA ("trans-activating CRISPR RNA") is sufficient to direct Cas9 protein to sequence-specifically cleave target DNA sequences matching the crRNA. Expressing a gRNA homologous to a target site results in Cas9 recruitment and degradation of the target DNA. See H. Deveau et al., Phage response to CRISPR-encoded resistance in Streptococcus thermophilus. Journal of Bacteriology 190, 1390 (Feb, 2008).

SUMMARY Aspects of the present disclosure are directed to improving efficiency of large gene insertions into a target nucleic acid. Aspects of the present disclosure are directed to the excision of a large nucleic acid sequence, such as a large gene, from a target nucleic acid within a cell. Aspects of the present disclosure are directed to the insertion of a large nucleic acid sequence, such as a large gene, into a target nucleic acid within a cell. Aspects of the present disclosure are directed to the excision of a large nucleic acid sequence, such as a large gene, from a target nucleic acid within a cell and insertion of a large nucleic acid sequence, such as a large gene, into the target nucleic acid within the cell.

Aspects of the present disclosure are directed to the design of targeting vectors for large nucleic acid replacements within a target nucleic acid.

According to certain aspects, a DNA binding protein, such as a sequence specific nuclease, is used to create a double stranded break in the target nucleic acid sequence. One or more or a plurality of double stranded breaks may be made in the target nucleic acid sequence. According to one aspect, a first nucleic acid sequence is removed from the target nucleic acid sequence and an exogenous nucleic acid sequence is inserted into the target nucleic acid sequence between the cut sites or cut ends of the target nucleic acid sequence. According to certain aspects, a double stranded break at each homology arm increases or improves efficiency of nucleic acid sequence insertion or replacement, such as by homologous recombination. According to certain aspects, multiple double stranded breaks or cut sites improve efficiency of incorporation of a nucleic acid sequence from a targeting vector.

Certain aspects of the present disclosure are directed to methods of homozygous knock-in targeted replacement and excision of multi-kilobase endogenous genes in cells, such as mammalian cells, including human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). According to certain aspects, the methods are practiced without a selection marker.

According to certain aspects, methods are provided for the insertion of a large gene into a target nucleic acid sequence using DNA binding protein having nuclease activity, such as an RNA guided DNA binding protein having nuclease activity. According to certain aspects, a first foreign nucleic acid encoding one or more RNAs (ribonucleic acids) complementary to DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is introduced into a cell, wherein the DNA includes the target nucleic acid. A second foreign nucleic acid encoding an RNA guided DNA binding protein having nuclease activity that binds to the DNA and is guided by the one or more RNAs is introduced into the cell. The one or more RNAs and the RNA guided DNA binding protein are expressed, wherein the one or more RNAs and the RNA guided DNA binding protein co-localize to the DNA and wherein the DNA binding protein cuts the target nucleic acid to remove a first nucleic acid sequence of interest. An exogenous nucleic acid sequence of interest is inserted into the target nucleic acid sequence between the cut sites resulting in the removal of the first nucleic acid sequence of interest. According to certain aspects, multiple guide RNAs may be used. Large nucleic acid sequences within the scope of the present disclosure (which may be the first nucleic acid sequence of interest to be removed or the exogenous nucleic acid sequence to be inserted) are nucleic acid sequences having between greater than 100 base pairs to about 100,000 base pairs, between greater than 100 base pairs and about 10,000 base pairs in length, between about 200 base pairs to about 100,000 base pairs, between about 300 base pairs to about 100,000 base pairs, between about 400 base pairs to about 100,000 base pairs, between about 500 base pairs to about 100,000 base pairs, between about 600 base pairs to about 100,000 base pairs, between about 700 base pairs to about 100,000 base pairs, between about 800 base pairs to about 100,000 base pairs, between about 900 base pairs to about 100,000 base pairs, between about 1000 base pairs to about 100,000 base pairs, between about 2000 base pairs to about 100,000 base pairs, between about 3000 base pairs to about 100,000 base pairs, between about 4000 base pairs to about 100,000 base pairs, between about 5000 base pairs to about 100,000 base pairs, between about 6000 base pairs to about 100,000 base pairs, between about 7000 base pairs to about 100,000 base pairs, between about 8000 base pairs to about 100,000 base pairs, between about 9000 base pairs to about 100,000 base pairs, between about 10,000 base pairs to about 100,000 base pairs, between about 20,000 base pairs to about 100,000 base pairs, between about 30,000 base pairs to about 100,000 base pairs, between about 40,000 base pairs to about 100,000 base pairs, between about 50,000 base pairs to about 100,000 base pairs, between about 60,000 base pairs to about 100,000 base pairs, between about 70,000 base pairs to about 100,000 base pairs, between about 80,000 base pairs to about 100,000 base pairs, between about 90,000 base pairs to about 100,000 base pairs, between about 500 base pairs to about 10,000 base pairs, between about 1000 base pairs to about 10,000 base pairs, between about 2000 base pairs to about 10,000 base pairs or between about 1000 base pairs to about 5,000 base pairs. Large nucleic acid sequences may be referred to herein as "kilobase", or "multi-kilobase" nucleic acid sequences, i.e. greater than 1000 base pairs. According to certain aspects, the large nucleic acids are greater than 1000 base pairs. According to certain aspects , the nucleic acid sequence to be inserted is heterologous to the genome of the cell into which it is to be inserted. According to certain aspects, the exogenous nucleic acid being inserted into the target nucleic acid sequence is a foreign nucleic acid sequence which may be different from the first nucleic acid sequence of interest that it is replacing or may be different from any nucleic acid sequence in the target nucleic acid or genome of the cell. According to one aspect, the removal of the first nucleic acid sequence of interest and the insertion of the exogenous nucleic acid occurs simultaneously or substantially simultaneously. This is to be distinguished from methods where a deletion occurs which is followed by a separate insertion.

According to certain aspects, a targeting vector is provided containing a foreign sequence which is used to engineer a gene replacement using a single cut site positioned at one side of the replacement. The foreign sequence is flanked by sequences identical to the genome around the replacement. Then, gene replacement can be done with only one cut at one side. The other end will be resolved by natural recombination between the genome and its complementary sequence that was placed around the foreign sequence in the targeting vector (the homology arm). However, aspects of the present disclosure also include cutting both sides of the replaced region.

According to one aspect, the cell is a eukaryotic cell. According to one aspect, the cell is a yeast cell, a plant cell or an animal cell. According to one aspect, the cell is a mammalian cell.

According to one aspect, the RNA is between about 10 to about 500 nucleotides. According to one aspect, the RNA is between about 20 to about 100 nucleotides.

According to one aspect, the one or more RNAs is a guide RNA. According to one aspect, the one or more RNAs is a crRNA. According to one aspect, the one or more RNAs is a tracrRNA. According to one aspect, the one or more RNAs is a tracrRNA-crRNA fusion.

According to one aspect, the DNA is genomic DNA, mitochondrial DNA, viral DNA, or exogenous DNA.

According to one aspect, the RNA guided DNA binding protein is of a Type II CRISPR System that binds to the DNA and is guided by the one or more RNAs. According to one aspect, the RNA guided DNA binding protein is a Cas9 protein that binds to the DNA and is guided by the one or more RNAs.

Further features and advantages of certain embodiments of the present invention will become more fully apparent in the following description of embodiments and drawings thereof, and from the claims.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The patent or application file contains at least one drawing executed in color. Copies of this patent or patent application publication with color drawing(s) will be provided by the Office upon request and payment of the necessary fee. The foregoing and other features and advantages of the present invention will be more fully understood from the following detailed description of illustrative embodiments taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which:

Figure l(a)-(d) Homozygous targeted gene replacement using one or two CRISPR sgRNAs. Fig. 1(a) Two Crispr sgRNAs target hThyl within intron 1 (LI) or after the polyadenylation sites (Rl). The mThyl targeting vector plasmid contains mThyl exons 2 and 3 (orange), flanked by hThyl homology arms outside the sgRNA sites - the hThyl promoter and exon 1 (which encodes the leader sequence) are retained but the sgRNA sites are disrupted. Small triangles indicate the primer sites for the four genotyping PCR reactions. Fig. 1(b) PGPl iPSC were nucleofected with plasmids encoding the mThyl targeting vector, the Cas9 nuclease, and LI, Rl, both, or no sgRNAs. Five days later, cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. The percentage of cells that have gained mThyl expression and/or lost hThyl expression are indicated. Fig. 1(c) Single iPSC were FACS sorted from each quadrant, cultured in individual wells, and genotyped using the four PCR reactions. Alleles were identified based on the size and Sanger sequencing of the PCR products: native human (+); recombined mouse (m); excised between the two sgRNA sites (Δ); and inverted between the two sgRNA sites (i). Representative gels from +/+ wild type, m/+ heterozygous, m/m homozygous, m/Δ heterozygous, Δ/Δ homozygous, and if A heterozygous colonies are shown. Fig. 1(d) Frequency of genotypes among FACS-sorted iPS colonies. Results are representative of three independent experiments.

Figure 2(a)-(e). Frequency of CRISPR-generated homozygous and heterozygous deletions. Fig. 2(a) Crispr sgRNAs were generated targeting the human Thyl gene: two within intron 1 (Left: LI and L2), and ten at various distances after hThyl (Right: Rl through RIO), b+c) Pairs of one left and one right sgRNA were nucleofected into either Fig. 2(b) PGP 1 iPSC or Fig. 2(c) a Thyl™^ PGP1 iPSC clone. As a negative control, only a left sgRNA was nucleofected (right column). Five days later, cells were analyzed by flow cytometry for either Fig. 2(b) homozygous deletion of both human Thyl alleles or Fig. 2(c) heterozygous deletion of the remaining human Thyl allele and retention of the mouse Thyl allele. The distance between the sgRNA sites (Thyl Δ) and the frequency of hThyl" cells is indicated. Fig. 2(d)-(e) The percent of hThyl" cells from each sgRNA pair minus that from the left sgRNA-only control is plotted against the size of the Thyl deletion. sgRNA pairs that included LI or L2 are shown in black or red, respectively. Error bars show mean ± s.e.m of two independent experiments.

Fig. 3(a)-(c). Sequences of excision and inversion junctions. Genotyping PCR reaction #1 was performed on genomic DNA purified from FACS-sorted hThyl- mThyl -iPSC clones (as described in Fig. 1) and analyzed by Sanger sequencing using the same PCR primers. Double peaks in the resulting Sanger sequencing traces were deconvoluted to reveal the biallelic sequence of each clone. Fig. 3(a) Native sequence of the human Thyl locus (SEQ ID NO: 108). Crispr sgRNA targeting sites LI (purple) and Rl (red) lie 2.7 kb apart on the human Thyl locus. The predicted nuclease cleavage sites are indicated 6 bp upstream of the PAM (underlined). Fig. 3(b)- (c) Biallelic sequences of Fig. 3(b) four Δ/Δ double-excised (SEQ ID NOs: 109- 112) and Fig. 3(c) five if A inverted-and-excised (SEQ ID NOs: l 13- 120) hThyl- mThyl- colonies described in Figure Id. Sequences that were found in two separate clones are indicated as x2. Results are representative of two independent experiments.

Fig. 4(a)-(b). Targeted replacement of the mouse CD 147 gene into the human CD 147 genomic locus. Fig. 4(a) Two Crispr sgRNAs were designed 9.8 kb apart that target the human CD147 gene within intron 1 (L147, left) and after the polyadenylation site (R147, right). The mouse CD 147 targeting vector plasmid consists of a 5.8 kb sequence encompassing mouse CD 147 exons 2 - 7 (brown), flanked by homology arms that match the human CD 147 sequence outside the sgR A sites. In the targeting construct, the human CD 147 promoter and exon 1 (which encodes the leader sequence) are retained but the sgRNA sites are disrupted. Fig. 4(b) PGPl iPSC were nucleofected with plasmids encoding the mouse CD 147 targeting vector, the Cas9 nuclease, and either, both, or no sgRNAs. Nine days later, cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. The percentage of cells that have gained expression of mouse CD 147 and / or lost expression of human CD 147 are indicated. Results are representative of three independent experiments.

Fig. 5(a)-(b). Targeted gene replacement in either gene orientation with Crispr or TALEN. Fig. 5(a) Two Crispr sgRNAs were designed 2.2 kb apart that target the human Thyl gene within exon 2 (L3, left) and after the polyadenylation sites (Rl, right). Two TALEN pairs were also designed that target the same L3 and Rl sites. For the "knock-in" targeting vector, a 1.9 kb sequence encompassing the fluorescent mCherry gene under the constitutive pGK promoter (red) was flanked with homology arms that match the human Thyl sequence outside the sgRNA sites. The pGK-mCherry insert was cloned in either the forward or reverse orientation relative to the Thyl gene. The sgRNA and TALEN sites are disrupted in both mCherry targeting constructs. Fig. 5(b) PGPl iPSC were nucleofected with the sense or antisense mCherry targeting vector along with plasmids encoding: the Cas9 nuclease with either or both sgRNAs; either or both TALEN pairs; or an empty vector plasmid. Ten days later, cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. The percentage of cells that have gained expression of mCherry and / or lost expression of human Thyl are indicated. Results are representative of two independent experiments.

Fig. 6(a)-(b). Targeted gene replacement using circular or linear targeting vectors. Fig. 6(a)

The circular plasmid mouse Thyl targeting vector from Figure 1 was amplified using PCR primers at the ends of the homology arms (small triangles) to produce a linear form of the mouse Thyl targeting vector. Fig. 6(b) PGPl iPSC were nucleofected with the circular plasmid or the linear PCR product mouse Thyl targeting vector along with plasmids encoding the Cas9 nuclease, and LI, Rl, both, or no sgRNAs. Six days later, cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. The frequency of cells that have gained expression of mouse Thyl and / or lost expression of human Thyl are indicated. Results are representative of two independent experiments.

Fig. 7(a)-(b). Effect of homology arm length on recombination efficiency. Versions of the mouse Thyl targeting vector plasmid (Figure la) were constructed with homology arms of various lengths, but still containing the 2.5 kb sequence encompassing mouse Thyl exons 2 and 3. The length of the upstream and downstream homology arms in each vector is indicated. Each mouse Thyl targeting vector was nucleofected into Fig. 7(a) PGPl or Fig. 7(b) PGP4 iPSC along with plasmids encoding the Cas9 nuclease and LI, Rl, both, or no sgRNAs. Ten days later, cells were analyzed by flow cytometry for expression of the mouse and human Thyl genes. The frequency of cells in each fluorescence quadrant is indicated. Results are representative of two independent experiments. Fig. 8(a)-(c). Targeted gene replacement with homology on either side of each cut site. Fig. 8(a) The mThyl targeting vector from Figure 1 (Outside) was modified such that the human Thyl homology arms extend inside the LI and Rl sgRNA sites. While mouse Thyl exons 2 and 3 (orange) are completely retained in this targeting vector, 350 bp of mouse Thyl intron 1 and 150 bp of mouse Thyl sequence after the polyadenylation site was replaced with the corresponding human sequence. The resulting targeting vector contains intact LI and Rl sgRNA sites (Intact). Next, a single base pair was deleted from each sgRNA site in the targeting vector to develop a alternate version with similar homology arms but disrupted sgRNA sites (Disrupted). Fig. 8(b)-(c) PGP1 or PGP4 iPSC were nucleofected with one of the mouse Thyl targeting vectors (Outside, Intact, or Disrupted) along with plasmids encoding the Cas9 nuclease, and LI, Rl, both, or no sgRNAs. Fig. 8(b) Two days post nucleofection, a cell sample of each condition was stained with the viability dye ToPro3, and analyzed by flow cytometry using a constant flow rate and collection time. Viable cell counts were normalized to that of the Outside mouse Thyl targeting vector with no sgRNA (100). Fig. 8(c) Five days post nucleofection, cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. The percentage of cells that have gained expression of mouse Thyl and / or lost expression of human Thyl are indicated. Results are representative of three (PGP1) and two (PGP4) independent experiments.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

Embodiments of the present disclosure are based on the use of DNA binding proteins having nuclease activity to remove a first nucleic acid sequence from a target nucleic acid sequence thereby allowing insertion of an exogenous nucleic acid sequence therein. Such DNA binding proteins are readily known to those of skill in the art to bind to DNA for various purposes. Such DNA binding proteins may be naturally occurring. DNA binding proteins included within the scope of the present disclosure include those which may be guided by RNA, referred to herein as guide RNA. According to this aspect, the guide RNA and the RNA guided DNA binding protein form a co-localization complex at the DNA. Such DNA binding proteins having nuclease activity are known to those of skill in the art, and include naturally occurring DNA binding proteins having nuclease activity, such as Cas9 proteins present, for example, in Type II CRISPR systems. Such Cas9 proteins and Type II CRISPR systems are well documented in the art. See Makarova et al., Nature Reviews, Microbiology, Vol. 9, June 201 1, pp. 467-477 including all supplementary information hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

Exemplary DNA binding proteins having nuclease activity function to nick or cut double stranded DNA. Such nuclease activity may result from the DNA binding protein having one or more polypeptide sequences exhibiting nuclease activity. Such exemplary DNA binding proteins may have two separate nuclease domains with each domain responsible for cutting or nicking a particular strand of the double stranded DNA. Exemplary polypeptide sequences having nuclease activity known to those of skill in the art include the McrA-HNH nuclease related domain and the RuvC-like nuclease domain. Accordingly, exemplary DNA binding proteins are those that in nature contain one or more of the McrA-HNH nuclease related domain and the RuvC-like nuclease domain.

According to one aspect, a DNA binding protein having two or more nuclease domains may be modified or altered to inactivate all but one of the nuclease domains. Such a modified or altered DNA binding protein is referred to as a DNA binding protein nickase, to the extent that the DNA binding protein cuts or nicks only one strand of double stranded DNA. When guided by RNA to DNA, the DNA binding protein nickase is referred to as an RNA guided DNA binding protein nickase.

An exemplary DNA binding protein is an RNA guided DNA binding protein of a Type II CRISPR System. An exemplary DNA binding protein is a Cas9 protein.

In S. pyogenes, Cas9 generates a blunt-ended double-stranded break 3bp upstream of the protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM) via a process mediated by two catalytic domains in the protein: an HNH domain that cleaves the complementary strand of the DNA and a RuvC-like domain that cleaves the non-complementary strand. See Jinke et al., Science 337, 816-821 (2012) hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. Cas9 proteins are known to exist in many Type II CRISPR systems including the following as identified in the supplementary information to Makarova et al., Nature Reviews, Microbiology, Vol. 9, June 201 1, pp. 467-477: Methanococcus maripaludis C7; Corynebacterium diphtheriae; Corynebacterium efficiens YS-314; Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 Kitasato; Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 Bielefeld; Corynebacterium glutamicum R; Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii DSM 44385; Mycobacterium abscessus ATCC 19977; Nocardia farcinica IFM10152; Rhodococcus erythropolis PR4; Rhodococcus jostii RHAl; Rhodococcus opacus B4 uid36573; Acidothermus cellulolyticus 1 1B; Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus A6; Kribbella flavida DSM 17836 uid43465; Thermomonospora curvata DSM 43183; Bifidobacterium dentium Bdl ; Bifidobacterium longum DJO10A; Slackia heliotrinireducens DSM 20476; Persephonella marina EX HI ; Bacteroides fragilis NCTC 9434; Capnocytophaga ochracea DSM 7271 ; Flavobacterium psychrophilum JIP02 86; Akkermansia muciniphila ATCC BAA 835; Roseiflexus castenholzii DSM 13941 ; Roseiflexus RSI ; Synechocystis PCC6803; Elusimicrobium minutum Peil91 ; uncultured Termite group 1 bacterium phylotype Rs D17; Fibrobacter succinogenes S85; Bacillus cereus ATCC 10987; Listeria innocua;Lactobacillus casei; Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG; Lactobacillus salivarius UCC1 18; Streptococcus agalactiae A909; Streptococcus agalactiae NEM316; Streptococcus agalactiae 2603; Streptococcus dysgalactiae equisimilis GGS 124; Streptococcus equi zooepidemicus MGCS 10565; Streptococcus gallolyticus UCN34 uid46061 ; Streptococcus gordonii Challis subst CHI ; Streptococcus mutans N 2025 uid46353; Streptococcus mutans; Streptococcus pyogenes Ml GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes MGAS5005; Streptococcus pyogenes MGAS2096; Streptococcus pyogenes MGAS9429; Streptococcus pyogenes MGAS 10270; Streptococcus pyogenes MGAS6180; Streptococcus pyogenes MGAS315; Streptococcus pyogenes SSI-1 ; Streptococcus pyogenes MGAS 10750; Streptococcus pyogenes NZ131 ; Streptococcus thermophiles CNRZ1066; Streptococcus thermophiles LMD-9; Streptococcus thermophiles LMG 1831 1; Clostridium botulinum A3 Loch Maree; Clostridium botulinum B Eklund 17B; Clostridium botulinum Ba4 657; Clostridium botulinum F Langeland; Clostridium cellulolyticum H10; Finegoldia magna ATCC 29328; Eubacterium rectale ATCC 33656; Mycoplasma gallisepticum; Mycoplasma mobile 163K; Mycoplasma penetrans; Mycoplasma synoviae 53; Streptobacillus moniliformis DSM 12112; Bradyrhizobium BTAil ; Nitrobacter hamburgensis X14; Rhodopseudomonas palustris BisB18; Rhodopseudomonas palustris BisB5; Parvibaculum lavamentivorans DS-1 ; Dinoroseobacter shibae DFL 12; Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal 5 FAPERJ; Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal 5 JGI; Azospirillum B510 uid46085; Rhodospirillum rubrum ATCC 1 1 170; Diaphorobacter TPSY uid29975; Verminephrobacter eiseniae EF01-2; Neisseria meningitides 053442; Neisseria meningitides alphal4; Neisseria meningitides Z2491 ; Desulfovibrio salexigens DSM 2638; Campylobacter jejuni doylei 269 97; Campylobacter jejuni 81 1 16; Campylobacter jejuni; Campylobacter lari RM2100; Helicobacter hepaticus; Wolinella succinogenes; Tolumonas auensis DSM 9187; Pseudoalteromonas atlantica T6c; Shewanella pealeana ATCC 700345; Legionella pneumophila Paris; Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z; Pasteurella multocida; Francisella tularensis novicida U1 12; Francisella tularensis holarctica; Francisella tularensis FSC 198; Francisella tularensis tularensis; Francisella tularensis WY96-3418; and Treponema denticola ATCC 35405. Accordingly, aspects of the present disclosure are directed to a Cas9 protein present in a Type II CRISPR system.

The Cas9 protein may be referred by one of skill in the art in the literature as Csnl . The S. pyogenes Cas9 protein sequence that is the subject of experiments described herein is shown below. See Deltcheva et al., Nature 471, 602-607 (201 1) hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

MDKKYSIGLDIGTNSVGWAVITDEYKVPSKKFKVLGNTDRHSIKKNLIGALLFDSGETAE ATRLKRTARRRYTRRKNRICYLQEIFSNEMAKVDDSFFHRLEESFLVEEDKKHERHPIFG NIVDEVAYHEKYPTIYHLRKKLVDSTDKADLRLIYLALAHMIKFRGHFLIEGDLNPDNSD VDKLFIQLVQTYNQLFEENPINASGVDAKAILSARLSKSRRLENLIAQLPGEKKNGLFGN LIALSLGLTPNFKSNFDLAEDAKLQLSKDTYDDDLDNLLAQIGDQYADLFLAAKNLSDAI LLSDILRVNTEITKAPLSASMIKRYDEHHQDLTLLKALVRQQLPEKYKEIFFDQSKNGYA GYIDGGASQEEFYKFIKPILEKMDGTEELLVKLNREDLLRKQRTFDNGSIPHQIHLGELH AILRRQEDFYPFLKDNREKIEKILTFRIPYYVGPLARGNSRFAWMTRKSEETITPWNFEE VVDKGASAQSFIERMTNFDKNLPNEKVLPKHSLLYEYFTVYNELTKVKYVTEGMRKPAFL SGEQKKAIVDLLFKTNRKVTVKQLKEDYFKKIECFDSVEISGVEDRFNASLGTYHDLLKI IKDKDFLDNEENEDILEDIVLTLTLFEDREMIEERLKTYAHLFDDKVMKQLKRRRYTGWG RLSRKLI GIRDKQSGKTILDFLKSDGFANRNFMQLIHDDSLTFKEDIQKAQVSGQGDSL HEHIANLAGSPAIKKGILQTVKVVDELVKVMGRHKPENIVIEMARENQTTQKGQKNSRER MKRIEEGIKELGSQILKEHPVENTQLQNEKLYLYYLQNGRDMYVDQELDINRLSDYDVDH IVPQSFLKDDSIDNKVLTRSDKNRGKSDNVPSEEVVKKMKNYWRQLLNAKLITQRKFDNL TKAERGGLSELDKAGFIKRQLVETRQITKHVAQILDSRMNTKYDENDKLIREVKVITLKS KLVSDFRKDFQFYKVREI YHHAHDAYLNAVVGTALIKKYPKLESEFVYGDYKVYDVR K

MIAKSEQEIGKATAKYFFYSNIMNFFKTEITLANGEIRKRPLIETNGETGEIVWDKGRDF ATVRKVLSMPQVNIVKKTEVQTGGFSKESILPKRNSDKLIARKKDWDPKKYGGFDSPTVA YSVLVVAKVEKGKSKKLKSVKELLGITIMERSSFEKNPIDFLEAKGYKEVKKDLIIKLPK YSLFELENGRKRMLASAGELQKGNELALPSKYVNFLYLASHYEKLKGSPEDNEQKQLFVE QHKHYLDEIIEQISEFSKRVILADANLDKVLSAYNKHRDKPIREQAENIIHLFTLTNLGA PAAFKYFDTTIDRKRYTSTKEVLDATLIHQSITGLYETRIDLSQLGGD- (SEQ ID NO: l)

According to one aspect, the DNA binding protein nucleases include homologs and orthologs thereof and protein sequences having at least 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 95%, 98% or 99% homology thereto and being a DNA binding protein with nuclease activity.

Further aspects of the present disclosure are directed to the use of DNA binding proteins or systems in general for the genetic modification or editing of a target nucleic acid, such as a target gene, such as by insertion of a larger gene into the target nucleic acid. One of skill in the art will readily identify exemplary DNA binding systems based on the present disclosure. Such DNA binding systems include ZFN, TALE, TALENS or CRISPR/Cas9 nucleases.

According to certain aspects, methods are described herein of editing nucleic acids in a cell that include introducing one or more, two or more or a plurality of foreign nucleic acids into the cell. The foreign nucleic acids introduced into the cell encode for a guide RNA or guide RNAs, a Cas9 protein or proteins and the large nucleic acid sequence to be inserted. Together, a guide RNA and a Cas9 protein are referred to as a co-localization complex as that term is understood by one of skill in the art to the extent that the guide RNA and the Cas9 protein bind to DNA and the Cas9 protein cuts the DNA to remove a first nucleic acid sequence of interest. The large nucleic acid sequence is inserted into the DNA. According to certain additional aspects, the foreign nucleic acids introduced into the cell encode for a guide RNA or guide RNAs and a Cas9 protein. Cells according to the present disclosure include any cell into which foreign nucleic acids can be introduced and expressed as described herein. It is to be understood that the basic concepts of the present disclosure described herein are not limited by cell type. Cells according to the present disclosure include eukaryotic cells, prokaryotic cells, animal cells, plant cells, fungal cells, archael cells, eubacterial cells and the like. Cells include eukaryotic cells such as yeast cells, plant cells, and animal cells. Particular cells include mammalian cells. Particular cells include stem cells, such as pluripotent stem cells, such as human induced pluripotent stem cells.

Target nucleic acids include any nucleic acid sequence to which a DNA binding protein nuclease can be useful to nick or cut, such as a RNA guided DNA binding protein which forms a co-localization complex as described herein. Target nucleic acids include genes. For purposes of the present disclosure, DNA, such as double stranded DNA, can include the target nucleic acid and a co-localization complex can bind to or otherwise co-localize with the DNA at or adjacent or near the target nucleic acid and in a manner in which the co-localization complex may have a desired effect on the target nucleic acid. Such target nucleic acids can include endogenous (or naturally occurring) nucleic acids and exogenous (or foreign) nucleic acids. One of skill based on the present disclosure will readily be able to identify or design guide RNAs and Cas9 proteins which co-localize to a DNA including a target nucleic acid. DNA includes genomic DNA, mitochondrial DNA, viral DNA or exogenous DNA.

Foreign nucleic acids (i.e. those which are not part of a cell's natural nucleic acid composition) may be introduced into a cell using any method known to those skilled in the art for such introduction. Such methods include transfection, transduction, viral transduction, microinjection, lipofection, nucleofection, nanoparticle bombardment, transformation, conjugation and the like. One of skill in the art will readily understand and adapt such methods using readily identifiable literature sources. The following examples are set forth as being representative of the present disclosure.

These examples are not to be construed as limiting the scope of the present disclosure as these and other equivalent embodiments will be apparent in view of the present disclosure, figures and accompanying claims.

EXAMPLE I

sgRNA target sequences

A computational algorithm was used to identify sgRNA (single guide RNA) sequences Mali, P. et al. Science 339, 823-826 (2013) at various positions around the human Thyl and CD 147 genes based on their uniqueness in the human genome: Human Thy I :

LI CACAG TCTCA GAAAA GCGC AGG (SEQ ID NO:2)

L2 AAATA TCAGC GCGGT GGAT TGG (SEQ ID NO:3)

L3 GGTCA GGCTG AACTC GTAC TGG (SEQ ID NO:4)

R 1 TTAGT AGCAA CGCTA CCCC AGG (SEQ ID NO : 5)

R2 GTGTG CAGTC ATTAG CCCC TGG (SEQ ID NO : 6)

R3 GGGCA AATGT GTCTC GTTA GGG (SEQ ID NO : 7)

R4 TTCTC CTTTC CGAAG TCCG TGG (SEQ ID NO : 8)

R5 GCCGC TGTCG CCTGG CAAA AGG (SEQ ID NO:9)

R6 GATGG TAGAC ATCGA CCAT GGG (SEQ ID NO: 10)

R7 TTCAA TTTCG GGCCC GATC TGG (SEQ ID NO : 1 1 )

R8 TGAGT CGCGT CACGG CTAT TGG (SEQ ID NO: 12)

R9 CATTT GCGGT GGTAA TCGC AGG (SEQ ID NO: 13)

R10 GATCG GATCG GGTCG CGTC GGG (SEQ ID NO : 14)

Human CD 147:

L 147 TTTCC TGCGC TGAAT CGGG TGG (SEQ ID NO : 15)

R 147 GGCTC CTGTC TGTGC CTGA CGG (SEQ ID NO : 16) EXAMPLE II

Cas9 and sgRNA plasmid construction

The U6 promoter and sgRNA backbone sequence were synthesized as described Mali, P. et al. Science 339, 823-826 (2013) (IDT) and cloned using isothermal assembly into a minimal plasmid backbone containing the Ampicillin resistance gene and pBR322 ori PCR amplified from pUC19 using primers 5' CTTTCTTGTACAAAGTTGGCATTA ttagacgtcaggtggcacttttc 3' (SEQ ID NO: 17) and 5' CCTTTAAAGCCTGCTTTTTTGTACA GTTTGCGTATTGGGCGCTCTTC 3' (SEQ ID NO: 18). Various sgRNA sequences were cloned into this vector using isothermal assembly. The overlapping segments for isothermal assembly are underlined. All primers were from IDT; all PCR reactions were done with the KAPA HiFi HotStart PCR kit. Plasmids were maintained in either TOP 10 or Stbl3 bacteria (Invitrogen).

A human codon-optimzed Cas9 nuclease gene Mali, P. et al. Science 339, 823-826 (2013) was PCR amplified using primers 5' GCCACCATGGACAAGAAGTACTCC 3' (SEQ ID NO: 19) and 5' TCACACCTTCCTCTTCTTCTTGGG 3' (SEQ ID NO:20) and cloned using isothermal assembly between an EFla promoter and a bGH polyadenylation sequence on a pCDNA3 plasmid backbone. The EFla promoter was PCR amplified from pEGIP (Addgene #26777) using primers 5' CCGAAAAGTGCCACCTGACGTCGACGGA tgaaaggagtgGGAATTggc 3' (SEQ ID NO:21) and 5' GGAGTACTTCTTGTCCATGGTGGC GGCC AACTAGCCAGCTTGGGTCTCCC 3' (SEQ ID NO:22). The bGH polyadenylation sequence was PCR amplified from pST1374 (Addgene #13426) using primers 5' GCTGACCCCAAGAAGAAGAGGAAGGTGTGA CATCACCATTGAGTTTAAACCCGC 3' (SEQ ID NO:23) and 5' CCAAGCTCTAGCTAGAGGTCGACG GTAT C GAGCCCCAGCTGGTTC 3' (SEQ ID NO:24). The plasmid backbone was PCR amplified from pCDNA3 (Invitrogen) using primers 5' ATACCGTCGACCTCTAGCTAG 3' (SEQ ID NO:25) and 5' TCCGTCGACGTCAGGTGG 3' (SEQ ID NO:26).

EXAMPLE III

Targeting plasmid construction

The mouse Thyl targeting vector with homology around the sgRNA sites (Outside) was cloned using isothermal assembly. Exons 2 and 3 of mouse Thyl were PCR amplified from C57BL/6J genomic DNA (Jackson Laboratories) using primers 5' TGGTGGTGGTTGTGGTACACACC 3' (SEQ ID NO:27) and 5' AATAGGGAGGGCCGGGGTACC 3' (SEQ ID NO:28). The upstream human Thyl homology arm was PCR amplified from PGP1 iPSC genomic DNA using primers 5' AC CCTTCCCCTCCTAGATCCCAAGCC 3' (SEQ ID NO:29) and 5' GATTAAAGGTGTGTACCACAACCACCACCA CTTTTCTGAGACTGTGAGGGAG 3' (SEQ ID NO:30). The downstream human Thyl homology arm was PCR amplified from PGP1 human iPSC genomic DNA using primers 5' AGACTCTGGGGTACCCCGGCCCTCCCTATT CCCAGGGGCTAATGACTGC 3' (SEQ ID NO:31) and 5' GCACCTCCAGCCATCACAGC 3' (SEQ ID NO: 32). The plasmid backbone was PCR amplified from pUC19 using primers 5' CCAGGAAGGGGCTGTGATGGCTGGAGGTGC ttagacgtcaggtggcacttttc 3' (SEQ ID NO:33) and 5' GGGCTTGGGATCTAGGAGGGGAAGG GTTTGCGTATTGGGCGCTCTTC 3' (SEQ ID NO:34).

A linear version of the mouse Thyl targeting vector was PCR amplified from the original Outside targeting vector using primers 5' AC CCTTCCCCTCCTAGATCCCAAGCC 3' (SEQ ID NO:35) and 5' GCACCTCCAGCCATCACAGC 3' (SEQ ID NO:36). PCR products were cleaned with the Qiaquick PCR Purification kit (Qiagen).

Versions of the mouse Thyl targeting vector with shorter homology arms were cloned from the original Outside Thyl targeting vector plasmid using isothermal assembly using combinations of the following three forward and three reverse PCR primers. Forward primers determining the length of the upstream homology arm:

1550 bp, L: 5' ACCCTTCCCCTCCTAGATCCCAAGCC 3' (SEQ ID NO:37);

821 bp, M: 5' AAGATTCAGAGAGATTCATTCATTCATTCACAA 3' (SEQ ID NO:38); 100 bp, S: 5' CCTGCTAACAGGTACCCGGCATG 3' (SEQ ID NO:39).

Reverse primers determining the length of the downstream homology arm:

2466 bp, L: 5' GCACCTCCAGCCATCACAGC 3' (SEQ ID NO:40);

797 bp, M: 5' CAGCATCTTGCTAAGGGGTTGTCAG 3' (SEQ ID NO:41);

94 bp, S: 5' GTCAGCAGACATGGGATGTTCGTTT 3' (SEQ ID NO:42).

The plasmid backbone was PCR amplified from pUC19 using the following three forward and reverse primers with complementary overhangs to the upstream and downstream Thyl homology arms.

Upstream overhangs:

1550 bp: 5' GGGCTTGGGATCTAGGAGGGGAAGG GTTTGCGTATTGGGCGCTCTTC 3' (SEQ ID NO:43);

821 bp: 5' TGAATGAATGAATGAATCTCTCTGAATCTT

GTTTGCGTATTGGGCGCTCTT C 3' (SEQ ID NO:44);

100 bp: 5' TCCTGCCCCATGCCGGGTACCTGTTAGCAG

GTTTGCGTATTGGGCGCTCTTC 3' (SEQ ID NO:45).

Downstream overhangs:

2466 bp: 5' CCAGGAAGGGGCTGTGATGGCTGGAGGTGC ttagacgtcaggtggcacttttc 3' (SEQ ID NO:46);

797 bp: 5' GGAGGCTGACAACCCCTTAGCAAGATGCTG ttagacgtcaggtggcacttttc 3' (SEQ ID NO:47);

94 bp: 5' CAAATAAACGAACATCCCATGTCTGCTGAC ttagacgtcaggtggcacttttc 3'

(SEQ ID NO:48).

A version of the mouse Thyl targeting vector with longer homology arms (XX) was cloned using isothermal assembly. The original Outside Thyl targeting vector plasmid was PCR amplified using primers 5' CCTTCCCCTCCTAGATCCCAAGCC 3' (SEQ ID NO:49) and 5' GCACCTCCAGCCATCACAGC 3' (SEQ ID NO:50). An extra 3 kb of the Thyl upstream homology arm was PCR amplified from PGP1 genomic DNA using primers 5' TCTTGTTTGAGATGTTGTGCGGG 3' (SEQ ID NO:51) and 5' CTGGTTTCAGCACTCCGATCCTATC 3' (SEQ ID NO:52). An extra 2.4 kb of the Thyl downstream homology arm was PCR amplified from PGP1 genomic DNA using primers 5' TGTGGCTCTGCACCAGGAAG 3' (SEQ ID NO:53) and 5' CCTCTCCCTTTTCCCTGGTTTTG 3' (SEQ ID NO:54). The plasmid backbone with complementary overhangs was PCR amplified from pUC19 using primers 5' TACTCTGCAAAACCAGGGAAAAGGGAGAGG ttagacgtcaggtggcacttttc 3' (SEQ ID NO:55) and 5'

CTGTGGATAGGATCGGAGTGCTGAAACCAG GTTTGCGTATTGGGCGCTCTTC 3' (SEQ ID NO:56).

The mouse Thyl targeting vector with homology around each sgRNA site (Intact) was cloned using isothermal assembly. A shorter fragment of mouse Thyl exons 2 and 3 was PCR amplified from the original Outside Thyl targeting vector plasmid using primers 5' ATCTCTCCACTTCAGGTGGGTGGGAGGCCCCTGT GGTCTGTGTCTCCCCAAATT 3' (SEQ ID NO:57) and 5' CAGGTGGACAGGAGGACAGATTCCAGAGGC TTGGTTTTATTGTGCAGTTTTCTTTC 3' (SEQ ID NO:58). An extended fragment of the upstream homology arm within the sgRNA sites was PCR amplified from PGP1 genomic DNA using primers 5' GGCTTCCTTCCCTCCAGAG 3' (SEQ ID NO: 59) and 5' ACAGGGGCCTCCCACCC 3' (SEQ ID NO:60). An extended fragment of the downstream homology arm within the sgRNA sites was PCR amplified from PGP1 genomic DNA using primers 5' CAAGCCTCTGGAATCTGTCCTC 3' (SEQ ID NO:61) and 5' GCCCAGTGTGCAGTCATTAGC 3' (SEQ ID NO:62). The plasmid backbone with the remaining upstream and downstream homology arm fragments was PCR amplified from the original Outside Thyl targeting vector using primers 5' CTTTTCTGAGACTGTGAGGGAG 3' (SEQ ID NO:63) and 5' TACCCCAGGGGCTAATGACTGCAC 3' (SEQ ID NO:64).

The mouse Thyl targeting vector with homology around each disrupted sgRNA site

(Disrupted) was cloned using isothermal assembly. To delete one nucleotide from each of the sgRNA sites, two sections were PCR amplified from the Intact Thyl targeting vector plasmid with primers 5' ACAGTCTCAGAAAACGCAGGTGACAAAG 3' (SEQ ID NO: 65) and 5' CATTAGCCCCTGGGTAGCGTTGCTACTAAG 3' (SEQ ID NO: 66) and then 5' TTGTCACCTGCGTTTTCTGAGACTGTGAG 3' (SEQ ID NO: 67) and 5' CTTAGTAGCAACGCTACCCAGGGGCTAATG 3' (SEQ ID NO:68).

The mCherry Thyl targeting vector was cloned using isothermal assembly. The mCherry transgene was PCR amplified from a plasmid construct containing mCherry under the control of a pGK promoter with a bGH polyadenylation sequence using primers 5' GAGAATACCAGCAGTTCACCCATCCAGTAC GAAATTCTACCGGGTAGGGGAG 3' (SEQ ID NO:69) and 5' CCCAGTGTGCAGTCATTAGCCCCTGGGGTA

CGACGGCCAGTGAATTGTAATACG 3' iSEO ID NO:70\ The upstream homology arm was PCR amplified from PGP1 genomic DNA using primers 5' AC CCTTCCCCTCCTAGATCCCAAGCC 3' (SEQ ID NO:71) and 5' GTACTGGATGGGTGAACTGCTGGTATTC 3' (SEQ ID NO:72). The downstream homology arm was PCR amplified from PGP1 genomic DNA using primers 5' TACCCCAGGGGCTAATGACTGCAC 3' (SEQ ID NO:73) and 5' GCACCTCCAGCCATCACAGC 3' (SEQ ID NO:74). The plasmid backbone was PCR amplified from pUC19 using primers 5' CCAGGAAGGGGCTGTGATGGCTGGAGGTGC ttagacgtcaggtggcacttttc 3' (SEQ ID NO: 75) and 5' GGGCTTGGGATCTAGGAGGGGAAGG GTTTGCGTATTGGGCGCTCTTC 3 ' (SEQ ID NO : 76) .

The mouse CD 147 targeting vector was cloned using isothermal assembly. Exons 2-7 of mouse CD 147 were PCR amplified from C57BL/6J genomic DNA (Jackson Laboratories) using primers 5' GAAGTCGAGGTTCCAAGGTCACAGTGAG GGGGCCCTGGCCACCC CTTGCAGGTTCTCCATAGTCCACAG 3' (SEQ ID NO: 77) and 5' CAACAACCCCTCCTGTATATGACCT 3' (SEQ ID NO:78). The upstream homology arm was PCR amplified from PGP1 genomic DNA using primers 5' ACACACTTTCAACCTCCAAGAGACG 3' (SEQ ID NO: 79) and 5' CTCACTGTGACCTTGGAACCTCG 3' (SEQ ID NO:80). The downstream homology arm was PCR amplified from PGP1 genomic DNA using primers 5' TGTTGAGGTCATATACAGGAGGGGTTGTTG CCTGACGGGGTTGGGTTTTCC 3' (SEQ ID NO:81) and 5' AA GGGAGCCCTGAGGCCTTTTCC 3' (SEQ ID NO:82).

The plasmid backbone with complementary overhangs was PCR amplified from pUC19 using primers 5' TCAGGAAAAGGCCTCAGGGCTCCC ttagacgtcaggtggcacttttc 3' (SEQ ID NO:83) and 5' CGTCTCTTGGAGGTTGAAAGTGTGT GTTTGCGTATTGGGCGCTCTTC 3' (SEQ ID NO:84).

EXAMPLE IV TALEN assembly

TALE pairs (16.5mer) targeting the human Thyl gene were assembled using Iterative Capped Assembly. TALE pair targeting over the L3 sgRNA site: Left: 5' T ACCAGCAGTTCACCCAT 3' (SEQ ID NO:85); Right: 5' T CTTTGTCTCACGGGTCA 3' (SEQ ID NO:86). TALEN pair targeting over the Rl sgRNA site: Left: 5' T CTCCCCAACCACTTAGT 3' (SEQ ID NO:87); Right: 5' T GTGCAGTCATTAGCCCC 3' (SEQ ID NO:88). TALE were cloned onto Fokl heterodimer nuclease domains using isothermal assembly. Assembled TALE were PCR amplified using primers 5' GGCCGCCACCATGGATTATAAGGAC 3' (SEQ ID NO:89) and 5' GGAACCTGCCACTCGATGTG 3' (SEQ ID NO:90). The Fokl heterodimer nuclease domains KKR and ELD with the Sharkey mutations were derived from pMGlO (Addgene #31238) using the QuikChange Lightning Site-Directed Mutagenesis Kit (Stratagene). The KKR- Sharkey Fokl domain was PCR amplified using primers 5' GACATCACATCGAGTGGCAGGTTCC CAGCTGGTGAAGTCCGAGC 3' (SEQ ID NO:91) and 5' CAACTAGAAGGCACAGTCGAGGC TGATCAGCG GGGTTA GAAATTGATTTCACCATTGTTGAAC 3' (SEQ ID NO:92). The ELD-Sharkey Fokl domain was PCR amplified using primers 5' GACATCACATCGAGTGGCAGGTTCC CAACTAGTCAAAAGTGAACTGGAGG 3' (SEQ ID NO:93) and 5' CAACTAGAAGGCACAGTCGAGGC TGATCAGCG CCCTTAAAAGTTTATCTCGCCG 3' (SEQ ID NO: 94). Each TALE and Fokl heterodimer domain was cloned into a plasmid backbone containing an EFla promoter and bGH polyadenylation sequence; this was amplified from the Cas9 expression vector described above using primers 5' GCCTCGACTGTGCCTTCTAGTTG 3' (SEQ ID NO: 95) and 5' CTTATAA TCCATGGTGGCGGCC 3' (SEQ ID NO: 96). EXAMPLE V iPSC culture and transfection

Verified human iPSC from Personal Genome Project donors PGP1 and PGP4 were obtained through Coriell. Cell lines were maintained on Matrigel-coated plates (BD) and grown in mTesrl (Stem Cell Technologies) according to manufacturer's instructions. 10 μΜ of the Rock inhibitor Y-27632 (Millipore) was added to the culture before, during, and after passaging with Accutase (Millipore). Pluripotency of iPSC cultures was verified by TRA- 1/60 FACS staining (BD).

All plasmids were purified using the Qiagen Endo-free Plasmid Maxiprep kit. Plasmids were nucleofected into iPSC cells using the Lonza 4D-Nucleofector X unit (Buffer P3, Program CB-150) according to manufacturer's instructions. For each 20 μΐ nucleofection reaction, 0.2-0.5 x 106 iPSC were transfected with up to 4 μg of plasmid DNA. Post-nucleofection, iPSC were plated onto 24- and 96-well Matrigel-coated plates containing mTesrl media plus 10 μΜ Y-27632.

For CRISPR-based nucleofections with a targeting vector (See Figs. l(a)-(d) and Figs. 3(a)-(c) to Figs. 8(a)-(c), 2μg of targeting vector plasmid, 0^g of Cas9 plasmid, and 1.5 μg of total sgRNA plasmid were used. When two sgRNAs were used, 0.75 μg of each plasmid was combined. When no sgRNAs were used, 1.5 μg of pUC19 was used instead.

For CRISPR-based nucleofections without a targeting vector (See Fig. 2(a)-(e), 2 μg of total plasmid was used: 0.5 μg of Cas9 plasmid with 0.75 μg of each sgRNA plasmid or 0.75 μg of pUC19.

For TALEN-based nucleofections with a targeting vector (See Fig. 5(a)-(b)), 2μg of targeting vector plasmid plus 2 μg total of TALEN plasmid was used. For one dsDNA break using one TALEN pair, 1 μg of each TALEN-expressing heterodimer plasmid was used. For two dsDNA breaks using two TALEN pairs, 0.5 μg of each TALEN-expressing heterodimer plasmid was used. EXAMPLE VI

FACS staining iPSC were dissociated using TrypLE Express (Invitrogen) and washed in FACS buffer: PBS (Invitrogen) + 0.2% bovine serum albumin (Sigma). Cells were stained in FACS buffer plus 10% fetal calf serum for 30 min at 4°C. The following antibodies were purchased from eBioscience: Anti-human Thyl APC (eBio5E10), anti-mouse Thyl .2 PE (30-H12), anti-human CD 147 APC (8D12), anti-mouse CD 147 PE (RL73), isotype control mouse IgGl κ APC (P3.6.2.8.1), isotype control mouse IgG2b PE (eBMG2b). Cells were washed twice in FACS buffer, and then resuspended in FACS buffer with the viability dye SYTOX Blue (Invitrogen). Samples were collected on a BD LSRFortessa flow cytometer with a High Throughput Sampler (HTS) and analyzed using Flow Jo software (Tree Star).

For the constant viable cell counts shown in Fig. 8(a)-(c), each sample was grown in one well of a 96-well plate. Each well was dissociated with 50 μΐ TrypLE. Then, 150 μΐ of FACS buffer containing the viability dye ToPro3 (Invitrogen) was added. The HTS was used to analyze 100 μΐ from each well at a constant rate of 1 μΐ / s with mixing.

EXAMPLE VII Single-cell iPSC FACS sorting

For FACS sorting, iPSC were sorted one cell / well into 96-well plates containing feeder cells. 96-well flat-bottom tissue culture plates were coated with gelatin (Millipore) and cultured with irradiated CF- 1 mouse embryonic fibroblasts (106 MEFs per plate; Global Stem) the night before. Before sorting, media in the plates was changed to hES cell maintenance media with 100 ng / ml bFGF (Millipore), SMC4 inhibitors (BioVision), and 5 μg / ml fibronectin (Sigma).

For at least 2 hours before FACS sorting, iPSC were pre -treated with mTesrl containing SMC4 inhibitors. Cells were dissociated with Accutase, and stained as described above. iPSC were sorted using a BD FACS Aria into the MEF-coated 96-well plates. Established iPSC colonies were then mechanically passaged onto new MEF-coated wells. EXAMPLE VIII

PCR genotyping

Genomic DNA from sorted iPSC clones was purified from the 96-well plates. Each clone was genotyped using four sets of PCR primers (See Fig. l(a)-(d)) using the KAPA HiFi HotStart polymerase and run on a 0.8% agarose gel.

Reaction 1 : 5' AGGGACTTAGATGACTGCCATAGCC 3' (SEQ ID NO:97) and 5' ATGTTGGCAGTAAGCATGTTGTTCC 3' (SEQ ID NO:98). Wild type Thyl (+) or inverted allele (i): 3129 bp; Targeted mouse Thyl allele (m): 2904 bp; Excised allele (Δ): 387 bp.

Reaction 2: 5' AGGGACTTAGATGACTGCCATAGCC 3' (SEQ ID NO:99), 5' CTCACCTCTGAGCACTGTGACGTTC 3' (SEQ ID NO: 100), and 5' ACTGAAGTTCTGGGTCCCAACAATG 3' (SEQ ID NO: 101). Wild type allele (+): 993 bp; Targeted mouse allele (m): 490 bp; excised (Δ) or inverted (i) allele: no PCR product.

Reaction 3: 5' ATGAATACAGACTGCACCTCCCCAG 3' (SEQ ID NO: 102),

5' CTCACCTCTGAGCACTGTGACGTTC 3' (SEQ ID NO: 103), and 5'

CCATCAATCTACTGAAGTTCTGGGTCCCAACAATG 3' (SEQ ID NO: 104). Wild type allele (+): 2393 bp; Targeted mouse allele (m): 1891 bp; excised (Δ) or inverted (i) allele: no PCR product.

Reaction 4: 5' TGAAGTGAAACCCTAAAGGGGGAAG 3' (SEQ ID NO: 105), 5'

AAACCACACACTTCAACCTGGATGG 3' (SEQ ID NO: 106), and 5'

GTTTGGCCCAAGTTTCTAAGGGAGG 3' (SEQ ID NO: 107). Wild type allele (+): 3064 bp;

Targeted mouse allele (m): 2707; excised (Δ) or inverted (i) allele: no PCR product.

Genomic DNA from sorted iPSC clones was PCR amplified using the primers in genotyping Reaction 1 , which span outside the sgRNA nuclease sites. Different size PCR products were separated using agarose gel extraction (Qiagen). PCR products were Sanger sequenced

(Genewiz) using the same two primers. Single and double peaks were analyzed from the Sanger trace file and deconvoluted to ascertain the biallelic sequences of each clone.

EXAMPLE IX Aspects of the present disclosure are directed to improving the low frequency of homologous recombination (HR) (10~3-10~7) which may limit targeted gene replacements even when using antibiotic selection markers. See Deng, C. & Capecchi, M. R. Mol. Cell. Biol. 12, 3365-3371 (1992). Aspects of the present disclosure envision the use of custom-engineered nuclease systems, such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFN) Urnov, F. D., Rebar, E. J., Holmes, M. C, Zhang, H. S. & Gregory, P. D. Nat. Rev. Genet. 1 1, 636-646 (2010), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) Joung, J. K. & Sander, J. D. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 14, 49-55 (2012), or CRISPR/Cas9 nucleases Mali, P. et al. Science 339, 823-826 (2013) for efficient genome modification, such as the excision and replacement of long nucleic acid sequences, such as long gene sequences. Aspects of the present disclosure envision use of cell types which may be resistant to gene editing using conventional methods.

Aspects of the present disclosure envision use of one or more dsDNA breaks at specific target sites, wherein the NHEJ repair pathway Chapman, J. R., Taylor, M. R. G. & Boulton, S. J. Molecular Cell 47, 497-510 (2012) can then mutate and disrupt genes Urnov, F. D., Rebar, E. J., Holmes, M. C, Zhang, H. S. & Gregory, P. D. Nat. Rev. Genet. 1 1, 636-646 (2010), Mali, P. et al. Science 339, 823-826 (2013). Aspects of the present disclosure envision two dsDNA breaks which can excise the intervening portion of the genome Lee, H. J., Kim, E. & Kim, J.-S. Genome Research 20, 81-89 (2010) or generate translocations Piganeau, M. et al. Genome Research 23, 1 182-1 193 (2013). Aspects of the present disclosure envision the use of HR using an ssODN Chen, F. et al. Nature Methods 8, 753-755 (2011), Yang, L. et al. Nucleic Acids Research (2013). doi: 10.1093/nar/gkt555 or plasmid targeting vector Yang, L. et al. Nucleic Acids Research (2013). doi: 10.1093/nar/gkt555, Mali, P. et al. Science 339, 823-826 (2013) to introduce mutations or transgenes Moehle, E. A. et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 3055-3060 (2007), Hockemeyer, D. et al. Nat Biotechnol 27, 851-857 (2009). Aspects of the present disclosure envision methods described herein for improving the efficiency of gene insertion of larger insertions which may be inefficient. Moehle, E. A. et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 3055-3060 (2007), Urnov, F. D., Rebar, E. J., Holmes, M. C, Zhang, H. S. & Gregory, P. D. Nat. Rev. Genet. 1 1, 636-646 (2010).

Aspects of the present disclosure envision generating multi-kilobase targeted gene replacements using the methods described herein and microhomology-mediated end joining (MMEJ) between the short single-stranded overhangs which may result from ZFN cleavage Orlando, S. J. et al. Nucleic Acids Research 38, el52 (2010), Cristea, S. et al. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 1 10, 871-880 (2013), Maresca, M., Lin, V. G., Guo, N. & Yang, Y. Genome Research 23, 539- 546 (2013). Aspects of the present disclosure envision improving efficiency of HR crossovers between the flanking homology arms by generating a dsDNA break at each homology arm. Further envisioned is the use of multiple cut sites at each homology arm to improve efficiency of large nucleic acid insertion. EXAMPLE X

Optimizing Target Vector Design

Aspects of the present disclosure relate to optimizing targeting vector design for large nucleic acid replacement. According to one exemplary aspect, the 2.7 kb human Thyl gene (hThyl) was replaced with its mouse homologue (mThyl) in human iPSC derived from Personal Genome Project (PGP) donors. Human Thyl (CD90) is advantageous to demonstrate an example of large gene replacement using the methods described herein because it is expressed on the surface of human iPSC, it is not essential for cell survival in vitro, and species-specific staining antibodies are available. It is to be understood that this example is exemplary only and is not intended to limit the scope of the present disclosure to excision of human Thyl and replacement with mouse Thyl .

Two single guide RNAs (sgRNA) were designed that target human Thyl within intron 1 or after the polyadenylation sequence. The mThyl targeting vector plasmid contained exons 2 and 3 of mouse Thyl flanked by human Thyl homology arms outside of the cut sites (Fig. la). When both dsDNA breaks were made, 6.7% of iPSC became mThyl+ hThyl" without selection (Fig. lb). PCR genotyping of single cell FACS-sorted mThyl+ hThyl" iPSC clones revealed a mixture of homozygous targeted replacement (m/m; 4.7%) and replacement of one human allele with excision of the other (ηι/Δ; 2%) (Fig. l(c)-(d)). Furthermore, 1.6% of cells were mThyl+ hThyl+ double positive (m/+; heterozygous targeted replacement).

Finally, 16.2% of cells were mThyl" hThyl" double negative: PCR and Sanger sequencing revealed a mixture of homozygous excision (Δ/Δ) and heterozygous inversion and excision (ί/Δ) between the sgRNA sites (Fig. l(a)-(d). While a few indels and inserted bases were observed at the excision and inversion sites, the largest indel was only 15 bp, and most alleles were re-joined exactly between the cut sites (Fig. 3(a)-(c)). Previous reports generating two dsDNA breaks with ZFN or TALEN observed indels in most excision and inversion alleles, up to 200 bp Lee, H. J., Kim, E. & Kim, J.-S. Genome Research 20, 81-89 (2010), Lee, H. J., Kweon, J., Kim, E., Kim, S. & Kim, J. S. Genome Research 22, 539-548 (2012), Piganeau, M. et al. Genome Research 23, 1 182-1 193 (2013). In contrast to the 5' overhangs produced by ZFN and TALEN, Cas9 nucleases produce blunt-end dsDNA breaks Jinek, M. et al. Science 337, 816-821 (2012), which may contribute to the increased fidelity of re-joining, which was also seen for shorter 19 bp Mali, P. et al. Science 339, 823-826 (2013) and 1 18 bp Cong, L. et al. Science 339, 819-823 (2013) Cas9- mediated excisions.

When only a single sgRNA was used, mThyl homozygous replacement occurred in >2% of cells (mThyl + hThyl"; m/m) and heterozygous replacement occurred in 4-6% of cells (mThyl + hThyl+; m/+). Very few mThyl" hThyl" double negative cells and no excised hThyl alleles (Δ) were observed (Fig. l(a)-(d)). A similar pattern of results occurred when replacing the 9.8 kb human CD 147 gene with its mouse homologue or replacing hThyl with a fluorescent reporter (Fig. 4(a)-(b) and Fig. 5(a)-(b)). EXAMPLE XI

Determining the Effect of Homology Length on Targeted Gene Replacements in Human iPSC

Conventional gene targeting vectors are typically transfected as linearized plasmids. With ZFN, circular plasmid targeting constructs produced higher rates of HR-mediated gene insertion than linearized plasmids, although linear constructs were more effective at MMEJ-mediated gene insertion Orlando, S. J. et al. Nucleic Acids Research 38, el 52 (2010), Cristea, S. et al. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 1 10, 871-880 (2013). A linearized mThyl targeting vector produced far less gene targeting compared to the circular plasmid (Fig. (a)-(b)), which may be due to the reduced nucleofection efficiency of linearized plasmids or increased degradation Cristea, S. et al. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 110, 871-880 (2013).

For conventional HR-mediated gene targeting, targeting frequency increased with homology arm length up to -14 kb Deng, C. & Capecchi, M. R. Mol. Cell. Biol. 12, 3365-3371 (1992), although additional homology arm length (up to ~70kb) using bacterial artificial chromosomes can improve weak or non-isogenic targeting vectors Valenzuela, D. M. et al. Nat Biotechnol 21, 652-659 (2003). However, introducing a dsDNA break reduces the necessary homology arm length to -0.2-0.8 kb for transgene insertions into a single cut site Elliott, B., Richardson, C, Winderbaum, J., Nickoloff, J. A. & Jasin, M. Mol. Cell. Biol. 18, 93-101 (1998), Moehle, E. A. et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 3055-3060 (2007), Hockemeyer, D. et al. Nat Biotechnol 27, 851-857 (2009), Orlando, S. J. et al. Nucleic Acids Research 38, el52 (2010), Beumer, K. J., Trautman, J. K., Mukherjee, K. & Carroll, D. G3 Genes|Genomes|Genetics 3, 657- 664 (2013). To examine the effect of homology length on targeted gene replacements in human iPSC, versions of the mThyl targeting vector were constructed with various length homology arms (Fig. 7(a)). In addition to the -2 kb homology arms from the original targeting vector (long, L), shorter lengths of -800 bp (medium, M) or -100 bp (short, S) were chosen, as these lengths are often used for HR-mediated gene insertion Moehle, E. A. et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 3055-3060 (2007), Hockemeyer, D. et al. Nat Biotechnol 27, 851-857 (2009) or ssODN correction Chen, F. et al. Nature Methods 8, 753-755 (2011), Yang, L. et al. Nucleic Acids Research (2013). doi: 10.1093/nar/gkt555. Longer homology arms of -5 kb (extra-long, X) were also tested. With two dsDNA breaks, targeting frequencies were highest with ~2 kb homology arms (LL and ML), and generally declined with less homology, although frequencies >1% were achieved down to -1.5 kb total homology (MM, LS, and SL). Extra-long homology arms did not improve gene targeting efficiency (XX versus LL).

When only one dsDNA break was used, homology length was most important on the arm opposite the cut site. The LM and LS vectors showed higher gene targeting with the Right sgRNA than the Left; the ML and SL vectors showed higher gene targeting with the Left sgRNA than the Right (Fig. 7(a)). The same pattern of results was observed in PGP4 iPSC, even though the targeting efficiencies were lower (Fig. 7(b)). These results are consistent with a model of Synthesis-Dependent Strand Annealing Moehle, E. A. et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 3055-3060 (2007), Urnov, F. D., Rebar, E. J., Holmes, M. C, Zhang, H. S. & Gregory, P. D. Nat. Rev. Genet. 1 1, 636-646 (2010), Chapman, J. R., Taylor, M. R. G. & Boulton, S. J. Molecular Cell 47, 497-510 (2012): the resected chromosome outside the dsDNA break anneals to the corresponding sequence in the targeting vector plasmid. The heterologous mouse Thyl sequence in the targeting vector is incorporated, forming a D-loop, until human sequence on the opposite homology arm is reached. Sufficient length of this homology arm allows for its subsequent homology search and re-annealing to the corresponding part of the chromosome for resolution of the D-loop.

Under this model, the homology arm sequences should extend outside of the dsDNA break sites, with the heterologous replacement sequence present on the inside. Homology arms spanning either side of each cut site did not enhance targeting efficiency in PGP1 or PGP4 iPSC (Fig. 8(a)- (c)). Since the targeting vector now included intact sgRNA target sites, twice as much iPSC death was observed (Fig. 8(b)), possibly due to an overwhelming number of dsDNA breaks in the cell. When these sgRNA sites were disrupted by a single bp deletion, increased cell death was not observed, but targeting efficiency was still reduced compared to the original mThyl targeting vector. Without wishing to be bound by scientific theory, the results do not suggest a predominant HR mechanism of double Holliday junctions, where both ends of each dsDNA break anneal to corresponding homologous sequences in the targeting vector, forming separate cross-overs Chapman, J. R., Taylor, M. R. G. & Boulton, S. J. Molecular Cell 47, 497-510 (2012). EXAMPLE XII

Determining the Relationship Between the

Frequency and Size of Cas9-mediated Deletions in Human iPSC Multi-kilobase deletions have been achieved using ZFN in tumor cell lines, although the deletion frequency generally declines with larger deletion sizes Lee, H. J., Kim, E. & Kim, J.-S. Genome Research 20, 81-89 (2010), Chen, F. et al. Nature Methods 8, 753-755 (201 1). To delineate the relationship between the frequency and size of Cas9-mediated deletions in human iPSC, two Left and ten Right sgRNAs were designed that target hThyl at various distances apart (Fig. 2a). Since no targeting vector was used, cells with both hThyl alleles disrupted became hThyl" (Fig. 2b). Cells nucleofected with only the Left sgRNA were used to determine the background level of hThyl" cells (Fig. 2b, right column). While the frequency of homozygous deletion above the background level tended to be higher for shorter distances - up to 24% for a 2.7 kb deletion and 8% for a 86 kb deletion - other sgRNA sites produced much lower deletion frequencies, which did not always correspond to size (Fig. 2d).

The frequency of monoallelic deletions was determined using a mThyl+ hThyl + clonal line of iPSC generated as described in Fig. l(a)-(d). Since the mThyl allele does not contain the two Left sgRNA sites, only the single remaining hThyl allele was subject to deletion. While the frequency of heterozygous deletions was occasionally higher than that for homozygous deletions from the same sgRNA pair, they were usually within a few percentage points (Fig. 2(c)-(e)). Without wishing to be bound by scientific theory, varying nuclease activity among sgRNA sites due to differences in the melting temperature, gene expression, or chromatin environment at the target site Yang, L. et al. Nucleic Acids Research (2013). doi: 10.1093/nar/gkt555, is likely not the cause of observed variations in gene deletion frequency, as neither the LI or L2 sgRNA consistently produced more deletions when paired with the same Right sgRNA. Pair-specific variables, such as microhomologies between the two dsDNA cut sites, may influence the deletion frequency.

EXAMPLE XIII

Gene Replacement Using Different Nucleases

and The Optimal Design for Gene Replacement Vectors

According to certain aspects, the design for gene replacement vectors described herein can be used with different nucleases, as they are not particular to which system generates the DNA break. Efficient multi-kilobase gene replacements have been achieved using ZFN, TALEN, and CRISPR nucleases (Fig. 5(a)-(b) and data not shown). Although targeted gene replacements with one cut site were less efficient, use of a single cut site reduces the potential genotypes and off- target mutations formed. Current techniques require that the dsDNA break must be made within 100 bp of the mutation or insertion site, which limits the potentially available sgRNA sites Elliott, B., Richardson, C, Winderbaum, J., Nickoloff, J. A. & Jasin, M. Mol. Cell. Biol. 18, 93-101 (1998), Yang, L. et al. Nucleic Acids Research (2013). doi: 10.1093/nar/gkt555. According to certain aspects, large gene replacements can be made using a wider range of nuclease sites, located around the gene or within introns. Additional unique sgRNA sites are useful within the present methods, avoiding conserved coding sequences within a gene family. This facilitates testing of multiple sgRNAs for a particular region (Fig. 2(a)-(e)). According to the methods described herein, flanking homology arms of up to 2 kb improve gene targeting efficiency (Fig. 7(a)-(b)).

According to certain aspects, methods of making targeted gene replacements (as opposed to gene disruptions or insertions) are provided using DNA binding proteins that have nuclease activity, such as ZFN, TALEN, and CRISPR/Cas nucleases for genome editing. According to certain aspects, methods are provided to isolate targeted clones by screening without selection due to the high targeting efficiencies of gene replacement described herein. According to certain aspects, genes could also be replaced with fluorescent proteins so successfully targeted cells could be selected and cloned by FACS. Gene replacements with heterologous sequences will be particularly beneficial for generating "knock-in" animals or disease models in human cell lines. Particular applications include: placing reporter constructs under endogenous promoters; replacing an endogenous gene with a recoded transgene; or comparative genomics across different species.

Claims

Claims:
1. A method of altering a target nucleic acid in a cell comprising
introducing into the cell a first foreign nucleic acid encoding one or more guide R A sequences complementary to DNA, wherein the DNA includes the target nucleic acid,
introducing into the cell a second foreign nucleic acid encoding a Cas9 protein that binds to the DNA and is guided by the one or more guide RNA sequences,
introducing into the cell a third foreign nucleic acid encoding an exogenous nucleic acid sequence to be included into the target nucleic acid sequence,
wherein the one or more guide RNA sequences, the Cas9 protein, and the exogenous nucleic acid sequence are expressed,
wherein the one or more guide RNA sequences and the Cas9 protein co-localize to the DNA and wherein the Cas9 protein creates two or more double stranded breaks to remove a first nucleic acid sequence of interest and wherein the exogenous nucleic acid sequence is inserted between the two break points of the target nucleic acid.
2. The method of claim 1 wherein the exogenous nucleic acid sequence to be included into the target nucleic acid sequence is flanked by sequences complementary to the area around the gene replacement.
3. The method of claim 1 wherein the exogenous nucleic acid is between greater than 100 base pairs and about 100,000 base pairs in length.
4. The method of claim 1 wherein the first nucleic acid sequence of interest is between greater than 100 base pairs and about 10,000 base pairs in length.
5. The method of claim 1 wherein the cell is a eukaryotic cell.
6. The method of claim 1 wherein the cell is a yeast cell, a plant cell or an animal cell.
7. The method of claim 1 wherein the guide RNA is between about 10 to about 500 nucleotides.
8. The method of claim 1 wherein the guide RNA is between about 20 to about 100 nucleotides.
9. The method of claim 1 wherein the one or more guide R A sequences is a crR A.
10. The method of claim 1 wherein the one or more guide RNA sequences is a tracrRNA- crRNA fusion.
1 1. The method of claim 1 wherein the DNA is genomic DNA, mitochondrial DNA, viral DNA, or exogenous DNA.
12. The method of claim 1 wherein the exogenous nucleic acid sequence is inserted into the target nucleic acid sequence by homologous recombination.
13. The method of claim 1 wherein the exogenous nucleic acid sequence is inserted into the target nucleic acid sequence by nonhomologous end joining.
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