WO2014191230A1 - Cooling system and cooling process for use in high-temperature environments - Google Patents

Cooling system and cooling process for use in high-temperature environments Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2014191230A1
WO2014191230A1 PCT/EP2014/060069 EP2014060069W WO2014191230A1 WO 2014191230 A1 WO2014191230 A1 WO 2014191230A1 EP 2014060069 W EP2014060069 W EP 2014060069W WO 2014191230 A1 WO2014191230 A1 WO 2014191230A1
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WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
cooling
high
refrigeration system
temperature
system
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/EP2014/060069
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
Paul Girbig
Bernd Gromoll
Florian REISSNER
Jochen SCHÄFER
Original Assignee
Siemens Aktiengesellschaft
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to DE102013210177.5 priority Critical
Priority to DE201310210177 priority patent/DE102013210177A1/en
Application filed by Siemens Aktiengesellschaft filed Critical Siemens Aktiengesellschaft
Publication of WO2014191230A1 publication Critical patent/WO2014191230A1/en

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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B7/00Compression machines, plant, or systems, with cascade operation, i.e. with two or more circuits, the heat from the condenser of one circuit being absorbed by the evaporator of the next circuit
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02CGAS-TURBINE PLANTS; AIR INTAKES FOR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS; CONTROLLING FUEL SUPPLY IN AIR-BREATHING JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02C7/00Features, components parts, details or accessories, not provided for in, or of interest apart form groups F02C1/00 - F02C6/00; Air intakes for jet-propulsion plants
    • F02C7/12Cooling of plants
    • F02C7/14Cooling of plants of fluids in the plant, e.g. lubricant or fuel
    • F02C7/141Cooling of plants of fluids in the plant, e.g. lubricant or fuel of working fluid
    • F02C7/143Cooling of plants of fluids in the plant, e.g. lubricant or fuel of working fluid before or between the compressor stages
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B25/00Machines, plant, or systems, using a combination of modes of operation covered by two or more of the groups F25B1/00 - F25B23/00
    • F25B25/02Compression-sorption machines, plants, or systems

Abstract

The invention relates to a cooling system comprising a refrigeration installation coupled to a high-temperature heat pump. This makes it possible for the refrigeration installation to be operated at conventional temperatures with regard to evaporation and condensation temperatures, because the high-temperature heat pump provides the temperature difference compared to the ambient temperature. Such a cooling system or a cooling process that uses said cooling system can advantageously be used for precooling turbine input air in high-temperature environments. High-temperature refrigerants are preferably used.

Description

description

Cooling system and cooling process for use in high temperature environments

The present invention relates to cooling systems, the Verwen ¬ tion of new refrigerant therein and cooling processes.

In cooling processes such as absorption cooling or compression cooling, the heat is removed from the heat source to a heat sink. If the heat of the heat source to the environment, that is, the ambient air to be dissipated, there are upper temperature limits for the ambient air , at de ¬ ren exceeded conventional refrigeration processes no longer work. The condensation in a cooling process, for example, must take place at a certain distance from the critical point of the respective working medium used. A well-known and hitherto frequently used work equipment is, for example, R134A (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane). Its critical point is 101 ° C. To Errei ¬ chen an acceptable cooling performance, the condensation temperature should be at a distance from the critical temperature of 30 Kelvin. To avoid higher operating pressures due to high temperatures of the working fluid, condensation temperatures are usually chosen to be less than 50 ° C., which are problematic and expensive at ambient temperatures of more than 40 ° C., taking into account the required temperature difference in the heat exchangers. If, instead of wet cooling towers, air heat exchangers are to be provided because of a lack of water, the driving temperature difference in the air heat exchanger is quickly too short, very large heat exchanger surfaces or additionally very strong fans are necessary to increase the heat transfer coefficient and thus high investment and operating costs are associated. In the case of absorption refrigeration systems in particular, high ambient temperatures, for example between 40 ° C. and 60 ° C., mean that the temperature for the heat removal from the absorber and condenser likewise rises to above 60 ° C. This increases the pressure in an absorption refrigeration system, which is due to the simultaneous heat and mass transfer from bulky containers and therefore cost is not designed for high Drü ¬ bridge. For a refrigerant-absorber pair such as NH 3 -H 2 0, the pressure would rise to 30 bar at 65 ° C. In addition, due to the high recooling temperatures in absorption refrigeration systems significantly worse heat conditions. So far, for the operation of conventional refrigeration systems in the described temperature limit range recooling used as for example wet cooling towers. These allow evaporative cooling to reduce the condensation temperature of the refrigeration system, despite the high ambient temperature. However, the use of wet cooling towers is associated with high water consumption and corresponding costs. Especially in areas of high ambient temperatures, such as in desert areas, such a recooling solution is neither economical nor ecological.

It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide a cooling system and a cooling process for high temperature environments. The cooling system according to the invention has a refrigeration system and a high-temperature heat pump, wherein the refrigeration system and the high-temperature heat pump are coupled to one another such that the heat is released from the refrigeration system to the evaporator of the high-temperature heat pump. In particular, the coldest are teanlage and the high temperature heat pump sammengeschaltet cascaded to ¬. This has the advantage that the refrigeration system can be operated under normal operating conditions in terms of evaporation and condensation temperature. By connecting the evaporator of the high-temperature heat ¬ pump with the condenser of the refrigeration system ensures that the high-temperature heat pump makes the temperature increase over the ambient temperature. At an ambient temperature From about 60 ° C, the high temperature heat pump can elevate the Kondensa ¬ tion temperature to about 80 ° C to 120 ° C. As a result, a high temperature difference is achieved by the condenser of the high-temperature heat pump compared to the ambient temperature. This in turn allows the heat dissipation from the high-temperature turwärmepumpe ¬ through a relatively small cooling surface, for example, ¬ a small air cooler.

In an advantageous embodiment of the invention, the refrigeration system of the cooling system is a compression refrigeration system. In this case, the evaporator of the high temperature heat pump with the condenser of this compression refrigeration system so ther ¬ mically connected that heat is transferred from the condenser to the evaporator to make the high temperature heat pump the tempera ¬ turhub over the ambient temperature.

Alternatively, the cooling system may also include a refrigeration system that is an absorption refrigeration system. In this case, the evaporator of the high temperature heat pump with the Ab ¬ sorber and the condenser of the absorption chiller is thermally connected to transfer heat from the absorber and condenser to the evaporator. In an advantageous embodiment of the cooling system with the absorption chiller of the expeller of the absorption refrigeration system is configured to receive Abwär ¬ me and to be used for desorption. The cooling system is arranged for example with a turbine and uses at this point at least a part of its waste heat. This has the advantage that the waste heat temperature of the turbine can be lowered, for example, from about 90 ° C. to up to 80 ° C. In a particular ¬ DERS advantageous embodiment of the invention, the cooling system is equipped with the absorption refrigeration system having an inner heat exchanger which thus integrates the expeller of the absorption chiller into a return cooling circuit of Kon ¬ densators the high temperature heat pump, that at ¬ least a part of the accumulating in the condenser waste heat from the High temperature heat pump for desorption in the expeller can be returned. This embodiment is particularly suitable ge ¬ at condensation temperatures of the Hochtemperaturwärme- pump above 90 ° C. The recooling circuit with the inner heat exchanger has the advantage of significantly increasing the efficiency of the Kühlsys ¬ tems. For example, in addition to one or two-stage absorption chillers can be used. The refrigerant-absorbent pairs in the Absorptionskältemaschi ¬ nen are, for example NH 3 -H 2 0, H 2 0-LiBr or systems based on ionic liquids in question.

Advantageously, the cooling system is used for the pre-cooling of turbine inlet air. For this purpose, the cooling system is arranged in an embodiment of the invention with a turbine. This may for example be a gas turbine of a Ver ¬ brennungskraftwerks. In particular, the cooling system for precooling of turbine inlet air comprises a cooling device which has an evaporator which acts as an evaporator for the refrigeration system or which is coupled via a heat exchanger to the evaporator of the refrigeration system. For example, the cooling device may also include a cooling coil, which then dissipates the heat to the evaporator of the refrigeration system. In particular, the cooling device has an air inlet and an air outlet for precooling the turbine inlet air. For example, the ambient air can be cooled from 40 ° C. to 60 ° C. to a significantly lower temperature level, for example to the ISO turbine inlet temperature for gas turbines of 15 ° C., before it flows into the turbine. The inventions ¬ tion proper cooling system for pre-cooling the turbine input ¬ air has thus the advantage at high ambient temperatures and without loss of water in wet cooling towers from the combination of a refrigeration system with the heat dissipation by a high-temperature heat pump very efficiently introduce cooling capacity in the turbine intake air. The significantly reduced at high Umgebungstemperatu ¬ ren performance of gas turbines can be avoided by this combined pre-cooling Turbinenansaugluft. An increase in output of the gas turbines to above the rated power addition is thus feasible despite high Umgebungstemperatu ¬ ren and without water losses. In a further advantageous embodiment of the invention, the cooling device for pre-cooling the turbine inlet air to a container which is arranged with the cooling device, that in the air pre-cooling condensing water can be collected from the intake air in this container.

This has the advantage that clean water can be obtained simultaneously with the Luftvorküh ¬ ment. This may in particular be used for various alternative re-cooling processes is ¬ sets.

According to the invention, high-temperature refrigerants are used in the described cooling system, which have critical points above 120 ° C., in particular above 140 ° C. This has the

Advantage that can be used with much higher condensation temperatures of about 90 to 120 ° C, which represent a sufficient temperature difference to the environment. With the help of the use of high-temperature refrigerants and the inventive cooling system can cost savings in

Condenser of the high-temperature heat pump can be achieved, ¬ beyond a smaller footprint for the condenser of the high-temperature heat pump is necessary and on Rückkühl ¬ systems such as wet cooling towers can be completely dispensed with.

An example of a suitable high temperature refrigerant is, for example, R245fa (1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane), which has a critical point at 154 ° C. Further very advantageous high-temperature refrigerants for use in the cooling system according to the invention are fluoroketones. These have additional advantages in terms of their good environmental performance and have the advantage of being neither flammable nor toxic. Preferred examples from the family of fluoroketones are Novec649 (dodecafluoro-2-methylpentan-3-one) which has a critical point at 169 ° C and

Novec524 (decafluoro-3-methylbutan-2-one with a critical point at 148 ° C. In the cooling process according to the invention for precooling of turbine inlet air at high ambient temperatures above 30 ° C, in particular above 38 ° C, typically between 40 ° C and 60 ° C, the ambient air is so by a refrigeration system or by an external cooling device, with this Kälteanla ¬ coupled ge is passed that the ambient air heat ent ¬ is withdrawn before this air is passed as turbine inlet air into the turbine. In this case, the heat output of the Käl ¬ teanlage to the evaporator of a high-temperature heat pump. The advantage of using an absorption refrigeration system in the cooling system is that the available residual heat of the turbine, for example, from the exhaust gas of the turbine or from the flexible residual energy of the electricity for the drive, can be further used.

Embodiments of the present invention will be described in an exemplary manner with reference to Figures 1 to 4 of the accompanying drawings is ¬:

FIG. 1 shows a flow chart for a cooling system with absorption refrigeration system and high-temperature heat pump,

Figure 2 shows a flow diagram for a cooling system with compres sion ¬ refrigeration system and the high temperature heat pump,

Figure 3 shows a flow chart for a cooling system with absorption refrigeration system and high temperature heat pump with internal heat exchanger in the recooling circuit of the condenser of the high temperature heat pump and

 FIG. 4 shows a flow chart for a turbine inlet air pre-cooling.

In the figure 1, the pre-cooling 30 for the turbine inlet air 32 is shown on the left side first. The Conversely ¬ ambient air 31 flows at a temperature of for example 40 ° C in the cooling device 33 and exits 32 with egg ¬ ner temperature, for example 15 ° C at which it is then routed to the turbine 60th The heat absorption Qui from the ambient air 31 is indicated by an arrow. The Pre-cooling 30 is, for example, an evaporator 33 or a cooling device 33 connected to the evaporator 23 of the refrigeration system

20 is thermally coupled. The pre-cooling 30 is followed by the refrigeration plant 20, which in this case is an absorption refrigeration plant. This has an evaporator 23, an expeller 25 and an absorber 21. The evaporator 23 is thermally connected to the pre-cooling 30. The absorber

21 or also the capacitor 21 outputs its heat Q A to the high-temperature heat pump 10 shown on the right. The Austrei- ber 25 obtains the necessary heat Q w for the desorption, for example, from the exhaust gas of the turbine 60 or other accumulating waste heat of the turbine 60. The coupling of the high-temperature heat pump 10 to the absorption refrigeration system 20 he ¬ follows via a heat exchanger from the absorber 21 to the evaporator 13th the high temperature heat pump 10. the high-temperature heat ¬ pump 10 further comprises an expansion valve 12 which is driven by a motor 15 a Kom ¬ pressor 14, and a capacitor 11. This gives its heat Cte ¬ example via a cooling fins cooling body 110 and mounted on a fan 111 to the environment. At an ambient temperature, for example between 40 ° C and 60 ° C be ¬ carries the condensation temperature in the condenser 11 of the high-temperature heat pump 10, for example between 70 ° C and 100 ° C, in particular between 90 ° C and 120 ° C. As refrigerant-absorber pair in the absorption refrigeration system 20, for example, NH 3 -H 2 0 or H 2 0-lithium bromide solution in question, with the first pair reaches the lower temperatures. In the high temperature heat pump 10 Arbeitsmit ¬ tel such as Novec649 or Novec524 are preferably used.

2 shows analogously to Figure 1 the construction of the Kühlsys ¬ tems, 20. However, with a compression refrigeration system 50 instead of the absorption chiller This differs in its components by the expansion valve 22 and the compressor 54 which is driven by the motor 55th Also in this case, the heat Q A of the capacitor 51 of the compression ¬ refrigeration system 50 is discharged to the evaporator 13 of the high-temperature heat ¬ 10 pump. The compression refrigeration system 50 can game be as with a conventional refrigerant R134A Betrie ¬ ben.

In the figure, 3 is a cooling system with Absorptionskäl- is again teanlage 20 shown with the basic construction as shown in Fi gur ¬ 1. This, however, has a recooling circuit 40 for the capacitor 11 of the high-temperature heat pump 10 on. This recooling circuit 40 discharges heat Q w to the expeller 25 of the absorption refrigeration system 20 via an internal heat exchanger 254. Thus, it is possible, at least a portion of the condensate ¬ sator 11 of the high-temperature heat pump 10 due waste heat Q R to the absorption refrigeration process.

For example, the internal heat exchanger 254 reduces the incoming temperature by about 2 ° C to 10 ° C, for example by 5 ° C, before the recooling circuit 40 emits its heat Cte via a heat sink 41 with cooling fins 410 and a fan 411 to the environment. For example, the input temperature T in at the internal heat exchanger 254 may be around 80 ° C. by the 90 ° C. and the outlet temperature T out , at a condensation temperature of the high-temperature heat pump 10 of approximately 90 ° C. By the previous cooling by the internal heat exchanger 254, the cooling and exhaust system 41 can be even smaller and cheaper.

The figure 4 shows the arrangement of the cooling system with compression refrigeration system 50 as already shown in Figure 2 with a turbine 60. The turbine 60 is for example part of an internal combustion power plant with combustion chamber 65. The exhaust 66 of the turbine 60 is, for example, to a steam ¬ generator for recovering heat (Heat Recovery Steam Generator) forwarded. Before the ambient air 31 flows into the Turbi ¬ ne 60, it is cooled in the pre-cooling 30 by several degrees Celsius. FIG. 4 shows a pre-cooling device 30 with a cooling coil 35 for this purpose. The cooling ¬ circuit of the cooling coil 35 includes a coolant pump 34 which leads the refrigerant to the evaporator 53 of the refrigeration system 50th In addition, a catcher 36 is shown is collected by means of the condensed water from the ambient air 31, which condenses out on cooling the air. The ambient air flowing a ¬ 31 has in addition to a higher temperature and a higher water content than the 60 φ air flowing into the turbine 32nd

The high-temperature heat pump 10 in turn has a Verflüs ¬ siger 11, the heat is first passed to a Rückkühlkreis ¬ run 40 before the waste heat Cte is discharged through a small heat sink and fan system 41 to the environment.

Claims

claims
1. Cooling system comprising a refrigeration system (20, 50) and a high-temperature heat pump (10), wherein the refrigeration system (20, 50) and high-temperature heat pump (10) are coupled together so that the heat output (Q A ) of the refrigeration system (20, 50) the evaporator (13) of the high-temperature heat pump (10).
2. Cooling system according to claim 1, wherein the refrigeration system is a compression refrigeration system (50).
3. Cooling system according to claim 1, wherein the refrigeration system is an absorption refrigeration system (20).
4. The cooling system of claim 3 with an internal heat exchanger (254), which integrates an expeller (25) of the absorption chiller (20) into a rear cooling circuit of a capacitor (11) of the high temperature heat pump (10) that at ¬ least a part of the waste heat ( Q R ) for desorption in the expeller (25) is traceable.
5. Arrangement of a turbine (60) with a cooling system according to one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the cooling system comprises a cooling device (30) for precooling of turbine inlet air, said cooling device (30) having an evaporator, which is used as an evaporator (23 , 53) for the refrigeration system (20, 50) acts or is coupled via a heat exchanger with an evaporator (23, 53) of the refrigeration system.
6. Arrangement according to claim 5, wherein the cooling device (30) for pre-cooling of turbine inlet air has a Luftein- (31) and -auslass (32).
7. An arrangement according to claim 5 or 6 being arranged with the cooling means (30) for pre-cooling of turbine inlet air, a Be ¬ container (36) which is so connected to the cooling device (30) that in the pre-cooling auskondensie ¬ rendes water is trappable in it.
8. Arrangement according to one of the preceding claims 5 to 7, wherein the refrigeration system is an absorption refrigeration system (20) and an expeller (25) which is configured to absorb waste heat of the turbine (60) and to use for desorption.
9. Use of high-temperature refrigerants with critical points above 120 ° C, in particular above 140 ° C in a Kühlsys- sem according to one of the preceding claims 1 to 4 or in an arrangement according to one of the preceding claims 5 to 8.
10. Use according to claim 9 wherein the high-temperature refrigerant ¬ agent is a fluoroketone.
11. Cooling process for pre-cooling of turbine inlet air at high ambient temperatures above 30 ° C, in particular above 38 ° C, in which the ambient air (31) by a Kälteanla ¬ ge (20, 50) or an external cooling device (30) with this Refrigeration system (20, 50) is coupled, is passed, so that the ambient air heat (Qui) is withdrawn before this air as turbine inlet air (32) in the turbine (60) gelei ¬ tet, the heat output (Q A ) of the refrigeration system (20, 50) to the evaporator (13) of a high-temperature heat pump (10).
PCT/EP2014/060069 2013-05-31 2014-05-16 Cooling system and cooling process for use in high-temperature environments WO2014191230A1 (en)

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DE102013210177.5 2013-05-31
DE201310210177 DE102013210177A1 (en) 2013-05-31 2013-05-31 Cooling system and cooling process for use in high-temperature environments

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WO2018183238A1 (en) * 2017-03-27 2018-10-04 Rebound Technologies, Inc. Cycle enhancement methods, systems, and devices

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DE102016125006A1 (en) * 2016-12-20 2018-06-21 Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems Europe Gmbh Method and device for generating process refrigeration and process steam

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