WO2015070873A1 - Detection of substances in liquids, in particular psychoactive substances - Google Patents

Detection of substances in liquids, in particular psychoactive substances Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2015070873A1
WO2015070873A1 PCT/DK2014/050382 DK2014050382W WO2015070873A1 WO 2015070873 A1 WO2015070873 A1 WO 2015070873A1 DK 2014050382 W DK2014050382 W DK 2014050382W WO 2015070873 A1 WO2015070873 A1 WO 2015070873A1
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emitter
light
liquid
signal
apparatus
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PCT/DK2014/050382
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French (fr)
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Ulrik Merrild NIELSEN
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Drugster Aps
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N21/00Investigating or analysing materials by the use of optical means, i.e. using infra-red, visible or ultra-violet light
    • G01N21/17Systems in which incident light is modified in accordance with the properties of the material investigated
    • G01N21/25Colour; Spectral properties, i.e. comparison of effect of material on the light at two or more different wavelengths or wavelength bands
    • G01N21/31Investigating relative effect of material at wavelengths characteristic of specific elements or molecules, e.g. atomic absorption spectrometry
    • G01N21/35Investigating relative effect of material at wavelengths characteristic of specific elements or molecules, e.g. atomic absorption spectrometry using infra-red light
    • G01N21/3577Investigating relative effect of material at wavelengths characteristic of specific elements or molecules, e.g. atomic absorption spectrometry using infra-red light for analysing liquids, e.g. polluted water
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N21/00Investigating or analysing materials by the use of optical means, i.e. using infra-red, visible or ultra-violet light
    • G01N21/17Systems in which incident light is modified in accordance with the properties of the material investigated
    • G01N21/25Colour; Spectral properties, i.e. comparison of effect of material on the light at two or more different wavelengths or wavelength bands
    • G01N21/31Investigating relative effect of material at wavelengths characteristic of specific elements or molecules, e.g. atomic absorption spectrometry
    • G01N21/314Investigating relative effect of material at wavelengths characteristic of specific elements or molecules, e.g. atomic absorption spectrometry with comparison of measurements at specific and non-specific wavelengths
    • G01N21/3151Investigating relative effect of material at wavelengths characteristic of specific elements or molecules, e.g. atomic absorption spectrometry with comparison of measurements at specific and non-specific wavelengths using two sources of radiation of different wavelengths
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N33/00Investigating or analysing materials by specific methods not covered by the preceding groups
    • G01N33/02Food
    • G01N33/14Beverages
    • G01N33/146Beverages containing alcohol
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N33/00Investigating or analysing materials by specific methods not covered by the preceding groups
    • G01N33/18Water
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N33/00Investigating or analysing materials by specific methods not covered by the preceding groups
    • G01N33/48Biological material, e.g. blood, urine; Haemocytometers
    • G01N33/483Physical analysis of biological material
    • G01N33/487Physical analysis of biological material of liquid biological material
    • G01N33/493Physical analysis of biological material of liquid biological material urine
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N2201/00Features of devices classified in G01N21/00
    • G01N2201/02Mechanical
    • G01N2201/022Casings
    • G01N2201/0222Pocket size

Abstract

An apparatus is disclosed for contactless detection of the content of substances in a liquid by means of at least two monochromatic light emitters of different wavelenghts. In one embodiment, the light is reflected in an external surface of an alcoholic drink in order to detect for content of psycoactive substances, in another embodiment is the liquid urine and the apparatus is adapted to provide an output of the contents of in particular myogibin, blood and glucose in the urine.

Description

DETECTION OF SUBSTANCES IN LIQUIDS, IN PARTICULAR PSYCHOACTIVE SUBSTANCES

The present invention relates to an apparatus and a method of detecting the presence of substances, especially psychoactive substances, in liquid, and/or constituents in urine. The invention is also usable for detecting non- psychoactive substances, i.e. foreign matter generally, in liquid, or by themselves. This means that the apparatus and the method can be used to detect undesirable substances in liquid, where, for example, psychoactive substances or other contaminants might be suspected. Finally, the invention is usable for detecting other constituents of liquids, such as alcohol content.

SHORT DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to an apparatus for contactless detection of content of substances, foreign matter, and identification of substances, or composition of substances primarily in a liquid or in liquid form in a liquid, the apparatus including a first emitter adapted to emit essentially monochromatic light at a first wavelength, a second emitter adapted to emit essentially monochromatic light at a second wavelength, a photodetector suited for detecting light at least at the wavelengths which the first emitter and the second emitter are adapted to be able to emit and give off an output signal characteristic of the intensity of the detected light, wherein the first emitter, the second emitter, and the photodetector are arranged such in the apparatus that light emitted from the first emitter and the second emitter during operation of the apparatus interacts with the liquid, for example in that it can be reflected in an external surface of the liquid, or passes through the liquid and is subsequently detected by the photodetector, a control unit adapted to drive the first emitter and the second emitter in such a way during operation of the apparatus that the output signal from the photodetector may be signal processed such that the output signal originating from light emitted from the first emitter is distinguishable from the output signal originating from light emitted from the second emitter, a signal processing unit adapted to receive the output signal from the photodetector and process it in view of identifying a first signal part originating from light emitted from the first emitter, and a second signal part originating from light emitted from the second emitter.

1 , 2 or more emitters may conceivably be arranged, depending on how much precision and how many different substances it is desired to test for. An emitter may be a light-emitting diode with a specific wavelength, but may also be a light-emitting diode controlled by software in the unit or via the web and which adapts to the wavelength which the substance is likely to have, i.e. tries its way and adapts - in order to intelligently determine the substance and rule out other possibilities.

The signal processing unit need not be a physical part of an apparatus in which the other components are also arranged, for example in a bracelet or the like; instead, the output signal can be passed on to embedded software in the unit or via coupling to the web, via mobile phone or other similar unit, and which signal processes and detects. It is possible that the unit (i.e. the apparatus or other signal processing unit) may also give off warning or clarifying informative signals, either as light, sound, music, voice direct from the unit, or via mobile phone, the web or the like. Preferably, the unit can also communicate with other units about warning and/or merely informative messages to other units, mobiles, and the web.

The algorithm for signal processing is based on an identification of spectral properties of the liquid in order to detect whether the content in the liquid corresponds to that known from a database, built on experience. The algorithm may be, but need not be, learning, both as regards the detection and as regards the user. Aided and/or unaided, the algorithm is able to detect foreign matter or constituents in, typically a liquid. This means that the user enters what the person concerned drinks, whereby, in some situations, increased accuracy may arise. But the algorithm also makes possible that detection may be completely without dialogue with the user. Preferably, the algorithm enables both a detection and also a conversion to warning and/or informative words, sounds, etc. Preferably, the algorithm enables detection of liquid quantity, calculation of concentration, calculation of expected alcohol percentage, liquid requirement, etc. Preferably, the unit is automatically activatable when a liquid is within its radius, or the unit can be turned on before use. The unit may be equipped with battery, or be charged via solar cells, or directly from charger, or via USB connection to computer.

In a particularly preferred embodiment, the apparatus is adapted to detection of psychoactive substances, wherein the signal processing unit is furthermore adapted to determine from at least the first signal part and the second signal part whether a liquid, with which light emitted from the first emitter and the second emitter has interacted, has been detected by the photodetector such as to give off the processed output signal, contains one of the psychoactive substances from the group comprising at least Zolpidem (Ambien) and ketamine, as.well as to give off data indicative of whether the liquid contains at least one of the substances from the group.

In the most preferred embodiment, the light from the emitters is reflected in an external surface of the liquid prior to it reaching the detector, thereby obtaining an apparatus with which to test a liquid in an arbitrary container, for example a glass or a cup, without requiring physical contact between the liquid and the apparatus, if only there is a free liquid surface in which the reflection can take place.

The first emitter and the second emitter are preferably LEDs (light-emitting diodes) providing a very narrow-spectrum light, which essentially can be considered to be monochromatic. A photodetector capable of detecting light over a broad wavelength spectrum is well-known. The control unit can control the emission of light from the two emitters in different ways, such that the signals obtained by detecting the light from the individual emitters can be easily distinguished from each other, for example by the two emitters alternately being turned on and off, or by both of them being turned on and off at a frequency suitably far from the frequency at which the other emitter is turned on and off such that the signals can be distinguished by a simple filtration of the photodetector output signal. It has surprisingly been found that it is possible to detect the presence of a variety of psychoactive substances in a liquid from the ability of the liquid surface to reflect (in this context, the term reflect covers the same as throw back, that is, it covers both a mirror reflection and a scattering of the light) light of different wavelengths not necessarily lying near the absorption wavelengths of the psychoactive substances. The relation between the reflecting power of liquids of two different wavelengths of light has thus been found to be significant to the individual psychoactive substances to such an extent that the type of, for example, spirits (e.g. , rum, whiskey, brandy) and dilution liquid (e.g. , fruit juice, cola, quinine containing tonic water) and ice in a liquid mixture containing the psychoactive substance, does not alter the reflecting power to a degree having significant effect on the ability to detect the psychoactive substances. The discovery of this fact has made it possible for the inventor to arrive at the apparatus and the method according to the present invention, and it has become possible to thereby be able to detect the presence of psychoactive substances in a liquid without having to touch the liquid, decant it into a test vessel, or add reagents to the liquid, or having to do examinations on the person in question, including saliva and blood samples. In a particular embodiment of the invention, detection may be carried out by directly illuminating saliva, urine, or blood.

The signal processing unit determines whether one of the psychoactive substances is present in the liquid, based on the first signal part and the second signal part, and possibly other signal parts, or other signals given off to the signal processing unit. These other signals could be, for example, the relation between the ability of the liquid surface to mirror-reflect the light from the emitters relative to the ability to scatter said light, which can be established advantageously by examining the relation between backscattered light where the light polarization is maintained, and backscattered light where the polarization is not maintained; see, e.g. , WO 2004/081897, wherein such a technique is shown for a completely different purpose. In this context, the group of psychoactive substances mentioned in the claim should be understood such that the apparatus can detect any of at least these substances, but that the group may also include more substances.

The wavelengths of the emitters are preferably selected such that there is a wavelength-spacing between the wavelengths of the two emitters of at least 80 nm, preferably at least 150 nm. The wavelengths of the emitters may, in certain embodiments, correspond to the spectral properties of the substances, wherein the light absorption is measurable. For some substances this means that emitters with wavelengths of 3-4000 nm can be applied likewise. However, the length will depend on the substance spectroscopy and the combination of emitters.

Preferably, the group of psychoactive substances furthermore comprises flunitrazepam (Rohypnol).

According to yet another embodiment of the invention, the group of psychoactive substances furthermore comprises one or more of the substances midazolam, temazepam clonazepam (klonopine), and alprazolam (xanax).

Alternatively, the group of psychoactive substances also comprises benzodiazepines, which include, among others, flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), midazolam, temazepam, clonazepam (klonopine), and alprazolam (xanax).

According to yet an embodiment of the invention, the group of psychoactive substances also comprises gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB).

According to yet another embodiment of the invention, the group of psychoactive substances also comprises zopiclone (imoclone).

According to yet an embodiment of the invention, the group of psychoactive substances also comprises methylphenidate (ritaline). Further substances which the invention in special embodiments makes possible, is the detection of alcohol and the quantity of alcohol in a drink, a container, in saliva etc. In addition, detection of substances in urine, and saliva, and blood. Any liquid human fluid.

Further possible detection in special embodiments of the invention is foreign matter in drinking water, including district heating water, foreign matter in any supply of liquids to the private consumer and for industrial purposes, and water and other liquid quality in wells, public swimming areas, sea water, lake water, etc., with the purpose of ensuring cleanness, security, and knowledge of and ability to foreshadow impurities.

Further embodiments involve that the invention can detect foreign matter in other than liquids, primarily beverages. Detection of foreign matter in gasoline.

In addition, in particular embodiments the invention can be used to detect substances which are not necessarily foreign matter, including detecting the constituents of a liquid. What a drink consists of, what a contaminated liquid consists of, what waste water consists of, etc.

In addition, in particular embodiments the invention can be used to detect the quantity of carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen in liquids. That is, to ensure that a liquid contains that which it is supposed to - not because something has been added, but because natural evaporation etc. takes place.

In particular embodiments, the apparatus according to the invention is able to measure temperature upon detection of movement, oxygen concentration, etc., and/or detection of frost formation on the surfaces of liquids.

The first emitter and the second emitter are both preferably adapted to emit light of wavelengths in the infrared range, preferably between about 900 nm and 1800 nm. Alternatively, one or both can emit light outside this range, for example in the distant infrared range up to about 5000 nm, or in the optical window. It is an additional advantage if the apparatus according to the invention furthermore includes a third emitter adapted to emit essentially monochromatic light at a third wavelength, the photodetector being suited for detecting light at least also at the wavelength which the third emitter is adapted to be able to emit, wherein the third emitter is also arranged such in the apparatus that the light emitted from the third emitter during operation of the apparatus interacts with the liquid, preferably in that it can be reflected in an external surface of the liquid and subsequently be detected by the photodetector, the control unit being adapted to drive the third emitter in such a manner during operation of the apparatus that the output signal from the photodetector may be signal processed such that the output signal originating from light emitted from the third emitter is distinguishable from the output signal originating from light emitted from the first emitter and the second emitter, the signal processing unit furthermore being adapted to identify a third signal part originating from light emitted from the third emitter. Preferably, the signal processing unit is furthermore adapted to determine from at least the first signal part, the second signal part, and the third signal part whether a liquid with which light emitted from the first emitter and the second emitter has interacted and which has been detected by the photodetector to give off the processed output signal, contains one of the psychoactive substances from the group. Such a third emitter emitting light of a wavelength different from the wavelength of the light emitted from the first emitter and the second emitter, preferably with a wavelength difference of at least 60 nm, preferably at least 90 nm from both wavelengths, will further increase the accuracy of the detection by the apparatus of the presence of substances, preferably psychoactive substances.

Preferably, the third emitter is adapted to emit light of wavelengths in the infrared range, preferably between about 760 nm and 1500 nm.

Furthermore, it is advantageous if the apparatus signal processing unit is further adapted to determine from at least the first signal part, the second signal part, and optionally the third signal part whether the light detected by the photodetector is reflected from a liquid surface. In this way, false measurements, which were made, for example accidentally, of a surface other than the surface of the liquid, can be screened out.

Furthermore, the invention relates to a method of contactless detection of the content of psychoactive substances in a liquid, comprising the steps of: emitting essentially monochromatic light at a first wavelength by a first emitter,

emitting essentially monochromatic light at a second wavelength by a second emitter, said first emitter and said second emitter being operated in such a way that the output signal from a photodetector may be signal processed such that the output signal originating from the light emitted from the first emitter is distinguishable from the output signal originating from light emitted from the second emitter, detecting the reflection in a liquid surface of the liquid of the light emitted from the first emitter and the second emitter by means of a photodetector, processing an output signal characteristic of the intensity of the detected light given off from the photodetector to identify a first signal part originating from light emitted from the first emitter, and a second signal part originating from light emitted from the second emitter, and determining from at least the first signal part and second signal part whether the liquid contains one of the psychoactive substances from the group comprising at least Zolpidem (Ambien) and ketamine. In a particular embodiment, the invention relates to an apparatus as described, but which is instead adapted for the detection of constituents in urine, wherein the signal processing unit is furthermore adapted to determine from at least the first signal part and the second signal part whether urine with which light emitted from the first emitter and the second emitter, and from the third emitter, if such is present in the unit, has interacted, and which has been detected by the photodetector to give off the processed output signal, contains one or more of the substances myogibin, blood, and glucose.

Alternatively, or in addition thereto, the invention relates to an apparatus as described, but which is instead adapted to detect constituents in urine, wherein the signal processing unit is furthermore adapted to determine from at least the first signal part and the second signal part the concentration of at least one of the substances from the group consisting of albumine, creatinine, sodium ions, glucose, potassium, nitrogen oxide, and oxygen in urine, with which light emitted from the first emitter and the second emitter and from the third emitter, if such is present in the apparatus, has interacted, and which has been detected by the photodetector to give off the processed output signal.

Preferably, the first emitter, the second emitter, and the third emitter, if such is present in the apparatus, are adapted to emit light of wavelengths in the range between about 260 nm and 2300 nm. .

The present invention further relates to the use of an apparatus as described for the analysis of urine in order to detect the constituents in the urine.

Such an apparatus for the analysis of constituents in the urine makes possible a simple and cost-effective possibility of establishing a continuous monitoring of persons with a catheter connected to their bladders, and/or patients or persons who are not hospitalized, such that at home they can test urine and possibly pass on the result to the medical staff. In case of catheter or the like, the urine may be transilluminated by the light from the emitters, while urine in a container, such as an open container in the form of a cup, may be analyzed contactlessly with the unit using reflection in a free liquid surface of the urine so that the apparatus need not be cleaned after use. By the analysis, the function of the kidneys may be examined, for example by measuring the content of carbamide, creatinine, sodium ions and/or potassium in urine. Similarly, examination may be of content of albumine, glucose, nitrogen and/or oxygen to investigate other functions of the body, or whether the urine contains myogibin, blood or glucose, which may be indicative of various disease states. By this simple and inexpensive solution it is achieved that analysis of urine can be done to a greater extent where the patient is located, for example in his home, and a doctor, or other health professional staffing, can at once obtain a measurement result and initiate treatment or other measures as a result. Other uses, such as analysis of the urine to identify the person, a so-called biological passport, for testing excretion of drugs in urine, indication of infections, and content in the urine of characteristic proteins can also be made according to the present invention, just as the invention comprises apparatus as disclosed that are particularly adapted for such use.

In addition, the apparatus may be part of a learning system where all measurements can be collected centrally and used both as experience data that can be used directly in the treatment and also statistically valid data that tell about treatment efficacy, consequence etc. This allows the doctor to use a tool that shows which treatment might bring about a desired effect, whereafter he himself can optimize his treatment of a specific patient.

The method according to the present invention may also make use of the various optional technical features mentioned above with reference to the apparatus according to the invention.

In addition, detection may take place independently of input and output angles, since it is sufficiently, but not necessarily only, based on the directly reflected light, which is only amplified signal-wise in the unit if required.

The unit can take the form of, for example, bracelets, in box or the like. Likewise, it is expected that the unit is integratable into mobile phone, Iphone, Ipad or PC/Mac or similar devices when the scanning quality and the image quality, respectively, is sufficiently high to be able to measure on reflected data.

EXAMPLE OF EMBODIMENT

By use of an experimental apparatus, measurements have been performed of the following substances: 1. Imoclone

2. Ritaline

3. S - Ketamine

4. Flunitrazedam (Rohypnol)

5. Zolpidem

The experiment was carried out by means of a sensor, including:

Spectroscopy diodes (LED) with the wavelengths 1300 nm, 1460 nm, and 1550 nm, and a mirror/diffuse sensor, employing red light at 625-740 nm; further experiments show that infrared light in the mirror/diffuse sensor gives the same results.

The experiment

The sensor was first used to measure values of pure liquids:

Water

Orange juice

Cola

Tonic

Beer with foam

Beer without foam

Red wine

White wine

Gin

Rum

Whiskey

Vodka

Tea

Coffee

Martini

Then, the pure liquids were combined with each other, in the following ratios: Water: gin - 1 :1

Water: gin - 2:1 Water: gin - 4:1

Water: gin - 1 :2

Water: gin - 1 :4

Water: gin - 2:1 - repetition for control!

Juice: Vodka - 1 :1

Juice: Vodka - 2:1

Juice: Vodka - 4:1

Juice: Vodka - 1 :2

Juice: Vodka - 1 :4

Juice: Vodka - 2:1

Tonic: Gin - 1 :1

Tonic: Gin - 2:1

Tonic: Gin - 4:1

Tonic: Gin - 1 :2

Tonic: Gin - 1 :4

Tonic: Gin - 2:1 Cola: Rum - 1 :1

Cola: Rum - 2:1

Cola: Rum - 4:1

Cola: Rum - 1 :2

Cola: Rum - 1 :4

Cola: Rum - 2:1

Etc. Etc.

Then ice was added in different quantities, from covering the surface to filling the glass.

The experiment was carried out both in sunlight, electric light and in the dark.

The experiment was conducted with different reflective backgrounds, from black, white paper, gray, and mirror. The glass container with the liquid was placed on these surfaces, and the measurements were repeated.

The experiment was carried out at different distances from sensor to the liquid.

Conclusion of the test series

Regardless of the combination of different drinks, substances of this nature can be identified with at least 80% certainty, and clearly it can be expected that the accuracy can be improved simply with more experience. This also applies to the addition of ice.

The drink without drugs can also be identified, and it is possible to state precisely from measurements what you drink. Regardless of lighting conditions, the sensor's distance to the drink, what surface the drink is standing on, drugs can be identified. The measurements are also independent of the angle at which light is shone into the drink - if only the light from the emitter diodes hits the liquid surface. Even with smaller concentrations in the drink, results can be obtained, but if the quantity is small, so is the effect.

Regardless of the quantity of alcohol, the measurements are valid.

Subsequent measurements/assessments show that precision can be increased by hitting the spectral property of the substance in question. This does not mean that if the substance has a deflection of 3.000 nm, this is the only "place" where measurement can be done, but this is where security is the greatest. The same security is expected to be obtainable by a combination of sensors, which is also chosen in the experiment. The reason for choosing a combination of sensors is that it is a cheaper solution.

On that basis we will optimize the choice of the individual sensors such that they cover the substances which the test concerns, and optimize the combination of sensors. And subsequently expand as to choice of other substances!

Claims

Claims:
1. An apparatus for contactless detection of the content of substances in a liquid, the apparatus including
a first emitter adapted to emit essentially monochromatic light at a first wavelength,
a second emitter adapted to emit essentially monochromatic light at a second wavelength,
a photodetector suited for detecting light at least at the wavelengths which the first emitter and the second emitter are adapted to be able to emit and give off an output signal characteristic of the intensity of the detected light, wherein the first emitter, the second emitter and the photodetector are arranged such in the apparatus that light emitted from the first emitter and the second emitter during operation of the apparatus interacts with the liquid and is subsequently detected by the photodetector,
a control unit adapted to drive the first emitter and the second emitter in such a way during operation of the apparatus that the output signal from the photodetector can be signal processed such that the output signal originating from light emitted from the first emitter can be distinguished from the output signal originating from light emitted from the second emitter,
a signal processing unit adapted to receive the output signal from the photodetector and process it to identify a first signal part originating from light emitted from the first emitter, and a second signal part originating from light emitted from the second emitter.
2. An apparatus according to claim 1 , which is arranged such that the light from the first emitter and the light from the second emitter interact during operation of the apparatus with the liquid by being reflected in an external surface of the liquid.
3. An apparatus according to claim 1 or 2 for the detection of psychoactive substances in a liquid, wherein the signal processing unit is furthermore adapted to determine from at least the first signal part and the second signal part whether a liquid with which light emitted from the first emitter and the second emitter has interacted and which has been detected by the photodetector to give off the processed output signal, contains one of the psychoactive substances from the group comprising at least Zolpidem (Ambien) and ketamine, and to give off data indicative of whether the liquid contains at least one of the substances from the group.
4. An apparatus according to claim 3, wherein the group of psychoactive substances further comprises flunitrazepam (Rohypnol).
5. An apparatus according to claim 3 or 4, wherein the group of psychoactive substances also comprises one or more of the substances midazolam, temazepam, clonazepam (klonopine), and alprazolam (xanax).
6. An apparatus according to claim 3, wherein the group of psychoactive substances furthermore comprises benzodiazepines.
7. An apparatus according to any of the claims 3-6, wherein the group of psychoactive substances furthermore comprises gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB).
8. An apparatus according to any of the claims 3-7, wherein the group of psychoactive substances further comprises zopiclone (Imoclone).
9. An apparatus according to any one of the claims 3-8, wherein the group of psychoactive substances furthermore comprises methylphenidate (Ritaline).
10. An apparatus according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the first emitter and the second emitter are adapted to emit light of wavelengths in the infrared range, preferably between about 900 nm and 1800 nm.
1 1 . An apparatus according to any of the preceding claims, furthermore comprising a third emitter adapted to emit essentially monochromatic light at a third wavelength, the photodetector being suited for detecting light at least also at the wavelength which the third emitter is adapted to be able to emit, wherein the third emitter is also arranged such in the apparatus that light emitted from the third emitter during operation of the apparatus interacts with the liquid and is subsequently detected by the photodetector,
the control unit being adapted to drive the third emitter in such a manner during operation of the apparatus that the output signal from the photodetector can be signal processed, such that the output signal originating from light emitted from the third emitter is distinguishable from the output signal originating from light emitted from the first emitter and the second emitter,
the signal processing unit furthermore being adapted to identify a third signal part originating from light emitted from the third emitter.
12. An apparatus according to claim 1 1 , which is arranged such that the light from the third emitter interacts, during operation of the apparatus, with the liquid by being reflected in an external surface of the liquid.
13. An apparatus according to any of the claims 3 to 10 and claim 11 or 12, wherein the signal processing unit is furthermore adapted to determine from at least the first signal part, the second signal part, and the third signal part whether a liquid with which light emitted from the first emitter, the second emitter has interacted and which has been detected by the photodetector to give off the processed output signal, contains one of the psychoactive substances from the group.
14. An apparatus according to any of the claims 11 to 13, wherein the third emitter is adapted to emit light of wavelengths in the infrared range, preferably between about 900 nm and 1800 nm.
15. An apparatus according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the signal processing unit is furthermore adapted to determine from at least the first signal part, the second signal part, and optionally the third signal part whether the light detected by the photodetector is reflected from the liquid surface.
16. A method of contactless detection of the content of psychoactive substances in a liquid, including the steps of:
emitting essentially monochromatic light at a first wavelength by a first emitter,
emitting essentially monochromatic light at a second wavelength by a second emitter, said first emitter and said second emitter being operated in such a way that the output signal from a photodetector can be signal processed such that the output signal originating from light emitted from the first emitter is distinguishable from the output signal originating from light emitted from the second emitter,
detecting the reflection in a liquid surface of the liquid of the light emitted from the first emitter and the second emitter by means of a photodetector, processing an output signal characteristic of the intensity of the detected light emitted from the photodetector to identify a first signal part originating from light emitted from the first emitter, and a second signal part originating from light emitted from the second emitter, and
determining from at least the first signal part and the second signal part whether the liquid contains one of the psychoactive substances from the group comprising at least Zolpidem (Ambien) and ketamine.
17. An apparatus according to any of the claims 1 , 10, 11 , 13 and 14, which is arranged such that the light from the first emitter, the light from the second emitter, and the light from the third emitter, if such is present in the apparatus, interacts with the liquid by passing through it.
18. An apparatus according to any of the claims 1 , 2, 10, 1 1 , 12, 13, 14 and
17 for detecting constituents in urine, wherein the signal processing unit is furthermore adapted to determine from at least the first signal part and the second signal part whether urine with which light emitted from the first emitter, and the second emitter, and from the third emitter, if such is present in the unit, has interacted and which has been detected by the photodetector to give off the processed output signal, contains one or more of the substances myogibin, blood and glucose.
19. An apparatus according to any of the claims 1 , 2, 10, 1 1 , 12, 13, 14, 17 and 18 for detecting constituents in urine, wherein the signal processing unit is furthermore adapted to determine from at least the first signal part and the second signal part the concentration of at least one of the substances from the group consisting of albumine, carbamide, creatinine, sodium ions, glucose, potassium, nitrogen oxide, and oxygen in urine, with which light emitted from the first emitter, and the second emitter, and from the third emitter, if such is present in the apparatus, has interacted and which has been detected by the photodetector to give off the processed output signal.
20. An apparatus according to any of the claims 1 , 2, 10, 1 1 , 12, 13, 14, 17, 18 and 19, wherein the first emitter, the second emitter, and the third emitter, if such is present in the apparatus, are adapted to emit light of wavelengths in the range between about 260 nm and 2300 nm.
21. Use of an apparatus according to any of the claims 1 , 2, 10, 11 , 12, 13, 14, 17, 18, 19 and 20 for analysis of urine in order to detect the constituents in the urine.
PCT/DK2014/050382 2013-11-13 2014-11-12 Detection of substances in liquids, in particular psychoactive substances WO2015070873A1 (en)

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US5054487A (en) * 1990-02-02 1991-10-08 Boston Advanced Technologies, Inc. Laser systems for material analysis based on reflectance ratio detection
WO2004081897A2 (en) 2003-03-14 2004-09-23 Liwas Aps A device for detection of road surface condition
EP2348303A1 (en) * 2008-10-06 2011-07-27 Osaka University Liquid inspecting method and liquid inspecting device
WO2012055047A1 (en) * 2010-10-29 2012-05-03 Nir Science Corporation Method and apparatus for analyte detection
WO2012077110A2 (en) * 2010-12-06 2012-06-14 Ramot At Tel-Aviv University Ltd. Methods and kits for detection of drugs
GB2490537A (en) * 2011-05-06 2012-11-07 Wrc Plc Non-contact absorbance measurement
US20130214162A1 (en) * 2010-04-05 2013-08-22 Chemlmage Corporation System and Method for Detecting Unknown Materials Using Short Wave Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging
WO2014202531A1 (en) * 2013-06-16 2014-12-24 Nielsen Ulrik Merrild Detection of indications of psychoactive components in a liquid

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5054487A (en) * 1990-02-02 1991-10-08 Boston Advanced Technologies, Inc. Laser systems for material analysis based on reflectance ratio detection
WO2004081897A2 (en) 2003-03-14 2004-09-23 Liwas Aps A device for detection of road surface condition
EP2348303A1 (en) * 2008-10-06 2011-07-27 Osaka University Liquid inspecting method and liquid inspecting device
US20130214162A1 (en) * 2010-04-05 2013-08-22 Chemlmage Corporation System and Method for Detecting Unknown Materials Using Short Wave Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging
WO2012055047A1 (en) * 2010-10-29 2012-05-03 Nir Science Corporation Method and apparatus for analyte detection
WO2012077110A2 (en) * 2010-12-06 2012-06-14 Ramot At Tel-Aviv University Ltd. Methods and kits for detection of drugs
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WO2014202531A1 (en) * 2013-06-16 2014-12-24 Nielsen Ulrik Merrild Detection of indications of psychoactive components in a liquid

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