WO2014147612A1 - A device and method for using a magnetic clutch in bldc motors - Google Patents

A device and method for using a magnetic clutch in bldc motors Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2014147612A1
WO2014147612A1 PCT/IL2014/050286 IL2014050286W WO2014147612A1 WO 2014147612 A1 WO2014147612 A1 WO 2014147612A1 IL 2014050286 W IL2014050286 W IL 2014050286W WO 2014147612 A1 WO2014147612 A1 WO 2014147612A1
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Prior art keywords
ring
magnets
apparatus according
magnet
facing
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PCT/IL2014/050286
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French (fr)
Inventor
Alexander Mostovoy
Victor SHLAKHETSKI
Sergey ZATSARININ
Simen SHOIKHEDBROD
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Vastech Holdings Ltd.
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02KDYNAMO-ELECTRIC MACHINES
    • H02K49/00Dynamo-electric clutches; Dynamo-electric brakes
    • H02K49/10Dynamo-electric clutches; Dynamo-electric brakes of the permanent-magnet type
    • H02K49/104Magnetic couplings consisting of only two coaxial rotary elements, i.e. the driving element and the driven element
    • H02K49/106Magnetic couplings consisting of only two coaxial rotary elements, i.e. the driving element and the driven element with a radial air gap
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16DCOUPLINGS FOR TRANSMITTING ROTATION; CLUTCHES; BRAKES
    • F16D27/00Magnetically- or electrically- actuated clutches; Control or electric circuits therefor
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02KDYNAMO-ELECTRIC MACHINES
    • H02K7/00Arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with dynamo-electric machines, e.g. structural association with mechanical driving motors or auxiliary dynamo-electric machines
    • H02K7/10Structural association with clutches, brakes, gears, pulleys or mechanical starters
    • H02K7/11Structural association with clutches, brakes, gears, pulleys or mechanical starters with dynamo-electric clutches

Abstract

An apparatus for coupling mechanical power between the rotor of a Brushless DC Motor and an external mechanical load comprises: a) two concentric rings; b) an equal number of magnets connected to the inner ring and to the outer ring; and c) an opposite orientation of the poles of each couple of facing magnets, wherein one magnet is placed on the inner ring, and its facing magnet is placed on the outer ring; wherein the first of said two concentric rings is rotatable around an axis by the application of a force not applied by the second ring, and wherein when said first concentric ring rotates, the second ring rotates as well by the action of magnetic forces.

Description

A DEVICE AND METHOD FOR USING A MAGNETIC CLUTCH IN BLDC MOTORS

Field of the Invention

The present invention relates to a magnetic clutch architecture designed to couple mechanical power between the rotor of Brushless DC Motors (BLDC) and an external mechanical load, without using direct or indirect mechanical connection such as gears, wheels, strips or other similar arrangements.

Background of the Invention

In many common systems, the connection between different parts of the system is performed by mechanical components. A significant disadvantage of using such connecting parts is the energy loss, caused by friction. Another disadvantage caused by friction is the wear of the connecting surfaces of the parts. As the speed and force between the parts increase, so does the friction and therefore the damage to their surfaces, until they often can no longer function properly.

In systems operating at high speeds, like motors that usually operate in extremely high speeds, the friction and its outcomes are substantial, resulting in the need for many maintenance services and frequent change of parts, which require a great investment of both time and money.

The present invention relates to a device used in BLDC motors, such as the motor described in PCT patent application No. PCT/IL2013/050253 It is an object of the present invention to provide a device and method that overcome the drawbacks of the prior art.

Other objects and advantages of the invention will become apparent as the description proceeds.

Summary of the Invention

An apparatus for coupling mechanical power between the rotor of a Brushless DC Motor and an external mechanical load, comprises:

a) two concentric rings;

b) an equal number of magnets connected to the inner ring and to the outer ring; and

c) an opposite orientation of the poles of each couple of facing magnets, wherein one magnet is placed on the inner ring, and its facing magnet is placed on the outer ring; wherein the first of said two concentric rings is rotatable around an axis by the application of a force not applied by the second ring, and wherein when said first concentric ring rotates, the second ring rotates as well by the action of magnetic forces.

In one embodiment of the invention the rings are flat ring-shaped plates. In another embodiment of the invention each couple of facing magnets are of the same size.

In some embodiments of the invention the magnetic strengths of two facing magnets are essentially the same. In another embodiment of the invention each of the magnets in the inner ring has a facing magnet in the outer ring. The connecting means, in some embodiments of the invention, connect one of the rings to an external system. In other embodiments of the invention a ring which is not connected to the external system is driven by the rotation of the ring that is connected to the external system and the driven ring is forced to move because of the magnetic force between two coupled magnets.

Typically, the distances between the components of the apparatus are consistent with the desired forces and in some embodiments of the invention the distance between two adjacent magnets on the ring is not the same as the distance between two other adjacent magnets on the same ring.

The invention also encompasses a brushless motor coupled with a clutch comprising two concentric rings, an equal number of magnets connected to the inner ring and to the outer ring, and an opposite orientation of the poles of each couple of facing magnets, wherein one magnet is placed on the inner ring, and its facing magnet is placed on the outer ring, and wherein the first of said two concentric rings is rotatable around an axis by the application of a force not applied by the second ring, and wherein when said first concentric ring rotates, the second ring rotates as well by the action of magnetic forces.

Brief Description of the Drawings

In the drawings:

Fig. 1 shows two concentric rings, provided with magnets, according to one embodiment of the invention, in a static state;

Fig. 2 shows the two rings of Fig. 1 in a dynamic state; Fig. 3 shows the measurements of the force on a single couple of magnets mounted at distance d from each other and shifted linearly;

Fig. 4 shows the measurements of the force in a demo system, according to another embodiment of the invention;

Fig. 5 shows exemplary physical measures of the components in a BLDC demo system, according to another embodiment of the invention;

Fig. 6 shows a schematic setup of two magnets, according to another embodiment of the invention;

Fig. 7 shows solenoids illustrated as consisting of a collection of infinitesimal current loops, stacked one on top of the other; and

Fig. 8 shows two loops of infinitesimal thickness, each one belonging to a magnet.

Detailed Description of the Invention

Fig. 1 shows two concentric rotating rings 101 and 102 at rest. The inner ring 101 consists of the rotor of a BLDC motor (which can be, for example, the motor of PCT/IL2013/050253 - WO/2013/140400), and the outer ring 102 is connected to a mechanical load and provides the power for it. A number of permanent magnets, equal to the number of the magnets in the rotor of the BLDC motor, are mechanically fixed on the outer ring 102 with their S-N axes oriented tangentially to the circumference.

At rest, each one of the magnets 104 located on the outer ring 102, is facing the corresponding magnet 103 located on the rotor 101. The S-N axis orientation of each magnet 104 on the outer ring 102 is opposite to the S-N axis orientation of the corresponding (facing) magnet 103 on the rotor 101. As a result, the magnets 104 on the outer ring 102 are positioned with alternating polarity. It should be emphasized that there is no physical connection between the rotor 101 and the outer ring 102. For reasons that will be thoroughly explained later on in this description, based on the laws of magnetostatics, the relative position of the rotor 101 with respect to the outer ring 102, depends on the state of the system - if the system is in a static state or a dynamic state, as will be further described.

In a static state - when the BLCD rotor is at rest, each magnet 104 on the outer ring 102 is exactly aligned in front of the corresponding magnet 103 on the rotor 101, as shown in Fig. 1. In a dynamic state - when the BLCD rotor 101 turns, while the outer ring 102 is connected to a load (not completely free to move), the relative position of each magnet 103 on the rotor ring 101 with respect to the corresponding magnet 104 on the load ring 102, will change and will stabilize to a new state.

The corresponding magnets 103 and 104 will no longer be perfectly aligned. The relative position of the magnets will shift in a quasi-linear fashion tangentially to the circumference of the rings 101 and 102. The magnets 103 and 104 will reach an offset h as shown in Fig. 2, and will stabilize there. The offset h will depend on the opposing force exercised by the load. It will be seen that under proper conditions h will increase directly proportionally to the force needed to make the load ring 102 rotate along with the rotor ring 101.

It will be presented that in the range of interest, the offset h is roughly directly proportional to the force transfer, and as long as h is not too large, the rotor ring 101 will be able to "pull along" the load ring 102, without the occurrence of any physical contact between the two ring 101 and 102. When the size of h approaches the width of the gap between the magnets 103 and 104, the force transferred drops. The maximal force that the rotor ring 101 will be able to apply to the load ring 102 will depend on the strength and on the geometry of the permanent magnets, on the number of magnets, as well as on the gap between the two rings 101 and 102.

Fig. 3 shows the measurements of the force on a single couple of magnets mounted at distance d from each other and shifted linearly. The shaded area 301 shows the range for which the pulling force between the magnets 103 and 104 is roughly proportional to the offset h.

To illustrate the order of magnitude of the forces involved, two magnets with front-to-front separation of 29mm, can provide roughly a maximal force transfer of 140N (about 14 Kg) in direction tangential to the ring.

In the BLDC motor demo system built according to the invention, there are 8 magnets were provided with face-to-face separation of about 30 mm. The demo system is capable to apply a force of 140x8=1120N (about 112Kg). Since the outer ring 102 in the demo system has a radius of about 420mm, the magnetic clutch should be able to transfer a torque of about 470N-m.

In a measurement carried out on the BLDC demo system, and as shown in Fig. 4, the inventors did not try to achieve and measure the maximal power transfer, however, they showed force transfer measurements of the order of 600N, which is in good agreement with the order of magnitude of the maximal possible force (1120N) predicted by the measurements on one couple of magnets. Also it shows that the total force is proportional to the relative offset.

The physical measures of the components in the BLDC demo system, as provided by the inventors, are shown in Fig. 5. From the figure one can see that the system includes 8 magnets, and the separation between the rotor ring 101 and the load ring 102 is 30mm.

Magnetostatic computations are among the most difficult and complex tasks to be carried out analytically, and even when a closed-form analytical expression can be found, the resulting formulas are often too complex to provide a clear understanding of the phenomena. Moreover, most often, one can only perform computerized simulations obtained by numerically solving the field equations. Numerical solutions, however, although precise for a specific setup, do not provide an insight to the general behavior of the system.

Fortunately, in the specific case under consideration, general conclusions can be drawn by means of a relatively simple mathematical analysis. This is made possible because, in the system under consideration, the magnets are free to move only along a direction tangential to their S-N axis, and they are fixed in all other directions. Therefore, it is only needed to compute the component of the force in a direction parallel to the S-N axes of the magnets, which results in major mathematical simplifications that allow us to draw conclusion regarding general system features, without the need of actually solving the complex three-dimensional integrals involved.

What was analyzed is the setup shown in Fig. 6. x , y and i are mutually perpendicular unit vectors. Two cubic magnets 601 and 602 are positioned so that their S-N axes are parallel to direction z■ Their S-N orientation is opposite, and they are displaced with an offset h in direction 1 . The magnets 601 and 602 are assumed cubic, for the purpose of this exemplary analysis, however the general conclusions hold true for other shapes as well. The measurements shown in Fig. 3 have been carried out on a similar setup. Under this setup, as long as the offset h is small relatively to the physical dimension of the gap between the magnets 601 and 602, the component of the force acting on either magnet 601 and 602 in the direction i , is directly proportional to the offset h. The size of h is relatively small, roughly when the offset h is less than 1/3 of the separation d between the magnets 601 and 602. As the offset becomes larger than that, the force reaches a maximal value, and then decreases with increasing h.

As a first step, by using the Amperian model, a permanent magnet with magnetization M in direction i , may be modeled in the form of a uniform surface current density J s flowing on the surface of the magnet in direction perpendicular to z■ M is the net magnetic dipole moment per unit volume, and Js is the equivalent surface current per unit length.

Therefore we may replace each magnet 601 and 601 in Fig.6 by the equivalent "solenoids" shown in Fig. 7, with equal currents in opposite directions.

Each solenoid 701 in Fig. 7 can be represented as consisting of a collection of infinitesimal current loops, stacked one on top of the other, carrying currents of amplitudes dl = Jsdz and df = Jsdz , flowing in the xy plane in opposite directions. Let us consider now, two loops of infinitesimal thickness, each one belonging to one of the magnets as shown in Fig 8.

The force caused on the left-side loop L located at vertical position∑ by the right-side loop L' located at vertical position z ', is directly derived from Ampere's law of force, and is given by the expression

F , ( ζ ζ' ) = - μάΙ'άΙ f ί ( de - df ) †p'p = - dI'dI f f ( de - df ) ϊ - ϊ' where rp<p =γ—^ , r - r =( x- x )x + ( y - y' )y +( z~ z )z,

r-r

r-r ] = J(x-x')2+(y-y')2+(z-z')2 and di and di' are infinitesimal lengths in the direction of the current flow in the corresponding loops, and therefore they lie in the xy plane.

Now, referring to Fig.8, it points out several preliminary remarks:

1. We know that |j-j'|><i and we denote

Figure imgf000011_0001
. It follows that RX- ≥d . χ,χ', y, y' ) is independent from z and z , and we may write |f - f '| = .

Figure imgf000011_0002

2. In the present setting, d is comparable to the size of the magnet, and we assume offsets small enough so that h2 « d2 (for instance h<^).

3. Since we are interested only in the force in the z direction, the only relevant component of r-r in the numerator of the integrand, is the one in direction z■ All other forces are of no interest, since the magnets cannot move in other directions. Thus, in order to compute the force acting on the magnets in z direction, we may replace r-r in the numerator of the integrand by (z-z')z.

4. di&nd di' are incremental vectors in the xy plane. More precisely, in the present setting of square magnets, the scalar product ( d£-d£' )is either +dxdx' or +dydy' . Therefore z and z are constant with respect to the integration variables when integrating over the path of the loops. Moreover, if άχ,άχ' have opposite signs, their direction of integration is opposite too, and therefore, the limit of the corresponding integrals are reversed, and similarly for dy,dy' . The outcome is that the sign of the integral for all the various sub-integration ranges defined by (d£-d£') remains unchanged. Therefore the sign value of the double integral over the loop paths, is the same as the sign of the integrand.

With the above understanding, the force AFZ in direction z acting on the current loop L because of the current loop L' , is the result of the following integral:

μ] s dz'dz (άί-άί' )( z-z )

AF~ ')2+(y-y')2, dl' = ]sdz , dI = Jsdz

4π U ,2η3/2 Rxy =^ (x-x

L3L'[R +(Z-

The cumulative force Δ/¾ >L applied by all the current loops on the side on one single current loop Lon the left side (see fig.8) is given by

h+a

J Mj dz i f r (di-df )( z-z )

AFlL = AFdz'■ h

4π 2,3/2 dz'

Li [R +(z- z )

The total force F~( h) acting on the magnet located at the origin is the sum of all the forces on its loops

Ft(h) = jAF Ldz-

Figure imgf000012_0001

Changing the order of integration we obtain

Figure imgf000012_0002

Noting that R¾ is independent from z and z , and therefore is constant when integrating with respect to dz and dz' , the inner integrals can be computed anal tically, and yield

ov h

Figure imgf000012_0003
where we used A = -^— , and ε = .

xy xy

Since ≥ d , then if h2 « d2≤ Rfr> (for instance h<4r) then -Ar- = ε2 « 1 ,

-> R" and we may expand the last expression in a first-order Taylor series as follows = g(XiX > iyiy>).h

Figure imgf000013_0001

Since ^l + a2/R^ >1, it follows that the function is some negative function of x,x',y,yr , namely g(x,x',y,y' ) =

Figure imgf000013_0002
χ,χ' ,y,y' )\ . Therefore, recalling that the sign of the double integral over x,x',y,y is the same as the sign of the integrand, and setting j" ) = K2 , the total force Fz~(h), acting on the magnet
Figure imgf000013_0003

at the origin, due to the offset of the other magnet, has the form

Fi(h)^^j Li\g(X,x',y,y')\(dl-dl') = ^£^h , h2 «d2 where K is some proportionality constant. Finally, recalling that M = Js is the net magnetization per unit volume in the z direction, and referring to fi ure 6, the force acting on the left magnet is

Figure imgf000013_0004

Thus, for any offset h <d/3 , the force transferred by the clutch is directly proportional to the offset h and to the square magnetization per unit volume. Moreover, the force is in direction of the offset itself.

All the above description has been provided for the purpose of illustration and is not meant to limit the invention in any way. The computations shown above are provided as an aid in understanding the invention, and should not be construed as intending to limit the invention in any way.

Claims

Claims
1. An apparatus for coupling mechanical power between the rotor of a Brushless DC Motor and an external mechanical load, comprising: a) two concentric rings;
b) an equal number of magnets connected to the inner ring and to the outer ring; and
c) an opposite orientation of the poles of each couple of facing magnets, wherein one magnet is placed on the inner ring, and its facing magnet is placed on the outer ring;
wherein the first of said two concentric rings is rotatable around an axis by the application of a force not applied by the second ring, and wherein when said first concentric ring rotates, the second ring rotates as well by the action of magnetic forces.
2. Apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the rings are flat ring- shaped plates.
3. Apparatus according to claim 1, wherein each couple of facing magnets are of the same size.
4. Apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the magnetic strengths of two facing magnets are essentially the same.
5. Apparatus according to claim 1, wherein each of the magnets in the inner ring has a facing magnet in the outer ring.
6. Apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the connecting means connect one of the rings to an external system.
7. Apparatus according to claim 6, wherein the ring which is not connected to the external system is driven by the rotation of the ring that is connected to the external system.
8. Apparatus according to claim 7, wherein the driven ring is forced to move because of the magnetic force between two coupled magnets.
9. Apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the distances between the components of the apparatus are consistent with the desired forces.
10. Apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the distance between two adjacent magnets on the ring is not the same as the distance between two other adjacent magnets on the same ring.
11. A brushless motor coupled with a clutch comprising two concentric rings, an equal number of magnets connected to the inner ring and to the outer ring, and an opposite orientation of the poles of each couple of facing magnets, wherein one magnet is placed on the inner ring, and its facing magnet is placed on the outer ring, wherein the first of said two concentric rings is rotatable around an axis by the application of a force not applied by the second ring, and wherein when said first concentric ring rotates, the second ring rotates as well by the action of magnetic forces.
PCT/IL2014/050286 2012-03-20 2014-03-13 A device and method for using a magnetic clutch in bldc motors WO2014147612A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
ILPCT/IL2013/050253 2013-03-19
PCT/IL2013/050253 WO2013140400A1 (en) 2012-03-20 2013-03-19 Brushless dc motor

Applications Claiming Priority (14)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
MX2015012884A MX2015012884A (en) 2013-03-19 2014-03-13 A device and method for using a magnetic clutch in bldc motors.
EP20140767555 EP2976540A4 (en) 2013-03-19 2014-03-13 A device and method for using a magnetic clutch in bldc motors
KR20157025877A KR20150131060A (en) 2013-03-19 2014-03-13 A device and method for using a magnetic clutch in bldc motors
BR112015022360A BR112015022360A2 (en) 2013-03-19 2014-03-13 device and method for using a magnetic clutch in bldc engines
CN 201480017007 CN105264252B (en) 2013-03-19 2014-03-13 Apparatus and method using magnetic coupling of the brushless DC motor
US14772005 US20160028299A1 (en) 2013-03-19 2014-03-13 A device and method for using a magnetic clutch in bldc motors
JP2016503777A JP6396989B2 (en) 2013-03-19 2014-03-13 Device for using the magnetic clutch in Bldc motor
CA 2907040 CA2907040A1 (en) 2013-03-19 2014-03-13 A device and method for using a magnetic clutch in bldc motors
AU2014233758A AU2014233758B2 (en) 2013-03-19 2014-03-13 A device and method for using a magnetic clutch in BLDC motors
SG11201506948SA SG11201506948SA (en) 2013-03-19 2014-03-13 A device and method for using a magnetic clutch in bldc motors
EA201591461A EA201591461A1 (en) 2013-03-19 2014-03-13 The apparatus and method using an electromagnetic clutch in brushless DC motors
PH12015501956A PH12015501956A1 (en) 2013-03-19 2015-09-03 A device and method for using a magnetic clutch in bldc motors
IL24127615A IL241276D0 (en) 2013-03-19 2015-09-07 A device and method for using a magnetic clutch bldc motors
HK16108537A HK1220502A1 (en) 2012-03-20 2016-07-19 A device and method for using a magnetic clutch in bldc motors

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP3121942A1 (en) * 2015-07-23 2017-01-25 Bubendorff Braking and locking means for a synchronous machine rotor
FR3039340A1 (en) * 2015-07-23 2017-01-27 Bubendorff A braking and immobilization of a rotor of a synchronous rotating machine.

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CA2907040A1 (en) 2015-09-25 application
JP6396989B2 (en) 2018-09-26 grant
US20160028299A1 (en) 2016-01-28 application
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CN105264252A (en) 2016-01-20 application
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CN105264252B (en) 2018-01-09 grant
EP2976540A4 (en) 2016-11-02 application

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