WO2014040506A1 - Terminal discovery, discovery processing method and device - Google Patents

Terminal discovery, discovery processing method and device Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2014040506A1
WO2014040506A1 PCT/CN2013/082798 CN2013082798W WO2014040506A1 WO 2014040506 A1 WO2014040506 A1 WO 2014040506A1 CN 2013082798 W CN2013082798 W CN 2013082798W WO 2014040506 A1 WO2014040506 A1 WO 2014040506A1
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WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
terminal
discovery
enb
neighboring
information
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PCT/CN2013/082798
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French (fr)
Chinese (zh)
Inventor
马书宇
谢峰
罗宇民
许玲
Original Assignee
中兴通讯股份有限公司
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Priority to CN201210335610.8 priority Critical
Priority to CN2012103356108A priority patent/CN102857901A/en
Application filed by 中兴通讯股份有限公司 filed Critical 中兴通讯股份有限公司
Publication of WO2014040506A1 publication Critical patent/WO2014040506A1/en

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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
    • H04W12/00Security arrangements, e.g. access security or fraud detection; Authentication, e.g. verifying user identity or authorisation; Protecting privacy or anonymity ; Protecting confidentiality; Key management; Integrity; Mobile application security; Using identity modules; Secure pairing of devices; Context aware security; Lawful interception
    • H04W12/06Authentication

Abstract

Provided are a terminal discovery, discovery processing method and device, the discovery method comprising: an entity on a network side allocates the radio resources in a designated area, the radio resources being required for a device to device (D2D) discovery process; after a first terminal in a designated area initiates a D2D discovery process to a neighboring terminal according to the radio resources, the entity on the network side receives a discovery signal reported by the neighboring terminal, the discovery signal being received from the first terminal by the neighboring terminal, and the discovery signal corresponding to the first terminal; the entity on the network side determines, according to the authentication information of the neighboring terminal and the first terminal and a corresponding relationship between the discovery signal and the first terminal, that the first terminal discovers the neighboring terminal, and/or the neighboring terminal discovers the first terminal. The technical solution of the present invention protects user privacy during the D2D discovery process, while realizing control on D2D discovery by the network side.

Description

TECHNICAL FIELD The present invention relates to the field of communications, and in particular to a terminal discovery (di SOC ), a discovery processing method, and an apparatus. BACKGROUND In the field of wireless communications, with the rapid development of smart terminals and mobile Internet applications, the requirements for user experience and data volume are becoming higher and higher, and Device to Device (D2D) technology is in this context. It is proposed that the D2D technology breaks the limitation that two wireless terminal devices must communicate through the base station in the Long Term Evolution (LTE) system. D2D technology includes two parts: D2D discovery and D2D communication. D2D discovery refers to wireless terminal devices. When the distance between the wireless devices can be directly communicated, each other can discover each other. D2D communication refers to two wireless terminal devices that do not communicate directly through the base station. There are many application scenarios in the D2D discovery technology. However, because the D2D discovery process is not very private and the operator cannot control the D2D discovery process, the existing D2D discovery solution is not suitable for privacy requirements. Higher scenes. In view of the above problems in the related art, an effective solution has not yet been proposed. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In the related art, the existing D2D discovery solution is not applicable to the technical problem that the privacy requirement is high and the operator cannot control the D2D discovery process. The embodiment of the present invention provides a terminal discovery. And find a processing method and device to solve at least the above problem. According to an embodiment of the present invention, a method for discovering a terminal is provided, including: a network side entity allocates radio resources in a specified area, where the radio resource is a resource required for performing a terminal-to-terminal D2D discovery process; After the first terminal in the network initiates the D2D discovery process for the neighboring terminal according to the radio resource, the network side entity receives the discovery signal reported by the neighboring terminal, where the discovery signal is the discovery of the first terminal received by the neighboring terminal. a signal, and the discovery signal corresponds to the first terminal; the network side entity determines, according to the authentication information of the first terminal and the neighboring terminal, and the correspondence between the discovery signal and the first terminal, that the first terminal discovers the adjacent terminal, and / or the neighboring terminal discovers the first terminal. Before the first terminal in the designated area initiates the D2D discovery process for the neighboring terminal according to the radio resource, the network side entity allocates the discovery signal used by the D2D discovery to the first terminal by using the radio resource. Before the network side entity allocates the discovery signal to the first terminal, the network side entity obtains the authentication information, where the authentication information includes: whether the terminal in the designated area has the authority information for performing D2D discovery and is in the designated area. , terminal information that can perform a D2D discovery process with the designated terminal. The network side entity determines, according to the authentication information of the first terminal and the neighboring terminal, the correspondence between the discovery signal and the first terminal, that the first terminal discovers the neighboring terminal, and/or the neighboring terminal discovers the first terminal, and further The network side entity transmits the application layer information or the application layer identifier ID of the first terminal to the neighboring terminal; and/or the network side entity transmits the application layer information or the application layer identifier ID of the neighboring terminal to the first terminal. The specified area is one of the following: an area within the coverage of the network side entity, a joint coverage area of the network side entity and other network side entities. The network side entity includes: a base station, and a mobility management entity (Mobile Management Entity, MME for short). The network side entity, according to the authentication information of the first terminal and the neighboring terminal, and the corresponding relationship between the discovery signal and the first terminal, determine that the first terminal discovers the neighboring terminal, and/or the neighboring terminal discovers the first terminal, and includes: The MME entity sends the authentication information of the terminal in the specified area to the base station; the base station authenticates the first terminal and the neighboring terminal according to the authentication information, and determines, according to the authentication result and the corresponding relationship, the first terminal to discover the neighboring terminal. , and/or neighboring terminals discover the first terminal. The network side entity, according to the authentication information of the first terminal and the neighboring terminal, and the corresponding relationship between the discovery signal and the first terminal, determine that the first terminal discovers the neighboring terminal, and/or the neighboring terminal discovers the first terminal, and includes: The MME entity sends the authentication result of the terminal in the specified area to the base station; the base station determines, according to the authentication result and the correspondence, that the first terminal discovers the neighboring terminal, and/or the neighboring terminal discovers the first terminal. According to another embodiment of the present invention, a method for the discovery of a terminal is provided, including: the first terminal acquires a radio resource required for performing a terminal-to-terminal D2D discovery process, where the radio resource is a designation assigned by the network side entity. The resources in the area are the resources required for the terminal-to-terminal D2D discovery process; the first terminal initiates a D2D discovery process for the neighboring terminal according to the acquired radio resources; the first terminal sends a discovery signal to the neighboring terminal, where The signal is associated with the first terminal, where the correspondence between the discovery signal and the first terminal is determined together with the authentication information of the first terminal and the neighboring terminal by the network side entity as the network side entity to determine that the first terminal discovers the neighboring terminal, And/or the neighboring terminal discovers the basis of the first terminal. According to still another embodiment of the present invention, a discovery device of a terminal is provided, which is located in a network side entity, and includes: an allocation module, configured to allocate radio resources in a specified area, where the radio resource is used for performing terminal-to-terminal D2D discovery. a resource required by the process; a receiving module, configured to: after the first terminal in the specified area initiates a D2D discovery process for the neighboring terminal according to the radio resource, the network side entity receives the discovery signal reported by the neighboring terminal, where The signal is a discovery signal received by the neighboring terminal from the first terminal, and the discovery signal corresponds to the first terminal; the determining module is configured to be based on the authentication information and the discovery signal and the first terminal and the neighboring terminal Corresponding relationship of a terminal, determining that the first terminal discovers the neighboring terminal, and/or the neighboring terminal discovering the first terminal. The foregoing allocation module is further configured to allocate, by the wireless resource, the discovery signal used for D2D discovery to the first terminal, where the discovery signal corresponds to the first terminal. The device further includes: a transmitting module, configured to transmit the application layer information or the application layer identifier ID of the first terminal to the neighboring terminal; and/or transmit the application layer information or the application layer identifier ID of the neighboring terminal to the first terminal . According to still another embodiment of the present invention, a discovery processing device of a terminal is provided, which is located in a first terminal, and includes: an obtaining module, configured to acquire a radio resource required for performing a D2D discovery process, where the wireless resource is a network a resource in a specified area allocated by the side entity and required to perform a terminal-to-terminal D2D discovery process; the initiating module is configured to initiate a discovery process of the neighboring terminal according to the acquired radio resource; and the sending module is set to be adjacent The terminal sends a discovery signal, where the discovery signal corresponds to the first terminal, where the correspondence between the discovery signal and the first terminal is determined together with the authentication information of the first terminal and the neighboring terminal by the network side entity as the network side entity. The first terminal discovers the basis of the neighboring terminal, and/or the neighboring terminal discovers the first terminal. According to still another embodiment of the present invention, a discovery device of a terminal is provided, which is located in an MME, and includes: an allocation module, configured to allocate a radio resource set required for performing a terminal-to-terminal D2D discovery process in a specified eNB; The authentication module is configured to obtain authentication information of the first terminal and the second terminal. The terminal may be authenticated, and the authentication result may be transmitted to the eNB, or the authentication information may be directly transmitted to the eNB without authentication. According to still another embodiment of the present invention, a discovery device of a terminal is provided, which is located in an eNB, and includes: an allocation module, configured to configure a discovery signal resource of the first terminal; and a receiving module, configured to be located in the designated eNB After the first terminal initiates the D2D discovery process for the second terminal, the network side entity receives the discovery signal information reported by the second terminal, where the discovery signal is received by the second terminal. Determining a discovery signal of the first terminal, where the determining module is configured to determine, according to the authentication information or the authentication result of the first terminal and the second terminal, that the first terminal discovers the second terminal, and Or the second terminal discovers the first terminal. The device further includes: a transmitting module, configured to transmit an application layer information or an application layer identifier ID of the first terminal to the second terminal; and/or an application layer information or an application layer identifier of the second terminal The ID is transmitted to the first terminal. According to still another embodiment of the present invention, a discovery processing apparatus of a terminal is provided, which is located in a first terminal, and includes: an obtaining module, configured to acquire a discovery signal resource configured by an eNB; and an initiating module, configured to send a discovery signal. According to still another embodiment of the present invention, a discovery processing apparatus for a terminal is provided, where the second terminal includes: an obtaining module configured to acquire a range of a radio resource set required for performing a D2D discovery process; a monitoring module, setting In order to monitor the discovery signal sent by the first terminal within the range of the radio resource set. The reporting module is configured to report the related information of the detected discovery signal to the eNB. According to still another embodiment of the present invention, a method for discovering a terminal is provided, including: Step 1: The mobility management entity MME allocates, to an evolved Node B eNB, a radio resource set required for performing a terminal-to-terminal D2D discovery process; 2: The eNB configures a discovery signal resource for D2D discovery for the first terminal; Step 3: The first terminal sends a discovery signal; Step 4: After receiving the discovery signal, the second terminal reports the received signal to the eNB Obtaining signal information; Step 5: The eNB receives the discovery signal information reported by the second terminal, and determines, according to the second terminal, that the second terminal receives the discovery signal from the first terminal; Step 6: And determining, according to the authentication information or the authentication result of the first terminal and the second terminal, that the first terminal discovers the second terminal, and/or the second terminal discovers the first terminal. The radio resource set includes: the radio resource set is a combination of time-frequency resources, or a combination of time-frequency resources and code resources. Before the eNB configures the discovery signal resource for the first terminal, the eNB includes: the eNB broadcasts range information of the radio resource set allocated by the MME. The second terminal receives the range information, and monitors the discovery signal sent by the first terminal within a range indicated by the range information. The eNB configures the discovery signal resource for the D2D discovery for the first terminal, where the eNB configures the discovery signal resource for the first terminal in the range of the radio resource set allocated by the MME for the eNB, where the D2D discovery process is performed. The discovery signal uniquely identifies the first terminal. The discovery signal is only distinguished by radio resources; when the time-frequency resources used by the discovery signals are the same, they can be distinguished by different codes; when the codes used for the discovery signals are the same, the time-frequency used by the discovery signals is used. Different resources distinguish different discovery signals. Determining, by the eNB, the first terminal to discover the second terminal according to the authentication information or the authentication result of the first terminal and the second terminal, and/or the second terminal discovering the Before the terminal, the eNB requests the MME to obtain the authentication information, and the MME obtains the authentication information; the MME notifies the eNB of the obtained authentication information, where the obtained authentication information includes: Whether the terminal in the designated area has the right information for performing D2D discovery; and/or whether the first terminal can discover the right information of the second terminal and whether the second terminal can discover the right information of the first terminal. Determining, by the eNB, the first terminal to discover the second terminal according to the authentication information or the authentication result of the first terminal and the second terminal, and/or the second terminal discovering the Before the terminal, the eNB requests the MME to obtain the authentication information, and the MME obtains the authentication information. The authentication information includes: whether the terminal in the designated area has the authority information for performing D2D discovery; and Or whether the first terminal can discover the rights information of the second terminal and whether the second terminal can discover the rights information of the first terminal. Determining, by the eNB, the first terminal to discover the second terminal according to the authentication information or the authentication result of the first terminal and the second terminal, and/or the second terminal discovering the a terminal, including: the eNB authenticating the first terminal and the second terminal according to the authentication information, and determining, according to the authentication result, that the first terminal discovers the second terminal, and/ Or the second terminal discovers the first terminal. Determining, by the eNB, the first terminal to discover the second terminal according to the authentication information or the authentication result of the first terminal and the second terminal, and/or the second terminal discovering the a terminal, including: the eNB requests the MME to perform authentication on the first terminal and the second terminal, and the MME authenticates the first terminal and the second terminal according to the authentication information, where the MME Sending an authentication result to the eNB; the eNB determines, according to the authentication result, that the first terminal discovers the second terminal, and/or the second terminal discovers the first terminal. Determining, by the eNB, the first terminal to discover the second terminal according to the authentication information or the authentication result of the first terminal and the second terminal, and/or the second terminal discovering the After the terminal, the method further includes: the eNB transmitting the application layer information or the application layer identifier ID of the first terminal to the second terminal; and/or the eNB, the application layer information of the second terminal or The application layer identification ID is transmitted to the first terminal. According to the embodiment of the present invention, the network side entity determines that the first terminal and the neighboring terminal have mutually discovered each other according to the authentication information of the first terminal and the neighboring terminal, and solves the related In the technology, the existing D2D discovery solution is not applicable to technical problems such as scenarios requiring high privacy, thereby protecting the privacy of the user in the process of performing D2D discovery, and also realizing the control of D2D discovery by the network side. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The accompanying drawings, which are set to illustrate,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 1 is a block diagram of a method for discovering a terminal according to Embodiment 1 of the present invention; FIG. 2 is a block diagram showing a structure of a device for discovering a terminal according to Embodiment 1 of the present invention; FIG. 4 is a block diagram of a discovery processing method of a terminal according to Embodiment 2 of the present invention; FIG. 5 is a block diagram showing a structure of a discovery processing apparatus for a terminal according to Embodiment 2 of the present invention; FIG. 7 is a schematic diagram of a whole process of D2D discovery according to Embodiment 4 of the present invention; FIG. 8 is a schematic diagram of an overall process of D2D discovery according to Embodiment 4 of the present invention; FIG. 8 is an MME acquiring D2D authentication information of a wireless terminal according to Embodiment 4 of the present invention; FIG. 9 is a second schematic flowchart of an MME acquiring D2D authentication information of a wireless terminal according to Embodiment 4 of the present invention; FIG. 10 is an MME acquiring D2D authentication information of a wireless terminal according to Embodiment 3 of the present invention; FIG. 11 is a fourth schematic flowchart of an MME acquiring D2D authentication information of a wireless terminal according to Embodiment 4 of the present invention; FIG. 12a is a wireless terminal according to Embodiment 4 of the present invention; FIG. 12b is a second flow chart of the wireless terminal completing device discovery according to Embodiment 4 of the present invention; FIG. 12 is a third flow diagram of the wireless terminal completing device discovery according to Embodiment 4 of the present invention; FIG. 13 is a first flowchart of a wireless terminal performing user discovery according to Embodiment 4 of the present invention; FIG. 14 is a second flowchart of a wireless terminal completing user discovery according to Embodiment 4 of the present invention; 15 is a third flowchart of a wireless terminal performing user discovery according to Embodiment 4 of the present invention; FIG. 16 is a first flowchart of a terminal obtaining a user discovery result according to Embodiment 4 of the present invention; FIG. 17 is a flowchart according to an embodiment of the present invention. The terminal of 4 learns the second flow chart of the result of the user discovery. BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION Hereinafter, the present invention will be described in detail with reference to the accompanying drawings. It should be noted that the embodiments in the present application and the features in the embodiments may be combined with each other without conflict. Considering the related art, the existing D2D discovery solution is not applicable to technical problems such as scenarios requiring high privacy. The related solutions are provided below in conjunction with the embodiments, and are now described in detail. Embodiment 1 FIG. 1 is a flowchart of a method for discovering a terminal according to Embodiment 1 of the present invention. As shown in FIG. 1, the method includes: Step S102: A network side entity allocates a radio resource in a specified area, where the radio resource is a resource required for performing a terminal-to-terminal D2D discovery process; Step S104, in a specified area After the terminal initiates the D2D discovery process for the neighboring terminal according to the radio resource, the network side entity receives the discovery signal reported by the neighboring terminal, where the discovery signal is the discovery signal received by the neighboring terminal from the first terminal, and The discovery signal corresponds to the first terminal. Step S106, the network side entity determines, according to the authentication information of the first terminal and the neighboring terminal, and the correspondence between the discovery signal and the first terminal, that the first terminal discovers the adjacent terminal, and / or the neighboring terminal discovers the first terminal. Through the above process, the D2D discovery process can be performed by the network side entity control terminal, and the D2D transmission judgment is performed by the network side entity, thereby ensuring the privacy of the D2D discovery process. In this implementation, before the first terminal in the designated area initiates the D2D discovery process for the neighboring terminal according to the radio resource, the network side entity allocates the discovery signal used by the D2D discovery to the first terminal by using the radio resource. In this embodiment, before the network side entity allocates the discovery signal to the first terminal, the network side entity obtains the authentication information, where the authentication information includes: whether the terminal in the designated area has the authority information for performing D2D discovery and In the specified area, the terminal information of the D2D discovery process can be performed with the designated terminal. In this embodiment, the network side entity determines, according to the authentication information of the first terminal and the neighboring terminal, and the corresponding relationship between the discovery signal and the first terminal, that the first terminal discovers the neighboring terminal, and/or the neighboring terminal finds the first After the terminal, the network side entity transmits the application layer information or the application layer identifier ID of the first terminal to the neighboring terminal; and/or the network side entity transmits the application layer information or the application layer identifier ID of the neighboring terminal to the first terminal. The designated area in this embodiment may be an area within the coverage of the network side entity or a joint coverage area of the network side entity and other network side entities. The network side entity in this embodiment may include, but is not limited to, a base station, a mobility management entity MME. The network side entity determines, according to the authentication information of the first terminal and the neighboring terminal, the corresponding relationship between the discovery signal and the first terminal, that the first terminal discovers the neighboring terminal, and/or the neighboring terminal discovers the first terminal, and may include But not limited to the following process:

The MME entity sends the authentication information of the terminal in the specified area to the base station; the base station authenticates the first terminal and the neighboring terminal according to the authentication information, and determines, according to the authentication result and the corresponding relationship, the first terminal to discover the neighboring terminal. , and/or neighboring terminals discover the first terminal. The network side entity determines, according to the authentication information of the first terminal and the neighboring terminal, the corresponding relationship between the discovery signal and the first terminal, the first terminal discovers the neighboring terminal, and/or the neighboring terminal discovers the first terminal, and may pass the following One process implementation:

(1) The MME entity sends the authentication information of the terminal in the specified area to the base station; the base station authenticates the first terminal and the neighboring terminal according to the authentication information, and determines the first terminal discovery according to the authentication result and the correspondence relationship. The neighboring terminal, and/or the neighboring terminal discovers the first terminal; or (2) the MME entity sends the authentication result of the terminal in the designated area to the base station; the base station determines the first terminal discovery phase according to the authentication result and the correspondence relationship The neighboring terminal, and/or the neighboring terminal discovers the first terminal. In this embodiment, a device for discovering a terminal is provided, and the device is located in a network side entity, and is used to implement the foregoing embodiments and preferred embodiments. The module to be explained. As used hereinafter, the term "module" may implement a combination of software and/or hardware of a predetermined function. Although the apparatus described in the following embodiments is preferably implemented in software, hardware, or a combination of software and hardware, is also possible and conceivable. 2 is a block diagram showing the structure of a discovery apparatus of a terminal according to Embodiment 1 of the present invention. As shown in Figure 2, the device includes: The distribution module 20 is connected to the receiving module 22, and is configured to allocate radio resources in the designated area, where the radio resource is a resource required for the terminal to the terminal D2D discovery process; the receiving module 22 is connected to the determining module 24, and is set to After the first terminal in the designated area initiates the D2D discovery process for the neighboring terminal according to the radio resource, the network side entity receives the discovery signal reported by the neighboring terminal, where the discovery signal is received by the neighboring terminal from the first terminal. a discovery signal, and the discovery signal corresponds to the first terminal; the determining module 24 is configured to determine the first terminal discovery according to the authentication information of the first terminal and the neighboring terminal and the correspondence between the discovery signal and the first terminal The neighboring terminal, and/or the neighboring terminal discovers the first terminal. Through the functions implemented by the above modules, the process of D2D discovery by the network side entity control terminal is also implemented, and the D2D transmission is judged by the network side entity, so that the privacy of the D2D discovery process can also be ensured. In this embodiment, the allocating module 20 is further configured to allocate a discovery signal used for D2D discovery to the first terminal by using a wireless resource, where the discovery signal corresponds to the first terminal. Preferably, as shown in FIG. 3, the foregoing apparatus may further include: a transmitting module 26 configured to transmit application layer information or an application layer identifier ID of the first terminal to the neighboring terminal; and/or an application layer of the adjacent terminal The information or application layer identification ID is transmitted to the first terminal. Embodiment 2 This embodiment corresponds to Embodiment 1, and the D2D discovery process is correspondingly improved on the terminal side. 4 is a flowchart of a method for discovering a terminal according to Embodiment 2 of the present invention. As shown in FIG. 4, the method includes: Step S402: The first terminal acquires a radio resource required for performing a D2D discovery process, where the radio resource is a resource in a specified area allocated by the network side entity, and is a terminal-to-terminal D2D a resource required for the discovery process; step S404, the first terminal initiates a D2D discovery process for the neighboring terminal according to the acquired radio resource; and step S406, the first terminal sends a discovery signal to the neighboring terminal, where the discovery signal and the first terminal Correspondingly, the corresponding relationship between the discovery signal and the first terminal is used together with the authentication information of the first terminal and the neighboring terminal by the network side entity as the network side entity to determine that the first terminal discovers the adjacent terminal, and/or adjacent The terminal discovers the basis of the first terminal. In this embodiment, a discovery processing device for the terminal is further provided, where the device is located in the first terminal, and is used to implement the foregoing method. As shown in FIG. 5, the device includes: an obtaining module 50, connected to the initiating module 52, The radio resource is configured to acquire the radio resource required for performing the D2D discovery process, where the radio resource is a resource in a specified area allocated by the network side entity and is a resource required for the terminal to the terminal D2D discovery process; the initiating module 52 is connected to the sending. The module 54 is configured to initiate a discovery process for the neighboring terminal according to the obtained radio resource. The sending module 54 is configured to send a discovery signal to the neighboring terminal, where the discovery signal corresponds to the first terminal, where the discovery signal and the The correspondence between the terminal and the authentication information of the first terminal and the neighboring terminal is determined by the network side entity as the network side entity to determine the basis for the first terminal to discover the neighboring terminal, and/or the neighboring terminal to discover the first terminal. In order to better understand the above-described Embodiment 1 and Embodiment 2, the following will be described in detail in conjunction with Embodiment 3 and Embodiment 4. This embodiment provides a D2D discovery technology, which can discover adjacent D2D devices, and can fully guarantee the privacy of users in the D2D discovery process, and can realize the control of D2D discovery by the network side. To achieve the above objective, a D2D discovery method provided by this embodiment includes the following processing steps: Step 1: The base station allocates radio resources related to the discovery signal. The base station broadcasts radio resources related to the discovery signal. The discovery signal can be a wireless signal known by LTE or a newly designed wireless signal. Step 2: A terminal device (referred to as a source terminal device) that wants to perform D2D discovery. If it is not registered to the network before, it is registered to the network, and the base station configures the terminal device, and the terminal device sends the used discovery signal according to the configuration of the base station. The signal is found to be within the broadcast's radio resources. When the terminal registers with the eNB, it carries information such as its own application layer id. The eNB (or MME) can obtain the D2D registration information of the terminal when the terminal device registers, and the eNB obtains the unique identifier of the terminal in the network. Wherein, if the terminal device does not have D2D discovery power, the eNB does not allocate a discovery signal. Step 3: Check the terminal device (called the target terminal device) that finds the signal. If it is not registered to the network before, register with the network and report the detected discovery signal to the base station. The base station completes the D2D discovery of the terminal device according to the discovery signal and the registration information of the terminal device, and notifies the terminal device. When the terminal registers with the eNB, it carries information such as its own application layer id. The eNB (or MME) can obtain the D2D registration information of the terminal when the terminal device registers, and the eNB obtains the unique identifier of the terminal in the network. If the terminal device does not have the D2D discovery power, the subsequent process is stopped. The eNB learns, according to the correspondence between the discovery signal and the terminal device, which target terminal devices have received the discovery signal of the source terminal device. After receiving the discovery signal of the source terminal device, the target terminal device learns the D2D authentication information of the terminal device and the unique identifier of the target device. The power of D2D is judged by the flag. The eNB determines which source terminal devices are discovered by the target terminal device according to the authentication information of the device terminal. According to the symmetry of the wireless channel, if the target terminal device can receive the signal of the source terminal device, the source terminal device can also receive the wireless signal of the target terminal device, and the eNB determines which ones according to the authentication information of the device terminal. Which target terminal devices are discovered by the source terminal device. The eNB transmits information such as the target terminal device application layer id to the source terminal device, if the source device can discover the target device. The eNB transmits information such as the source terminal device application layer id to the target terminal device, if the target device can discover the source device. Embodiment 4 In this embodiment, a topology as shown in FIG. 6 may be employed, and the interaction process of each entity in FIG. 6 may participate in the processing steps in FIG. The overall flow of the D2D discovery is as shown in FIG. 7. In addition, in step S702, the base station allocates radio resources used by the wireless terminal when performing D2D discovery, and performs broadcast. In this embodiment, a base station may only allocate radio resources within the range of the base station, and broadcast radio resources within the range of the base station, or may combine several base stations to form a D2D discovery area, and several base stations may be combined. Make resource allocations. Each base station broadcasts radio resources used within the D2D discovery area. Step S704, the wireless terminal and the eNB jointly complete device discovery of the D2D user. The so-called device discovery means that the eNB finds that two wireless terminal devices are within the scope of D2D discovery. That is, the eNB finds that the target wireless terminal receives the discovery signal of the source wireless terminal, that is, completes the device discovery, and the portion is specifically described in part in FIG. 8-11. When device discovery is performed, if the wireless terminal is in the idle state, the wireless terminal is attached, registered to the network, and enters the connected state. If the wireless terminal itself is already in the connected state, the process step S706 is not required, and the eNB and the MME or the eNB complete the D2D itself. User's user discovery. The so-called user discovery means that the eNB determines that one wireless terminal device has found another wireless terminal device according to the result of the device discovery and the authentication judgment of the D2D discovery. This section is described in Figure 12 (a, b, c). The following is described in detail in conjunction with Figures 8-17.

The MME obtains the D2D authentication information, and must perform before the network side determines whether the wireless terminal has the right to perform D2D discovery. There are two basic ideas on the node to be sent. One is to send the authentication information to the MME, and the other is to send the authentication information to the eNB. From the point of time of authentication, there are two ideas. There are two ways to handle the problem. One is that the MME obtains the D2D authentication information of the wireless terminal when the UE attaches, and the other is that the D2D is performed in the wireless terminal. The D2D authentication information of the wireless terminal is obtained during the device discovery process. The following is the acquisition of D2D authentication information when the UE is attached, but the authentication information is not sent to the eNB, as shown in FIG. 8, where the dotted line indicates the same as the existing process, and the solid line indicates a different place from the existing process. . During the process of the MME, the MME obtains the D2D authentication information of the wireless terminal from the HSS in the process of authenticating and acquiring data. The process may be the same as the current LTE authentication process, except that in the obtained authentication information, The authentication information of D2D. The authentication information of the D2D can also be obtained through a separate message. The D2D authentication information must include the following, whether the wireless terminal has the right to perform D2D discovery. The D2D terminal discovery relationship table, which table includes which other wireless terminals the wireless terminal can find, and which wireless terminals cannot be found. The wireless terminal can discover which other wireless terminals cannot discover which wireless terminals. The following is the process of the D2D device discovery process, the MME obtains the D2D authentication information, but the authentication information is not sent to the eNB. As shown in FIG. 9, during the device discovery process, the UE may send a message to the MME, indicating that The MME needs to obtain the D2D authentication information, and then the MME sends a message to the HSS to obtain the D2D authentication information of the wireless terminal. This information contains the same content as described above. The MME returns a message to the UE indicating that the authentication information has been obtained. The following is to obtain the D2D authentication information when the UE is attached, and the authentication information is further sent to the eNB. The situation is shown in FIG. 10, where the dotted line indicates the same as the existing process, and the solid line indicates a different place from the existing process. The process of the MME obtaining the D2D authentication message is the same as the process in FIG. 8. After receiving the D2D authentication information, the MME may send the D2D authentication information to the eNB in a subsequent message in the existing attach process. For example, In the current initial context setup request message, the authentication information is carried. The authentication information can also be transmitted by using a special message. The authentication information that the MME sends to the eNB includes whether the wireless terminal has the right to perform D2D discovery, and can also transmit the D2D terminal discovery relationship table to the eNB. While transmitting the authentication message to the eNB, the unique wireless terminal identifier of the entire network may also be transmitted to the eNB. The following is the process of the D2D device discovery process, the MME obtains the D2D authentication information, and sends the authentication information to the |J UE. The process of the MME obtaining the D2D authentication message is the same as the process in FIG. 9, and the MME receives the D2D authentication. After the information, as shown in FIG. 11, the MME returns an authentication completion message, and at the same time, transmits an authentication message to the eNB, and the authentication information transmitted by the MME to the eNB includes whether the wireless terminal has the right to perform D2D discovery. The D2D terminal discovery relationship table may also be transmitted to the eNB. While transmitting the authentication message to the eNB, the unique wireless terminal identifier of the entire network may also be transmitted to the eNB. The following describes the wireless terminal completing the device discovery process. A wireless terminal that wants to perform D2D discovery sends a D2D Discovery Request message (D2D Discovery Request) to the eNB. If the eNB is in the process of attaching, the cause of the attachment is D2D discovery, and the request message (or signaling may not be sent). ). If the MME does not have the authentication information, the process shown in FIG. 9 can be performed. During the D2D device discovery process, the MME obtains the D2D authentication information. The MME or the eNB determines whether the UE can perform D2D discovery according to the authentication information. If the UE cannot perform D2D discovery, the D2D discovery process is terminated. If the UE can perform D2D discovery (if the MME is authenticated, the authentication result is notified. UE), the eNB sends a message (or signaling) to instruct the wireless terminal to generate a D2D discovery signal according to the requirements of the eNB. The wireless terminal generates a D2D discovery signal in accordance with an indication from the eNB. In this embodiment, the terminal, that is, the terminal that initiates D2D discovery, is referred to as a source UE. The discovery signal and the source UE have a certain one-to-one relationship within a certain range. The UE supporting the D2D function will always perform D2D discovery signal detection, and the terminal that detects the D2D discovery signal is referred to as the target UE. After the target UE detects the D2D discovery signal, if it is not registered to the network, the attach operation is performed, as shown in Figure 8-11. After the attach and register operations are performed, the target UE reports the identity information of the detected D2D discovery signal, and the target UE can also report the measurement information of the D2D discovery signal. If the authentication information of the UE is D2D discovery After the eNB receives the identity information of the D2D discovery signal reported by the target UE, the eNB determines which source is received by the target UE according to the source to which the source signal is allocated to the source UE. The discovery signal of the UE. This process is the device discovery process. If the authentication information of the UE is not D2D discovery, the eNB stops the following process. As shown in FIG. 12a, according to the symmetric relationship of the wireless channel, it can be considered that if the target UE sends a discovery signal, the source UE can also receive the discovery signal of the target UE. That is, the source UE and the target UE complete the device discovery with each other. As shown in FIG. 12b, only the target UE may be found to be the source UE, and then the target UE may send the discovery signal. If the source UE can receive the discovery signal, the source UE completes. The device discovery of the target UE by the source UE. As shown in Figure 12c, the wireless terminal transmits a discovery signal whenever the D2D function is turned on. When a UE wants to discover other UEs, it reports the discovery signal received by itself to the eNB, and allows the eNB to determine which wireless terminals have received the discovery signals sent by the wireless terminal. The following describes in detail the process by which the wireless terminal completes user discovery. After the eNB completes the device discovery, there are two possible processing methods. One is that the D2D is the terminal discovery relationship result or the terminal discovery relationship table has been transmitted to the eNB, and the eNB performs the user discovery judgment, and the other is the terminal relationship table. The MME performs the judgment of user discovery by the MME. The following is discussed separately. The first method, as shown in FIG. 13, the content of the terminal discovery table is that the UE finds the UE, and the

The UE may be discovered by the UE. For example, the terminal discovery relationship table of UE1 includes the following content: UE1 may discover UE2, UE1 may be discovered by UE2, UE1 may discover UE3, UE1 may be discovered by UE3, until ij UE1 may discover UEn, UEn may Found by UE1. The UE is marked by a unique identifier for the entire network (eg GUTI). The identifier may be transmitted to the eNB in the previous authentication process, or may be transmitted to the eNB before the user discovery by a dedicated message. In the first method, the terminal relationship table is transmitted to the eNB side. The table may be transmitted to the eNB at the time of authentication, or may be transmitted to the eNB through a dedicated message. The eNB checks the terminal relationship table according to the device discovery result, and makes a judgment according to the terminal discovery table. For the target UE, if the source UE can discover the target UE and the target UE can be found by the source UE, the source UE can discover the target UE; if the source UE can If the target UE is found and the target UE is not discoverable by the source UE, the source UE may not discover the target UE; if the source UE cannot discover the target UE and the target UE can be found by the source UE, the source UE may not discover the target UE; The UE may not discover the target UE and the target UE may not be found by the source UE, and the source UE may not discover the target UE. For the source UE, if the target UE can discover the source UE and the source UE can be discovered by the target UE, the target UE can discover the source UE; if the target UE can discover the source UE and the source UE cannot be found by the target UE, the target UE cannot Discovering the source UE; if the target UE cannot discover the source UE and the source UE can be discovered by the target UE, the target UE may not discover the source UE; if the target UE cannot discover the source UE and the source UE is not discoverable by the target UE, the target The UE may not discover the source UE. After the user discovery is completed, the user discovers that the result is reported to the MME. After the eNB completes the user discovery, the eNB reports the result to the eNB. The second method, as shown in FIG. 14, the eNB transmits the UE identity of the two associated UEs in the device discovery to the MME, and the MME detects the terminal discovery relationship result according to the terminal discovery table, and transmits the result to the eNB, and the eNB according to the first type The method described by the method performs a user discovery process and passes the result to the MME. The third method, as shown in FIG. 15, the terminal relationship table is on the MME side, and the MME completes the user discovery. At this time, the judgment may be made in one MME, or may be determined in two MMEs, and the judgment method and the judgment in the eNB. The method is the same. If two UEs correspond to different MMEs, there may be two MMEs corresponding to different MMEs. In this case, when the MME obtains the authentication message, the MME obtains all the relationship tables. Authentication can be. Alternatively, when the two MMEs are authenticated, only part of the authentication information is obtained. At this time, the judgment information discovered by the user may be obtained through message exchange, and the judgment information may be whether the two UEs can be found, and the result of the discovery is also It can be a terminal relationship table. After the MME completes the user discovery, the MME can transmit the result to the eNB. The following describes in detail the process by which the terminal knows the result of the user discovery. The eNB or the eNB and the MME establish a corresponding radio bearer according to the user discovery result. After the eNB completes the user discovery, the eNB establishes a corresponding radio bearer according to the specific design of the upper layer application protocol. For example, in the process of the source UE initiating the device discovery, the eNB may perform message multiplexing, that is, the device discovery message carries the application layer. Message, the message can carry the application layer id. After the user discovery is completed and the acknowledgment is found, the bearer channel of the source UE and the target UE is established, and the message is sent to the target UE. Subsequent operations are done by the application layer. After the user discovery is completed, there are multiple ways to notify the terminal of the result. The method of the control plane bearer can be established between the two UEs, and the application layer performs the next operation. As shown in FIG. 16, when the UE sends a D2D discovery request (or other message), the information of the application layer can be carried. If it is confirmed that UE2 can discover UE1, the control plane bearer is established at the eNB, and the application layer message is forwarded to UE2 for UE2 to process. When the UE 2 reports the identity information of the D2D (or other messages), it also carries the request message of the application layer. After confirming that the UE1 can discover the UE2, the UE2 can forward the application layer message to the UE1 for the UE1 to process. The method shown in FIG. 17 may also be adopted, and the MME or the eNB or the dedicated D2D server notifies the UE of the identity of the UE it discovers, such as an application layer id, or a phone number pass. The application layer id may notify the eNB of an announcement message during the D2D discovery process of the UE. The eNB associates the application layer id with the network-wide unique identifier of the UE used for user discovery. After the user discovery is completed, the application layer id is transmitted to the other party. For example, if UE1 finds UE2, the application layer id of UE2 is transmitted to UE1. The UE1 is notified that the UE2 is found, and may be a network-wide unique identifier required by the user. For example, the UE2's telephone number may also be notified to the UE1. The phone number (which may also be a universal network-wide unique identifier) may be reported by the UE when the D2D is discovered, or may be obtained by the MME or the D2D user server according to the information of the UE. The foregoing embodiment controls the UE to perform D2D discovery through the base station and the core network, and performs final D2D discovery judgment through the base station and the core network, thereby protecting the privacy of the user during the D2D discovery process. At the same time, the control of D2D discovery on the network side is guaranteed. In another embodiment, software is also provided for performing the technical solutions described in the above embodiments and preferred embodiments. In another embodiment, a storage medium is provided, the software being stored, including but not limited to: an optical disk, a floppy disk, a hard disk, a rewritable memory, and the like. Obviously, those skilled in the art should understand that the above modules or steps of the present invention can be implemented by a general-purpose computing device, which can be concentrated on a single computing device or distributed over a network composed of multiple computing devices. Alternatively, they may be implemented by program code executable by the computing device, such that they may be stored in the storage device by the computing device and, in some cases, may be different from the order herein. The steps shown or described are performed, or they are separately fabricated into individual integrated circuit modules, or a plurality of modules or steps are fabricated as a single integrated circuit module. Thus, the invention is not limited to any specific combination of hardware and software. The above are only the preferred embodiments of the present invention, and are not intended to limit the present invention, and various modifications and changes can be made to the present invention. Any modifications, equivalent substitutions, improvements, etc. made within the spirit and scope of the present invention are intended to be included within the scope of the present invention. Industrial Applicability The technical solution of the present invention can be applied to the process of terminal discovery and terminal discovery processing. Based on the foregoing technical solution, the network side entity determines, according to the authentication information of the first terminal and the neighboring terminal, The technical means that the first terminal and the neighboring terminal have already discovered each other solve the related technical problems, and the existing D2D discovery solution is not applicable to technical problems such as scenarios requiring high privacy, thereby protecting the user in The privacy during D2D discovery is also achieved, and the control of D2D discovery on the network side is also realized.

Claims

Claim
A method for discovering a terminal, comprising:
 The network side entity allocates radio resources in the specified area, where the radio resource is a resource required for performing a terminal-to-terminal D2D discovery process;
 After the first terminal in the designated area initiates a D2D discovery process for the neighboring terminal according to the radio resource, the network side entity receives a discovery signal reported by the neighboring terminal, where the discovery signal is a discovery signal received by the neighboring terminal from the first terminal, and the discovery signal corresponds to the first terminal;
 Determining, by the network side entity, that the first terminal discovers the neighboring terminal according to the authentication information of the first terminal and the neighboring terminal, and the corresponding relationship between the discovery signal and the first terminal, And/or the neighboring terminal discovers the first terminal.
The method according to claim 1, wherein, before the first terminal in the designated area initiates a D2D discovery process for the neighboring terminal according to the radio resource, the method includes: the network side entity adopting the wireless The resource allocates the discovery signal used by the first terminal for D2D discovery.
The method according to claim 2, wherein, before the network side entity allocates the discovery signal to the first terminal, the method includes: the network side entity acquiring the authentication information, where the The right information includes: whether the terminal in the designated area has the authority information for performing D2D discovery and the terminal information that can perform the D2D discovery process with the designated terminal in the designated area.
The method according to claim 1, wherein the network side entity, according to the authentication information of the first terminal and the neighboring terminal, and the correspondence between the discovery signal and the first terminal, After determining that the first terminal discovers the neighboring terminal, and/or the neighboring terminal discovers the first terminal, the method further includes: the network side entity, the application layer information or the application layer of the first terminal The identification ID is transmitted to the adjacent terminal; and/or
The network side entity transmits the application layer information or the application layer identifier ID of the neighboring terminal to the first terminal.
The method according to claim 1, wherein the designated area is one of: an area within the coverage of the network side entity, a joint coverage area of the network side entity and other network side entities.
The method according to any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein the network side entity comprises:
 Base station, mobility management entity MME.
The method according to claim 6, wherein the network side entity, according to the authentication information of the first terminal and the neighboring terminal, and the correspondence between the discovery signal and the first terminal, Determining that the first terminal discovers the neighboring terminal, and/or the neighboring terminal discovers the first terminal, the method includes: the MME entity sends the authentication information of the terminal in the specified area to the Determining, by the base station, the first terminal and the neighboring terminal according to the authentication information, and determining, by the first terminal, the neighboring terminal according to the authentication result and the corresponding relationship And/or the neighboring terminal discovers the first terminal.
The method according to claim 6, wherein the network side entity, according to the authentication information of the first terminal and the neighboring terminal, and the correspondence between the discovery signal and the first terminal, Determining that the first terminal discovers the neighboring terminal, and/or the neighboring terminal discovers the first terminal, the method includes: the MME entity sends an authentication result of the terminal in the specified area to the Determining, by the base station, that the first terminal discovers the neighboring terminal according to the authentication result and the corresponding relationship, and/or the neighboring terminal discovers the first terminal.
9. A method for discovering and processing a terminal, comprising:
 The first terminal acquires the radio resources required for performing the terminal-to-terminal D2D discovery process, where the radio resource is a resource in a specified area allocated by the network side entity and is a resource required for performing a terminal-to-terminal D2D discovery process;
 The first terminal initiates a D2D discovery process for the neighboring terminal according to the obtained radio resource; the first terminal sends a discovery signal to the neighboring terminal, where the discovery signal is related to the first terminal Correspondingly, the corresponding relationship between the discovery signal and the first terminal is determined together with the authentication information of the first terminal and the neighboring terminal by the network side entity as the network side entity to determine the The first terminal discovers the neighboring terminal, and/or the neighboring terminal discovers the basis of the first terminal.
10. A terminal discovery device, located in the MME, comprising: An allocating module, configured to allocate a radio resource set required for performing a terminal-to-terminal D2D discovery process in a specified eNB;
 The authentication module is configured to obtain the authentication information of the first terminal and the second terminal, and perform authentication on the terminal according to the authentication information, and transmit the authentication result to the eNB, or directly The right information is transmitted to the eNB.
A device for discovering a terminal, located in an eNB, includes:
 An allocation module, configured to configure a discovery signal resource of the first terminal;
 a receiving module, configured to: after the first terminal in the specified eNB initiates a D2D discovery process for the second terminal, receive the discovery signal information that is reported by the second terminal, where the discovery signal is the a discovery signal received by the second terminal from the first terminal;
 a determining module, configured to determine, according to the authentication information or the authentication result of the first terminal and the second terminal, that the first terminal discovers the second terminal, and/or the second terminal discovery The first terminal is described.
12. The device according to claim 11, further comprising:
 a transmitting module, configured to transmit the application layer information or the application layer identifier ID of the first terminal to the second terminal; and/or transmit the application layer information or the application layer identifier ID of the second terminal to the The first terminal.
12. A terminal discovery processing device, located in the first terminal, comprising:
 Obtaining a module, configured to acquire a discovery signal resource configured by the eNB;
 Initiating module, configured to send a discovery signal;
13. A terminal discovery processing device, located in the second terminal, comprising:
 The obtaining module is configured to obtain a range of the radio resource set required for performing the D2D discovery process, and the monitoring module is configured to monitor the discovery signal sent by the first terminal within the range of the radio resource set;
 The reporting module is configured to report the related information of the detected discovery signal to the eNB.
14. A method for discovering a terminal, comprising:
Step 1: The mobility management entity MME allocates, to the evolved Node B eNB, a radio resource set required for performing a terminal-to-terminal D2D discovery process; Step 2: The eNB configures a discovery signal resource for D2D discovery for the first terminal.
 Step 3: The first terminal sends a discovery signal.
 Step 4: After receiving the discovery signal, the second terminal reports the received discovery signal information to the eNB.
 Step 5: The eNB receives the discovery signal information reported by the second terminal, and determines, according to the second terminal, that the second terminal receives the discovery signal from the first terminal.
 Step 6: The eNB determines, according to the authentication information or the authentication result of the first terminal and the second terminal, that the first terminal discovers the second terminal, and/or the second terminal discovers The first terminal.
The method according to claim 14, wherein the radio resource set comprises: the radio resource set is a combination of time-frequency resources, or a combination of time-frequency resources and code resources.
The method according to claim 14, wherein: before the eNB configures the discovery signal resource for the first terminal, the method includes:
 The eNB broadcasts the range information of the radio resource set allocated by the MME; the second terminal receives the range information, and monitors the discovery sent by the first terminal within the range indicated by the range information. signal.
The method according to claim 14, wherein the eNB configures the discovery signal resource for D2D discovery for the first terminal, including:
 The eNB configures the discovery signal resource for the first terminal in the range of the radio resource set allocated by the MME for the eNB, where the discovery signal uniquely identifies the first terminal in the D2D discovery process;
 The discovery signal is only distinguished by radio resources; when the time-frequency resources used by the discovery signals are the same, they can be distinguished by different codes; when the codes used for the discovery signals are the same, the time-frequency used by the discovery signals is used. Different resources distinguish different discovery signals.
The method according to claim 14, wherein the eNB determines that the first terminal discovers the second terminal according to the authentication information or the authentication result of the first terminal and the second terminal. And/or before the second terminal discovers the first terminal,
The eNB requests the MME to obtain authentication information, and the MME obtains authentication information; The MME notifies the eNB of the acquired authentication information, where the obtained authentication information includes: whether the terminal in the designated area has the right information for performing D2D discovery; and/or, whether the first terminal can discover The right information of the second terminal and whether the second terminal can discover the rights information of the first terminal.
The method according to claim 14, wherein the eNB determines that the first terminal discovers the second terminal according to the authentication information or the authentication result of the first terminal and the second terminal. And/or before the second terminal discovers the first terminal,
 The eNB requests the MME to obtain the authentication information, and the MME obtains the authentication information;
 The authentication information includes: whether the terminal in the designated area has the right information for performing D2D discovery; and/or whether the first terminal can discover the right information of the second terminal and whether the second terminal can discover the Permission information for a terminal.
The method according to claim 14, wherein the eNB determines that the first terminal discovers the second terminal according to the authentication information or the authentication result of the first terminal and the second terminal. And/or the second terminal discovering the first terminal, including:
 The eNB performs authentication on the first terminal and the second terminal according to the authentication information, and determines, according to the authentication result, that the first terminal discovers the second terminal, and/or the second The terminal discovers the first terminal.
The method according to claim 14, wherein the eNB determines that the first terminal discovers the second terminal according to the authentication information or the authentication result of the first terminal and the second terminal. And/or the second terminal discovering the first terminal, including:
 The eNB requests the MME to perform authentication on the first terminal and the second terminal, and the MME authenticates the first terminal and the second terminal according to the authentication information, and the MME sends the authentication result. Giving the eNB;
 Determining, by the eNB, that the first terminal discovers the second terminal according to the authentication result, and/or the second terminal discovers the first terminal.
The method according to claim 14, wherein the eNB determines that the first terminal discovers the second terminal according to the authentication information or the authentication result of the first terminal and the second terminal. And after the second terminal discovers the first terminal, the method further includes:
Transmitting, by the eNB, application layer information or an application layer identifier ID of the first terminal to the second terminal; and/or The eNB transmits the application layer information or the application layer identifier ID of the second terminal to the first terminal.
PCT/CN2013/082798 2012-09-12 2013-09-02 Terminal discovery, discovery processing method and device WO2014040506A1 (en)

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