WO2014047136A1 - Processes to make water and oil repellent bcf yarn - Google Patents

Processes to make water and oil repellent bcf yarn Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2014047136A1
WO2014047136A1 PCT/US2013/060342 US2013060342W WO2014047136A1 WO 2014047136 A1 WO2014047136 A1 WO 2014047136A1 US 2013060342 W US2013060342 W US 2013060342W WO 2014047136 A1 WO2014047136 A1 WO 2014047136A1
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Prior art keywords
yarn
soil
fluorochemical
bcf
soil composition
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PCT/US2013/060342
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French (fr)
Inventor
Wae-Hai Tung
Ronnie Rittenhouse
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Invista Technologies S.A.R.L.
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Priority to US201261702851P priority Critical
Priority to US61/702,851 priority
Application filed by Invista Technologies S.A.R.L. filed Critical Invista Technologies S.A.R.L.
Publication of WO2014047136A1 publication Critical patent/WO2014047136A1/en

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    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D06TREATMENT OF TEXTILES OR THE LIKE; LAUNDERING; FLEXIBLE MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06MTREATMENT, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE IN CLASS D06, OF FIBRES, THREADS, YARNS, FABRICS, FEATHERS OR FIBROUS GOODS MADE FROM SUCH MATERIALS
    • D06M13/00Treating fibres, threads, yarns, fabrics or fibrous goods made from such materials, with non-macromolecular organic compounds; Such treatment combined with mechanical treatment
    • D06M13/322Treating fibres, threads, yarns, fabrics or fibrous goods made from such materials, with non-macromolecular organic compounds; Such treatment combined with mechanical treatment with compounds containing nitrogen
    • D06M13/402Amides imides, sulfamic acids
    • D06M13/425Carbamic or thiocarbamic acids or derivatives thereof, e.g. urethanes
    • D06M13/428Carbamic or thiocarbamic acids or derivatives thereof, e.g. urethanes containing fluorine atoms
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D06TREATMENT OF TEXTILES OR THE LIKE; LAUNDERING; FLEXIBLE MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06MTREATMENT, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE IN CLASS D06, OF FIBRES, THREADS, YARNS, FABRICS, FEATHERS OR FIBROUS GOODS MADE FROM SUCH MATERIALS
    • D06M13/00Treating fibres, threads, yarns, fabrics or fibrous goods made from such materials, with non-macromolecular organic compounds; Such treatment combined with mechanical treatment
    • D06M13/322Treating fibres, threads, yarns, fabrics or fibrous goods made from such materials, with non-macromolecular organic compounds; Such treatment combined with mechanical treatment with compounds containing nitrogen
    • D06M13/402Amides imides, sulfamic acids
    • D06M13/432Urea, thiourea or derivatives thereof, e.g. biurets; Urea-inclusion compounds; Dicyanamides; Carbodiimides; Guanidines, e.g. dicyandiamides
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D06TREATMENT OF TEXTILES OR THE LIKE; LAUNDERING; FLEXIBLE MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06MTREATMENT, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE IN CLASS D06, OF FIBRES, THREADS, YARNS, FABRICS, FEATHERS OR FIBROUS GOODS MADE FROM SUCH MATERIALS
    • D06M13/00Treating fibres, threads, yarns, fabrics or fibrous goods made from such materials, with non-macromolecular organic compounds; Such treatment combined with mechanical treatment
    • D06M13/52Treating fibres, threads, yarns, fabrics or fibrous goods made from such materials, with non-macromolecular organic compounds; Such treatment combined with mechanical treatment combined with mechanical treatment
    • D06M13/53Cooling; Steaming or heating, e.g. in fluidised beds; with molten metals
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D06TREATMENT OF TEXTILES OR THE LIKE; LAUNDERING; FLEXIBLE MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06MTREATMENT, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE IN CLASS D06, OF FIBRES, THREADS, YARNS, FABRICS, FEATHERS OR FIBROUS GOODS MADE FROM SUCH MATERIALS
    • D06M15/00Treating fibres, threads, yarns, fabrics, or fibrous goods made from such materials, with macromolecular compounds; Such treatment combined with mechanical treatment
    • D06M15/19Treating fibres, threads, yarns, fabrics, or fibrous goods made from such materials, with macromolecular compounds; Such treatment combined with mechanical treatment with synthetic macromolecular compounds
    • D06M15/21Macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds
    • D06M15/227Macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds of hydrocarbons, or reaction products thereof, e.g. afterhalogenated or sulfochlorinated
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D06TREATMENT OF TEXTILES OR THE LIKE; LAUNDERING; FLEXIBLE MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06MTREATMENT, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE IN CLASS D06, OF FIBRES, THREADS, YARNS, FABRICS, FEATHERS OR FIBROUS GOODS MADE FROM SUCH MATERIALS
    • D06M15/00Treating fibres, threads, yarns, fabrics, or fibrous goods made from such materials, with macromolecular compounds; Such treatment combined with mechanical treatment
    • D06M15/19Treating fibres, threads, yarns, fabrics, or fibrous goods made from such materials, with macromolecular compounds; Such treatment combined with mechanical treatment with synthetic macromolecular compounds
    • D06M15/21Macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds
    • D06M15/263Macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds of unsaturated carboxylic acids; Salts or esters thereof
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D06TREATMENT OF TEXTILES OR THE LIKE; LAUNDERING; FLEXIBLE MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06MTREATMENT, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE IN CLASS D06, OF FIBRES, THREADS, YARNS, FABRICS, FEATHERS OR FIBROUS GOODS MADE FROM SUCH MATERIALS
    • D06M15/00Treating fibres, threads, yarns, fabrics, or fibrous goods made from such materials, with macromolecular compounds; Such treatment combined with mechanical treatment
    • D06M15/19Treating fibres, threads, yarns, fabrics, or fibrous goods made from such materials, with macromolecular compounds; Such treatment combined with mechanical treatment with synthetic macromolecular compounds
    • D06M15/21Macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds
    • D06M15/263Macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds of unsaturated carboxylic acids; Salts or esters thereof
    • D06M15/277Macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds of unsaturated carboxylic acids; Salts or esters thereof containing fluorine
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D06TREATMENT OF TEXTILES OR THE LIKE; LAUNDERING; FLEXIBLE MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06MTREATMENT, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE IN CLASS D06, OF FIBRES, THREADS, YARNS, FABRICS, FEATHERS OR FIBROUS GOODS MADE FROM SUCH MATERIALS
    • D06M15/00Treating fibres, threads, yarns, fabrics, or fibrous goods made from such materials, with macromolecular compounds; Such treatment combined with mechanical treatment
    • D06M15/19Treating fibres, threads, yarns, fabrics, or fibrous goods made from such materials, with macromolecular compounds; Such treatment combined with mechanical treatment with synthetic macromolecular compounds
    • D06M15/37Macromolecular compounds obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds
    • D06M15/39Aldehyde resins; Ketone resins; Polyacetals
    • D06M15/41Phenol-aldehyde or phenol-ketone resins
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D06TREATMENT OF TEXTILES OR THE LIKE; LAUNDERING; FLEXIBLE MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06MTREATMENT, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE IN CLASS D06, OF FIBRES, THREADS, YARNS, FABRICS, FEATHERS OR FIBROUS GOODS MADE FROM SUCH MATERIALS
    • D06M15/00Treating fibres, threads, yarns, fabrics, or fibrous goods made from such materials, with macromolecular compounds; Such treatment combined with mechanical treatment
    • D06M15/19Treating fibres, threads, yarns, fabrics, or fibrous goods made from such materials, with macromolecular compounds; Such treatment combined with mechanical treatment with synthetic macromolecular compounds
    • D06M15/37Macromolecular compounds obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds
    • D06M15/39Aldehyde resins; Ketone resins; Polyacetals
    • D06M15/41Phenol-aldehyde or phenol-ketone resins
    • D06M15/412Phenol-aldehyde or phenol-ketone resins sulfonated
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D06TREATMENT OF TEXTILES OR THE LIKE; LAUNDERING; FLEXIBLE MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06MTREATMENT, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE IN CLASS D06, OF FIBRES, THREADS, YARNS, FABRICS, FEATHERS OR FIBROUS GOODS MADE FROM SUCH MATERIALS
    • D06M15/00Treating fibres, threads, yarns, fabrics, or fibrous goods made from such materials, with macromolecular compounds; Such treatment combined with mechanical treatment
    • D06M15/19Treating fibres, threads, yarns, fabrics, or fibrous goods made from such materials, with macromolecular compounds; Such treatment combined with mechanical treatment with synthetic macromolecular compounds
    • D06M15/37Macromolecular compounds obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds
    • D06M15/53Polyethers
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D06TREATMENT OF TEXTILES OR THE LIKE; LAUNDERING; FLEXIBLE MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06MTREATMENT, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE IN CLASS D06, OF FIBRES, THREADS, YARNS, FABRICS, FEATHERS OR FIBROUS GOODS MADE FROM SUCH MATERIALS
    • D06M15/00Treating fibres, threads, yarns, fabrics, or fibrous goods made from such materials, with macromolecular compounds; Such treatment combined with mechanical treatment
    • D06M15/19Treating fibres, threads, yarns, fabrics, or fibrous goods made from such materials, with macromolecular compounds; Such treatment combined with mechanical treatment with synthetic macromolecular compounds
    • D06M15/37Macromolecular compounds obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds
    • D06M15/564Polyureas, polyurethanes or other polymers having ureide or urethane links; Precondensation products forming them
    • D06M15/576Polyureas, polyurethanes or other polymers having ureide or urethane links; Precondensation products forming them containing fluorine
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D06TREATMENT OF TEXTILES OR THE LIKE; LAUNDERING; FLEXIBLE MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06MTREATMENT, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE IN CLASS D06, OF FIBRES, THREADS, YARNS, FABRICS, FEATHERS OR FIBROUS GOODS MADE FROM SUCH MATERIALS
    • D06M15/00Treating fibres, threads, yarns, fabrics, or fibrous goods made from such materials, with macromolecular compounds; Such treatment combined with mechanical treatment
    • D06M15/19Treating fibres, threads, yarns, fabrics, or fibrous goods made from such materials, with macromolecular compounds; Such treatment combined with mechanical treatment with synthetic macromolecular compounds
    • D06M15/37Macromolecular compounds obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds
    • D06M15/643Macromolecular compounds obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds containing silicon in the main chain
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D06TREATMENT OF TEXTILES OR THE LIKE; LAUNDERING; FLEXIBLE MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06MTREATMENT, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE IN CLASS D06, OF FIBRES, THREADS, YARNS, FABRICS, FEATHERS OR FIBROUS GOODS MADE FROM SUCH MATERIALS
    • D06M15/00Treating fibres, threads, yarns, fabrics, or fibrous goods made from such materials, with macromolecular compounds; Such treatment combined with mechanical treatment
    • D06M15/70Treating fibres, threads, yarns, fabrics, or fibrous goods made from such materials, with macromolecular compounds; Such treatment combined with mechanical treatment combined with mechanical treatment
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D06TREATMENT OF TEXTILES OR THE LIKE; LAUNDERING; FLEXIBLE MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06MTREATMENT, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE IN CLASS D06, OF FIBRES, THREADS, YARNS, FABRICS, FEATHERS OR FIBROUS GOODS MADE FROM SUCH MATERIALS
    • D06M16/00Biochemical treatment of fibres, threads, yarns, fabrics, or fibrous goods made from such materials, e.g. enzymatic
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D06TREATMENT OF TEXTILES OR THE LIKE; LAUNDERING; FLEXIBLE MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06MTREATMENT, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE IN CLASS D06, OF FIBRES, THREADS, YARNS, FABRICS, FEATHERS OR FIBROUS GOODS MADE FROM SUCH MATERIALS
    • D06M2101/00Chemical constitution of the fibres, threads, yarns, fabrics or fibrous goods made from such materials, to be treated
    • D06M2101/16Synthetic fibres, other than mineral fibres
    • D06M2101/30Synthetic polymers consisting of macromolecular compounds obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds
    • D06M2101/32Polyesters
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D06TREATMENT OF TEXTILES OR THE LIKE; LAUNDERING; FLEXIBLE MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06MTREATMENT, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE IN CLASS D06, OF FIBRES, THREADS, YARNS, FABRICS, FEATHERS OR FIBROUS GOODS MADE FROM SUCH MATERIALS
    • D06M2101/00Chemical constitution of the fibres, threads, yarns, fabrics or fibrous goods made from such materials, to be treated
    • D06M2101/16Synthetic fibres, other than mineral fibres
    • D06M2101/30Synthetic polymers consisting of macromolecular compounds obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds
    • D06M2101/34Polyamides
    • D06M2101/36Aromatic polyamides
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D06TREATMENT OF TEXTILES OR THE LIKE; LAUNDERING; FLEXIBLE MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06MTREATMENT, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE IN CLASS D06, OF FIBRES, THREADS, YARNS, FABRICS, FEATHERS OR FIBROUS GOODS MADE FROM SUCH MATERIALS
    • D06M2200/00Functionality of the treatment composition and/or properties imparted to the textile material
    • D06M2200/01Stain or soil resistance

Abstract

Disclosed are processes for applying anti-soil compositions on BCF yams during cable or air twisting processes prior to weaving, knitting or tufting. The process foregoes the need for downstream environmentally unfavorable dyeing and low pH chemical treatment processes on the finished carpet. The anti-soil composition can be comprised of a high specific surface energy chemical or other material, for example a fluorochemical. Further, the anti-soil composition can further comprise an anti-stain component. Also disclosed are systems, BCF yarns, and carpets made from the BCF yarn treated by the disclosed process.

Description

PROCESSES TO MAKE WATER AND OIL REPELLENT BCF YARN
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
[0001] The invention relates to anti-soil application processes for bulked continuous filament (BCF) carpet and related textile fabrics, and specifically, to processes for applying anti-soil compositions on BCF yarns during cable or air twisting processes prior to weaving, knitting or tufting. The process foregoes the need to treat carpets and other textiles made from the BCF yarn, thus eliminating costly and environmentally unfavorable dyeing and low pH chemical treatment processes. Also disclosed herein are systems used to apply the anti-soil formulations to the BCF yarn, and soil repellant yarns, and carpets with improved anti-soil properties made from the BCF yarn of the disclosed process.
BACKGROUND OF THE TECHNOLOGY
[0002] Carpets and other fabrics are currently treated with topical chemistries for improved stain resistance and/or soil resistance. For nylon carpets, both stain blocker (e.g. acid dye blocker) and anti-soil with fluorochemicals are traditionally used. For polyester carpets, such as polyethylene terephthalate (2GT) and polytrimethylene terephthalate (3GT) carpets, and polypropylene carpets, anti-soil chemistry may be applied topically to the tufted carpet as part of the carpet finishing process. Polyester and polypropylene carpets typically do not require a stain blocker treatment because of inherent stain resistance to acid dyes and stains owing to their lack of amine end groups that function as acid dye sites.
[0003] Topical application at the carpet mill can be in the form of exhaust application and spray application. Exhaust application (i.e. flex-nip process at high (300 - 400 wt.%) wet pickup), is known to provide an improvement in efficacy over spray-on applications at 10-20 wt.% wet pick-up of anti-soil. Exhaust applications typically use higher amounts of water and energy to dry and cure the carpet than do spray applications. Spray-on fluorochemical products are designed to use less water and energy than exhaust applications, but do not impart satisfactory anti-soil properties.
[0004] While various processes are in use in the carpet industry for the dyeing and finishing of carpets, some large scale and some small, most of the carpet made today is dyed and finished on a continuous dye range. This is done mainly in one of two ways: In one case, a two stage process is employed, where the carpet is steamed and dyed first, steamed, rinsed, and excess water extracted; then stain blocker (SB) is applied, the carpet is again steamed and washed, and then anti-soil fluorochemical (FC) is applied in the form of a foam or liquid spray and the carpet is finally dried, (See e.g. U.S. Patent Nos. 5,853,814; 5,948,480 and WO2000/000691). In the second, somewhat improved case, called the co-application process, the carpet is also steamed and dyed first, steamed again, rinsed and extracted; and then a blend of SB and FC is applied together at high wet pick up, after which the carpet and chemicals are exposed once again to steam to fix the treatment, followed by drying. (See e.g. U.S. Patent Nos. 6,197,378 and 5,520,962). In both cases, low pH solutions, excess water, and energy are required for the SB and FC to penetrate the carpet and achieve uniform coverage. In sum, a typical process is as follows: BCF yarn→Twist→ heat set→ tufting→ carpet→ dye→ stain block / anti-soil.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
[0005] There is a desire to reduce the overall usage of topical anti-soil formulations, especially formulations that contain fluorochemicals, for environmental and cost reasons. Further, there is also a desire to reduce the amount of water and low pH chemicals used to apply the anti-stain and anti-soil formulations. Thus, processes for applying such beneficial compositions using less water, nominal pH chemicals, and less energy are in demand.
[0006] While the development of a process that eliminates the current carpet treatment systems for applying anti-stain and anti-soil compositions is desirable; current processes do exist for good reasons. First, because the appearance of carpet has historically depended on the ability to dye wool or nylon or even polyester tufted carpets to the desired shade, it would not be permissible to treat the carpet with compositions such as anti-stain or anti-soil chemistries beforehand that might interfere with the process of uniform dyeing. Further, the dyeing process would tend to remove the topical treatment chemistries, rendering them ineffective.
[0007] Second, as mentioned above, treatment of yarn or fabric for stain and soil resistance typically involves fixing with steam, and low pH may also be required especially for acid dyed fabrics. Therefore, it was deemed most practical to process carpets in the order described above, where carpet is formed, then steamed and dyed, steamed again, rinsed and extracted; and then SB and FC is applied, again involving steaming and/or rinsing in the various well- known processes.
[0008] Carpets have also long been constructed of dyed or pigmented yarns, which constructions are treated in numerous possible ways, including the options of further dyeing, and the application of stain and/or soil resistant compositions with the concomitant use of steam and rinse water, as in the processes described above.
[0009] The invention disclosed herein provides a process to make textile fabrics, especially tufted articles, without the requirement for subsequent stain and soil resistant chemistry application, thus avoiding the cost and waste of steam fixing and rinsing attendant with such large-scale fabric applications. As disclosed herein, the process involves application of topical chemistries to dyed or pigmented yarns immediately after twisting or cabling one or more such yarns together. The chemistries are then heat-set onto the twisted yarn under dry conditions, and the twisted yarn subsequently weaved or tufted into a finished fabric or carpet. Novel systems that enable the efficient application of topical chemistries to yarn subsequent to twisting and prior to winding and heat-setting are also disclosed.
[0010] Specifically, the disclosed process uses a topical chemistry composition applicator positioned within a mechanical twisting process downstream of the twisted yarn take-up reel and upstream of the yarn winder. In sum, the disclosed process moves the back end, large scale and wasteful anti-soil application step, and if necessary, stain block application step, up front during yarn twisting. Thus, the carpet manufacturing process now becomes: BCF yarn→ twist→ FC (and optional SB)→ dry heat set→ tufting→ carpet. Surprisingly, the disclosed process is as effective, or even more effective, than previous processes in terms of fabric soil resistance.
[0011] As describe above, the process of the disclosed invention is counter intuitive since treating the carpet yam prior to heat setting and tufting is known to affect the quality of the finished carpet, particularly during dyeing. Further, the inventive process is also counterintuitive because soil resistant compositions tend to be very difficult to apply uniformly to twisted yarn bundles at the usual line speed without substantial waste. Moreover, the disclosed process is counter intuitive because yarn-twisting apparatuses have not previously accepted topical chemistry applications to twisted yarn prior to winding. However, as shown below, nylon carpets manufactured with the treated BCF yarn show superior anti-soil properties over the same carpets without such treatment.
[0012] In one aspect, a process for treating twisted BCF yarn with an anti-soil composition comprising an anti-soil component is disclosed. The process comprises: (a) providing twisted BCF yarn; (b) contacting said BCF yarn with said anti-soil composition while said BCF yarn is in motion; and (c) dry heat setting said BCF yarn. The anti-soil composition can be comprised of a high specific surface energy chemical or other material, for example a fluorochemical, that imparts high specific surface energy properties such as high contact angles for water and oil, or even a non-fluorochemical particulate material having similar properties. The anti-soil composition can further comprise an anti-stain component.
[0013] In yet another aspect, a system for applying an anti-soil composition to twisted BCF fiber is disclosed. The system comprises: (a) a first yarn take-up device that transmits a single yarn member made from at least two individual yarn members; (b) an anti-soil composition applicator disposed downstream of said yarn take-up device that applies said anti-soil composition to said single yarn member; (c) a yarn dry heat setting apparatus disposed downstream from said anti-soil composition applicator; and (d) a second yarn take-up device that receives said single yarn member. The anti-soil composition can be comprised of a high specific surface energy chemical or other material, for example a fluorochemical that imparts high specific surface energy properties such as high contact angles for water and oil, or even a non-fluorochemical particulate material having similar properties. The anti-soil composition can further comprise an anti-stain component.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES
[0014] Figure 1 shows the current cable twisting process.
[0015] Figure 2 shows one aspect of the disclosed process.
[0016] While mostly familiar to those versed in the art, the following definitions are provided in the interest of clarity.
DEFINITIONS
[0017] OWF (On weight of fiber): The amount of chemistry that was applied as a % of weight of fiber.
[0018] WPU (Wet pick-up): The amount of water and solvent that was applied on carpet before drying off the carpet, expressed as a % of weight of fiber.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
[0019] A process for treating twisted bulked continuous filament (BCF) yarn is disclosed comprising contacting the BCF yarn with an anti-soil composition while said yarn is in motion and prior to dry heat setting the yarn. Bulked continuous filament (BCF) yarn is distinguished from other textile yarns by a high level of three-dimensional crimp, such as that which may be achieved through the use of a bulking jet or a stuffer box. The crimp makes BCF especially well-suited for use as a carpet yarn. However, the bulk makes the application of dyes or other chemical treatments to the fibers within the yarn more challenging compared to non-crimped yarn.
[0020] The anti-soil composition comprises an anti-soil component and is adapted to be applied onto twisted BCF yarn at a wet pick-up of between about 5 wt.% and about 50 wt.%., including between about 10 wt.% and about 30 wt%, about 20 wt.% to about 30 wt.%, and about
10 wt.% to about 20 wt.%. The twisted BCF yarn can be also be texturized, after contacting the yarn with the anti-soil composition and prior to heat setting. Heat setting temperatures can range from about 125°C to about 200°C, including from about 160°C to about 195°C. Heat setting dwell times can range from about 0.5 to about 4 minutes, including from about 0.5 to about 3 minute and from about 0.5 to about 1 minute.
[0021] Anti-soil components for use in the disclosed anti-soil compositions impart high specific surface energy properties such as high contact angles for water and oil (e.g. water and
011 "beads up" on surfaces treated by it). The anti-soil component can comprise a fluorochemical dispersion, which dispersion may be predominantly either cationic or anionic, including those selected from the group consisting of fluorochemical allophanates, fluorochemical polyacrylates, fluorochemical urethanes, fluorochemical carbodiimides, fluorochemical guanidines, non- telomeric fluorochemicals, and fluorochemicals incorporating C2 to C8 chemistries. Alternatively, the fluorochemical can have one or more monomeric repeat units having less than or equal to eight fluorinated carbons, including less than or equal to six fluorinated carbons. Example fluorochemical anti-soil components include: Daikin TG 2511 , and DuPont™ Capstone® RCP. Non-fluorinated anti-soil components can include: silicones, silsesquioxanes and silane-modified particulates, organosilane-modified particulates and alkylated particulates, anionic non-fluorinated surfactants and anionic hydrotrope non-fluorinated surfactants, including sulfonates, sulfates, phosphates and carboxylates. (See U.S. Patent No. 6,824,854, herein incorporated by reference).
[0022] The anti-soil compositions can also have an optional stain blocker component comprising an acidic moiety that associates with polymer amine end groups and protects them from staining by acidic dye stains. The general category of chemicals suitable to the process of the invention can comprise any chemical that blocks positively charged dye sites. Stain blockers are available in various forms such as syntans, sulfonated novolacs, sulfonated aromatic aldehyde condensation products (SACs) and/or reaction products of formaldehyde, phenolics, substituted phenolics, thiophenolics, sulfones, substituted sulfones, polymers or copolymers of olefins, branched olefins, cyclic olefins, sulfonated olefins, acrylates, methacrylates, maleic anhydride, and organosulfonic acids. They are usually made by reacting formaldehyde, phenol, acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, itaconic acid, maleic anhydride, and organosulfonic acid depending on specific chemistry. Further, the stain blocker is typically water soluble and generally penetrates the fiber while the anti-soil, usually a fluorochemical, is a non-water soluble dispersion that coats the surface of fiber. The stain blocker can also be applied subsequent to the anti-soil using a separate applicator.
[0023] Examples of stain blockers include, but are not limited to: phenol formaldehyde polymers or copolymers such as Barshield K-9 (from Apollo Chemical Co., Graham, NC), RM (from Peach State Labs, Rome, GA), FX-369 (from 3M Company, St. Paul, MN) and Zelan 8236, (from E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Wilmington, DE); polymers and copolymers of methacrylic acid such as FX-657 and FX-661 (from 3M Company, St. Paul, MN); polymers and copolymers of maleic anhydride such as SR-500 (from E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Wilmington, DE); and stain resist chemistries from ArrowStar LLC (Dalton, GA), TANATEX Chemicals (Dalton, GA) and Tri-Tex Co., Inc. (Saint-Eustache, Qc, Canada).
[0024] Common stain blockers use sulfonated moieties as part of the chemistry, which results in the presence of sulfur on the treated fiber. The sulfur content can range from about 50 ppm with 5% stain blocker to about 1 ppm with 0.1 % stain blocker on weight of fiber. Thus, based on the above stain blocker concentrations, the sulfur content on weight of fiber will range from about 0.5 ppm to about 40 ppm, including from about 1 ppm to about 30 ppm, from about 5 ppm to about 20 ppm, and from about 5 ppm to about 10 ppm. Sulfur content can be determined by x-ray diffraction or other methods.
[0025] The anti-soil composition is adapted to contact the twisted BCF yarn while it is in motion and prior to heat setting. Further, the anti-soil composition can be at a neutral pH (e.g. 6 to 8) because the yarn can be optionally heat set after application of the composition. The process foregoes the need for harsh low pH chemicals. [0026] The contacting can be performed by any suitable device that applies wet ingredients to a dry substrate, including, but not limited to: applicator pad, nip rollers, wet-wick, dip-tank, sprayer, and mister.
[0027] For example, cotton wicks can be stacked together to form the desired thickness (e.g. ½" - 3") and submersed in the dye bath for transporting dye solution to the moving yarn at a constant flow-rate. The wick thickness selection was based on the optimum wick and yarn contacting time needed to achieve the desired color depth and color consistency. A further option is to use multiple sets of wicking applicator stations. The first wicking applicator station applies the primary color onto the yarn and the second wicking applicator station applies a second color or performance enhancing chemical onto the yarn. Each wicking applicator station can be made up of one or more wicks.
[0028] Another option is to transport dye solution or other treatment to the yarn using one or more rotating rolls covered with wicks. Here, the yarn may contact one roll or pass between two or more rotating rolls. The wicks on the surface of the rolls may be supplied with the treatment by one or more radially oriented capillaries extending from the inside to the outer surface of the cylindrical roll. The wicks may be located in a portion of of the surface or be distributed evenly throughout the surface. Where treatment to a localized portion of the yarn length is desired, a roll with a portion of wicks will be selected. Where treatment is desired along the entire length of the yarn, a roll with the wicks evenly distributed throughout the surface will be selected.
[0029] To control the amount of dye solution or other treatment that contacts the yarn is metered by the use of a pump. This permits precise application of the dye or chemical treatment to the desired amount. The amount may be varied over the length of the yarn.
[0030] Further, multiple rolls can be used in series. For example, one roll can apply a first color onto one side of the moving yarn and another roll to apply a second color onto the other side of the yarn to create a unique two color yarn. Further, two sets of nip rolls can be used. The first set can apply the primary color and the second set can apply a second color or performance enhancing chemical onto the yarn. Any combination of the above options can be used to make yarn with multiple colors, color depth and with various performance chemicals.
[0031] The wet pick-up of anti-soil composition is between about 5 wt.% and about 50 wt.%., including between about 10 wt.% and about 30 wt%, about 20 wt.% to about 30 wt.%, and about 10 wt.% to about 20 wt.%. The resulting twisted BCF yarn, if a fluorine based anti-soil component is used, can have an on weight of fiber from about 100 ppm to about 1000 ppm elemental fluorine, including from about 100 to about 500 ppm elemental fluorine, from about 200 to about 400 ppm elemental fluorine, and from about 100 ppm to about 300 ppm elemental fluorine. If the anti-soil composition further comprises a stain blocker, it is present on weight of fiber from about 500 ppm to about 4%, including from about 000 ppm to about 3%, from about 0.5% to about 2%, and from about 0.5% to about 1 %.
[0032] The anti-soil composition can further comprise a component selected from the group consisting of: odor control agents, anti-microbial agents, anti-fungal agents, fragrance agents, bleach resist agents, softeners, and UV stabilizers.
[0033] The twisted BCF yarn can be made from polyamide fibers, such as those made from nylon 6,6, nylon 6, nylon 4,6, nylon 6,10, nylon 10,10, nylon 12, its copolymers, and blends thereof. Further, the twisted BCF yarn can also have additional polymer components, such as polyester components. The additional polymer components can be incorporated with the polyamide (by melt-blend or co-polymerization) prior to making a polyamide fiber (e.g. a polyamide/polyester fiber), or can be stand-alone fibers that are twisted with the polyamide fibers to make the twisted BCF yarn.
[0034] As stated above, the BCF yarn can be manufactured with polyamide, and / or polyester polymer components. An unexpected benefit of the disclosed process has been discovered in that, whereas a small amount of anti-soil composition is applied compared to known exhaust processes, a high anti-soil component content, such as fluorine, is achieved on the surface of the yarn. Further, the anti-soil composition applied in the process of the disclosed invention can be either fluorochemical or non-fluorochemical based, or a mixture of fluorochemical or fluoropolymer material with non-fluorinated soil resistant materials.
[0035] The disclosed process may be applied to yarns that do not require subsequent dyeing, having either a pigment or pigment included in their composition prior to twisting. The pigmented yarns can be made by solution dyed as well as cationic and anionic dyed fibers. Yarns suitable for use in the process may further comprise inherent stain resistance, whether by base composition as in the case of polyester, or by the inclusion of strong acid functionality in the polymer composition of the yarn, as in the case of nylon. Use of dyed or pigmented yarns (i.e. colored yarns) with the disclosed process eliminates the need for subsequent dyeing and enables the creation of colored carpets that are soil resistant, without the need for subsequent dyeing and soil resistant chemical application.
[0036] Where both inherently stain resistant and colored yarns are employed in the disclosed process, then all of the cost of dyeing, and of SB/FC application to the tufted carpet are eliminated. As observed above, this not only reduces the cost of making carpets having superior performance attributes, but also minimizes the environmental impact of carpet manufacture by reducing water, steam and energy consumption.
[0037] The twisted BCF yarn made with the various aspects of the disclosed process, by itself or blended with non-treated fibers and yarns, can be tufted and manufactured into carpets or fabrics. Carpets made with the twisted BCF yarn exhibit an oil repellency rating of 5 or higher and a water repellency rating of 5 or higher.
[0038] Alternatively, the disclosed process can also be advantageously applied in certain processes where a styling advantage might be derived from differential dyeing and finishing after carpet formation. For example, a soil resistant or stain resistant twisted yarn of the disclosed invention could optionally be tufted into a carpet among untreated yarns prior to dyeing, thus creating an aesthetic alternative.
[0039] Further disclosed is a system for applying the anti-soil composition to the twisted BCF yarn. The system includes: (a) a first yarn take-up device that transmits a single yarn member made from at least two individual yarn members; (b) an anti-soil composition applicator disposed downstream of the first yarn take-up device that applies the anti-soil composition to the single yarn member; (c) a yarn dry heat setting apparatus; and (d) a second yarn take-up device that receives the single yarn member. The first yarn take-up device can be a take-up roll or reel that can twist the at least two individual yarn members into a single yarn member. The individual yarn members can be single filaments or fibers, or yarns made from a plurality of filaments or fibers. The applicator can be any suitable device that applies wet ingredients to a dry substrate, including, but not limited to: applicator pad, nip rollers, wet-wick, dip-tank, sprayer, and mister. The wet pick-up of composition is between about 5 wt.% and about 50 wt.%., including between about 10 wt.% and about 30 wt%, about 20 wt.% to about 30 wt.%, and about 10 wt.% to about 20 wt.%. The resulting twisted BCF yarn, if a fluorine based anti- soil component is used, can have an on weight of fiber from about 100 ppm to about 1000 ppm elemental fluorine, including from about 100 to about 500 ppm elemental fluorine, from about 200 to about 400 ppm elemental fluorine, and from about 100 ppm to about 300 ppm elemental fluorine. If the anti-soil composition further comprises a stain blocker, it is present on weight of fiber from about 500 ppm to about 4%, including from about 1000 ppm to about 3%, from about 0.5% to about 2%, and from about 0.5% to about 1 %. The system can also include a false twisting apparatus and a stuffer box disposed before the heat setting apparatus. The false twisting apparatus can be a yarn hold-up unit for prevention of filament breaks. The texturizing unit can be a stuffer box. The heat setting apparatus can be a Suessen unit. The second yarn take-up device can be a winder.
[0040] Figure 1 shows the current cable twisting process. Here, creel yarn 110 enters false twisting unit 120. From here, the twisted yarn passes through a stuffer box 130 and into dry heatsetting channel 140 before exiting as heat set yarn 150. Figure 2 shows one aspect of the disclosed process. Here, creel yarn 210 passes through an anti-soil composition applicator 220 before entering the false twisting unit 230. From here, the treated yarn passes through a false twisting unit 220 and stuffer box 230 before being dry heat set in the heatsetting channel 240. The final yarn is a dry heat set treated yarn 250.
[0041] The disclosed process is counterintuitive and surprisingly results in yarn that contains acceptable anti-soil properties when manufactured into a carpet or fabric. One would expect that rearranging the process as described above would fowl up down-stream carpet manufacturing processes and lead to poor quality carpet. Thus, the results reported below are surprising and unexpected.
EXAMPLES
[0042] The following are examples of nylon 6,6 carpets made from two 997 denier beige color solution dyed BCF fibers that have been treated various aspects of the process disclosed above, and similar fibers with no treatment. Selection of alternative anti-soil components and stain blocker components, fibers and textiles having different surface chemistries will necessitate minor adjustments to the variables herein described. Test Methods
Acid Dye Stain Test.
[0043] Acid dye stain resistance is evaluated using a procedure modified from the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC) Method 175-2003, "Stain Resistance: Pile Floor Coverings." 9 wt % of aqueous staining solution is prepared, according to the manufacturer's directions, by mixing cherry-flavored KOOL-AID® powder (Kraft/General Foods, White Plains, N.Y., a powdered drink mix containing, inter alia, FD&C Red No. 40). A carpet sample (4x6-inch) is placed on a flat non-absorbent surface. A hollow plastic 2-inch (5.1cm) diameter cup is placed tightly over the carpet sample. Twenty ml_ of the KOOL-AID® staining solution is poured into the cup and the solution is allowed to absorb completely into the carpet sample. The cup is removed and the stained carpet sample is allowed to sit undisturbed for 24 hours. Following incubation, the stained sample is rinsed thoroughly under cold tap water, excess water is removed by centrifugation, and the sample is dried in air. The carpet sample was visually inspected and rated for staining according to the FD&C Red No. 40 Stain Scale described in AATCC Method 175-2003. Stain resistance is measured using a 1 -10 scale. An undetectable test staining is accorded a value of 10.
Oil and Water Repellencv Tests
The following liquids were used for oil repellency tests:
Figure imgf000012_0001
The following liquids were used for water repellency tests:
Figure imgf000013_0001
Repellency test procedure
[0044] Five drops of rating number 1 liquid are placed from a height of 3 mm onto the carpet surface. If after 10 seconds, four out of the five drops were still visible as spherical to hemispherical, the carpet is given a passing rating. Repeat the test with a higher rating number liquid. The repellency rating of the sample is the highest rating number liquid used to pass the repellency test. Carpets with a rating of 4 or higher have good anti-soiling properties. Without anti-soil treatment, most nylon carpets have a rating of 1 for both oil and water repellency.
Example 1 (Comparative)
[0045] Two 997 denier beige color solution dyed nylon 6,6 BCF made from cationic dyeable polymer were cable twisted using a Volkmann machine at 7000 rpm to form a 6.25 tpi two ply yarn. The winding speed was about 50 ypm. The cable-twisted yarn was subsequently heat set using a Suessen machine with 200° C dry air. The holdup time in the channel was about 60 seconds. The heat treated yarn was converted into a 35 oz per square yard, 1/8 gauge, 22/32" pile height cut pile carpet. No fluorochemical was added to the carpet. The finished carpet was tested for repellency. It had a repellency rating of 0 for oil and 0 for water. This sample had no repellency. Example 2 (Comparative)
[0046] Two 997 denier solution dyed nylon 6,6 BCF made from cationic dyeable polymer were cable twisted using a Volkmann machine at 7000 rpm to form 6.0 tpi two ply yarn. The winding speed was about 50 ypm. The cable twisted yarn was subsequently heat set using a Suessen machine with 200° C dry air. The holdup time in the channel was about 60 seconds. The heat set yarn was converted into a 35 oz per square yard, 22/32 inch pile height cut pile carpet on a 1/8 gauge tufting machine. Fluorochemical was sprayed on the tufted carpet. The finished carpet was analyzed to have 150 ppm fluorine. The finished carpet was tested for oil and water repellency. It had repellency ratings of 0 for oil and 2 for water. This sample had unacceptable repellency.
Example 3 (Comparative)
[0047] Two 1100 denier, 6 dpf solution dyed light wheat color polyester BCF (item WT-11) were cable twisted using a Volkmann cable twisting machine at 6900 rpm to form a 5.75 twist per inch (tpi) two ply yarn. The winding speed was about 50 ypm. The cable twisted yarn was subsequently heat-set on a Suessen with 185 °C dry air. The holdup time in the channel was about 60 seconds. The heatset yarn was analyzed to have no elemental fluorine. The heat treated yarn was converted into a 32 oz per square yard, 1/4" pile height loop pile carpet on a 1/ 0" gauge tufting machine. The finished carpet was tested for repellency. It was rated to have 0 repellency against oil or water.
Example 4 (Inventive)
[0048] Two 997 denier beige color solution dyed nylon 6,6 BCF made from cationic dyeable polymer were cable twisted using a Volkmann machine at 7000 rpm to form a 6.25 tpi two ply yarn. The winding speed was about 50 ypm. The cable twisted yarn was subsequently heat set using a Suessen machine. A wicking applicator was inserted between the creel and the false twisting unit. A 1/2 inch wide, 1.5 inch thick cotton wick (Wet Wick by Pepperell Braiding Company, Pepperell, MA) was used to apply 50% solution of A-201 anti-soil chemical onto the cable twisted yarn. The cable twisted yarn went through the wet wick at 350 ypm and subsequently heatset using a Suessen machine with 200° C dry air. The holdup time in the channel was about 60 seconds. The heatset yarn was analyzed to have 306 ppm elemental fluorine. The heat treated yarn was converted into a 35 oz per square yard, 1/8 gauge, 22/32" pile height cut pile carpet. The finished carpet was tested for water and oil repellency. It had repellency ratings of 6 for oil and 5 for water. It had excellent oil and water repellency. Example 5 (Inventive)
[0049] Two 997 denier beige color solution dyed nylon 6,6 BCF made from cationic dyeable polymer were cable twisted using a Volkmann machine at 7000 rpm to form a 6.25 tpi two ply yarn. The winding speed was about 50 ypm. The cable twisted yarn was subsequently heatset using a Suessen machine. A wicking applicator was inserted between the creel and the false twisting unit. A 1/2 inch wide, 1.5 inch thick cotton wick (Wet Wick by Pepperell, Pepperell, MA) was used to apply 25% aqueous solution of A-201 (INVISTA) anti-soil chemical onto the cable twisted yarn. The cable twisted yarn went through the wet wick at 350 ypm and subsequently heatset using a Suessen machine with 200° C dry air. The holdup time in the channel was about 60 seconds. The heat set yarn was analyzed to have 148 ppm elemental fluorine. The heat treated yam was converted into a 35 oz per square yard, 1/8 gauge, 22/32" pile height cut pile carpet. The finished carpet was tested for water and oil repellency. It had repellency ratings of 5 for oil and 4 for water. It had excellent oil and water repellency.
Example 6 (Inventive)
[0050] Two 1100 denier solution dyed light wheat color polyester BCF (item WT-11) were cable twisted using a Volkmann cable twisting machine at 6900rpm to form a 5.75 tpi two ply yarn. The winding speed was about 50 ypm. A wicking applicator was inserted between the take up roll and winder. A ½ inch wide cotton wick (Wet Wick by Pepperell Braiding Company, Pepperell, MA) was used to apply 48% aqueous solution of A-225 (INVISTA) anti-soil chemical onto the cable twisted yarn. The cable twisted yarn went through the wet wick at about 50 ypm. The cable twisted yarn was subsequently heat-set on Suessen with 185° C dry air. The holdup time in the channel was about 60 seconds. The heatset yarn was analyzed to have 280 ppm elemental fluorine. The heat treated yarn was converted into a 32 oz per square yard, 1/4" pile height, loop pile carpet on a 1/10" gauge tufting machine. The finished carpet was tested for repellency. It was rated to have the repellency of 4 oil to oil and 5 to water.
[0051] The invention has been described above with reference to the various aspects of the disclosed treatment process, treated fibers, carpets, fabrics, and systems used to apply anti-soil compositions to BCF yarn. Obvious modifications and alterations will occur to others upon reading and understanding the proceeding detailed description. It is intended that the invention be construed as including all such modifications and alterations insofar as they come within the scope of the claims.

Claims

CLAIMS What is claimed is:
1. A process for treating twisted BCF yarn with an anti-soil composition comprising an anti-soil component comprising: a. providing twisted BCF yarn;
b. contacting said BCF yarn with said anti-soil composition while said BCF yarn is in motion; and
c. dry heat setting said BCF yarn.
2. The process of claim 1 , wherein said anti-soil component is selected from the group consisting of: fluorochemicals, silicones, silsesquioxanes, silane-modified particulates, organosilane-modified particulates, alkylated particulates, anionic surfactants, and anionic hydrotropes,
3. The process of claim 2 wherein said anti-soil component comprises a fluorochemical.
4. The process of claim 1 , wherein the anti-soil composition has a pH from about 3 to about 8.
5. The process of claim 3, wherein said fluorochemical is selected from the group consisting of: fluorochemical allophanates, fluorochemical polyacrylates, fluorochemical urethanes, fluorochemical carbodiimides, fluorochemical guanidines, fluorochemical perfluoropolyethers, and fluorochemicals incorporating C2 to C8 chemistries.
6. The process of claim 3, wherein said fluorochemical has less than or equal to six fluorinated carbons.
7. The process of claim 3, wherein said fluorochemical is a fluorochemical urethane.
8. The process of claim 1 , wherein said anti-soil composition further comprises a component selected from the group consisting of: odor control agents, anti-microbial agents, anti-fungal agents, fragrance agents, bleach resist agents, softeners, and UV stabilizers.
9. The process of claim 1 , wherein said anti-soil composition further comprises an anti- stain component.
10. The process of claim 9, wherein said anti-stain component is selected from the group consisting of: syntans, sulfonated novolacs, sulfonated aromatic aldehyde condensation products (SACs) and/or reaction products of formaldehyde, phenolics, substituted phenolics, thiophenolics, sulfones, substituted sulfones, polymers or copolymers of olefins, branched olefins, cyclic olefins, sulfonated olefins, acrylates, methacrylates, maleic anyhydride, and organosulfonic acids.
11. The process of claim 9, wherein said anti-stain component is present at an on weight of fiber from about 500 ppm to about 4%.
12. The process of claim 9, wherein said anti-soil composition further comprises a component selected from the group consisting of: dye auxiliaries, sequestrants, pH control agents, and surfactants.
13. The process of claim 1 , wherein said heat setting is performed at a temperature from about 125°C to about 200°C.
14. The process of claim 1 , wherein said BCF yarn comprises polyamide fiber.
15. The process of claim 14, wherein said polyamide fiber is selected from the group consisting of: nylon 6,6, nylon 6, nylon 4,6, nylon 6,10, nylon 10,10, nylon 12, its copolymers, and blends thereof.
16. The process of claim 1 , wherein said BCF yarn comprises a polyester.
17. The process of claim 1-5, wherein said anti-soil component is present at an on weight of fiber from about 100 ppm elemental fluorine to about 1000 ppm elemental fluorine.
18. The process of claim 1 , wherein said contacting is performed by a device selected from the group consisting of: applicator pad, wet-wick, dip-tank, sprayer, and mister.
19. The process of claim 1 , wherein said BCF yarn is dyed or pigmented prior to contacting with said anti-soil composition. A system for applying an anti-soil composition to twisted BCF fiber comprising: a. a first yarn take-up device that transmits a single yarn member made from at least two individual yarn members;
b. an anti-soil composition applicator disposed downstream of said yarn take-up device that applies said anti-soil composition to said single yarn member;
c. a yarn dry heat setting apparatus disposed downstream from said anti-soil composition applicator; and
d. a second yarn take-up device that receives said single yarn member.
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