WO2014180471A1 - Solar cell and method for producing same - Google Patents

Solar cell and method for producing same

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Publication number
WO2014180471A1
WO2014180471A1 PCT/DE2014/100162 DE2014100162W WO2014180471A1 WO 2014180471 A1 WO2014180471 A1 WO 2014180471A1 DE 2014100162 W DE2014100162 W DE 2014100162W WO 2014180471 A1 WO2014180471 A1 WO 2014180471A1
Authority
WO
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
solar cell
back
cell substrate
boron
characterized
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/DE2014/100162
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
Andreas Teppe
Christian Ehling
WALLRATH Harold WEISS
Jörg ISENBERG
Matthias Tumback
Original Assignee
Rct Solutions Gmbh
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L31/00Semiconductor devices sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof
    • H01L31/04Semiconductor devices sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof adapted as photovoltaic [PV] conversion devices
    • H01L31/06Semiconductor devices sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof adapted as photovoltaic [PV] conversion devices characterised by at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier
    • H01L31/068Semiconductor devices sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof adapted as photovoltaic [PV] conversion devices characterised by at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier the potential barriers being only of the PN homojunction type, e.g. bulk silicon PN homojunction solar cells or thin film polycrystalline silicon PN homojunction solar cells
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L31/00Semiconductor devices sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof
    • H01L31/02Details
    • H01L31/0224Electrodes
    • H01L31/022408Electrodes for devices characterised by at least one potential jump barrier or surface barrier
    • H01L31/022425Electrodes for devices characterised by at least one potential jump barrier or surface barrier for solar cells
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L31/00Semiconductor devices sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof
    • H01L31/02Details
    • H01L31/0236Special surface textures
    • H01L31/02363Special surface textures of the semiconductor body itself, e.g. textured active layers
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L31/00Semiconductor devices sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof
    • H01L31/18Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment of these devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L31/1804Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment of these devices or of parts thereof comprising only elements of Group IV of the Periodic System
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/50Photovoltaic [PV] energy
    • Y02E10/54Material technologies
    • Y02E10/547Monocrystalline silicon PV cells
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P70/00Climate change mitigation technologies in the production process for final industrial or consumer products
    • Y02P70/50Manufacturing or production processes characterised by the final manufactured product
    • Y02P70/52Manufacturing of products or systems for producing renewable energy
    • Y02P70/521Photovoltaic generators

Abstract

Solar cell having a solar cell substrate, preferably a silicon solar cell substrate, having a rough rear side and an aluminum-containing rear side contact, which is preferably printed on, and method for producing a solar cell having method steps comprising texturing a solar cell substrate at least on a rear side of the solar cell substrate, diffusing boron into the rear side of the solar cell substrate, and printing an aluminum-containing paste onto the rear side of the solar cell substrate for the purpose of forming a rear side contact.

Description

Solar cell and process for their preparation

Crystalline silicon solar cells with dielectric Rücksei- are tenbeschichtung now state of the art. Similarly, back passivated solar cells exist.

Also, there are numerous publications on bifacial solar cells, which are provided on the back with a diffusion, but unlike this invention on the back have a silver Grid

In solar cell types with backside passivation dielectric and full surface back-side with local contacts there is a serious problem: If the rear-side is not tight enough, it comes in the entire back side metallization by locally durchspeikendes aluminum to parasitic contacts. This unwanted, parasitic contacts are electrically parallel to the tet specially prepared, desired contact holes geschal-. The parasitic contacts reduce the efficiency of solar cells. Especially in rough, textured solar cells backs of the effect of the parasitic contacts is so strong that there is no gain in efficiency compared to conventional solar cells is possible with all-over aluminum back surface field (Al-BSF).

The behavior of the parasitic contacts is little studied: In contrast to the desired contact openings parasitic contacts seem characterized by high local electric resistance and high recombination losses. Probably here no local Al BSF forms in contrast to the deliberately made contact openings. The occurrence of these parasitic contacts is demonstrated: - dense dielectric, the solar cell having 0.0% efficiency fact have such a solar cell up to 5% efficiency, for example, at a "Centaurus" solar cell dispense with the laser aperture of the rear dielectric, in a 100% should. on. Elektrolumineszenzaufnahmen (see below) show a "starry sky", with the whole cell area and distributed to the Silberpadrändern parasitic contacts.

So far, no cost and at the same time sufficiently dense backside passivation was found. Since the problem of parasitic contacts occurs especially in rough, textured backs, these have been chemically polished, which is very expensive, especially in multi-crystalline wafers and a HF / HN03 polish.

Another known alternative is a rear printed, selbstdurchfeuerndes Grid, which leads to facialanwendungen solar cells for Bi. Logically, no Durchspeiken can take place at the nichtbe- jerked areas there is no metal here. In order to obtain a sufficiently high conductivity at a rear grid, usually expensive silver pastes used herein.

Another problem is that at the back dielectric passivated multicrystalline cells occurs, is the fact that a Füllfaktorverlust is observed in this cell type often, neither by the above recombination even by the series resistance of the base material (transverse conductivity) can be explained alone. One hypothesis for this additional Füllfaktorverlust that the band bending at grain boundaries and the band bending due to the positive charge of the silica or of silicon nitride on the rear of the cell result in an interaction which significantly inhibits the near-surface lateral conductivity in the area of ​​grain boundaries. This theory has not been proven, but seems plausible explanatory model. Direct solutions are gen not known, but the effect with a negative surface charge (eg A1203) seems to fail less or not be present.

The invention enables the production of the back DIE lectric passivated solar cells in which a low-cost, rough, textured back surface is used which is provided with an entire surface diffused boron back surface field (boron BSF), followed by a non perfectly dense Rückseitendielektrikum and an entire surface or over the whole area na- hezu metallized rear side. The boron BSF now leads to a passivation of the resulting parasitic contacts.

As an alternative to boron diffusion, a whole-surface applied Boron-doped dielectric can be applied to the back. The P0C13- diffusion used in the further process sequence drives a boron by co-diffusion or by a separate heating step in the Si wafer. The back is rounded tion by a blanket or nearly full-surface metallization. Just like the BSF boron from the boron diffusion, the boron-BSF performs the boron-doped dielectric to a passivation of the resulting parasitic contacts, resulting in an improvement of the cell parameters result. The process flow of new Centaurus-boron solar cell multicrystalline wafers presents itself thus:

Process sequence 1: 1. Wafer texture on both sides (. Sour, for example NH 3 / HF) and cleaning (chemical)

2. boron diffusion for passivation parasitic contacts and / or optionally optimize the transverse conductivity at grain boundaries or "passivation" of the grain boundaries

3. (Possibly Borglasätze)

4. backs passivation (PECVD films)

5. Front Panel remove any bordiffundierter layers (chemical)

6. cleaning

7. phosphorus diffusion

8. Optional laser diffusion for the production of selective emitter

9. Local laser aperture of the dielectric of the cell back

10. Phosphorglasät ze and cleaning

11. fronts passivation (PECVD films)

12. metallization

For monocrystalline wafers instead following process sequence has proven itself:

Process sequence lb:

texturing the first monocrystalline wafer on both sides, sour, z. B.

NH 3 / HF, non-alkaline, and cleaning (chemical)

2. boron diffusion for passivation parasitic contacts and / or optionally optimize the transverse conductivity at grain boundaries or "passivation" of the grain boundaries

3. (Possibly Borglasätze)

4. backs passivation (PECVD films)

5. Front Panel remove any bordiffundierter layers (chemical). First, removal of the Borglases (if still present) on the cell front side by an HF-containing etchant mixture, followed by alkaline texture of the cell front side.

The cell back side is protected by the back passivation stack. Any possible alternative: using a Einseitenät zanlage for the unilateral removal of boron glass only on the cell front. The remaining boron glass on the cell back then prevents the alkaline texture.

6. cleaning

7. phosphorus diffusion

8. Optional laser diffusion for the production of selective emitter

9. Local laser aperture of the dielectric of the cell back

10. Phosphorglasät ze and cleaning

11. fronts passivation (PECVD films)

12. metallization

Result of a solar cell with alkaline texture on the front. The cell edges (ie about 150-200pm "thick" side faces) and the rear of the cell are acidic textured. This edge treatment there is very little breakage.

The process flow of new Centaurus-boron solar cell multicrystalline wafers with boron-doped backs dielectric looks like this:

Process Episode 2:

13. Wafer texture on both sides (acidic, z. B. NH 3 / HF) and cleaning (chemical)

14, boron doped dielectric on the cell back. The boron is driven in the following by means of a co-diffusion into the Si wafer. The boron passivated parasitic contacts

15. Remove cleaning, possibly gloss edge on front when wrap-around of the dielectric means, for example, HF, used chemistry is dependent on the used dielectric

16. diffuse phosphorus diffusion and Tempersehritt to boron from dielectric in silicon wafer 17. Optional laser diffusion for the production of a selective emitter phosphorus

18. Local laser aperture of the dielectric of the cell back

19. Phosphorglasät ze and cleaning

20 front-side passivation (PECVD films)

21. metallization

The process with boron-doped back-side dielectric is conceivable and meaningful on monocrystalline material. In this case, you would make, however, preferred not sour texture in step 1), but an alkaline (eg, KOH / IPA). The Centaurus solar cell concept is supplemented by process points. in italics are the additional process steps.

Prozessfolge3:

22 wafers on both sides saw damage etching

23, boron doped dielectric on the cell back. The do ¬ oriented dielectric acts as a back-surface field; the boron is in the following by means of a co-diffusion into the Si

Wafer driven. The boron passivated parasitic con ¬ tacts

24. Cleaning and texture

25 POC13 diffusion

26. Laser diffusion on the front side for forming a selective emitter phosphorus

27 needed possibly Depending on the nature of the selected Rückseitendielektri ¬ Kums no laser hole on the back.

Here, the AI-back must happen to fire through the Dielektri- kum and contact the Si wafer good. The boron in

Dielectric passivated the thus formed contacts.

28 Phosphorglasät ze and cleaning

29 front-side passivation (PECVD layers) metallization; The Al paste used is aggress to choose possibly ver than standard pastes and etched to locally g see randomly by the PECVD back Prozessfolge4:

31 wafer texturing on both sides

32. Boron doped dielectric on the cell back. The do ¬ oriented dielectric acts as a back-surface field; the boron is driven in the following by means of a co-diffusion into the Si wafer. The boron passivated parasitic con ¬ tacts

33. Cleaning, on texture may be dispensed with

34. POC13 diffusion, evtl- with annealing to boron from back ¬ sided dielectricum in the Si wafer 35. diffuse laser diffusion on the front side for forming a selective emitter phosphorus

36. Laser no opening on the back, due to the boron Ansättigung the parasitic contacts are passivated, and because of the texture on the back cell contact with the AI-back preferably at the tips of texture

37. Phosphorglasät ze and cleaning

38. front-side passivation (PECVD layers)

39. metallization; The Al paste used is more aggressive than standard pastes and etches itself seen locally at random by the PECVD back. Especially in the case of a texture on the back of the texture-tips are not / not so thickly covered with the PECVD layer, so that the AI can be etched into the Si bes ¬ ser and the parasitic contacts passivation ren / saturating.

The advantages of the invention are:

Passivation parasitic contacts on the back DIE lectric passivated solar cells 2. passivation parasitic contacts by boron-doped dielectrics on the rear of the cell

3. Avoiding the rear laser opening step in the centaurus technology through the use of a boron-doped dielectric on the back side cell, or an aggressive Al paste

4. possibility of dispensing with polishing processes of cell back in centaurus process

5. Higher efficiency than conventional solar cells by Centaurus

a. good passivation of the inevitable resulting parasitic contacts

b. good passivation and the Silberlötpads

c. Low-impedance connection of the cell edge.

d. Good transverse conductivity between the rear contact areas

e. Maybe good passivation of grain boundaries at the rear by "back surface field" (see, eg, NP Harder et al, 31st IEEE PVSC 2005, p.491-494)

f. May improve the transverse conductivity of the silicon near the rear of the cell via grain boundaries

6. use of inexpensive aluminum pastes instead of silver pastes. The demands on the Al-pastes depend on the used concept in the fifth It is conceivable that in the process Follow 22) -30.) And 31) -40.) Aggressive Al pastes must be used to ensure contact with the used dielectric.

Possible modifications:

• conductor paths of printed aluminum in interdigitated

back contact (IBC) solar cells • Instead of boron diffusion, an a-Si: B, a boron-containing dielectric, or the like are deposited. Driving either in a separate annealing or 7.)

• process steps 2-4 may be replaced if necessary. By a process step (deposition of a B-containing dielectric). Annealing (driving) can be done either in a separate process step or in conjunction with 7th)

• Do process step 9) (local open the

Rear), instead using a more aggressive

(By firing) metal-containing paste for the clocking of all back

Supplementing are 1 electroluminescence images are shown of dielectrically passivated cells without back-side contact aperture in Fig.. Both with and without boron diffusion parasitic contacts are visible as white dots. The boron diffusion does not prevent contact formation, but their causes passivation. Under a rough back side of a solar cell substrate is to be understood in the present case a non-polished and not use polishing or glattgeätzte rear side having a corresponding suede accuracy. The back of the solar cell substrate or solar cell which is disposed facing away from the incident light in the operation of the solar cell that side. Preferably, at least the back of a texture.

At an aluminum-containing back contact is to be understood in the present case a back contact, the electrical conductivity is largely determined by contained in the back contact Al. Accordingly, it is to be understood as an aluminum-containing paste, a paste in which, after applying and contact sintering / firing a trained by this paste back contact has an electrical conductivity up, which is largely determined by contained in the back contact Al.

The invention is not limited to the above described or the embodiments shown in the figures - even in respect of functional characteristics. The previous description and the figures contain numerous features, some of which are reproduced in the dependent claims to several summarized. These features, as well as all other above or disclosed in the figures, features of the skilled artisan will also consider individually and together to form meaningful combinations. In particular, all features, both singly and in any suitable combination with the method and / or the solar cell of the independent claims can be combined.

Although the invention has been described with reference to embodiments, the invention to the disclosed examples is not restricted and other variants may be derived from these by the skilled artisan without departing from the scope of the invention.

Claims

Solar cell comprising
- a solar cell substrate, preferably a silicon solar cell substrate, having a rough back side;
- an aluminum-containing rear-side contact, which is preferably printed on.
Solar cell according to claim 1,
characterized ,
that the back contact is substantially free of silver.
Solar cell according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in
is that textured on the back of the solar cell substrate.
Solar cell according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in
a dielectric passivation layer is disposed on the back of the solar cell, which is preferably free of alumina and is particularly preferably formed from silicon nitride and / or silicon oxide.
Solar cell according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in
that the rear contact is designed as a flat rear contact, where the back of the solar cell substrate to more than 50%, preferably substantially completely covered.
6. Solar cell according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in
that the solar cell substrate is a multi-crystalline solar cell substrate.
7. A process for producing a solar cell comprising Verfahrenssehritte
- texturing a solar cell substrate at least on a rear side of the solar cell substrate;
- of diffusing boron into the backside of the solar cell substrate;
- of printing an aluminum-containing paste to the rear side of the solar cell substrate for the purpose of forming a backside contact.
8. The method according to claim 7,
characterized ,
that a paste is used as the aluminum-containing paste which is substantially free of silver.
9. The method according to any one of claims 7 to 8,
characterized ,
that as a source of boron for the boron diffusion of a boron-containing dielectric is applied to the backside of the solar cell substrate in the back of the solar cell substrate.
10. The method according to any one of claims 7 to 8,
characterized ,
that the boron is diffused by means of a BBr 3 -Röhrendiffusion in the back of the solar cell substrate.
PCT/DE2014/100162 2013-05-10 2014-05-10 Solar cell and method for producing same WO2014180471A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE102013104861.7 2013-05-10
DE102013104861 2013-05-10

Applications Claiming Priority (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN 201480039396 CN105409010A (en) 2013-05-10 2014-05-10 Solar cell and method for producing same
KR20157035167A KR20160034250A (en) 2013-05-10 2014-05-10 Solar cell and method for producing same

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
WO2014180471A1 true true WO2014180471A1 (en) 2014-11-13

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Country Status (3)

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Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0933822A2 (en) * 1998-01-20 1999-08-04 Sharp Corporation Substrate for forming high-strenght thin semiconductor element and method for manufacturing high-strength thin semiconductor element
US20050133084A1 (en) * 2003-10-10 2005-06-23 Toshio Joge Silicon solar cell and production method thereof
JP3872428B2 (en) * 2000-10-06 2007-01-24 信越化学工業株式会社 Method of manufacturing a solar cell
KR20100119293A (en) * 2009-04-30 2010-11-09 주식회사 효성 Solar cell manufactured by aao and the method for manufacturing
KR20100137271A (en) * 2009-06-22 2010-12-30 주식회사 효성 Method for making of back contact in solar cell
US20110108098A1 (en) * 2006-10-09 2011-05-12 Pawan Kapur Structures and methods for high-efficiency pyramidal three-dimensional solar cells
US20120037224A1 (en) * 2009-04-29 2012-02-16 Mitsubishi Electric Corporation Solar battery cell and method of manufacturing the same
US20120211066A1 (en) * 2011-02-21 2012-08-23 Semiconductor Energy Laboratory Co., Ltd. Photoelectric conversion device

Patent Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0933822A2 (en) * 1998-01-20 1999-08-04 Sharp Corporation Substrate for forming high-strenght thin semiconductor element and method for manufacturing high-strength thin semiconductor element
JP3872428B2 (en) * 2000-10-06 2007-01-24 信越化学工業株式会社 Method of manufacturing a solar cell
US20050133084A1 (en) * 2003-10-10 2005-06-23 Toshio Joge Silicon solar cell and production method thereof
US20110108098A1 (en) * 2006-10-09 2011-05-12 Pawan Kapur Structures and methods for high-efficiency pyramidal three-dimensional solar cells
US20120037224A1 (en) * 2009-04-29 2012-02-16 Mitsubishi Electric Corporation Solar battery cell and method of manufacturing the same
KR20100119293A (en) * 2009-04-30 2010-11-09 주식회사 효성 Solar cell manufactured by aao and the method for manufacturing
KR20100137271A (en) * 2009-06-22 2010-12-30 주식회사 효성 Method for making of back contact in solar cell
US20120211066A1 (en) * 2011-02-21 2012-08-23 Semiconductor Energy Laboratory Co., Ltd. Photoelectric conversion device

Non-Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
N. . HARDER ET AL., 31ST IEEE-PVSC, 2005, pages 491 - 494

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
KR20160034250A (en) 2016-03-29 application
CN105409010A (en) 2016-03-16 application

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