WO2014024026A1 - Method for eliciting in infants an immune response against rsv and b. pertussis - Google Patents

Method for eliciting in infants an immune response against rsv and b. pertussis Download PDF

Info

Publication number
WO2014024026A1
WO2014024026A1 PCT/IB2013/001722 IB2013001722W WO2014024026A1 WO 2014024026 A1 WO2014024026 A1 WO 2014024026A1 IB 2013001722 W IB2013001722 W IB 2013001722W WO 2014024026 A1 WO2014024026 A1 WO 2014024026A1
Authority
WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
kit
pertussis
rsv
use
method
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/IB2013/001722
Other languages
French (fr)
Other versions
WO2014024026A8 (en
Inventor
Ann-Muriel Steff
Stephane T. TEMMERMAN
Jean-François TOUSSAIN
Original Assignee
Glaxosmithkline Biologicals S.A.
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US201261679928P priority Critical
Priority to US61/679,928 priority
Priority to US201313138358A priority
Priority to US13/,835,829 priority
Application filed by Glaxosmithkline Biologicals S.A. filed Critical Glaxosmithkline Biologicals S.A.
Priority claimed from BR112015002549A external-priority patent/BR112015002549A2/en
Publication of WO2014024026A1 publication Critical patent/WO2014024026A1/en
Publication of WO2014024026A8 publication Critical patent/WO2014024026A8/en

Links

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K39/00Medicinal preparations containing antigens or antibodies
    • A61K39/02Bacterial antigens
    • A61K39/099Bordetella
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K39/00Medicinal preparations containing antigens or antibodies
    • A61K39/12Viral antigens
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K39/00Medicinal preparations containing antigens or antibodies
    • A61K39/12Viral antigens
    • A61K39/155Paramyxoviridae, e.g. parainfluenza virus
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K39/00Medicinal preparations containing antigens or antibodies
    • A61K39/02Bacterial antigens
    • A61K2039/10Brucella; Bordetella, e.g. Bordetella pertussis; Not used, see subgroups
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K39/00Medicinal preparations containing antigens or antibodies
    • A61K2039/55Medicinal preparations containing antigens or antibodies characterised by the host/recipient, e.g. newborn with maternal antibodies
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K39/00Medicinal preparations containing antigens or antibodies
    • A61K2039/555Medicinal preparations containing antigens or antibodies characterised by a specific combination antigen/adjuvant
    • A61K2039/55505Inorganic adjuvants
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K39/00Medicinal preparations containing antigens or antibodies
    • A61K2039/70Multivalent vaccine
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12NMICROORGANISMS OR ENZYMES; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF; PROPAGATING, PRESERVING OR MAINTAINING MICROORGANISMS; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING; CULTURE MEDIA
    • C12N2760/00MICROORGANISMS OR ENZYMES; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF; PROPAGATING, PRESERVING OR MAINTAINING MICROORGANISMS; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING; CULTURE MEDIA ssRNA Viruses negative-sense
    • C12N2760/00011MICROORGANISMS OR ENZYMES; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF; PROPAGATING, PRESERVING OR MAINTAINING MICROORGANISMS; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING; CULTURE MEDIA ssRNA Viruses negative-sense ssRNA Viruses negative-sense
    • C12N2760/18011Paramyxoviridae
    • C12N2760/18511Pneumovirus, e.g. human respiratory syncytial virus
    • C12N2760/18534Use of virus or viral component as vaccine, e.g. live-attenuated or inactivated virus, VLP, viral protein
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A50/00TECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE in human health protection
    • Y02A50/30Against vector-borne diseases, e.g. mosquito-borne, fly-borne, tick-borne or waterborne diseases whose impact is exacerbated by climate change
    • Y02A50/46Medical treatment of waterborne diseases characterized by the agent
    • Y02A50/462The waterborne disease being caused by a virus
    • Y02A50/465The waterborne disease being caused by a virus the virus being the poliovirus, i.e. Poliomyelitis or Polio
    • Y02A50/466The waterborne disease being caused by a virus the virus being the poliovirus, i.e. Poliomyelitis or Polio the medicinal preparation containing antigens or antibodies, e.g. vaccines, antisera

Abstract

This disclosure provides methods for protecting infants against disease caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and Bordetella pertussis through maternal immunization using recombinant respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and B. pertussis antigens to reduce the incidence or severity of RSV and pertussis infection in young infants.

Description

METHOD FOR ELICITING IN INFANTS AN IMMUNE RESPONSE AGAINST

RSV AND B. PERTUSSIS

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[001] This application claims benefit of the filing date of United States Provisional Application Number 61/679,928, filed 06 August 2012 and United States Non-Provisional Application Number 13/835,829, filed 15 March 2013, the disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

COPYRIGHT NOTIFICATION PURSUANT TO 37 C.F.R. § 1.71(E)

[002] A portion of the disclosure of this patent document contains material which is subject to copyright protection. The copyright owner has no objection to the facsimile reproduction by anyone of the patent document or the patent disclosure, as it appears in the Patent and Trademark Office patent file or records, but otherwise reserves all copyright rights whatsoever.

BACKGROUND

[003] This disclosure concerns the field of immunology. More particularly this disclosure relates to compositions and methods for eliciting an immune response specific for Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) and Bordetella pertussis (pertussis).

[004] Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the most common worldwide cause of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in infants less than 6 months of age and premature babies less than or equal to 35 weeks of gestation.

[005] RSV is well documented as a cause of yearly winter epidemics of acute LRTI, including bronchiolitis and pneumonia. The incidence rate of RS V-associated LRTI in otherwise healthy children was calculated as 37 per 1000 child-year in the first two years of life (45 per 1000 child-year in infants less than 6 months old) and the risk of hospitalization as 6 per 1000 child-years ( per 1000 child-years in the first six months of life). Incidence is higher in children with cardio-pulmonary disease and in those born prematurely, who constitute almost half of RSV-related hospital admissions in the USA. Children who experience a more severe LRTI caused by RSV later have an increased incidence of childhood asthma. These studies demonstrate widespread need for RSV vaccines.

[006] The bacterium Bordetella pertussis is the causative agent for whooping cough, a respiratory disease that can be severe in infants and young children. WHO estimates suggest that, in 2008, about 16 million cases of whooping cough occurred worldwide, and that 195,000 children died from the disease. Vaccines have been available for decades, and global vaccination is estimated (WHO) to have averted about 687,000 deaths in 2008.

[007] The clinical course of the disease is characterised by paroxysms of rapid coughs followed by inspiratory effort, often associated with a characteristic 'whooping' sound. In serious cases, oxygen deprivation can lead to brain damage; however the most common complication is secondary pneumonia. Although treatment with antibiotics is available, by the time the disease is diagnosed, bacterial toxins have often caused severe damage.

Prevention of the disease is therefore of great importance, hence developments in vaccination are of significant interest. The first generation of vaccines against B. pertussis were whole cell vaccines, composed of whole bacteria that have been killed by heat treatment, formalin or other means. These were introduced in many countries in the 1950s and 1960s and were successful at reducing the incidence of whooping cough. Subsequent improvements have included the development of acellular pertussis vaccines containing highly purified B. pertussis proteins - usually at least pertussis toxoid (PT; pertussis toxin chemically treated or genetically modified to eliminate its toxicity) and filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA), often together with the 69kD protein pertactin (PRN), and in some cases further including fimbriae types 2 and 3 (FIMs 2 and 3). These acellular vaccines are generally far less reactogenic than whole cell vaccines, and have been adopted for the vaccination programmes of many countries.

[008] Both RSV and pertussis are characterized in that immunity wanes after childhood and the most severe morbidity and mortality result from infections during the first few months of life, before the paediatric vaccination is fully realized for these pathogens.

[009] Although pertussis vaccination is well established, despite various attempts to produce a safe and effective RSV vaccine that elicits durable and protective immune responses in healthy and at-risk populations, none of the candidates evaluated to date have been proven safe and effective as a vaccine for the purpose of preventing RSV infection and/or reducing or preventing RSV disease. Accordingly, there is an unmet need for a combination vaccine which confers protection against both RSV and B. pertussis infection and associated disease, which pose particular dangers to neonates and young infants.

BRIEF SUMMARY

[010] The present disclosure relates to vaccination regimens and methods for protecting infants against disease caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and Bordetella pertussis (pertussis) by administering to pregnant women at least one immunogenic composition comprising a recombinant antigen RSV F protein analog and a pertussis antigen. Active immunization of pregnant women with immunogenic composition(s) containing an F protein analog and a pertussis antigen elicits maternal antibodies, which are transferred to the gestational infant via the placenta, thereby protecting the infant from RSV disease following birth. Accordingly, the present disclosure also relates to vaccination regimens and methods of immunising a pregnant woman to protect her infant from disease caused by RSV and pertussis, to the use of a recombinant RSV F protein analog and a pertussis antigen in immunizing a pregnant female to protect her infant from disease caused by RSV, and to kits useful for immunizing pregnant women to protect their infants against RSV and pertussis.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[01 1] FIG. 1 A is a schematic illustration highlighting structural features of the RSV F protein. FIG. IB is a schematic illustration of exemplary RSV Prefusion F (PreF) antigens.

[012] FIG. 2 shows the study design for a guinea pig experiment performed in Example 1.

[013] FIG. 3 shows results from Example 1 following challenge of guinea pig progeny with RSV.

[014] FIG. 4 shows the time-course of the neutralizing antibody response in the guinea pig model in Example 1.

[015] FIGS. 5 A and 5B are graphs illustrating the neutralizing titres and protection against RSV challenge infection following immunization with an RSV + pertussis combination vaccine. [016] FIGS. 6A and 6B are graphs illustrating serum antibody titers and protection against challenge with Bordetella pertussis following immunization with an RSV + pertussis combination vaccine.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

INTRODUCTION

[017] A particular challenge in the development of a safe and effective vaccine that protects infants against diseases caused by Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) and Bordetella pertussis (pertussis) is that the highest incidence and severity, with respect to morbidity and mortality, is in very young infants. This in itself presents many challenges. Young infants, especially those born prematurely, can have an immature immune system. There is also a potential risk of interference of maternal antibodies with vaccination in very young infants. In the past there has been a problem with enhancement of RSV disease with vaccination of young infants against RSV, as well as challenges arising from waning of immunity elicited by natural infection and immunization. The present disclosure concerns methods of protecting young infants, e.g., between birth and 6 months of age, from disease caused by both RSV and pertussis by actively immunizing pregnant women with an immunogenic composition containing an analog of the RSV F protein and a pertussis antigen. The F protein analog and pertussis antigen(s) favorably elicit antibodies, which are transferred to the gestational infant via the placenta resulting in passive immunological protection of the infant following birth and lasting through the critical period for infection and severe disease caused by both RSV and pertussis.

[018] One aspect of this disclosure concerns a vaccination regimen that protect infants (including neonates) against infection or disease caused by both RSV and pertussis. The vaccination regimen involves administering to a pregnant female at least one

immunogenic composition capable of boosting (or inducing or eliciting) a humoral immune response (e.g., an antibody response) against RSV and pertussis. Favorably, the at least one immunogenic composition includes a recombinant RSV antigen comprising an F protein analog and a pertussis antigen that is either whole cell pertussis antigen or acellular pertussis proteins. Upon administration of the at least one immunogenic composition, at least one subset of maternal antibodies specific for RSV and pertussis elicited by the immunogenic composition are transferred to the gestational infant via the placents, thereby protecting the infant against infection or disease caused by both RSV and pertussis.

[019] Another aspect of this disclosure relates to a method for protecting an infant against infection or disease caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and pertussis, the method comprising administering to a pregnant female with a gestational infant at least one immunogenic composition comprising a recombinant RSV antigen comprising an F protein analog and a pertussis antigen, wherein at least one subset of maternal antibodies elicited by the immunogenic composition are transferred to the gestational infant via the placenta, thereby protecting the infant against infection or disease caused by RSV.

[020] In another aspect, the disclosure relates to an immunogenic composition or plurality of immunogenic compositions that include a recombinant RSV antigen comprising an F protein analog and at least one pertussis antigen for use in protecting an infant from infection or disease caused by RSV and pertussis, which immunogenic composition(s) are formulated for administration to a pregnant female. Upon

administration to a pregnant female, the immunogenic composition(s) are capable of boosting a humoral immune response (e.g., inducing, eliciting or augmenting) at least one subset of maternal antibodies specific for RSV and pertussis. The maternal antibodies are transferred to the gestational infant via the placenta, thereby conferring protection against infection and/or disease caused by RSV and pertussis.

[021] In another aspect, this disclosure concerns kits comprising a plurality of (e.g., 2 or more) immunogenic compositions formulated for administration to a pregnant female. The kit includes (a) a first immunogenic composition comprising an F protein analog capable of inducing, eliciting or boosting a humoral immune response specific for RSV; and (b) a second immunogenic composition comprising at least one pertussis antigen capable of inducing, eliciting or boosting a humoral response specific for B. pertussis. The immunogenic compositions are optionally contained in one or more pre-filled syringe, for example, in a dual (or multi) chambered syringe. Upon administration to a pregnant female, the at least first and second immunogenic compositions of the kit induce, elicit or boost at least one subset of RS V-specific antibodies and at least one subset of pertussis- specific antibodies, which antibodies are transferred via the placenta to the gestating infant carried by the pregnant female. Transfer of maternal antibodies via the placenta confers protection against infection and/or disease caused by both RSV and pertussis.

[022] In a particular embodiment the vaccination regimen, method, or use or kit involves an immunogenic composition (e.g., and administration therof) of an F protein analog which is a prefusion F or "PreF" antigen that includes at least one modification that stabilizes the prefusion conformation of the F protein. Alternatively, F analogs stabilized in the postfusion conformation ("PostF"), or that are labile with respect to conformation can be employed in the methods described herein. Generally the F protein analog, e.g., PreF, PostF, etc.) antigen lacks a transmembrane domain, and is soluble, i.e., not membrane bound (for example, to facilitate expression and purification of the F protein analog).

[023] In exemplary embodiments, the vaccination regimen, method, use or kit involves the administration of an F protein analog that comprises in an N-terminal to C-terminal direction: at least a portion or substantially all of an F2 domain and an Fi domain of an RSV F protein polypeptide, optionally with a heterologous trimerization domain. In an embodiment, there is no furin cleavage site between the F2 domain and the Fi domain. In certain exemplary embodiments, the F2 domain comprises at least a portion of an RSV F protein polypeptide corresponding to amino acids 26-105 of the reference F protein precursor polypeptide (F0) of SEQ ID NO:2 and/or the Fi domain comprises at least a portion of an RSV F protein polypeptide corresponding to amino acids 137-516 of the reference F protein precursor polypeptide (F0) of SEQ ID NO:2.

[024] For example, in specific embodiments, the F protein analog is selected from the group of:

a) a polypeptide comprising a polypeptide selected from the group of SEQ ID NO:6, SEQ ID NO:8, SEQ ID NO: 10, SEQ ID NO: 18, SEQ ID NO:20 and SEQ ID NO:22;

b) a polypeptide encoded by a polynucleotide selected from the group of SEQ ID NO:5, SEQ ID NO:7, SEQ ID NO:9, SEQ ID NO: 17, SEQ ID NO: 19 and SEQ ID NO:21, or by a polynucleotide sequence that hybridizes under stringent conditions over substantially its entire length to a polynucleotide selected from the group of SEQ ID NO:5, SEQ ID NO:7, SEQ ID NO:9, SEQ ID NO:17, SEQ ID NO: 19 and SEQ ID NO:21 , which polypeptide comprises an amino acid sequence corresponding at least in part to a naturally occurring RSV strain;

c) a polypeptide with at least 95% sequence identity to a polypeptide selected from the group of SEQ ID NO:6, SEQ ID NO:8, SEQ ID NO: 10, SEQ ID NO: 18, SEQ ID NO:20 and SEQ ID NO:22, which polypeptide comprises an amino acid sequence that does not correspond to a naturally occurring RSV strain.

[025] Optionally, the F protein analog further comprises a signal peptide. Optionally, the F protein analog can further comprise a "tag" or sequence to facilitate purification, e.g., a multi-histidine sequence.

[026] In embodiments comprising a heterologous trimerization domain, such a domain can comprise a coiled-coil domain, such as an isoleucine zipper, or it can comprise an alternative trimerization domain, such as from the bacteriophage T4 fibritin ("foldon"), or influenza HA.

[027] In certain exemplary embodiments, the F protein analog comprises at least one modification selected from:

(i) a modification that alters glycosylation.

(ii) a modification that eliminates at least one non-furin cleavage site;

(iii) a modification that deletes one or more amino acids of the pep27 domain; and

(iv) a modification that substitutes or adds a hydrophilic amino acid in a hydrophobic domain of the F protein extracellular domain.

[028] In certain embodiments, the F protein analog comprises a multimer of polypeptides, for example, a trimer of polypeptides.

[029] With respect to the pertussis antigen, the antigen can be one or more acellular pertussis protein(s) or whole cell pertussis antigen. For example, acellular pertussis proteins can be selected from the consisting of: pertussis toxoid (PT), filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (PRN), fimbrae type 2 (FIM2), fimbrae type 3 (FIM3) and BrkA. The PT can be chemically toxoided or genetically toxoided (for example by one or both of the mutations: R9K and E129G). In certain favorable embodiments, the pertussis antigen comprises a combination of pertussis proteins, for example: PT and FHA; PT, FHA and PRN; or PT, FHA, PRN and optionally either or both of FIM2 and FIM3.

[030] In embodiments that include a whole cell (Pw) pertussis antigen, the Pw antigen can have a reduced endotoxin content. A reduced endotoxin content can be achieved by chemical extraction of lipo-oligosaccharide (LOS), or by genetic manipulation of endotoxin production, for example to induce overexpression or heterologous expression of a 3-O-deacylase. In certain favorable embodiments, the Pw antigen comprises B.

pertussis cells comprising at least partially 3-O-deacylated LOS.

[031 ] In certain embodiments, the F protein analog and/or pertussis antigen is/are formulated in an immunogenic composition comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or excipient, such as a buffer. Optionally, the immunogenic composition also includes an adjuvant, for example, and adjuvant that includes 3D-MPL, QS21 (e.g., in a detoxified form), an oil-in-water emulsion (e.g., with or without immunostimulatory molecules, such as a-tocopherol), mineral salts, such as aluminium salts (e.g., aluminium hydroxide aluminium phosphate), including alum, or combinations thereof. Preferably, if the immunogenic composition includes an adjuvant, the adjuvant enhances or increases a humoral immune characterized by the production of antibodies, particularly IgG antibodies of the IgGi subclass. Alternatively the immunogenic composition(s) are formulated in the absence of (i.e., without) an adjuvant.

[032] Typically, the immunogenic composition(s) containing the F protein analog and the pertussis antigen is administered during the third trimester of pregnancy (gestation), although a beneficial effect (especially pregnancies at increased risk of preterm delivery) can be obtained prior to the beginning of the third trimester. Thus, although the F protein analog can be administered at 26 weeks of gestation (measured from the start of the last menstrual period) or later, for example between 26 and 38 weeks of gestation, or between 28 and 34 weeks of gestation, the F protein analog can also be administered prior to 26 weeks of gestation.

[033] In certain embodiments of the vaccination regimen, method, use and kit, the RSV antigen (recombinant F protein analog) and the pertussis antigen are coformulated in the same immunogenic composition. In alternative embodiments, the RSV antigen (recombinant F protein analog) and the pertussis antigen are formulated in different (e.g., two different) immunogenic compositions, which can be co-administered (that is administered at or near the same time, i.e., on the same day) or on different days, typically provided that both immunogenic compositions are administered during the third trimester of pregnancy, e.g., after 26 weeks of gestation, or after 28 weeks of gestation, and typically before 34 weeks of gestation, or before 38 weeks of gestation. Administration to the pregnant female can be accomplished by any of a variety of routes, for example, intramuscular, cutaneous or intradermal administration routes.

[034] Favorably, the vaccination regimen, method, use, or administration of the immunogenic compositions included in the kits elicits an immune response in the pregnant female (favorably, a human female), which when passively transferred to her gestational infant via the placenta, protects the infant, e.g., from birth to at least about 6 months of age. Accordingly, the infant protected by the methods disclosed herein can be an immunologically immature infant, such as an infant of less than six months of age, such as less than two months of age, for example, less than one month of age, e.g., a neonate or newborn. Favorably, at least one subset of antibodies, for example, IgG antibodies, such as IgGi antibodies are transferred via the placenta. It is also viewed as advantageous that the subset of maternal antibodies includes neutralizing antibodies against RSV.

[035] In certain embodiments, the transfer of at least one subset of antibodies via the placenta can be measured by immunological methods (e.g., ELISA). For example, in certain favorable embodiments, RSV-specific antibodies can be detected at a level at or greater than 30 mcg/ml in the infant's serum at birth. Similarly, in certain favorable embodiments, pertussis-specific antibodies can be detected at a level at or greater than 10 ELISA units/ml (EU) in the infant's serum at birth. Favorably, the antibodies specific for RSV and pertussis are present at birth in the infant's serum at a level that protects against (or inhibits) infection and reduces or prevents disease caused by RSV and pertussis without impairing the infant's subsequent response to immunization (or exposure).

[036] Optionally, to ensure continuity of the immune response beyond six months of age, the vaccination regimen, method, or use (and administration of the compositions of the kit) can involve administering to the infant (delivered of the pregnant female) one or more compositions that primes or induces an active immune response against RSV and/or pertussis in the infant. The composition(s) administered to the infant can be the same or different from that (or those) administered to the pregnant female. For example, the composition administered to the infant can include an RSV antigenic component that is an F protein analog or it can include an RSV antigenic component that is a nucleic acid that encodes one or more RSV antigens, such as a live attenuated virus, a viral vector (e.g., an adenoviral or MVA vector), or a viral replicon particle or other self-replicating nucleic acid. The composition can alternatively or additionally include a pertussis antigenic component that is an acellular pertussis antigen (Pa, e.g., one or more pertussis proteins) or a whole cell pertussis antigen (Pw), as described herein. If both an RSV antigenic component and a pertussis antigenic component are administered to the infant, the RSV antigenic component and the pertussis antigenic component can be coformulated in the same immunogenic composition. Alternatively, the RSV antigenic component and the pertussis antigenic component can be formulated in two (or more) different immunogenic compositions, which can be co-administered (at the same time or on the same day) or which can be administered according to different schedules (e.g., according to the various approved and/or recommended pediatric immunization schedules). Optionally, the composition or compositions administered to the infant can include one or more additional antigens of pathogens other than RSV or pertussis (for example, formulated in vaccines commonly administered according various pediatric immunization schedules). Depending on the formulation, the immunogenic compositions can be administered to the infant by a variety of established routes, e.g., intramuscular, cutaneous intradermal and/or mucosal (e.g., intranasal).

[037] The vaccination regimens, methods, uses and kits disclosed herein can reduce the incidence or severity of infection or disease caused by RSV and pertussis. For example, the vaccination regimens, methods, uses and kits can reduce the incidence or severity of RSV disease such as LRTI, or by reducing the incidence of severe RSV disease such as LRTI. Similarly, the vaccination regimens, methods, uses and kits can reduce the incidence or severity of disease (e.g., duration or severity of "whooping" cough or pneumonia, or associated symptoms) caused by infection with B. pertussis. Protecting the infant favorably includes protecting the infant from severe disease and hospitalization caused by RSV and/or pertussis. As such, the methods and uses disclosed herein can reduce the incidence of severe disease caused by both RSV and pertussis by 50% or more, or 60% or more, or 70% or more, as measured by a 50% or more, or 60% or more, or 70% or more reduction in the rate of severe LRTI and/or hospitalization and/or rate of pneumonia in a cohort of infants of vaccinated mothers compared to infants of

un vaccinated mothers.

TERMS

[038] In order to facilitate review of the various embodiments of this disclosure, the following explanations of terms are provided. Additional terms and explanations can be provided in the context of this disclosure.

[039] Unless otherwise explained, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this disclosure belongs. Definitions of common terms in molecular biology can be found in Benjamin Lewin, Genes V, published by Oxford University Press, 1994 (ISBN 0-19- 854287-9); Kendrew et al. (eds.), The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, published by Blackwell Science Ltd., 1994 (ISBN 0-632-02182-9); and Robert A. Meyers (ed.), Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: a Comprehensive Desk Reference, published by VCH Publishers, Inc., 1995 (ISBN 1-56081-569-8).

[040] The singular terms "a," "an," and "the" include plural referents unless context clearly indicates otherwise. Similarly, the word "or" is intended to include "and" unless the context clearly indicates otherwise. The term "plurality" refers to two or more. It is further to be understood that all base sizes or amino acid sizes, and all molecular weight or molecular mass values, given for nucleic acids or polypeptides are approximate, and are provided for description. Additionally, numerical limitations given with respect to concentrations or levels of a substance, such as an antigen, are intended to be approximate. Thus, where a concentration is indicated to be at least (for example) 200 pg, it is intended that the concentration be understood to be at least approximately (or "about" or "~") 200

Pg-

[041] Although methods and materials similar or equivalent to those described herein can be used in the practice or testing of this disclosure, suitable methods and materials are described below. The term "comprises" means "includes." Thus, unless the context requires otherwise, the word "comprises," and variations such as "comprise" and "comprising" will be understood to imply the inclusion of a stated compound or composition (e.g., nucleic acid, polypeptide, antigen) or step, or group of compounds or steps, but not to the exclusion of any other compounds, composition, steps, or groups thereof. The abbreviation, "e.g." is derived from the Latin exempli gratia, and is used herein to indicate a non-limiting example. Thus, the abbreviation "e.g." is synonymous with the term "for example."

[042] The term "F protein" or "Fusion protein" or "F protein polypeptide" or "Fusion protein polypeptide" refers to a polypeptide or protein having all or part of an amino acid sequence of an RSV Fusion protein polypeptide. Numerous RSV Fusion proteins have been described and are known to those of skill in the art. WO20081 14149 sets out exemplary F protein variants (for example, naturally occurring variants).

[043] An "F protein analog" refers to an F protein which includes a modification that alters the structure or function of the F protein but which retains the immunological properties of the F protein such that an immune response generated against an F protein analog will recognize the native F protein. WO2010149745, incorporated herein in its entirety by reference, sets out exemplary F protein analogs. WO201 1008974,

incorporated herein in its entirety by reference, also sets out exemplary F protein analogs. F protein analogs include for example PreF antigens which include at least one

modification that stabilizes the prefusion conformation of the F protein and which are generally soluble, i.e., not membrane bound. F protein analogs also include post-fusion F (postF) antigens which are in the post-fusion conformation of the RSV F protein, favorably stabilized in such conformation. F analogs further include F protein in an intermediate conformation, favorably stabilized in such conformation. Such alternatives are also generally soluble.

[044] A "variant" when referring to a nucleic acid or a polypeptide (e.g., an RSV F or G protein nucleic acid or polypeptide, or an F analog nucleic acid or polypeptide) is a nucleic acid or a polypeptide that differs from a reference nucleic acid or polypeptide. Usually, the difference(s) between the variant and the reference nucleic acid or polypeptide constitute a proportionally small number of differences as compared to the referent.

[045] A "domain" of a polypeptide or protein is a structurally defined element within the polypeptide or protein. For example, a "trimerization domain" is an amino acid sequence within a polypeptide that promotes assembly of the polypeptide into trimers. For example, a trimerization domain can promote assembly into trimers via associations with other trimerization domains (of additional polypeptides with the same or a different amino acid sequence). The term is also used to refer to a polynucleotide that encodes such a peptide or polypeptide.

[046] The terms "native" and "naturally occurring" refer to an element, such as a protein, polypeptide or nucleic acid that is present in the same state as it is in nature. That is, the element has not been modified artificially. It will be understood, that in the context of this disclosure, there are numerous native/naturally occurring variants of RSV proteins or polypeptides, e.g., obtained from different naturally occurring strains or isolates of RSV. WO2008114149, incorporated herein by reference in its entirety, contains exemplary RSV strains, proteins and polypeptides, see for example Figure 4.

[047] The term "polypeptide" refers to a polymer in which the monomers are amino acid residues which are joined together through amide bonds. The terms "polypeptide" or "protein" as used herein are intended to encompass any amino acid sequence and include modified sequences such as glycoproteins. The term "polypeptide" is specifically intended to cover naturally occurring proteins, as well as those which are recombinantly or synthetically produced. The term "fragment," in reference to a polypeptide, refers to a portion (that is, a subsequence) of a polypeptide. The term "immunogenic fragment" refers to all fragments of a polypeptide that retain at least one predominant immunogenic epitope of the full-length reference protein or polypeptide. Orientation within a polypeptide is generally recited in an N-terminal to C-terminal direction, defined by the orientation of the amino and carboxy moieties of individual amino acids. Polypeptides are translated from the N or amino-terminus towards the C or carboxy -terminus.

[048] A "signal peptide" is a short amino acid sequence (e.g., approximately 18-25 amino acids in length) that directs newly synthesized secretory or membrane proteins to and through membranes, e.g., of the endoplasmic reticulum. Signal peptides are frequently but not universally located at the N-terminus of a polypeptide, and are frequently cleaved off by signal peptidases after the protein has crossed the membrane. Signal sequences typically contain three common structural features: an N-terminal polar basic region (n-region), a hydrophobic core, and a hydrophilic c-region). [049] The terms "polynucleotide" and "nucleic acid sequence" refer to a polymeric form of nucleotides at least 10 bases in length. Nucleotides can be ribonucleotides,

deoxyribonucleotides, or modified forms of either nucleotide. The term includes single and double forms of DNA. By "isolated polynucleotide" is meant a polynucleotide that is not immediately contiguous with both of the coding sequences with which it is immediately contiguous (one on the 5' end and one on the 3' end) in the naturally occurring genome of the organism from which it is derived. In one embodiment, a polynucleotide encodes a polypeptide. The 5' and 3' direction of a nucleic acid is defined by reference to the connectivity of individual nucleotide units, and designated in accordance with the carbon positions of the deoxyribose (or ribose) sugar ring. The informational (coding) content of a polynucleotide sequence is read in a 5' to 3' direction.

[050] A "recombinant" nucleic acid is one that has a sequence that is not naturally occurring or has a sequence that is made by an artificial combination of two otherwise separated segments of sequence. This artificial combination can be accomplished by chemical synthesis or, more commonly, by the artificial manipulation of isolated segments of nucleic acids, e.g., by genetic engineering techniques. A "recombinant" protein is one that is encoded by a heterologous (e.g., recombinant) nucleic acid, which has been introduced into a host cell, such as a bacterial or eukaryotic cell. The nucleic acid can be introduced, on an expression vector having signals capable of expressing the protein encoded by the introduced nucleic acid or the nucleic acid can be integrated into the host cell chromosome.

[051] The term "heterologous" with respect to a nucleic acid, a polypeptide or another cellular component, indicates that the component occurs where it is not normally found in nature and/or that it originates from a different source or species.

[052] An "antigen" is a compound, composition, or substance that can stimulate the production of antibodies and/or a T cell response in a subject, including compositions that are injected, absorbed or otherwise introduced intoa subject. The term "antigen" includes all related antigenic epitopes. The term "epitope" or "antigenic determinant" refers to a site on an antigen to which B and/or T cells respond. The "dominant antigenic epitopes" or "dominant epitope" are those epitopes to which a functionally significant host immune response, e.g., an antibody response or a T-cell response, is made. Thus, with respect to a protective immune response against a pathogen, the dominant antigenic epitopes are those antigenic moieties that when recognized by the host immune system result in protection from disease caused by the pathogen. The term "T-cell epitope" refers to an epitope that when bound to an appropriate MHC molecule is specifically bound by a T cell (via a T cell receptor). A "B-cell epitope" is an epitope that is specifically bound by an antibody (or B cell receptor molecule).

[053] An "adjuvant" is an agent that enhances the production of an immune response in a non-antigen specific manner. Common adjuvants include suspensions of minerals (alum, aluminum hydroxide, aluminum phosphate) onto which antigen is adsorbed;

emulsions, including water-in-oil, and oil-in-water (and variants thereof, including double emulsions and reversible emulsions), liposaccharides, lipopolysaccharides,

immunostimulatory nucleic acids (such as CpG oligonucleotides), liposomes, Toll-like Receptor agonists (particularly, TLR2, TLR4, TLR7/8 and TLR9 agonists), and various combinations of such components.

[054] An "antibody" or "immunoglobulin" is a plasma protein, made up of four polypeptides that binds specifically to an antigen. An antibody molecule is made up of two heavy chain polypeptides and two light chain polypeptides (or multiples thereof) held together by disulfide bonds. In humans, antibodies are defined into five isotypes or classes: IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD, and IgE. IgG antibodies can be further divided into four sublclasses (IgGi, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4). A "neutralizing" antibody is an antibody that is capable of inhibiting the infectivity of a virus. Accordingly, a neutralizing antibodies specific for RSV are capable of inhibiting or reducing the infectivity of RSV.

[055] An "immunogenic composition" is a composition of matter suitable for administration to a human or animal subject (e.g., in an experimental or clinical setting) that is capable of eliciting a specific immune response, e.g., against a pathogen, such as RSV or Bordetella pertussis). As such, an immunogenic composition includes one or more antigens (for example, polypeptide antigens) or antigenic epitopes. An

immunogenic composition can also include one or more additional components capable of eliciting or enhancing an immune response, such as an excipient, carrier, and/or adjuvant. In certain instances, immunogenic compositions are administered to elicit an immune response that protects the subject against symptoms or conditions induced by a pathogen. In some cases, symptoms or disease caused by a pathogen is prevented (or reduced or ameliorated) by inhibiting replication or cellular infection of the pathogen following exposure of the subject to the pathogen. In the context of this disclosure, the term immunogenic composition will be understood to encompass compositions that are intended for administration to a subject or population of subjects for the purpose of eliciting a protective, preventative or palliative immune response against RSV or pertussis (that is, vaccine compositions or vaccines).

[056] An "immune response" is a response of a cell of the immune system, such as a B cell, T cell, or monocyte, to a stimulus, such as a pathogen or antigen (e.g., formulated as an immunogenic composition or vaccine). An immune response can be a B cell response, which results in the production of specific antibodies, such as antigen specific neutralizing antibodies. An immune response can also be a T cell response, such as a CD4+ response or a CD8+ response. B cell and T cell responses are aspects of a "cellular" immune response. An immune response can also be a "humoral" immune response, which is mediated by antibodies, which can be detected and/or measured, e.g., by an ELISA assay. In some cases, the response is specific for a particular antigen (that is, an "antigen-specific response"). If the antigen is derived from a pathogen, the antigen-specific response is a "pathogen-specific response." A "protective immune response" is an immune response that inhibits a detrimental function or activity of a pathogen, reduces infection by a pathogen, or decreases symptoms (including death) that result from infection by the pathogen. A protective immune response can be measured, for example, by the inhibition of viral replication or plaque formation in a plaque reduction assay or neutralization assay, or by measuring resistance to pathogen challenge in vivo. Exposure of a subject to an immunogenic stimulus, such as a pathogen or antigen (e.g., formulated as an immunogenic composition or vaccine), elicits or induces a primary immune response specific for the stimulus, that is, the exposure "primes" the immune response. A subsequent exposure, e.g., by immunization, to the stimulus can increase or "boost" the magnitude (or duration, or both) of the specific immune response. Thus, "boosting" a preexisting immune response by administering an immunogenic composition increases the magnitude of an antigen (or pathogen) specific response, (e.g., by increasing antibody titre and/or affinity, by increasing the frequency of antigen specific B or T cells, by inducing maturation effector function, or any combination therof). [057] The adjective "pharmaceutically acceptable" indicates that the referent is suitable for administration to a subject (e.g., a human or animal subject). Remington's

Pharmaceutical Sciences, by E. W. Martin, Mack Publishing Co., Easton, PA, 15th Edition (1975), describes compositions and formulations (including diluents) suitable for pharmaceutical delivery of therapeutic and/or prophylactic compositions, including immunogenic compositions.

[058] The term "reduces" is a relative term, such that an agent reduces a response or condition if the response or condition is quantitatively diminished following

administration of the agent, or if it is diminished following administration of the agent, as compared to a reference agent. Similarly, the term "protects" does not necessarily mean that an agent completely eliminates the risk of an infection or disease caused by infection, so long as at least one characteristic of the response or condition is substantially or significantly reduced or eliminated. Thus, an immunogenic composition that protects against or reduces an infection or a disease, or symptom thereof, can, but does not necessarily prevent or eliminate infection or disease in all subjects, so long as the incidence or severity of infection or incidence or severity of disease is measurably reduced, for example, by at least about 50%, or by at least about 60%, or by at least about 70%, or by at least about 80%, or by at least about 90% of the infection or response in the absence of the agent, or in comparison to a reference agent. In certain instances, the reduction is in the incidence of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), or the incidence of severe LRTI, or hospitalizations due to RSV disease, or in the severity of disease caused by RSV. In other instances, the reduction is in the incidence of pneumonia, or hospitalization due to disease caused by B. pertussis.

[059] A "subject" is a living multi-cellular vertebrate organism. In the context of this disclosure, the subject can be an experimental subject, such as a non-human animal, e.g., a mouse, a cotton rat, guinea pig, cow, or a non-human primate. Alternatively, the subject can be a human subject. Similarly, a pregnant female and an infant can be a non-human animal or a human female and infant, respectively.

MATERNAL IMMUNIZATION

[060] Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is an infection of any of the tissues of the lower respiratory tract with the most severe forms including bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the most common worldwide cause of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in infants less than 6 months of age and premature babies less than or equal to 35 weeks of gestation. The RSV disease spectrum includes a wide array of respiratory symptoms from rhinitis and otitis to pneumonia and

bronchiolitis, the latter two diseases being associated with considerable morbidity and mortality.

[061] The bacterium Bordetella pertussis (pertussis) is the causative agent for whooping cough, a respiratory disease that can be severe in infants and young children, with secondary pneumonia, apnea and respiratory distress and failure being a serious complications. Although treatment with antibiotics is available, by the time the disease is diagnosed, bacterial toxins can cause severe damage. Both natural infection with RSV and immunization with pertussis vaccines result in immunity that wanes over time, with the consequence that adolescents and adults can act as reservoirs of these highly contagious diseases. This puts neonates at particular risk in the first few months of life where the consequences of infection are most severe.

[062] Strategies for protecting vulnerable newborns against pertussis infection and disease include "cocooning", i.e., vaccinating adolescents and adults (including postpartum women) likely to be in contact with newborns. Vaccination of pregnant women (maternal immunization) against pertussis is now recommended in several countries, whereby anti-pertussis antibodies are transferred placentally to provide protection until the infant can be directly vaccinated. Nonetheless, there remains an unmet need for a combination vaccine which confers protection against both RSV and B.

pertussis infection and associated disease, which pose particular dangers to neonates and young infants.

[063] A particular challenge in the development of a safe and effective vaccine that protects infants against disease caused by RSV and pertussis is that the highest incidence and greatest morbidity and mortality is in very young infants. Young infants, especially those born prematurely, can have an immature immune system. Physiologically infants may be more susceptible to diseases of the lower respiratory tract than older children. Thus, protecting young infants from RSV disease, whooping cough and in particular from severe LRTI, pneumonia, and respiratory distress and failure is particularly important. There is also a potential risk of interference of antibodies transferred via the placenta to the infant ("maternal antibodies") with vaccination of the infant, such that vaccination in early infancy may not be sufficiently effective, e.g., to elicit a fully protective neutralizing antibody response.

[064] The present disclosure concerns vaccination regimens, methods and uses of immunogenic compositions and kits suitable for protecting young infants from disease caused by RSV and pertussis by actively immunizing pregnant women with a safe and effective immunogenic composition(s) containing an analog of the RSV F protein and an acellular or whole cell pertussis antigen. The F protein analog favorably elicits antibodies (e.g., neutralizing antibodies), by boosting or increasing the magnitude of the humoral response previously primed by natural exposure to (or prior vaccination against) RSV. Similarly, the pertussis antigen elicits antibodies, by boosting or increasing the magnitude of the humoral response previously primed by natural exposure to, or prior vaccination against, pertussis. The antibodies produced in response to the F protein analog and pertussis antigen are transferred to the gestational infant via the placenta, resulting in passive immunological protection of the infant following birth and lasting through the critical period for infection and severe disease caused by RSV and pertussis (e.g., before infant vaccination is fully protective). Typically, the passive immunological protection conferred by this method lasts between birth and at least two months of age, for example, up to about 6 months of age, or even longer.

[065] The immunogenic compositions described herein containing an F protein analog and/or a pertussis antigen are designed to induce a strong antibody responses (e.g., neutralizing antibodies). Since pregnant mothers have typically been exposed to RSV one or more times during their lives, they have an existing primed response to RSV. The proportion of the population exposed to RSV infection by adulthood is essentially 100%. Pediatric immunization programs designed to protect against and prevent whooping cough are widespread. However, despite widespread immunization natural infection with B. pertussis is also common. Thus, priming to pertussis is also widespread. Therefore, the provision of protection from RSV and pertussis for the infant immediately after birth and for the crucial first few months that follow, can be achieved by boosting these primed responses as effectively as possible to increase serum antibody responses (levels) against RSV and pertussis in the mother, and favorably in respect of particular antibody subclasses (subtypes) such as IgGi that can cross the placenta and provide protection to the infant. In one embodiment, immunogenic compositions for use herein do not include an adjuvant, or include an adjuvant which favors a strong IgG] response such as a mineral salt such as an aluminium or calcium salt, in particular aluminium hydroxide, aluminium phosphate or calcium phosphate. Thus in a particular embodiment the F protein analog for the methods and uses described herein is favorably formulated with a mineral salt, favorably alum. In alternative embodiments, the adjuvant that favors a strong IgGi response is an oil-in- water emulsion, or a saponin, such as QS21 (or a detoxified version thereof), as will be described in more detail below.

[066] A pregnant female can be a human female, and accordingly, the infant or gestational infant can be a human infant. For a pregnant human female the gestational age of the developing fetus is measured from the start of the last menstrual period. The number of weeks post-conception is measured from 14 days after the start of the last menstrual period. Thus, when a pregnant human female is said to be 24 weeks post conception this will be equal to 26 weeks after the start of her last menstrual period, or 26 weeks of gestation. When a pregnancy has been achieved by assisted reproductive technology, gestational stage of the developing fetus is calculated from two weeks before the date of conception.

[067] The term "gestational infant" as used herein means the fetus or developing fetus of a pregnant female. The term "gestational age" is used to mean the number of weeks of gestation i.e. the number of weeks since the start of the last menstrual period. Human gestation is typically about 40 weeks from the start of the last menstrual period, and may conveniently be divided into trimesters, with the first trimester extending from the first day of the last menstrual period through the 13th week of gestation; the second trimester spanning from the 14th through the 27th weeks of gestation, and the third trimester starting in the 28th week and extending until birth. Thus, the third trimester starts at 26 weeks post-conception and continues through to birth of the infant.

[068] The term "infant" when referring to a human is between 0 and two years of age It will be understood that the protection provided by the methods and uses described herein can potentially provide protection for an infant into childhood, from aged 2 to 1 1 , or early childhood for example from ages 2 to 5, or even into adolescence, from aged 12 to 18. However it is during infancy that an individual is most vulnerable to severe RSV disease and complications of whooping cough (pertussis) so this is the focus of the present disclosure (e.g., from birth to about 6 months of age).

[069] A human infant can be immunologically immature in the first few months of life, especially when born prematurely, e.g., before 35 weeks gestation, when the immune system may not be sufficiently well developed to mount an immune response capable of preventing infection or disease caused by a pathogen in the way that a developed immune system would be capable of doing in response to the same pathogen, An immunologically immature infant is more likely to succumb to infection and disease caused by a pathogen than an infant with a more developed or mature immune system. A human infant can also have an increased vulnerability to LRTIs (including pneumonia) during the first few months of life for physiological and developmental reasons, for example, airways are small and less developed or mature than in children and adults. For these reasons, when we refer herein to the first six months of infancy this may be extended for premature or pre-term infants according to the amount of time lost in gestational age below 40 weeks or below 38 weeks or below 35 weeks.

[070] In an alternative embodiment, the pregnant female and its infant are from any species such as those described above under "subjects". For a pregnant animal, such as a pregnant guinea pig or cow, the time post-conception is measured as the time since mating. In humans and in some animals, for example guinea pigs, antibodies pass from the mother to the fetus via the placenta. Some antibody isotypes may be preferentially transferred through the placenta, for example in humans IgGi antibodies are the isotype most efficiently transferred across the placenta. Although subclasses exist in experimental animals, such as guinea pigs and mice, the various subclasses do not necessarily serve the same function, and a direct correlate between subclasses of humans and animals cannot easily be made.

[071] Favorably, protecting the infant by reducing the inhibiting infection and reducing incidence or severity of disease caused by RSV and pertussis covers at least the neonatal period and very young infancy, for example at least the first several weeks of life following birth, such as the first month from birth, or the first two months, or the first three months, or the first four months, or the first five months, or the first six months from birth, or longer, e.g., when the infant is a full-term infant delivered at about 40 weeks of gestation or later. After the first few months, when the infant is less vulnerable to the effects of severe RSV disease and whooping cough, protection against these infections may wane. Thus vital protection is provided during the period when it is most needed. In the case of a pre-term infant, favorably protection is provided for a longer period from birth for example an additional time period at least equaling the time interval between birth of the infant and what would have been 35 weeks gestation (i.e., by about 5 extra weeks), or 38 weeks gestation (by about 2 extra weeks), or longer depending on the gestational age of the infant at birth.

[072] It will be evident that protecting the infant does not necessarily meanl00% protection against infection by RSV or by pertussis. Provided that that there is a reduction in incidence or severity of infection or disease it will be recognized that protection is provided. Protecting the infant favorably includes protecting the infant from severe disease and hospitalization caused by RSV and pertussis. As such, the methods and uses disclosed herein reduce the incidence or severity of disease caused by RSV and pertussis such as LRTI, pneumonia or other symptoms or disease. For example, administration of an immunogenic composition containing an F protein analog as disclosed herein can reduce the incidence (in a cohort of infants of vaccinated mothers) of LRTI by at least about 50%, or at least about 60%, or by 60 to 70 %, or by at least about70%, or by at least about 80%, or by at least about 90% compared to infants of unvaccinated mothers.

Favorably, such administration reduces the severity of LRTI by at least about 50%, or at least about 60%, or by 60 to 70 %, or by at least about70%, or by at least about 80%, or by at least about 90% compared to infected infants of unvaccinated mothers. Favorably, such administration reduces the need for hospitalization due to severe RSV disease in such a cohort by at least about 50%, or at least about 60%, or by 60 to 70 %, or by at least about70%, or by at least about 80%, or by at least about 90% compared to infected infants of unvaccinated mothers. Whether there is considered to be a need for hospitalization due to severe LRTI, or whether a particular case of LRTI is hospitalized, may vary from country to country and therefore severe LRTI as judged according to defined clinical symptoms well known in the art may be a better measure than the need for hospitalization. With respect to pertussis, administration of an immunogenic composition containing an acellular or whole cell pertussis antigen as disclosed herein can reduce the incidence (in a cohort of infants of vaccinated mothers) of severe disease (e.g., pneumonia and/or respiratory distress and failure) by at least about 50%, or at least about 60%, or by 60 to 70 %, or by at least about70%, or by at least about 80%, or by at least about 90% compared to infants of un vaccinated mothers. Favorably, such administration reduces the severity of pneumonia by at least about 50%, or at least about 60%, or by 60 to 70 %, or by at least about70%, or by at least about 80%, or by at least about 90% compared to infected infants of unvaccinated mothers. Favorably, such administration reduces the need for

hospitalization due to severe complications of pertussis in such a cohort by at least about 50%, or at least about 60%, or by 60 to 70 %, or by at least about70%, or by at least about 80%, or by at least about 90% compared to infected infants of unvaccinated mothers.

[073] Typically, according to the vaccination regimens, methods, uses and kits, the F protein analog and pertussis antigen are administered to the pregnant female during the third trimester of pregnancy (gestation). The timing of maternal immunization is designed to allow generation of maternal antibodies and transfer of the maternal antibodies to the fetus. Thus, favorably sufficient time elapses between immunization and birth to allow optimum transfer of maternal antibodies across the placenta. Antibody transfer starts in humans generally at about 25 weeks of gestation, increasing up 28 weeks and becoming and remaining optimal from about 30 weeks of gestation. A minimum of about two to four weeks is believed to be needed between maternal immunization as described herein and birth to allow effective transfer of maternal antibodies against RSV F protein and pertussis antigens (e.g., comprising one or more of pertussis toxoid (PT), filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (PRN), fimbrae type 2 (FIM2), fimbrae type 3 (FIM3) and BrkA, or whole cell pertussis antigen) to the fetus. Thus maternal immunization can take place any time after 25 weeks of gestation, for example at or after 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33 or 34 weeks of gestation (23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35 or 36 weeks post-conception), or at or before 38, 37, 36, 35, 34, 33, 32, 31 or 30 weeks of gestation (36, 35, 34, 33, 32, 31, 29 or 28 weeks post-conception). Favorably maternal immunization is carried out between 26 and 38 weeks, such as between 28 and 34 weeks of gestation.

[074] Favorably maternal immunization is carried out at least two or at least three or at least four or at least five or at least six weeks prior to the expected date of delivery of the infant. Timing of administration may need to be adjusted in the case of a pregnant female who is at risk of an early delivery, in order to provide sufficient time for generation of antibodies and transfer to the fetus.

[075] Favorably, the F protein analog and pertussis antigen(s) or formulation thereof is administered to the pregnant female in a single dose, during the period described.

Maternal immunization against RSV and pertussis, as described herein, can be considered as a "booster" for existing maternal immunity against RSV and pertussis that increases the immune response against RSV and pertussis that has previously been primed, e.g., by natural exposure or vaccination). Thus, it is expected that only a single dose is required. If a second dose is administered, this is favorably also within the time period for administration for the first dose, favorably with a time gap between the first and second doses of for example one to eight weeks or two to six weeks, for example two weeks or four weeks or six weeks.

Administration of an F protein analog and a pertussis antigen to a pregnant female results in boosting maternal antibody titres, for example, increasing titres of serum (e.g., neutralizing) antibodies, preferably of the IgGi subclass. The increased antibody titre in the mother results in the passive transfer of RSV-specific and pertussis-specific antibodies (e.g., with neutralizing effector function) to the gestating infant across the placenta via an active transport mechanism mediated by Fc receptors, e.g., in the syncytiotrophoblast of the chorionic villi. Transport across the placenta of RSV- and pertussis-specific IgGi antibodies resulting from the immunization methods disclosed herein is expected to be efficient and result in titres, which in infants born at or near term, approach, equal or exceed the titres in maternal circulation. For example, titres of RSV-specific antibodies are favorably at levels of at least 30 mcg/mL at birth. Typically, the titres can be at or above this level, such as at 40 mcg/mL, 50 mcg/mL, 60 mcg/mL, or even higher, such as 75 mcg/mL, 80 mcg/mL, 90 mcg/mL, 100 mcg/mL, or even up to 120 mcg/mL or higher in healthy infants born at full term gestation.

[076] Titres of pertussis- (e.g., PT-) specific antibodies are typically measured by ELISA in terms of ELISA units/ml (EU), as described, e.g., in Meade et al., "Description and evaluation of serologic assays used in a multicenter trial of acellular pertussis vaccines", Pediatrics (1995) 96:570-5. Briefly, for example, microtiter plates (e.g., Immulon 2 , VWR International, West Chester, PA, USA) are coated with standard quantities of PT, FHA, FIM or PRN. Serial dilutions of serum is incubated for approximately 2 h at 28 °C and an appropriate dilution of alkaline phosphatase-conjugated goat anti-human IgG is added. The reaction is developed and read at 405 nm. The lower limit of detection of each specific antibody is determined by multiple measurements of serially diluted reference material for each antigen and is set at 1 ELISA unit (EU) for PT, FHA and PRN, and 2 EU for FIM. Favorably, following administration of an

immunogenic composition comprising a pertussis antigen as according to the vaccination regimen, method, use or as contained in the kits disclosed herein, pertussis-specific antibody titres are at levels of at least 10 EU at birth. Typically the titres can be at or above this level, such as at 20 EU, 30 EU, 40 EU, 50 EU, 60 EU, 70 EU, 80 EU, 90 EU or at or above 100 EU. These values can be on an individual basis or on a population mean basis. Favorably, the level of antibodies observed at birth is above the stated thresholds and persists for several months following birth.

[077] Effector function, e.g., neutralizing capacity (neutralization titre) of the transferred antibodies can also be assessed, and provides a measure of functional attribute of the antibodies correlated with protection. For example, in the case of RSV, a specific quantity of a replication capable RSV virus and a defined dilution of serum are mixed and incubated. The virus-serum reaction mixture is then transferred onto host cells (e.g., HEp- 2 cells) permissive for viral replication and incubated under conditions and for a period of time suitable for cell growth and viral replication. Non-neutralized virus is able to infect and replicate in the host cells. This leads to the formation of a given number of plaque forming units (PFU) on the cell monolayer that can be detected using a fluorochrome- tagged anti-RSV antibody. The neutralising titre is determined by calculating the serum dilution inducing a specified level of inhibition (e.g., 50% inhibition or 60% inhibition) in PFUs compared to a cell monolayer infected with virus alone, without serum. For example, the Palivizumab antibody has been shown to have a neutralization titer (50% effective concentration [EC50]) expressed as the antibody concentration required to reduce detection of RSV antigen by 50% compared with untreated virus-infected cells of 0.65 meg per mL (mean 0.75 ± 0.53 meg per mL; n=69, range 0.07-2.89 meg per mL) and 0.28 meg per mL (mean 0.35 ± 0.23 meg per mL; n=35, range 0.03-0.88 meg per mL) against clinical RSV A and RSV B isolates, respectively. Thus, in certain embodiments, the neutralization titre of antibodies transferred via the placenta to the gestational infant can be measured in the infant following birth and has (on a population median basis) an EC50 of at least about 0.50 mcg/mL (for example, at least about 0.65 mcg/mL), or greater for an RSV A strain and an EC50 of at least about 0.3 mcg/mL (for example, at least about 0.35 mcg/mL), or greater for an RSV B strain. Favorably, the neutralizing antibody titre remains above the stated threshold for several weeks to months following birth.

[078] Toxin-neutralizing effector function of antibodies specific for pertussis toxin can also be measured if desired, e.g., in a Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell neutralization assay, for example as described in Gillenius et al., "The standardization of an assay for pertussis toxin and antitoxin in microplate culture of Chinese hamster ovary cells". J. Biol. Stand. (1985) 13:61-66. However, neutralizing activity in this assay is less well correlated with protection.

[079] Optionally, according to the vaccination regimens, methods, uses and kits disclosed herein, in order to extend protection against RSV and pertussis beyond the early months of life during which the passively transferred maternal antibodies provide protection, the infant can be actively immunized to elicit an adaptive immune response specific for RSV and/or pertussis. Such active immunization of the infant can be accomplished by administering one or more than one composition that contains an RSV antigen and/or a pertussis antigen. For example, the (one or more) composition(s) can comprise an F protein analog, optionally formulated with an adjuvant to enhance the immune response elicited by the antigen. For administration to an infant that has not been previously exposed to RSV, the F protein analog can be formulated with an adjuvant that elicits immune response that is characterized by the production of T cells that exhibit a Thl cytokine profile (or that is characterized by a balance of T cells that exhibit Thl and Th2 cytokine profiles).

[080] Alternatively, rather than administering a F protein analog or other protein subunit vaccine, the composition that elicits an adaptive immune response to protect against RSV can include a live attenuated virus vaccine, or a nucleic acid that encodes one or more RSV antigens (such as an F antigen, a G antigen, an N antigen, or a M2 antigen, or portions thereof). For example, the nucleic acid may be in a vector, such as a recombinant viral vector, for example, an adenovirus vector , an adeno-associated virus vector, an MVA vector, a measles vector, or the like. Exemplary viral vectors are disclosed in WO2012 089231 , which is incorporated herein for the purpose of illustrating immunogenic compositions that contain a viral vector that encodes one or more RSV antigens. Alternatively, the nucleic acid can be a self replicating nucleic acid, such as a self-replicating RNA, e.g., in the form of a viral replicon, such as an alphavirus replicon (e.g., in the form of a virus replicon particle packaged with virus structural proteins). Examples of such self-replicating RNA replicons are described in WO2012/103361, which is incorporated herein for the purpose of disclosing RNA replicons that encode RSV proteins and their formulation as immunogenic compositions.

[081] Additionally or alternatively, one or more composition(s) that contain a pertussis antigen can be administered to the infant. For example, the composition can include an acellular pertussis antigen selected from the group consisting of: pertussis toxoid (PT), filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (PRN), fimbrae type 2 (FIM2), fimbrae type 3 (FIM3) and BrkA, or a combination thereof (e.g., PT and FHA; PT, FHA and PRN; or PT, FHA, PRN and either or both of FIM2 and FIM3), for example where the PT is chemically or is genetically toxoided as described hereinbelow. Alternatively, the composition can include a whole cell pertussis antigen as described hereinbelow.

[082] In certain embodiments, the RSV antigenic component (e.g., recombinant protein, such as a F protein analog) and the pertussis antigenic component are coformulated into a single immunogenic composition to be administered according to the vaccination regimen, method, or use described herein. Altemtively, the RSV antigenic component and pertussis antigenic component are formulated in two (or more) different immunogenic

compositions, which can be administered at the same or different times, e.g., according to the various approved and recommended pediatric immunization schedules).

[083] When composition(s) that elicits an adaptive RSV immune response and/or an adaptive pertussis immune response is administered to an infant born to a mother that received an RSV vaccine as disclosed herein during pregnancy, the composition can be administered one or more times. The first administration can be at or near the time of birth (e.g., on the day of or the day following birth), or within 1 week of birth or within about 2 weeks of birth. Alternatively, the first administration can be at about 4 weeks after birth, about 6 weeks after birth, about 2 months after birth, about 3 months after birth, about 4 months after birth, or later, such as about 6 months after birth, about 9 months after birth, or about 12 months after birth. For example, in the case of a composition containing a pertussis antigen (e.g., Pa or Pw), it is common to administer the vaccine at about 2, 4 and 6 months after birth (followed by additional doses at 12-18 months and optionally, between 4-7 yrs of age). Thus, in an embodiment, this disclosure provides methods for protecting an infant from disease caused by SV and pertussis, by administering one or more compositions that elicits an immune response specific for RSV and/or pertussisto an infant born to a female to whom an immunogenic composition comprising an F protein analog and a pertussis antigen was administered during the time that she was pregnant with the infant.

RSV F PROTEIN ANALOGS

[084] The recombinant RSV antigens disclosed herein, and suitable for use in the vaccination regimens, methods, uses and kits, are F protein analogs derived from (that is, corresponding immunologically in whole or in part to) the RSV F protein. They can include one or more modifications that alter the structure or function of the F protein but retain the immunological properties of the F protein such that an immune response generated against an F protein analog will recognize the native F protein and thus recognize RSV. F protein analogs described herein are useful as immunogens.

[085] Details of the structure of the RSV F protein are provided herein with reference to terminology and designations widely accepted in the art, and illustrated schematically in FIG. 1 A. With reference to the primary amino acid sequence of the F protein polypeptide (FIG. 1 A), the following terms are utilized to describe structural features of the F protein analogs.

[086] The term F0 refers to a full-length translated F protein precursor. The F0 polypeptide can be subdivided into an F2 domain and an Fl domain separated by an intervening peptide, designated pep27. During maturation, the F0 polypeptide undergoes proteolytic cleavage at two furin sites situated between F2 and Fl and flanking pep27. For purpose of the ensuing discussion, an F2 domain includes at least a portion, and as much as all, of amino acids 1-109, and a soluble portion of an Fl domain includes at least a portion, and up to all, of amino acids 137-526 of the F protein. As indicated above, these amino acid positions (and all subsequent amino acid positions designated herein) are given in reference to the exemplary F protein precursor polypeptide (F0) of SEQ ID NO:2. [087] In nature, the RSV F protein is expressed as a single polypeptide precursor 574 amino acids in length, designated F0. In vivo, F0 oligomerizes in the endoplasmic reticulum and is proteolytically processed by a furin protease at two conserved furin consensus sequences (furin cleavage sites), RARR109 (SEQ ID NO: 15) and RKRR136 (SEQ ID NO: 16) to generate an oligomer consisting of two disulfide-linked fragments. The smaller of these fragments is termed F2 and originates from the N-terminal portion of the F0 precursor. It will be recognized by those of skill in the art that the abbreviations F0, Fl and F2 are commonly designated F0, Fi and F2 in the scientific literature. The larger, C-terminal Fl fragment anchors the F protein in the membrane via a sequence of hydrophobic amino acids, which are adjacent to a 24 amino acid cytoplasmic tail. Three F2-F1 dimers associate to form a mature F protein, which adopts a metastable

prefusogenic ("prefusion") conformation that is triggered to undergo a conformational change upon contact with a target cell membrane. This conformational change exposes a hydrophobic sequence, known as the fusion peptide, which associates with the host cell membrane and promotes fusion of the membrane of the virus, or an infected cell, with the target cell membrane.

[088] The Fl fragment contains at least two heptad repeat domains, designated HRA and HRB, and situated in proximity to the fusion peptide and transmembrane anchor domains, respectively. In the prefusion conformation, the F2-F1 dimer forms a globular head and stalk structure, in which the HRA domains are in a segmented (extended) conformation in the globular head. In contrast, the HRB domains form a three-stranded coiled coil stalk extending from the head region. During transition from the prefusion to the postfusion conformations, the HRA domains collapse and are brought into proximity to the HRB domains to form an anti-parallel six helix bundle. In the postfusion state the fusion peptide and transmembrane domains are juxtaposed to facilitate membrane fusion.

[089] Although the conformational description provided above is based on molecular modeling of crystallographic data, the structural distinctions between the prefusion and postfusion conformations can be monitored without resort to crystallography. For example, electron micrography can be used to distinguish between the prefusion and postfusion (alternatively designated prefusogenic and fusogenic) conformations, as demonstrated by Calder et al. , Virology, 271 : 122- 131 (2000) and Morton et al. , Virology, 311 :275-288, which are incorporated herein by reference for the purpose of their technological teachings. The prefusion conformation can also be distinguished from the fusogenic (postfusion) conformation by liposome association assays as described by Connolly et al, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 103: 17903-17908 (2006), which is also incorporated herein by reference for the purpose of its technological teachings.

Additionally, prefusion and fusogenic conformations can be distinguished using antibodies that specifically recognize conformation epitopes present on one or the other of the prefusion or fusogenic form of the RSV F protein, but not on the other form. Such conformation epitopes can be due to preferential exposure of an antigenic determinant on the surface of the molecule. Alternatively, conformational epitopes can arise from the juxtaposition of amino acids that are non-contiguous in the linear polypeptide.

[090] Typically, the F protein analogs (PreF, PostF, etc.) analogs lack a transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail, and can also be referred to as an F protein ectodomain or soluble F protein ectodomain.

[091] F protein analogs include an F protein polypeptide, which has been modified to stabilize the prefusion conformation of the F protein, that is, the conformation of the mature assembled F protein prior to fusion with the host cell membrane. These F protein analogs are designated "PreF analogs", "PreF" or "PreF antigens", for purpose of clarity and simplicity, and are generally soluble. The PreF analogs disclosed herein are predicated on the discovery that soluble F protein analogs that have been modified by the incorporation of a heterologous trimerization domain exhibit improved immunogenic characteristics, and are safe and highly protective when administered to a subject in vivo. Exemplary PreF antigens are described in WO2010149745, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety for the purpose of providing examples of PreF antigens.

[092] F protein analogs also include an F protein polypeptide which has the

conformation of the postfusion F protein and which may be referred to as a PostF antigen or postfusion antigen. PostF analogs are described in WO201 1008974, incorporated herein by reference. The PostF antigen contains at least one modification to alter the structure or function of the native postfusion F protein.

[093] In a preferred embodiment, the composition for maternal immunization to protect an infant against RSV disease includes an RSV PreF analog antigen that is stabilized in the prefusion conformation found on the virus prior to cellular adhesion and fusion. A schematic illustration of exemplary PreF analogs is provided in FIG. IB. It will be understood by those of skill in the art that any RSV F protein can be modified to stabilize the prefusion conformation according to the teachings provided herein. Therefore, to facilitate understanding of the principles guiding production of PreF (as well as PostF, and other conformational) analogs, individual structural components will be indicated with reference to an exemplary F protein, the polynucleotide and amino acid sequence of which are provided in SEQ ID NOs:l and 2, respectively. Similarly, where applicable, G protein antigens are described in reference to an exemplary G protein, the polynucleotide and amino acid sequences of which are provided in SEQ ID NOs:3 and 4, respectively.

[094] The PreF analogs disclosed herein are designed to stabilize and maintain the prefusion conformation of the RSV F protein, such that in a population of expressed protein, a substantial portion of the population of expressed protein is in the prefusogenic (prefusion) conformation (e.g., as predicted by structural and/or thermodynamic modeling or as assessed by one or more of the methods disclosed above). Stabilizing modifications are introduced into a native (or synthetic) F protein, such as the exemplary F protein of SEQ ID NO:2, such that the major immunogenic epitopes of the prefusion conformation of the F protein are maintained following introduction of the PreF analog into a cellular or extracellular environment (for example, in vivo, e.g., following administration to a subject).

[095] First, a heterologous stabilizing domain can be placed at the C-terminal end of the construct in order to replace the membrane anchoring domain of the F0 polypeptide. This stabilizing domain is predicted to compensate for the HRB instability, helping to stabilize the -prefusion conformer. In exemplary embodiments, the heterologous stabilizing domain is a protein multimerization domain. One particularly favorable example of such a protein multimerization domain is a trimerization domain. Exemplary trimerization domains fold into a coiled-coil that promotes assembly into trimers of multiple

polypeptides having such coiled-coil domains. Examples of trimerization domains include trimerization domains from influenza hemagglutinin, S ARS spike, HIV gp41 , modified GCN4, bacteriophage T4 fibritin and ATCase. One favorable example of a trimerization domain is an isoleucine zipper. An exemplary isoleucine zipper domain is the engineered yeast GCN4 isoleucine variant described by Harbury et al. Science 262: 1401-1407 (1993). The sequence of one suitable isoleucine zipper domain is represented by SEQ ID NO.T 1, although variants of this sequence that retain the ability to form a coiled-coil stabilizing domain are equally suitable. Alternative stabilizing coiled coil trimerization domains include: TRAF2 (GENBANK® Accession No. Q12933 [gi:23503103]; amino acids 299- 348); Thrombospondin 1 (Accession No. P07996 [gi: 135717]; amino acids 291-314); Matrilin-4 (Accession No. 095460 [gi: 145481 17]; amino acids 594-618; CMP (matrilin- 1) (Accession No. NP_002370 [gi:450511 1]; amino acids 463-496; HSF1 (Accession No. AAX42211 [gi:61362386]; amino acids 165-191 ; and Cubilin (Accession No. NP_001072 [gi:4557503]; amino acids 104-138. It is expected that a suitable trimerization domain results in the assembly of a substantial portion of the expressed protein into trimers. For example, at least 50% of a recombinant PreF polypeptide having a trimerization domain will assemble into a trimer (e.g., as assessed by AFF-MALS). Typically, at least 60%, more favorably at least 70%, and most desirably at least about 75% or more of the expressed polypeptide exists as a trimer.

[096] Another example of a stabilizing mutation is the addition or substitution of a hydrophilic amino acid into a hydrophobic domain of the F protein. Typically, a charged amino acid, such as lysine, will be added or substituted for a neutral residue, such as leucine, in the hydrophobic region. For example, a hydrophilic amino acid can be added to, or substituted for, a hydrophobic or neutral amino acid within the H B coiled-coil domain of the F protein extracellular domain. By way of example, a charged amino acid residue, such as lysine, can be substituted for the leucine present at position 512 the F protein (relative to the native F0 polypeptide; L482K of the exemplary PreF analog polypeptide of SEQ ID NO:6). Alternatively, or in addition, a hydrophilic amino acid can be added to, or substituted for, a hydrophobic or neutral amino acid within the HRA domain of the F protein. For example, one or more charged amino acids, such as lysine, can be inserted at or near position 105-106 (e.g., following the amino acid corresponding to residue 105 of reference SEQ ID NO:2, such as between amino acids 105 and 106) of the PreF analog). Optionally, hydrophilic amino acids can be added or substituted in both the HRA and HRB domains. Alternatively, one or more hydrophobic residues can be deleted, so long as the overall conformation of the PreF analog is not adversely impacted.

[097] Secondly, pep27 can be removed. Analysis of a structural model of the RSV F protein in the prefusion state suggests that pep27 creates a large unconstrained loop between Fl and F2. This loop does not contribute to stabilization of the prefusion state, and is removed following cleavage of the native protein by furin. Thus, pep27 can also be removed from embodiments that involve a postfusion (or other) conformational analog.

[098] Third, one or both furin cleavage motifs can be deleted (from between the F2 and Fl domains in the native F0 protein). One or both furin recognition sites, located at positions 105-109 or 106-109 and at positions 133-136 can be eliminated by deleting or substituting one or more amino acid of the furin recognition sites, for example deleting one or more amino acids or substituting one or more amino acids or a combination of one or more substitutions or deletions, or modifying such that the protease is incapable of cleaving the PreF (or other F protein analog) polypeptide into its constituent domains. Optionally, the intervening pep27 peptide can also be removed or substituted, e.g., by a linker peptide. Additionally, or optionally, a non-furin cleavage site (e.g., a

metalloproteinase site at positions 112-1 13) in proximity to the fusion peptide can be removed or substituted.

[099] Thus, an F protein analog for use in the methods and uses according to the invention can be obtained which is an uncleaved ectodomain having one or more altered furin cleavage sites. Such F protein analog polypeptides are produced recombinantly in a host cell which secretes them uncleaved at position from amino acid 101 to 161, e.g. not cleaved at the furin cleavage sites at positions 105-109 and 131-136. In particular embodiments, the substitution K131Q, the deletion of the amino acids at positions 131- 134, or the substitutions K131Q or R133Q or R135Q or R136Q, are used to inhibit cleavage at 136/137.

[0100] In an exemplary design, the fusion peptide is not cleaved from F2, preventing release from the globular head of the prefusion conformer and accessibility to nearby membranes. Interaction between the fusion peptide and the membrane interface is predicted to be a major issue in the prefusion state instability. During the fusion process, interaction between the fusion peptide and the target membrane results in the exposure of the fusion peptide from within the globular head structure, enhancing instability of the prefusion state and folding into post-fusion conformer. This conformation change enables the process of membrane fusion. Removal of one or both of the furin cleavage sites is predicted to prevent membrane accessibility to the N-terminal part of the fusion peptide, stabilizing the prefusion state. Thus, in exemplary embodiments disclosed herein, removal of the furin cleavage motifs results in a PreF analog that comprises an intact fusion peptide, which is not cleaved by furin during or following processing and assembly.

[0101] Optionally, at least one non-furin cleavage site can also be removed, for example by substitution of one or more amino acids. For example, experimental evidence suggests that under conditions conducive to cleavage by certain metalloproteinases, the F protein analog can be cleaved in the vicinity of amino acids 1 10-1 18 (for example, with cleavage occurring between amino acids 1 12 and 113 of the F protein analog; between a leucine at position 142 and glycine at position 143 of the reference F protein polypeptide of SEQ ID NO:2). Accordingly, modification of one or more amino acids within this region can reduce cleavage of the F protein analog. For example, the leucine at position 1 12 can be substituted with a different amino acid, such as isoleucine, glutamine or tryptophan (as shown in the exemplary embodiment of SEQ ID NO:20). Alternatively or additionally, the glycine at position 1 13 can be substituted by a serine or alanine. In further

embodiments the F prtein analogs further contain altered trypsin cleavage sites, and F protein analogs are not cleaved by trypsin at a site between amino acid 101 and 161.

[0102] Optionally, a F protein analog can include one or more modifications that alters the glycosylation pattern or status (e.g., by increasing or decreasing the proportion of molecules glycosylated at one or more of the glycosylation sites present in a native F protein polypeptide). For example, the native F protein polypeptide of SEQ ID NO:2 is predicted to be glycosylated at amino acid positions 27, 70 and 500 (corresponding to positions 27, 70 and 470 of the exemplary PreF analog of SEQ ID NO:6). In an embodiment, a modification is introduced in the vicinity of the glycosylation site at amino acid position 500 (designated N470). For example, the glycosylation site can be removed by substituting an amino acid, such as glutamine (Q) in place of the asparagine at position 500 (of the reference sequence, which corresponds by alignment to position 470 of the exemplary PreF analog). Favorably, a modification that increases glycosylation efficiency at this glycosylation site is introduced. Examples of suitable modifications include at positions 500-502, the following amino acid sequences: NGS; NKS; NGT; NKT.

Interestingly, it has been found that modifications of this glycosylation site that result in increased glycosylation also result in substantially increased PreF production. Thus, in certain embodiments, the PreF analogs have a modified glycosylation site at the position corresponding to amino acid 500 of the reference PreF sequence (SEQ ID NO:2), e.g., at position 470 of the PreF analog exemplified by SEQ ID NO:6). Suitable, modifications include the sequences: NGS; NKS; NGT; NKT at amino acids corresponding to positions 500-502 of the reference F protein polypeptide sequence. The amino acid of an exemplary embodiment that includes an "NGT" modification is provided in SEQ ID NO: 18. One of skill in the art can easily determine similar modifications for corresponding NGS, NKS, and NKT modifications. Such modifications are favorably combined with any of the stabilizing mutations disclosed herein (e.g., a heterologous coiled-coil, such as an isoleucine zipper, domain and/or a modification in a hydrophobic region, and/or removal of pep27, and/or removal of a furin cleavage site, and/or removal of a non-furin cleavage site, and/or removal of a non-furin cleavage site). For example, in one specific

embodiment, the F protein analog includes a substitution that eliminates a non-furin cleavage site and a modification that increases glycosylation. An exemplary PreF analog sequence is provided in SEQ ID NO:22 (which exemplary embodiment includes an "NGT" modification and the substitution of glutamine in the place of leucine at position 1 12). For example, in certain exemplary embodiments, the glycosylation modified PreF analogs are selected from the group of: a) a polypeptide comprising or consisting of SEQ ID NO:22; b) a polypeptide encoded by SEQ ID NO:21 or by a polynucleotide sequence that hybridizes under stringent conditions over substantially its entire length to SEQ ID NO:21 ; c) a polypeptide with at least 95% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO:22.

[0103] More generally, any one of the stabilizing modifications disclosed herein, e.g., addition of a heterologous stabilizing domain, such as a coiled-coil (for example, an isoleucine zipper domain), preferably situated at the C-terminal end of the soluble F protein analog; modification of a residue, such as leucine to lysine, in the hydrophobic HRB domain; removal of pep27; removal of one or both furin cleavage motifs; removal of a non-furin cleavage site such as a trypsin cleavage site; and/or modification of a glycosylation site can be employed in combination with any one or more (or up to all-in any desired combination) of the other stabilizing modifications. For example, a heterologous coiled-coil (or other heterologous stabilizing domain) can be utilized alone or in combination with any of: a modification in a hydrophobic region, and/or removal of pep27, and/or removal of a furin cleavage site, and/or removal of a non-furin cleavage site, and/or removal of a non-furin cleavage site. In certain specific embodiments, the F protein analog, such as the PreF analog, includes a C-terminal coiled-coil (isoleucine zipper) domain, a stabilizing substitution in the HRB hydrophobic domain, and removal of one or both furin cleavage sites. Such an embodiment includes an intact fusion peptide that is not removed by furin cleavage. In one specific embodiment, the F protein analog also includes a modified glycosylation site at amino acid position 500.

[0104] The F protein analog for the methods and uses described herein can be produced by a method which comprises providing a biological material containing the F protein analog (e.g., PreF analog, PostF analog or uncleaved F protein ectodomain, etc.) and purifying the analog polypeptide monomers or multimers (e.g., trimers) or a mixture thereof from the biological material.

[0105] The F protein analog can be in the form of polypeptide monomers or trimers, or a mixture of monomers and trimers which may exist in equilibrium. The presence of a single form may provide advantages such as a more predictable immune response and better stability.

[0106] Thus, in an embodiment, the F protein analog for use in the invention is a purified F protein analog, which may be in the form of monomers or trimers or a mixture of monomers and trimers, substantially free of lipids and lipoproteins.

[0107] The F protein polypeptide can be selected from any F protein of an RSV A or RSV B strain, or from variants thereof (as defined above). In certain exemplary embodiments, the F protein polypeptide is the F protein represented by SEQ ID NO:2. To facilitate understanding of this disclosure, all amino acid residue positions, regardless of strain, are given with respect to (that is, the amino acid residue position corresponds to) the amino acid position of the exemplary F protein. Comparable amino acid positions of any other RSV A or B strain can be determined easily by those of ordinary skill in the art by aligning the amino acid sequences of the selected RSV strain with that of the exemplary sequence using readily available and well-known alignment algorithms (such as BLAST, e.g., using default parameters). Numerous additional examples of F protein polypeptides from different RSV strains are disclosed in WO2008114149 (which is incorporated herein by reference for the purpose of providing additional examples of RSV F and G protein sequences). Additional variants can arise through genetic drift, or can be produced artificially using site directed or random mutagenesis, or by recombination of two or more preexisting variants. Such additional variants are also suitable in the context of the F protein analogs utilized in the context of the immunization methods disclosed herein.

[0108] In alternative embodiments useful in the methods and uses described herein the recombinant RSV protein is an F protein analog as described in WO2011008974, incorporated herein by reference for the purpose of describing additional F protein analogs, see for example F protein analogs in Figure 1 of WO201 1008974 and also described in Example 1 of WO201 1008974.

[0109] In selecting F2 and Fl domains of the F protein, one of skill in the art will recognize that it is not strictly necessary to include the entire F2 and/or Fl domain.

Typically, conformational considerations are of importance when selecting a subsequence (or fragment) of the F2 domain. Thus, the F2 domain typically includes a portion of the F2 domain that facilitates assembly and stability of the polypeptide. In certain exemplary variants, the F2 domain includes amino acids 26-105. However, variants having minor modifications in length (by addition, or deletion of one or more amino acids) are also possible.

[01 10] Typically, at least a subsequence (or fragment) of the Fl domain is selected and designed to maintain a stable conformation that includes immunodominant epitopes of the F protein. For example, it is generally desirable to select a subsequence of the Fl polypeptide domain that includes epitopes recognized by neutralizing antibodies in the regions of amino acids 262-275 (palivizumab neutralization) and 423-436 (Centocor's chlOlF MAb). Additionally, desirable to include T cell epitopes, e.g., in the region of animo acids 328-355. Most commonly, as a single contiguous portion of the Fl subunit (e.g., spanning amino acids 262-436) but epitopes could be retained in a synthetic sequence that includes these immunodominant epitopes as discontinuous elements assembled in a stable conformation. Thus, an Fl domain polypeptide comprises at least about amino acids 262-436 of an RSV F protein polypeptide. In one non-limiting example provided herein, the Fl domain comprises amino acids 137 to 516 of a native F protein polypeptide. One of skill in the art will recognize that additional shorter subsequences can be used at the discretion of the practitioner.

[0111] When selecting a subsequence of the F2 or Fl domain (e.g., as discussed below with respect to the G protein component of certain PreF-G analogs), in addition to conformational consideration, it can be desirable to choose sequences (e.g., variants, subsequences, and the like) based on the inclusion of additional immunogenic epitopes. For example, additional T cell epitopes can be identified using anchor motifs or other methods, such as neural net or polynomial determinations, known in the art, see, e.g., RANKPEP (available on the world wide web at:

mif.dfci.harvard.edu/Tools/rankpep.html); ProPredl (available on the world wide web at: imtech.res.in/raghava/propredl/index.html); Bimas (available on the world wide web at: www-bimas.dcrt.nih.gov/molbi/hla_bind/index.html); and SYFPEITH (available on the world wide web at: syfpeithi.bmi-heidelberg.com/scripts/MHCServer.dll/home.htm). For example, algorithms are used to determine the "binding threshold" of peptides, and to select those with scores that give them a high probability of MHC or antibody binding at a certain affinity. The algorithms are based either on the effects on MHC binding of a particular amino acid at a particular position, the effects on antibody binding of a particular amino acid at a particular position, or the effects on binding of a particular substitution in a motif-containing peptide. Within the context of an immunogenic peptide, a "conserved residue" is one which appears in a significantly higher frequency than would be expected by random distribution at a particular position in a peptide. Anchor residues are conserved residues that provide a contact point with the MHC molecule. T cell epitopes identified by such predictive methods can be confirmed by measuring their binding to a specific MHC protein and by their ability to stimulate T cells when presented in the context of the MHC protein.

[01 12] Favorably, the an F protein analog, for example a PreF analogs (including PreF-G analogs as discussed below), a Post F analog, or other conformational analog, include a signal peptide corresponding to the expression system, for example, a mammalian or viral signal peptide, such as an RSV FO native signal sequence (e.g., amino acids 1-25 of SEQ ID NO:2 or amino acids 1-25 of SEQ ID NO:6). Typically, the signal peptide is selected to be compatible with the cells selected for recombinant expression. For example, a signal peptide (such as a baculovirus signal peptide, or the melittin signal peptide, can be substituted for expression, in insect cells. Suitable plant signal peptides are known in the art, if a plant expression system is preferred. Numerous exemplary signal peptides are known in the art, (see, e.g., see Zhang & Henzel, Protein Sci., 13:2819-2824 (2004), which describes numerous human signal peptides) and are catalogued, e.g., in the SPdb signal peptide database, which includes signal sequences of archaea, prokaryotes and eukaryotes (http://proline.bic.nus.edu.sg/spdb/). Optionally, any of the preceding antigens can include an additional sequence or tag, such as a His-tag to facilitate purification.

[01 13] Optionally, the F protein analog (for example, the PreF or Post F or other analog) can include additional immunogenic components. In certain particularly favorable embodiments, the F protein analog includes an RSV G protein antigenic component. Exemplary chimeric proteins having a PreF and G component include the following PreF_Vl (represented by SEQ ID NOs:7 and 8) and PreF_V2 (represented by SEQ ID NOs:9 and 10).

[01 14] In the PreF-G analogs , an antigenic portion of the G protein (e.g., a truncated G protein, such as amino acid residues 149-229) is added at the C-terminal end of the construct. Typically, the G protein component is joined to the F protein component via a flexible linker sequence. For example, in the exemplary PreF Vl design, the G protein is joined to the PreF component by a -GGSGGSGGS- linker (SEQ ID NO: 14). In the PreF_V2 design, the linker is shorter. Instead of having the -GGSGGSGGS- linker (SEQ ID NO: 14), PreF_V2 has 2 glycines (-GG-) for linker.

[01 15] Where present, the G protein polypeptide domain can include all or part of a G protein selected from any RSV A or RSV B strain. In certain exemplary embodiments, the G protein is (or is 95% identical to) the G protein represented by SEQ ID NO:4.

Additional examples of suitable G protein sequences can be found in WO20081 14149 (which is incorporated herein by reference).

[0116] The G protein polypeptide component is selected to include at least a subsequence (or fragment) of the G protein that retains the immunodominant T cell epitope(s), e.g., in the region of amino acids 183-197, such as fragments of the G protein that include amino acids 151-229, 149-229, or 128-229 of a native G protein. In one exemplary embodiment, the G protein polypeptide is a subsequence (or fragment) of a native G protein polypeptide that includes all or part of amino acid residues 149 to 229 of a native G protein

polypeptide. One of skill in the art will readily appreciate that longer or shorter portions of the G protein can also be used, so long as the portion selected does not

conformationally destabilize or disrupt expression, folding or processing of the F protein analog. Optionally, the G protein domain includes an amino acid substitution at position 191, which has previously been shown to be involved in reducing and/or preventing enhanced disease characterized by eosinophilia associated with formalin inactivated RSV vaccines. A thorough description of the attributes of naturally occurring and substituted ( 191A) G proteins can be found, e.g., in US Patent Publication No. 2005/0042230, which is incorporated herein by reference.

[0117] Alternatively, the F protein analog can be formulated in an immunogenic composition that also contains a second polypeptide that includes a G protein component. The G protein component typically includes at least amino acids 149-229 of a G protein. Although smaller portions of the G protein can be used, such fragments should include, at a minimum, the immunological dominant epitope of amino acids 184-198. Alternatively, the G protein can include a larger portion of the G protein, such as amino acids 128-229 or 130-230, optionally as an element of a larger protein, such as a full-length G protein, or a chimeric polypeptide.

[01 18] For example, with respect to selection of sequences corresponding to naturally occurring strains, one or more of the domains can correspond in sequence to an RSV A or B strain, such as the common laboratory isolates designated A2 or Long, or any other naturally occurring strain or isolate. Numerous strains of RSV have been isolated to date. Exemplary strains indicated by GenBank and/or EMBL Accession number can be found in WO2008114149, which is incorporated herein by reference for the purpose of disclosing the nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences of RSV F suitable for use in F protein analogs disclosed herein. Additional strains of RSV are likely to be isolated, and are encompassed within the genus of RSV. Similarly, the genus of RSV encompasses variants arising from naturally occurring (e.g., previously or subsequently identified strains) by genetic drift, and/or recombination.

[01 19] In addition to such naturally occurring and isolated variants, engineered variants that share sequence similarity with the aforementioned sequences can also be employed in the context of F protein analogs, including PreF, PostF or other analogs (including F-G) analogs. It will be understood by those of skill in the art, that the similarity between F protein analog polypeptide (and polynucleotide sequences as described below), as for polypeptide (and nucleotide sequences in general), can be expressed in terms of the similarity between the sequences, otherwise referred to as sequence identity. Sequence identity is frequently measured in terms of percentage identity (or similarity); the higher the percentage, the more similar are the primary structures of the two sequences. In general, the more similar the primary structures of two amino acid (or polynucleotide) sequences, the more similar are the higher order structures resulting from folding and assembly. Variants of an F protein, polypeptide (and polynucleotide) sequences typically have one or a small number of amino acid deletions, additions or substitutions but will nonetheless share a very high percentage of their amino acid, and generally their polynucleotide sequence. More importantly, the variants retain the structural and, thus, conformational attributes of the reference sequences disclosed herein.

[0120] Methods of determining sequence identity are well known in the art, and are applicable to F protein analog polypeptides, as well as the nucleic acids that encode them (e.g., as decribed below). Various programs and alignment algorithms are described in: Smith and Waterman, Adv. Appl. Math. 2:482, 1981 ; Needleman and Wunsch, J Mol. Biol. 48:443, 1970; Higgins and Sharp, Gene 73:237, 1988; Higgins and Sharp, CABIOS 5:151, 1989; Corpet et al, Nucleic Acids Research 16: 10881, 1988; and Pearson and Lipman, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85:2444, 1988. Altschul et al, Nature Genet. 6:119, 1994, presents a detailed consideration of sequence alignment methods and homology calculations. The NCBI Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) (Altschul et al., J. Mol. Biol. 215:403, 1990) is available from several sources, including the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI, Bethesda, MD) and on the internet, for use in connection with the sequence analysis programs blastp, blastn, blastx, tblastn and tblastx. A description of how to determine sequence identity using this program is available on the NCBI website on the internet.

[0121] In some instances, the F protein analog has one or more amino acid modifications relative to the amino acid sequence of the naturally occurring strain from which it is derived (e.g., in addition to the aforementioned stabilizing modifications). Such differences can be an addition, deletion or substitution of one or more amino acids. A variant typically differs by no more than about 1%, or 2%, or 5%, or 10%, or 15%, or 20% of the amino acid residues. For example, a variant F protein analog, e.g., PreF or PostF or other analog polypeptide sequence can include 1, or 2, or up to 5, or up to about 10, or up to about 15, or up to about 50, or up to about 100 amino acid differences as compared to the relevant portion of a reference F protein sequence (for example, the PreF analog polypeptide sequences of SEQ ID NOs:6, 8, 10, 18, 20 and/or 22. Thus, a variant in the context of an RS V F or G protein, or F protein analog, typically shares at least 80%, or 85%, more commonly, at least about 90% or more, such as 95%, or even 98% or 99% sequence identity with a reference protein, e.g., in the case of a PreF analog: the reference sequences illustrated in SEQ ID NO:2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 18, 20 and/or 22, or any of the exemplary PreF analogs disclosed herein. Additional variants included as a feature of this disclosure are F protein analogs that include all or part of a nucleotide or amino acid sequence selected from the naturally occurring variants disclosed in WO20081 14149. Additional variants can arise through genetic drift, or can be produced artificially using site directed or random mutagenesis, or by recombination of two or more preexisting variants. Such additional variants are also suitable in the context of the F protein analog antigens disclosed herein. For example, the modification can be a substitution of one or more amino acids (such as two amino acids, three amino acids, four amino acids, five amino acids, up to about ten amino acids, or more) that do not alter the conformation or immunogenic epitopes of the resulting F protein analog.

[0122] Alternatively or additionally, the modification can include a deletion of one or more amino acids and/or an addition of one or more amino acids. Indeed, if desired, one or more of the polypeptide domains can be a synthetic polypeptide that does not correspond to any single strain, but includes component subsequences from multiple strains, or even from a consensus sequence deduced by aligning multiple strains of RSV virus polypeptides. In certain embodiments, one or more of the polypeptide domains is modified by the addition of an amino acid sequence that constitutes a tag, which facilitates subsequent processing or purification. Such a tag can be an antigenic or epitope tag, an enzymatic tag or a polyhistidine tag. Typically the tag is situated at one or the other end of the protein, such as at the C-terminus or N-terminus of the antigen or fusion protein.

[0123] The F protein analogs (and also where applicable, G antigens) disclosed herein can be produced using well established procedures for the expression and purification of recombinant proteins.

[0124] In brief, recombinant nucleic acids that encode the F protein analogs are introduced into host cells by any of a variety of well-known procedures, such as electroporation, liposome mediated transfection, Calcium phosphate precipitation, infection, transfection and the like, depending on the selection of vectors and host cells. Favorable host cells include prokaryotic (i.e., bacterial) host cells, such as E. coli, as well as numerous eukaryotic host cells, including funga/ (e.g., yeast, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Picchia pastoris) cells, insect cells, plant cells, and mammalian cells (such as 3T3, COS, CHO, BH , HEK 293) or Bowes melanoma cells. Following expression in a selected host cell, the recombinant F protein analogs can be isolated and/or purified according to procedures well-known in the art. Exemplary expression methods, as well as nucleic acids that encode PreF analogs (including PreF-G analogs) are provided in WO2010149745, which is incorporated herein for the purpose of providing suitable methods for the expression and purification of F protein analogs.

PERTUSSIS ANTIGENS

[0125] In the context of the vaccination regimens, methods, uses and kits disclosed herein, the at least one B. pertussis antigen can be at least one acellular pertussis (Pa) protein selected from the group consisting of: pertussis toxoid (PT), filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (PRN), fimbrae type 2 (FIM2), fimbrae type 3 (FIM3). Such acellular antigens are well known in the art. The antigens are partially or highly purified.

[0126] PT can be produced in a variety of ways, for instance by purification of the toxin from a culture of B. pertussis followed by chemical detoxification (for example as described in W091/12020, incorporated herein by reference), or alternatively by purification of a genetically-detoxified analog of PT (for example, as described in the following, incorporated herein by reference for the purpose of disclosing contemplated genetic modifications of PT: EP306318, EP322533, EP396964, EP322115, EP275689). In a particular embodiment, the PT is genetically detoxified. More particularly, the genetically-detoxified PT carries one or both of the following substitutions: R9 and E129G.

[0127] The pertussis antigenic component can include any 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 of the acellular pertussis antigens PT, FHA, PRN, FIM2 and FIM3, including combinations thereof. More particularly, the combinations can include specifically (and without limitation): PT and FHA; PT, FHA and PRN; PT, FHA, PRN and FIM2; PT, FHA, PRN and FIM3; and PT, FHA, PRN, FIM2 and FIM3. [0128] In a particular embodiment, PT is used at an amount of 2-50ug (for example exactly or approximately 2.5 or 3.2ug per dose), 5-40ug (for example exactly or approximately 5 or 8ug per dose) or 10-30ug (for example exactly or approximately 20 or 25ug per dose).

[0129] In a particular embodiment, FHA is used at an amount of 2-5 Oug (for example exactly or approximately 2.5 or 34.4ug per dose), 5-40ug (for example exactly or approximately 5 or 8ug per dose) or 10-3 Oug (for example exactly or approximately 20 or 25ug per dose).

[0130] In a particular embodiment, PRN is used at an amount of 0.5-20ug, 0.8-15ug (for example exactly or approximately 0.8 or 1.6ug per dose) or 2-1 Oug (for example exactly or approximately 2.5 or 3 or 8ug per dose).

[0131] In a particular embodiment, FIM2 and/or FIM3 are used at a total amount of 0.5- lOug (for example exactly or approximately 0.8 or 5ug per dose).

[0132] In a particular embodiment, the pertussis antigenic components include PT and FHA at equivalent amounts per dose, being either exactly or approximately 8 or 20 or 25ug. Alternatively, the pertussis antigenic components include PT and FHA at exactly or approximately 5 and 2.5ug respectively, or exactly or approximately 3.2 and 34.4ug. In a further embodiment, the immunogenic composition comprises PT, FHA and PRN at the respective exact or approximate amounts per dose: 25:5:8ug; 8:8:2.5ug; 20:20:3ug;

2.5:5:3ug; 5:2.5:2.5ug; or 3.2:34.4:1.6ug.

[0133] Alternatively, or in combination with any of the above-discussed acellular pertussis antigens, the pertussis antigenic components can comprise an antigen derived from the B. pertussis 'BrkA' antigen (as disclosed in WO2005/032584, and Marr et al (2008), Vaccine, 26(34):4306-4311, incorporated herein by reference).

[0134] In a further embodiment, the at least one Pa antigen can take the form of an outer membrane vesicle (OMV) obtained from B. pertussis, as disclosed in Roberts et al (2008), Vaccine, 26:4639-4646, incorporated herein by reference. In particular, such OMV can be derived from a recombinant B. pertussis strain expressing a lipid A-modifying enzyme, such as a 3-O-deacylase, for example PagL (Asensio et al (2011), Vaccine, 29: 1649-1656, incorporated herein by reference).

[0135] In an alternative embodiment, the at least one B. pertussis antigen is whole cell pertussis (Pw) vaccine, such Pw vaccines being well known in the art. Pw can be inactivated by several known methods, including mercury-free methods. Such methods can include heat (e.g. 55-65°C or 56-60°C, for 5-60 minutes or for 10-30 minutes, e.g. 60°C for 30 minutes), formaldehyde (e.g. 0.1% at 37°, 24 hours), glutaraldehyde (e.g. 0.05% at room temperature, 10 minutes), acetone-I (e.g. three treatments at room temperature) or acetone-II (e.g. three treatments at room temperature and fourth treatment at 37°C) inactivation (see for example Gupta et al, 1987, J. Biol. Stand. 15:87; Gupta et al., 1986, Vaccine, 4: 185). Methods of preparing killed, whole cell B. pertussis (Pw) suitable for use in the immunogenic compositions of this invention are disclosed in W093/24148.

[0136] More particularly, the immunogenic composition of the invention comprises Pw at a per-dose amount of (in International Opacity Units, "IOU"): 5-50, 7-40, 9-35, 11-30, 13- 25, 15-21 , or approximately or exactly 20.

[0137] In a particular embodiment of a Pw-comprising immunogenic composition of the invention, the Pw vaccine component of the composition elicits reduced reactogenicity. Reactogenicity (pain, fever, swelling etc) of Pw vaccines is primarily caused by lipo- oligosaccharide ('LOS', which is synonymous with lipo-polysaccharide ('LPS') in the context of B. pertussis; 'LOS' will be used herein), which is the endotoxin from the bacterial outer membrane. The lipid A part of LOS is mainly responsible. In order to produce a less reactogenic Pw-containing vaccine (relative to 'traditional' Pw vaccines such as produced by the above-discussed inactivation procedures), the endotoxin can be genetically or chemically detoxified and/or extracted from the outer membrane. However, this must be done in a way which does not substantially impair the immunogenicity of the Pw vaccine, as LOS is a potent adjuvant of the immune system.

[0138] In one embodiment, the at least one B. pertussis antigen of the immunogenic composition of the invention comprises a 'low reactogenicity' Pw vaccine in which the LOS has been genetically or chemically detoxified and/or extracted. For example, the Pw vaccine can be subjected to treatment with a mixture of an organic solvent, such as butanol, and water, as described in WO2006/002502 and Dias et al (2012), Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, 9(2):339-348 which are incorporated herein by reference for the purpose of disclosing chemical extraction of LOS.

[0139] In an alternative embodiment, 'low reactogenicity' is achieved by deriving the Pw vaccine from a B. pertussis strain genetically engineered to produce a less toxic LOS. WO2006/065139 (incorporated herein by reference) discloses genetic 3-O-deacylation and detoxification of B. pertussis LOS, resulting in strains comprising at least partially 3-O- deacylated LOS. The at least one B. pertussis antigen of the immunogenic composition of the invention can therefore be a Pw vaccine derived from a strain of B. pertussis which has been engineered to express a lipid A-modifying enzyme, such as a de-O-acylase. In particular, such a strain can express PagL as described in WO2006/065139, as well as in Geurtsen et al (2006), Infection and Immunity, 74(10):5574-5585 and Geurtsen et al (2007), Microbes and Infection, 9:1096-1 103, all incorporated herein by reference.

Alternatively or additionally, the strain from which the Pw vaccine is derived can naturally, or as a result of engineering: lack the ability to modify its lipid A phosphate groups with glucosamine; have a lipid A diglucosamine backbone substituted with at the C-3' position with CIO-OH or C12-OH; and/or express molecular LOS species that lack a terminal heptose. Such a strain, 18-323, is disclosed in Marr et al (2010), The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 202(12):1897-1906 (incorporated herein by reference).

IMMUNOGENIC COMPOSITIONS

[0140] Following expression and purification, the F protein analogs are typically formulated into immunogenic compositions for administration to a pregnant female, and where desired into formulations for administration to the infant following birth. Such formulations typically contain a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or excipient.

Optionally, additional antigens can also be included in the formulation, such as another RSV antigen (e.g., a G protein antigen as described in WO2010149745) or a human metapneumovirus (hMPV) antigen, a diptheria antigen, a tetanus antigen, or an influenza antigen. WO2010149743 describes examples of hMPV antigens that can be combined with RSV antigens, and is incorporated herein by reference for the purpose of providing examples of hMPV antigens. Gall S.A. et al. Maternal Immunization with tetanus- diphtheria-pertussis vaccine: effect on maternal and neonatal serum antibody levels. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2011 :204, describes immunization of pregnant mothers with diphtheria- tetanus-pertussis (Tdap) vaccine containing pertussis antigens pertactin (PRN), pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) and fimbriae (FIM) 2/3 and is incorporated herein by reference for the purpose of providing additional details on maternal immunization using pertussis antigens.

[0141] Pharmaceutically acceptable carriers and excipients are well known and can be selected by those of skill in the art. For example, the carrier or excipient can favorably include a buffer. Optionally, the carrier or excipient also contains at least one component that stabilizes solubility and/or stability. Examples of solubilizing/stabilizing agents include detergents, for example, laurel sarcosine and/or tween. Alternative

solubilizing/stabilizing agents include arginine, and glass forming polyols (such as sucrose, trehalose and the like). Numerous pharmaceutically acceptable carriers and/or pharmaceutically acceptable excipients are known in the art and are described, e.g., in Remington 's Pharmaceutical Sciences, by E. W. Martin, Mack Publishing Co., Easton, PA, 5th Edition (975).

[0142] Accordingly, suitable excipients and carriers can be selected by those of skill in the art to produce a formulation suitable for delivery to a subject by a selected route of administration.

[0143] Suitable excipients include, without limitation: glycerol, Polyethylene glycol (PEG), Sorbitol, Trehalose, N-lauroylsarcosine sodium salt, L -proline, Non detergent sulfobetaine, Guanidine hydrochloride, Urea, Trimethylamine oxide, KC1, Ca , Mg , Mn2+' , Zn2+ and other divalent cation related salts, Dithiothreitol, Dithioerytrol, and β- mercaptoethanol. Other excipients can be detergents (including: Tween80, Tween20, Triton X-00, NP-40, Empigen BB, Octylglucoside, Lauroyl maltoside, Zwittergent 3-08, Zwittergent 3-0, Zwittergent 3-2, Zwittergent 3-4, Zwittergent 3-6, CHAPS, Sodium deoxycholate, Sodium dodecyl sulphate, Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide).

[0144] In compositions containing an F protein analog and/or a pertussis antigen for the vaccination regimens, methods, uses and kits described herein, the composition is designed to induce a strong serum (e.g., neutralizing) antibody response. Mothers have already been exposed to RSV and pertussis (e.g., by natural infection or immunization) and therefore will have an existing primed response, so the goal for providing protection for the infant is to boost this primed response as effectively as possible and in respect of the antibody subclasses such as IgGi that can cross the placenta with high efficiency and provide protection to the infant. This can be achieved without including an adjuvant, or by including an adjuvant that includes only mineral salts such as an aluminium or calcium salts, in particular aluminium hydroxide, aluminium phosphate or calcium phosphate. Alternatively, this can be achieved by formulating with an oil and water emulsion adjuvant, or another adjuvant that enhances the production of antibodies of the IgGi subclass. Thus the F protein analog and/or the pertussis antigen for the vaccination regimens, methods, uses and kits described herein are favorably formulated with a mineral salt, favorably alum (aluminium hydroxide or aluminium phosphate), or with an oil and water emulsion adjuvant.

[0145] Any adjuvant is selected to be safe and well tolerated in pregnant women.

Optionally, the immunogenic compositions also include an adjuvant other than alum. For example, adjuvants including one or more of 3D-MPL, squalene (e.g., QS21), liposomes, and/or oil and water emulsions are favorably selected, provided that the final formulation enhances the production in the pregnant (and typically primed) female of RS V-specific antibodies and pertussis antibodies with the desired characteristics (e.g., of subclass and neutralizing function).

[0146] In some instances, the adjuvant formulation includes a mineral salt, such as a calcium or aluminium (alum) salt, for example calcium phosphate, aluminium phosphate or aluminium hydroxide. Where alum is present, either alone, or e.g., in combination with 3D-MPL, the amount is typically between about 100μg and lmg, such as from about 100μg, or about 200μg to about 750ng, such as about 500μg per dose.

[0147] In some embodiments, the adjuvant includes an oil and water emulsion, e.g., an oil-in-water emulsion. One example of an oil-in-water emulsion comprises a

metabolisable oil, such as squalene, a tocol such as a tocopherol, e.g., alpha-tocopherol, and a surfactant, such as sorbitan trioleate (Span 85™) or polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80™), in an aqueous carrier. An example of an oil-in-water emulsion is MF59. In certain embodiments, the oil-in-water emulsion does not contain any additional immunostimulants(s), (in particular it does not contain a non-toxic lipid A derivative, such as 3D-MPL, or a saponin, such as QS21). The aqueous carrier can be, for example, phosphate buffered saline. Additionally the oil-in-water emulsion can contain span 85 and/or lecithin and/or tricaprylin.

[0148] In another embodiment of the invention the adjuvant composition comprises an oil-in-water emulsion and optionally one or more further immunostimulants, wherein said oil-in-water emulsion comprises 0.5-10 mg metabolisable oil (suitably squalene), 0.5-11 mg tocol (suitably a tocopherol, such as alpha-tocopherol) and 0.4-4 mg emulsifying agent.

[0149] Other adjuvants that can be used in immunogenic compositions with an F protein analog, such as a PreF analog, in the immunogenic compositions for the vaccination regimens, methods, uses and kits described here, on their own or in combination with 3D- MPL, or another adjuvant described herein, are saponins, such as QS21. Such adjuvants are typically not employed (but could be if so desired) with a pertussis antigen.

[0150] In one embodiment the recombinant F protein analog such as a PreF antigen for the methods and uses described herein is formulated with a saponin for example QS21, in particular a combination of a preF analog and QS21 is provided.

[0151] In another embodiment the F protein analog such as PreF antigen for the methods and uses described herein is formulated with QS21 and 3D-MPL.

[0152] Saponins are taught in: LacaiUe-Dubois, M and Wagner H. (1996. A review of the biological and pharmacological activities of saponins. Phytomedicine vol 2 pp 363-386). Saponins are steroid or triterpene glycosides widely distributed in the plant and marine animal kingdoms. Saponins are noted for forming colloidal solutions in water which foam on shaking, and for precipitating cholesterol. When saponins are near cell membranes they create pore-like structures in the membrane which cause the membrane to burst. Haemolysis of erythrocytes is an example of this phenomenon, which is a property of certain, but not all, saponins.

[0153] Saponins are known as adjuvants in vaccines for systemic administration. The adjuvant and haemolytic activity of individual saponins has been extensively studied in the art (Lacaille-Dubois and Wagner, supra). For example, Quil A (derived from the bark of the South American tree Quillaja Saponaria Molina), and fractions thereof, are described in US 5,057,540 and "Saponins as vaccine adjuvants", Kensil, C. R., Crit Rev Ther Drug Carrier Syst, 1996, 12 (l-2): l-55; and EP 0 362 279 Bl. Particulate structures, termed Immune Stimulating Complexes (ISCOMS), comprising fractions of Quil A are haemolytic and have been used in the manufacture of vaccines (Morein, B., EP 0 109 942 Bl ; WO 96/1 1711 ; WO 96/33739). The haemolytic saponins QS21 and QS17 (HPLC purified fractions of Quil A) have been described as potent systemic adjuvants, and the method of their production is disclosed in US Patent No.5,057,540 and EP 0 362 279 Bl , which are incorporated herein by reference. Other saponins which have been used in systemic vaccination studies include those derived from other plant species such as Gypsophila and Saponaria (Bomford et al, Vaccine, 10(9):572-577, 1992).

[0154] QS21 is an Hplc purified non-toxic fraction derived from the bark of Quillaja Saponaria Molina. A method for producing QS21 is disclosed in US Patent No.

5,057,540. Non-reactogenic adjuvant formulations containing QS21 are described in WO 96/33739. The aforementioned references are incorporated by reference herein. Said immunologically active saponin, such as QS21, can be used in amounts of between 1 and 50μg, per human dose of the immunogenic composition. Advantageously QS21 is used at a level of about 25μg, for example between 20-30μg, suitably between 21-29μg or between 22 -28μg or between 23 -27μ§ or between 24 -26μg, or 2 μg. In another embodiment, the human dose of the immunogenic composition comprises QS21 at a level of about 10μg, for example between 5 and 15μg, suitably between 6 -14μg, for example between 7 -13μg or between 8 -12μg or between 9 -1 ^g, or 10μg. In a further

embodiment, the human dose of the immunogenic composition comprises QS21 at a level of about 5μg, for example between l-9μg, or between 2 -8μg or suitably between 3-7μg or 4 ^g, or S ig. Such formulations comprising QS21 and cholesterol have been shown to be successful Thl stimulating adjuvants when formulated together with an antigen. Thus, for example, PreF polypeptides can favorably be employed in immunogenic compositions with an adjuvant comprising a combination of QS21 and cholesterol.

[0155] As indicated above, the adjuvant can include mineral salts such as an aluminium or calcium salts, in particular aluminium hydroxide, aluminium phosphate and calcium phosphate. Such an adjuvant can also include 3D-MPL For example, an adjuvant containing 3D-MPL in combination with an aluminium salt (e.g., aluminium hydroxide or aluminium phosphate, "alum") is suitable for formulation in an immunogenic composition containing a F protein analog for administration to a human subject. Such a formulation is not typically used with a pertussis antigen, but could be if so desired.

[0156] 3D-MPL is a non-toxic bacterial lipopolysaccharide derivative. An example of a suitable non-toxic derivative of lipid A, i.e., monophosphoryl lipid A, or more particularly 3-Deacylated monophoshoryl lipid A (3D-MPL). 3D-MPL is sold under the name MPL by GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals N.A., and is referred throughout the document as MPL or 3D-MPL. See, for example, US Patent Nos. 4,436,727; 4,877,611 ; 4,866,034 and

4,912,094. 3D-MPL primarily promotes CD4+ T cell responses with an IFN-γ (Thl) phenotype. 3D-MPL can be produced according to the methods disclosed in GB2220211 A. Chemically it is a mixture of 3-deacylated monophosphoryl lipid A with 3, 4, 5 or 6 acylated chains. In the compositions of the present invention small particle 3D-MPL can be used. Small particle 3D-MPL has a particle size such that it can be sterile-filtered through a 0.22μιη filter. Such preparations are described in W094/21292.

[0157] A lipopolysaccharide, such as 3D-MPL, can be used at amounts between 1 and 50μg, per human dose of the immunogenic composition. Such 3D-MPL can be used at a level of about 25μg, for example between 20-30μg, suitably between 21-29μg or between 22 and 28 g or between 23 and 27μg or between 24 and 26μg, or 25μg. In another embodiment, the human dose of the immunogenic composition comprises 3D-MPL at a level of about 10μg, for example between 5 and 15μg, suitably between 6 and 14μg, for example between 7 and 13μg or between 8 and 12μg or between 9 and 1 ^g, or 10μg. In a further embodiment, the human dose of the immunogenic composition comprises 3D-MPL at a level of about 5μg, for example between 1 and 9μg, or between 2 and 8μg or suitably between 3 and 7μg or 4 and μg, or 5μg.

[0158] In other embodiments, the lipopolysaccharide can be a β(1-6) glucosamine disaccharide, as described in US Patent No. 6,005,099 and EP Patent No. 0 729 473 B 1. One of skill in the art would be readily able to produce various lipopolysaccharides, such as 3D-MPL, based on the teachings of these references. Nonetheless, each of these references is incorporated herein by reference. In addition to the aforementioned immunostimulants (that are similar in structure to that of LPS or MPL or 3D-MPL), acylated monosaccharide and disaccharide derivatives that are a sub-portion to the above structure of MPL are also suitable adjuvants. In other embodiments, the adjuvant is a synthetic derivative of lipid A, some of which are described as TLR-4 agonists, and include, but are not limited to: OM174 (2-deoxy-6-o-[2-deoxy-2-[(R)-3- dodecanoyloxytetra-decanoylamino]-4-o-phosphono-P-D-glucopyranosyl]-2-[(R)-3- hydroxytetradecanoylamino]-a-D-glucopyranosyldihydrogenphosphate), (WO 95/14026); OM 294 DP (3S, 9 R) -3~[(R)-dodecanoyloxytetradecanoylamino]-4-oxo-5-aza-9(R)- [(R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoylamino]decan- 1 , 10-diol, 1 , 10-bis(dihydrogenophosphate) (WO 99/64301 and WO 00/0462 ); and OM 197 MP-Ac DP ( 3S-, 9R) -3-[(R) - dodecanoyloxytetradecanoylamino] -4-oxo-5 -aza-9- [(R)-3 - hydroxytetradecanoylamino]decan-l , 10-diol, 1 -dihydrogenophosphate 10-(6- aminohexanoate) (WO 01/46127).

[0159] In one specific embodiment, the adjuvant formulation includes 3D-MPL prepared in the form of an emulsion, such as an oil-in-water emulsion. In some cases, the emulsion has a small particle size of less than 0.2μιη in diameter, as disclosed in WO 94/21292. For example, the particles of 3D-MPL can be small enough to be sterile filtered through a 0.22micron membrane (as described in European Patent number 0 689 454).

Alternatively, the 3D-MPL can be prepared in a liposomal formulation. Optionally, the adjuvant containing 3D-MPL (or a derivative thereof) also includes an additional immunostimulatory component.

[0160] Combinations of different adjuvants, such as those mentioned hereinabove, can also be used in compositions with F protein analogs such as PreF analogs (and optionally also with pertussis antigens if so desired). For example, as already noted, QS21 can be formulated together with 3D-MPL. The ratio of QS21 : 3D-MPL will typically be in the order of 1 : 10 to 10 : 1 ; such as 1 :5 to 5 : 1, and often substantially 1 : 1. Typically, the ratio is in the range of 2.5 : 1 to 1 : 1 3D-MPL: QS21. Another combination adjuvant formulation includes 3D-MPL and an aluminium salt, such as aluminium hydroxide.

[0161] Other TLR4 ligands which can be used are alkyl Glucosaminide phosphates (AGPs) such as those disclosed in WO 98/50399 or US Patent No. 6,303,347 (processes for preparation of AGPs are also disclosed), suitably RC527 or RC529 or

pharmaceutically acceptable salts of AGPs as disclosed in US Patent No. 6,764,840.

Some AGPs are TLR4 agonists, and some are TLR4 antagonists. Both are thought to be useful as adjuvants. [0162] Other suitable TLR-4 ligands, capable of causing a signaling response through TLR-4 (Sabroe et al, JI 2003 pi 630-5) are, for example, lipopolysaccharide from gram- negative bacteria and its derivatives, or fragments thereof, in particular a non-toxic derivative of LPS (such as 3D-MPL). Other suitable TLR agonists are: heat shock protein (HSP) 10, 60, 65, 70, 75 or 90; surfactant Protein A, hyaluronan oligosaccharides, heparan sulphate fragments, fibronectin fragments, fibrinogen peptides and b-defensin-2, and muramyl dipeptide (MDP). In one embodiment the TLR agonist is HSP 60, 70 or 90. Other suitable TLR-4 ligands are as described in WO 2003/01 1223 and in WO

2003/099195, such as compound I, compound II and compound III disclosed on pages 4-5 of WO2003/011223 or on pages 3-4 of WO2003/099195 and in particular those compounds disclosed in WO2003/011223 as ER803022, ER803058, ER803732,

ER804053, ER804057, ER804058, ER804059, ER804442, ER804680, and ER804764. For example, one suitable TLR-4 ligand is ER804057.

[0163] Additional TLR agonists are also useful as adjuvants. The term "TLR agonist" refers to an agent that is capable of causing a signaling response through a TLR signaling pathway, either as a direct ligand or indirectly through generation of endogenous or exogenous ligand. Such natural or synthetic TLR agonists can be used as alternative or additional adjuvants. A brief review of the role of TLRs as adjuvant receptors is provided in Kaisho & Akira, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1589:1-13, 2002. These potential adjuvants include, but are not limited to agonists for TLR2, TLR3, TLR7, TLR8 and TLR9. Accordingly, in one embodiment, the adjuvant and immunogenic composition further comprises an adjuvant which is selected from the group consisting of: a TLR-1 agonist, a TLR-2 agonist, TLR-3 agonist, a TLR-4 agonist, TLR-5 agonist, a TLR-6 agonist, TLR-7 agonist, a TLR-8 agonist, TLR-9 agonist, or a combination thereof.

[0164] In one embodiment of the present invention, a TLR agonist is used that is capable of causing a signaling response through TLR-1. Suitably, the TLR agonist capable of causing a signaling response through TLR-1 is selected from: Tri-acylated lipopeptides (LPs); phenol-soluble modulin; Mycobacterium tuberculosis LP; S-(2,3- bis(palmitoyloxy)-(2-RS)-propyl)-N-palmitoyl-(R)-Cys-(S)-Ser-(S)-Lys(4)-OH, trihydrochloride (Pam3Cys) LP which mimics the acetylated amino terminus of a bacterial lipoprotein and OspA LP from Borrelia burgdorferi. [0165] In an alternative embodiment, a TLR agonist is used that is capable of causing a signaling response through TLR-2. Suitably, the TLR agonist capable of causing a signaling response through TLR-2 is one or more of a lipoprotein, a peptidoglycan, a bacterial lipopeptide from M tuberculosis, B burgdorferi or T pallidum; peptidoglycans from species including Staphylococcus aureus; lipoteichoic acids, mannuronic acids, Neisseria porins, bacterial fimbriae, Yersina virulence factors, CMV virions, measles haemagglutinin, and zymosan from yeast.

[0166] In an alternative embodiment, a TLR agonist is used that is capable of causing a signaling response through TLR-3. Suitably, the TLR agonist capable of causing a signaling response through TLR-3 is double stranded RNA (dsRNA), or polyinosinic- polycytidylic acid (Poly IC), a molecular nucleic acid pattern associated with viral infection.

[0167] In an alternative embodiment, a TLR agonist is used that is capable of causing a signaling response through TLR-5. Suitably, the TLR agonist capable of causing a signaling response through TLR-5 is bacterial flagellin.

[0168] In an alternative embodiment, a TLR agonist is used that is capable of causing a signaling response through TLR-6. Suitably, the TLR agonist capable of causing a signaling response through TLR-6 is mycobacterial lipoprotein, di-acylated LP, and phenol-soluble modulin. Additional TLR6 agonists are described in WO 2003/043572.

[0169] In an alternative embodiment, a TLR agonist is used that is capable of causing a signaling response through TLR-7. Suitably, the TLR agonist capable of causing a signaling response through TLR-7 is a single stranded RNA (ssRNA), loxoribine, a guanosine analogue at positions N7 and C8, or an imidazoquinoline compound, or derivative thereof. In one embodiment, the TLR agonist is imiquimod. Further TLR7 agonists are described in WO 2002/085905.

[0170] In an alternative embodiment, a TLR agonist is used that is capable of causing a signaling response through TLR-8. Suitably, the TLR agonist capable of causing a signaling response through TLR-8 is a single stranded RNA (ssRNA), an

imidazoquinoline molecule with anti-viral activity, for example resiquimod (R848); resiquimod is also capable of recognition by TLR-7. Other TLR-8 agonists which can be used include those described in WO 2004/071459.

[0171] In an alternative embodiment, a TLR agonist is used that is capable of causing a signaling response through TLR-9. In one embodiment, the TLR agonist capable of causing a signaling response through TLR-9 is HSP90. Alternatively, the TLR agonist capable of causing a signaling response through TLR-9 is bacterial or viral DNA, DNA containing unmethylated CpG nucleotides, in particular sequence contexts known as CpG motifs. CpG-containing oligonucleotides induce a predominantly Thl response. Such oligonucleotides are well known and are described, for example, in WO 96/02555, WO 99/33488 and U.S. Patent Nos. 6,008,200 and 5,856,462. Suitably, CpG nucleotides are CpG oligonucleotides. Suitable oligonucleotides for use in the immunogenic

compositions of the present invention are CpG containing oligonucleotides, optionally containing two or more dinucleotide CpG motifs separated by at least three, suitably at least six or more nucleotides. A CpG motif is a Cytosine nucleotide followed by a Guanine nucleotide. The CpG oligonucleotides of the present invention are typically deoxynucleotides. In a specific embodiment the intemucleotide in the oligonucleotide is phosphorodithioate, or suitably a phosphorothioate bond, although phosphodiester and other intemucleotide bonds are within the scope of the invention. Also included within the scope of the invention are oligonucleotides with mixed intemucleotide linkages. Methods for producing phosphorothioate oligonucleotides or phosphorodithioate are described in US Patent Nos. 5,666,153, 5,278,302 and WO 95/26204.

[0172] Another class of suitable adjuvants for use in formulations with F protein analogs such as PreF analogs (and optionally if desired with pertussis antigens, such as purified acellular pertussis proteins) includes OMP -based immunostimulatory compositions.

OMP-based immunostimulatory compositions are particularly suitable as mucosal adjuvants, e.g., for intranasal administration. OMP-based immunostimulatory

compositions are a genus of preparations of outer membrane proteins (OMPs, including some porins) from Gram-negative bacteria, such as, but not limited to, Neisseria species (see, e.g., Lowell et al, J. Exp. Med. 167:658, 1988; Lowell et al, Science 240:800, 1988; Lynch et al, Biophys. J. 45: 104, 1984; Lowell, in "New Generation Vaccines" 2nd ed., Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, Basil, Hong Kong, page 193, 1997; U.S. Pat. No.

5,726,292; U.S. Pat. No. 4,707,543), which are useful as a carrier r in compositions for immunogens, such as bacterial or viral antigens. Some OMP-based immunostimulatory compositions can be referred to as "Proteosomes," which are hydrophobic and safe for human use. Proteosomes have the capability to auto-assemble into vesicle or vesicle-like OMP clusters of about 20 nm to about 800 nm, and to noncovalently incorporate, coordinate, associate (e.g., electrostatically or hydrophobically), or otherwise cooperate with protein antigens (Ags), particularly antigens that have a hydrophobic moiety. Any preparation method that results in the outer membrane protein component in vesicular or vesicle-like form, including multi-molecular membranous structures or molten globular- like OMP compositions of one or more OMPs, is included within the definition of Proteosome. Proteosomes can be prepared, for example, as described in the art (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,726,292 or U.S. Pat. No. 5,985,284). Proteosomes can also contain an endogenous lipopolysaccharide or lipooligosaccharide (LPS or LOS, respectively) originating from the bacteria used to produce the OMP porins (e.g., Neisseria species), which generally will be less than 2% of the total OMP preparation.

[0173] Proteosomes are composed primarily of chemically extracted outer membrane proteins (OMPs) from Neisseria menigitidis (mostly porins A and B as well as class 4 OMP), maintained in solution by detergent (Lowell GH. Proteosomes for Improved Nasal, Oral, or Injectable Vaccines. In: Levine MM, Woodrow GC, Kaper JB, Cobon GS, eds, New Generation Vaccines. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. 1997; 193-206). Proteosomes can be formulated with a variety of antigens such as purified or recombinant proteins derived from viral sources, including the F protein analogs such as PreF polypeptides disclosed herein, e.g., by diafiltration or traditional dialysis processes or with purified pertussis antigenic proteins. The gradual removal of detergent allows the formation of particulate hydrophobic complexes of approximately 100-200nm in diameter (Lowell GH. Proteosomes for Improved Nasal, Oral, or Injectable Vaccines. In: Levine MM, Woodrow GC, Kaper JB, Cobon GS, eds, New Generation Vaccines. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. 1997; 193-206).

[0174] "Proteosome: LPS or Protollin" as used herein refers to preparations of proteosomes admixed, e.g., by the exogenous addition, with at least one kind of lipopolysaccharide to provide an OMP-LPS composition (which can function as an

immunostimulatory composition). Thus, the OMP-LPS composition can be comprised of two of the basic components of Protollin, which include (1) an outer membrane protein preparation of Proteosomes (e.g., Projuvant) prepared from Gram-negative bacteria, such as Neisseria meningitidis, and (2) a preparation of one or more liposaccharides. A lipo- oligosaccharide can be endogenous (e.g., naturally contained with the OMP Proteosome preparation), can be admixed or combined with an OMP preparation from an exogenously prepared lipo-oligosaccharide (e.g., prepared from a different culture or microorganism than the OMP preparation), or can be a combination thereof. Such exogenously added LPS can be from the same Gram-negative bacterium from which the OMP preparation was made or from a different Gram-negative bacterium. Protollin should also be understood to optionally include lipids, glycolipids, glycoproteins, small molecules, or the like, and combinations thereof. The Protollin can be prepared, for example, as described in U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2003/0044425.

[0175] It should be noted that regardless of the adjuvant selected, the concentration in the final formulation is calculated to be safe and effective in the target population of pregnant females.

[0176] An immunogenic composition for use in the vaccination regimens, methods, uses and kits herein typically contains an immunoprotective quantity (or a fractional dose thereof) of the antigen, or a quantity which provides passive transfer of antibodies so as to be immunoprotective in infants of immunized pregnant females, and can be prepared by conventional techniques. Preparation of immunogenic compositions, including those for administration to human subjects, is generally described in Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Vol.61 Vaccine Design-the subunit and adjuvant approach, edited by Powell and

Newman, Plenum Press, 1995. New Trends and Developments in Vaccines, edited by Voller et al , University Park Press, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. 1978. Encapsulation within liposomes is described, for example, by Fullerton, U.S. Patent 4,235,877.

Conjugation of proteins to macromolecules is disclosed, for example, by Likhite, U.S. Patent 4,372,945 and by Armor et al. , U.S. Patent 4,474,757.

[0177] Typically, the amount of antigen (e.g., protein) in each dose of the immunogenic composition is selected as an amount which induces an immunoprotective response in the infant without significant, adverse side effects in the typical subject i.e. the pregnant female or the gestating infant. Immunoprotective in this context does not necessarily mean completely protective against infection; it means protection against symptoms or disease, especially severe disease associated with the virus. The amount of antigen can vary depending upon which specific immunogen is employed. Generally, it is expected that each human dose will comprise l-100(^g of each protein or antigen, such as from about ^g to about lOi^g, for example, from about ^g to about 6(^g, such as about ^g, about 2μg, about 5μg, about l(^g, about 15μg, about 2(^g, about 25μg, about 3(^g, about 40μg, about 50μg, or about 6(^g. Generally a human dose with be in a volume of 0.5 ml. Thus the composition for the uses and methods described herein can be for example l( g or 3(^g or 6(^g in a 0.5 ml human dose. The amount utilized in an immunogenic composition is selected based on the subject population. An optimal amount for a particular composition can be ascertained by standard studies involving observation of antibody titres and other responses in subjects. Following an initial vaccination, subjects can receive a boost in about 4-12 weeks, or at any time prior to delivery of the infant, favorably at least two or at least four weeks prior to the expected delivery date.

[0178] Additional formulation details can be found in WO2010149745, which is incorporated herein by reference for the purpose of providing additional details concerning formulation of immunogenic compositions comprising F protein analogs such as PreF analogs.

[0179] Optionally, the immunogenic compositions containing an F protein analog such as a PreF, or PostF analog are formulated with at least one additional antigen of a pathogenic organism other than RSV. For example, the pathogenic organism can be a pathogen of the respiratory tract (such as a virus that causes a respiratory infection). In certain cases, the immunogenic composition contains an antigen derived from a pathogenic virus other than RSV, such as a virus that causes an infection of the respiratory tract, such as influenza or parainfluenza. Similarly, if desired, a pertussis antigen could also be formulated with an antigen of a pathogenic virus other than RSV.

[0180] Coformulation of RSV protein analogs with acellular pertussis antigens or whole cell pertussis antigens is described herein, and is one preferred embodiment of the vaccination regimens, methods and uses disclosed herein.

[0181] In certain embodiments, immunogenic compositions suitable for the vaccination regimens, methods, uses and kits disclosed herein, additionally comprise at least one antigen from at least one pathogenic organism other than RSV and B. pertussis. In particular, said at least one pathogenic organism can be selected from the group consisting of: Corynebacterium diphtheriae; Clostridium tetani; Hepatitis B virus; Polio virus;

Haemophilus influenzae type b; N. meningitidis type C; N. meningitidis type Y; N.

meningitidis type A, N. meningitidis type W; and N. meningitidis type B. More particularly, said at least one antigen can be selected from the group consisting of:

diphtheria toxoid (D); tetanus toxoid (T); Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg);

inactivated polio virus (IPV); capsular saccharide of H. influenzae type b (Hib) conjugated to a carrier protein; capsular saccharide of N. meningitidis type C conjugated to a carrier protein (MenC); capsular saccharide of N. meningitidis type Y conjugated to a carrier protein (MenY); capsular saccharide of N. meningitidis type A conjugated to a carrier protein (MenA); capsular saccharide of N. meningitidis type W conjugated to a carrier protein (MenW); and an antigen from N. meningitidis type B (MenB). In these and other embodiments, the additional antigens can be selected to facilitate administration or reduce the number of inoculations required to protect a subject against a plurality of infectious organisms. For example, the antigen can be derived from any one or more of influenza, hepatitis B, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, Hemophilus influenza, poliovirus, hMPV, Streptococcus or Pneumococcus, among others.

[0182] Combination vaccines containing B. pertussis antigens (Pa or Pw) with D and T and various combinations of other antigens such as selected from IPV, HBsAg, Hib and conjugated N. meningitidis capsular saccharides are well known in the art and suitable in the context of the vaccination regimens, methods, uses and kits herein, for example as Infanrix™ (such as DTPa-IPV-HBsAg-Hib) and Boostrix™ (such as dTpa) products. In this regard, WO93/024148, WO97/000697 and WO98/019702 are incorporated by reference, as is WO02/00249 which discloses a DTPw-HepB-MenAC-Hib composition. Such combination vaccines are suitable in the context of the vaccination regimens, methods, uses and kits disclosed herein.

[0183] Particular immunogenic compositions suitable in the vaccination regimens, methods, uses and kits disclosed herein include, in addition to at least one RSV antigen and at least one B. pertussis antigen: D and T; D, T and IPV; D, T and HBsAg; D, T and Hib; D, T, IPV and HBsAg; D, T, IPV and Hib; D, T, HBsAg and Hib; or D, T, IPV, HBsAg and Hib. [0184] In a particular embodiment, D is used at the amount per dose of 1 - 10 International Units (IU) (for example exactly or approximately 2IU) or 10-40IU (for example exactly or approximately 20 or 30IU) or 1-10 Limit of flocculation (Lf units) (for example exactly or approximately 2 or 2.5 or 9Lf) or 10-30Lf (for example exactly or approximately 15 or 25Lf).

[0185] In a particular embodiment, T is used at the amount per dose of 10-30 IU (for example exactly or approximately 20IU) or 30-50IU (for example exactly or

approximately 40IU) or 1-15Lf (for example exactly or approximately 5 or lOLf).

[0186] In exemplary embodiments the immunogenic compositions suitable for the vaccination regimens, methods, uses and kits include, in addition to the at least one RSV antigen and at least one B, pertussis antigen, D and T at the respective exact or

approximate amounts per dose: 30:40IU; 25: 10Lf; 20:40IU; 15:5Lf; 2:20IU; 2.5:5Lf; 2:5Lf; 25:10Lf; 9:5Lf. For example, such a composition can comprise (in addition to the at least one RSV antigen):

(i) 20-30ug, for example exactly or approximately 25ug of PT;

(ii) 20-30ug, for example exactly or approximately 25ug of FHA;

(iii) 1-1 Oug, for example exactly or approximately 3 or 8ug of PRN;

(iv) 10-30Lf, for example exactly or approximately 15 or 25Lf of D; and

(v) 1-15Lf, for example exactly or approximately 5 of 1 OLf of T.

[0187] By way of another example, such a suitable composition can comprise (in addition to the at least one RSV antigen):

(i) 2-1 Oug, for example exactly or approximately 2.5 or 8ug of PT;

(ii) 2-1 Oug, for example exactly or approximately 5 or 8ug of FHA;

(iii) 0.5-4ug, for example 2-3ug such as exactly or approximately 2.5 or 3ug of PRN;

(iv) 1-1 OLf, for example exactly or approximately 2 or 2.5 or 9Lf of D; and

(v) 1 -15Lf, for example exactly or approximately 5 of 1 OLf of T.

[0188] Thus, it will be clear that according the vaccination regimens, methods, uses and kits disclosed herein, the immunogenic compositions are contemplated for use in medicine, and in particular for the prevention or treatment in a human subject of infection by, or disease associated with, RSV and B. pertussis. In certain embodiments containing antigens from other pathogens, such prevention or treatment will extend to the other pathogens.

[0189] Maternal immunization as described herein is carried out via a suitable route for administration for an RSV vaccine and a pertussis vaccine, including intramuscular, intranasal, or cutaneous administration. Favorably, RSV and/or pertussis maternal immunization as described herein is carried out cutaneously, which means that the antigen is introduced into the dermis and/or epidermis of the skin (e.g., intradermally). In a particular embodiment a recombinant RSV antigen comprising an F protein analog such as a PreF antigen or a PostF antigen and/or a pertussis antigen comprising acellular pertussis proteins or whole cell pertussis, is delivered to the pregnant female cutaneously or intradermally. In a particular embodiment the F protein such as PreF antigen or postF antigen is formulated with an adjuvant described herein for example a saponin such as QS21, with or without 3D-MPL, for cutaneous or intradermal delivery. In another embodiment the F protein analog such as PreF or PostF antigen is formulated with a mineral salt such as aluminium hydroxide or aluminium phosphate or calcium phosphate, with or without an immunostimulant such as QS21 or 3D-MPL, for cutaneous or intradermal delivery. Pertussis antigen is typically formulated in combination with an aluminium salt and can optionally be administered by a cutaneous or intradermal route. Optionally, the F protein analog and pertussis antigen are coformulated, e.g., in the presence of a mineral salt such as aluminium hydroxide or aluminium phosphate or calcium phosphate, with or without an immunostimulant such as QS21 or 3D-MPL, for cutaneous or intradermal delivery.

[0190] Delivery via the cutaneous route including the intradermal route may require or allow a lower dose of antigen than other routes such as intramuscular delivery. Therefore also provided is an immunogenic composition for cutaneous or intradermal delivery comprising an F protein analog in a low dose e.g. less than the normal intramuscular dose, e.g. 50% or less of the normal intramuscular dose, for example 50 μg or less, or 20 μg or less, or 10 μg or less or 5 μg or less per human dose. Similarly, immunogenic

compositions containing pertussis antigens can be formulated at the lower end of the dose range (ore at even lower doses) for cutaneous or intradermal administration, for example, between 1-10 μg PT, between 1-10 μg FHA, between 0.5-4 μg PRN (with or without additional antigenic components). Optionally the immunogenic composition for cutaneous or intradermal delivery also comprises an adjuvant e.g. an aluminium salt or QS21 or 3D-MPL or a combination thereof.

[0191] Devices for cutaneous administration include short needle devices (which have a needle between about 1 and about 2 mm in length) such as those described in US

4,886,499, US5,190,521, US5,328,483, US 5,527,288, US 4,270,537, US 5,015,235, US 5,141,496, US 5,417,662 and EP1092444. Cutaneous vaccines may also be administered by devices which limit the effective penetration length of a needle into the skin, such as those described in WO99/34850, incorporated herein by reference, and functional equivalents thereof. Also suitable are jet injection devices which deliver liquid vaccines to the dermis via a liquid jet injector or via a needle which pierces the stratum corneum and produces a jet which reaches the dermis. Jet injection devices are described for example in US 5,480,381, US 5,599,302, US 5,334,144, US 5,993,412, US 5,649,912, US

5,569,189,US 5,704,91 1, US 5,383,851, US 5,893,397, US 5,466,220, US 5,339,163, US5,312,335, US 5,503,627, US 5,064,413, US 5,520, 639, US 4,596,556US 5

4,790,824,US 4,941,880, US 4,940,460, WO 97/37705 and WO 97/13537.

[0192] Devices for cutaneous administration also include ballistic powder/particle delivery devices which use compressed gas to accelerate vaccine in powder form through the outer layers of the skin to the dermis. Additionally, conventional syringes may be used in the classical mantoux method of cutaneous administration. However, the use of conventional syringes requires highly skilled operators and thus devices which are capable of accurate delivery without a highly skilled user are preferred. Additional devices for cutaneous administration include patches comprising immunogenic compositions as described herein. A cutaneous delivery patch will generally comprise a backing plate which includes a solid substrate (e.g. occlusive or nonocclusive surgical dressing). Such patches deliver the immunogenic composition to the dermis or epidermis via

microprojections which pierce the stratum corneum. Microprojections are generally between lODm and 2mm, for example 20Dm to 500Dm, 30Dm to 1mm, 100 to 200, 200 to 300, 300 to 400, 400 to 500, 500 to 600, 600 to 700, 700, 800, 800 to 900, lOODm to 400Dm, in particular between about 200Dm and 300Dm or between about 150Dm and 250Dm. Cutaneous delivery patches generally comprise a plurality of microprojections for example between 2 and 5000 microneedles for example between 1000 and 2000 microneedles. The microprojections may be of any shape suitable for piercing the stratum corneum,epidermis and/or dermis Microprojections may be shaped as disclosed in

WO2000/074765 and WO2000/074766 for example. The microprojections may have an aspect ratio of at least 3: 1 (height to diameter at base), at least about 2: 1, or at least about 1 :1. One particular shape for the microprojections is a cone with a polygonal bottom, for example hexagonal or rhombus-shaped. Other possible microprojection shapes are shown, for example, in U.S. Published Patent App. 2004/0087992. In a particular embodiment, microprojections have a shape which becomes thicker towards the base. The number of microprotrusions in the array is typically at least about 100, at least about 500, at least about 1000, at least about 1400, at least about 1600, or at least about 2000. The area density of microprotrusions, given their small size, may not be particularly high, but for example the number of microprotrusions per cm2 may be at least about 50, at least about 250, at least about 500, at least about 750, at least about 1000, or at least about 1500. In one embodiment of the invention the F protein analog is are delivered to the subject within 5 hours of placing the patch on the skin of the host, for example, within 4 hours, 3 hours, 2 hours, 1 hour or 30 minutes. In a particular embodiment , the F protein analog is delivered within 20 minutes of placing the patch on the skin, for example within 30 seconds 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1 1 , 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 or 19 minutes.

[0193] The microprojections can be made of any suitable material known to the skilled person. In a particular embodiment at least part of the microprojections are biodegradable, in particular the tip of the microprojection or the outer most layer of the microprojection. In a particular embodiment substantially all the microprojection is biodegradable. The term "biodegradable" as used herein means degradable under expected conditions of in vivo use (e.g. insertion into skin), irrespective of the mechanism of biodegradation.

Exemplary mechanisms of biodegradation include disintegration, dispersion, dissolution, erosion, hydrolysis, and enzymatic degradation.

[0194] Examples of microprojections comprising antigens are disclosed in

WO2008/130587 and WO2009/048607. Methods of manufacture of metabolisable microneedles are disclosed in WO2008/130587 and WO2010/124255. Coating of microprojections with antigen can be performed by any method known to the skilled person for example by the methods disclosed in WO06/055844, WO06/055799.

[0195] Suitable delivery devices for cutaneous delivery including intradermal delivery, in the methods and uses described herein include the BD SoluviaTM device which is a microneedle device for intradermal administration, the Corium MicroCorTM patch delivery system, the Georgia Tech microneedle vaccine patch, the Nanopass microneedle delivery device and the Debiotech NanojectTM microneedle device. Also provided is a cutaneous or intradermal delivery device containing an immunogenic composition for RSV maternal immunization as described herein, for example a recombinant F protein analog such as PreF antigen, optionally formulated with an adjuvant such as a mineral salt e.g. alum, or QS21, or 3D-MPL or a combination thereof.

EXAMPLES

Example 1 Proof of concept - Maternal immunization in a guinea pig model

[0196] The guinea pig model was selected as placental structure and IgG transfer is closer to that of humans than is the case for typical rodent models (reviewed in Pentsuk and van der Laan (2009) Birth Defects Research (part B) 86:328-344. The relatively long gestational period of the guinea pig (68 days) allows for immunization and immune response development during pregnancy. In order to mimic the RSV immune status of pregnant women who have been in exposed to RSV throughout their lives and have a preexisting immune response to RSV, female guinea pigs were primed with live RSV at either 6 weeks or 10 weeks prior to vaccination.

[0197] Female guinea pigs (N=5/group) were primed intranasally with live RSV virus (2.5 x 105 pfu), 6 or 10 weeks prior to vaccination (approximately at the time of mating or 4 weeks prior to mating). Two groups were left unprimed. Pregnant females were immunized approximately 6 weeks after the start of gestation with 10 μg of PreF antigen combined with aluminum hydroxide. One unprimed group of females was injected with PBS. Serum samples were collected throughout the priming and gestation period to monitor levels of anti-RSV binding and neutralizing antibodies.

[0198] Offspring (7- to 16-day old) were challenged intranasally with live RSV at 1 x 10 pfu. Four days after challenge, lungs were collected and separated into 7 lobes. Virus was titrated in 6 of the 7 lobes and total virus particles per gram of lung were calculated.

[0199] Results are shown in the graph in Figures 2 and 3.

[0200] Similar levels of antibodies were observed on the day of vaccination whether guinea pigs had been primed 6 or 10 weeks earlier. Plateau titres were reached as of 14 days post priming. Neutralising antibody titres do not decline after reaching a plateau for at least about 60 days. Thus priming at both time points was equivalent in this model and suitable to mimic maternal infection in humans.

[0201] Results from lung viral load in the guinea pig offspring indicate that offspring born to primed and vaccinated mothers were protected from RSV challenge, as compared to offspring born to unprimed/unvaccinated mothers. In contrast, offspring born to unprimated/vaccinated mothers were not protected from RSV challenge.

Example 2 Combination Vaccine protects against challenge by RSV

[0202] This example demonstrates protection against RSV elicited by a combination vaccine containing RSV and B. Pertussis antigens (PT, FHA and PRN). Immunogenicity (neutralizing antibody titers) of two doses of the combined Pa-RSV vaccine was evaluated in the Balb/c mouse model, followed by an intranasal RSV challenge to measure efficacy of the combination vaccine.

[0203] Groups of BALB/c mice (n=14/group) were immunized intra-muscularly twice at a 3 -week interval with the formulations displayed in Table 1.

Table 1 : Vaccine formulations administered prior to RSV challenge

Figure imgf000067_0001

[0204] Sera from all mice were individually collected on Day 0 (prior to first immunization), on Day 21 (prior to second immunization) and on Day 35 (2 weeks after second immunization) and tested for the presence of RSV neutralizing antibodies using a plaque reduction assay. Briefly, serial dilutions of each serum were incubated with RSV A Long (targeting 100 pfu/well) for 20 min at 37°C. After incubation, the virus-serum mixture was transferred to plates previously seeded with Vero cells and emptied of growth medium. On each plate, cells in one column were incubated with virus only (100% infectivity) and 2 wells received no virus or serum (cell controls). Plates were incubated for 2hrs at 37°C, medium was removed and RSV medium containing 0.5% CMC (low viscosity carboxymethylcellulose) was added to all wells. The plates were incubated for 3 days at 37°C before immunofluorescent staining. [0205] For staining, cell monolayers were washed with PBS and fixed with 1% paraformaldehyde. RSV-positive cells were detected using a commercial goat anti-RSV antiserum followed by a rabbit anti-goat IgG conjugated to FITC. The number of stained plaques per well was counted using an automated imaging system. Neutralizing antibody titer of each serum was determined as the inverse of the serum dilution causing 60% reduction in the number of plaques as compared to the control without serum (ED6o). Results are illustrated in FIG. 5A.

[0206] The PreF -based vaccine adjuvanted with Al(OH)3 protects mice against an intranasal RSV challenge and this animal model is therefore useful for studying the capability of RSV vaccines to mediate viral clearance in the lungs. The combination of B. pertussis (PT, FHA and PRN) and RSV (PreF) antigens in a single vaccine was then tested for protective efficacy in the intranasal RSV challenge mouse model. Two weeks after the second vaccine dose, mice were challenged by instillation of 50 μΐ (25 μΐ, per nostril) of live RSV A Long strain (about 1.45xl06 pfu/50 μΐ). Lungs were collected four days post challenge for evaluation of lung viral load. Four days after challenge, mice were euthanized, the lungs were aseptically harvested and individually weighed and

homogenized. Serial dilutions (8 replicates each) of each lung homogenate were incubated with Vero cells and wells containing plaques were identified by immunofluorescence, 6 days after seeding. The viral titer was determined using the Spearman-Karber method for TCID50 calculation and was expressed per gram of lung. The statistical method employed is an Analysis of Variance (ANOVA 1) on the loglO values.

[0207] Results are illustrated in FIG. 5B. As expected, 2 μg of PreF combined with Al(OH)3 efficiently promoted viral clearance in the lungs compared to mice vaccinated with standalone Pa (control group where no protection from RSV challenge is expected). Only two animals out of 14 in the PreF group had detectable levels of RSV in the lungs, with no RSV detectable in the 12 other animals. Pa-RSV combination vaccine was equally capable of protecting mice against RSV challenge as shown by only one out of 14 animals with detectable levels of RSV in the lungs, RSV being undetectable in the remaining 13 animals. Overall, animals vaccinated with PreF + Al(OH)3 vaccine or with Pa antigens + PreF + Al(OH)3 had significantly lower lung viral titers than control animals vaccinated with standalone Pa (P<0.001). In the group vaccinated with Pa antigens + PreF in the absence of adjuvant, there was a significant reduction (PO.001) in lung viral titers, however no animal in this group appeared fully protected from RSV challenge since virus was quantifiable in lungs from all animals.

[0208] Using a challenge animal model, we observed that the Pa-RSV combination vaccine elicited a protective immune response against RSV comparable to that of RSV vaccine. This immune response was associated with the production of RSV neutralizing antibodies.

Example 3 Combination Vaccine protects against challenge by B. pertussis

[0209] This example demonstrates protection against Bordetella Pertussis elicited by a combination vaccine containing RSV and B. Pertussis antigens (PT, FHA and PRN). Immunogenicity (neutralizing antibody titers) of two doses of the combined Pa-RSV vaccine was evaluated in the Balb/c model, followed by an intranasal challenge with infectious B. pertussis to measure efficacy of the combination vaccine.

[0210] Groups of BALB/c mice (n=20/group) were immunized subcutaneously twice with a 3 -week interval with the formulations displayed in Table 2.

Table 1 : Vaccine formulations administered prior to B. pertussis challenge

Figure imgf000069_0001

[0211] Sera from all mice were individually collected seven days after the second immunization (d28 - the day before challenge) and tested for the presence of anti-PT, - FHA and -PRN IgG antibodies. In brief, 96-well plates were coated with FHA (2 μg/ml), PT (2 μg/ml) or PRN (6 μg/ml) in a carbonate-bicarbonate buffer (50mM) and incubated overnight at 4°C. After the saturation step with the PBS-BSA 1% buffer, mouse sera were diluted at 1/100 in PBS-BSA 0.2% Tween 0.05% and serially diluted in the wells from the plates (12 dilutions, step ½). An anti-mouse IgG coupled to the peroxidase was added (1/5000 dilution). Colorimetric reaction was observed after the addition of the peroxidase substrate (OPDA), and stopped with HCL 1M before reading by spectrophotometry (wavelengths: 490-620 nm). For each serum tested and standard added on each plate, a 4- parameter logistic curve was fit to the relationship between the OD and the dilution (Softmaxpro). This allowed the derivation of each sample titer expressed in STD titers. Serological antibody responses specific to Pa antigens (PT, FHA and PRN) induced by the vaccines is considered indicative (but not dispositive) of the vaccine ability to elicit an antibody responses against the individual antigens found in the Pa vaccine. FIG. 6A shows that the DTPa, standalone Pa and Pa-RSV combination promoted PT, FHA and PRN-specific IgG responses after two immunizations. No antigen-specific antibodies were detected in sera from unvaccinated or RSV-vaccinated mice (data not presented). Statistical analysis demonstrated equivalence between the anti-PT and anti-FHA antibody responses induced by DTPa (Infanrix) and the Pa-RSV combination. The amount of anti- PRN specific antibodies induced by the standalone Pa and Pa-RSV combination vaccines was also statistically equivalent, demonstrating that the presence of RSV antigen did not interfere with the production of anti-pertussis antibody responses.

[0212] To demonstrate protection, one week after the booster, the mice were challenged by instillation of 50 μΐ of bacterial suspension (about 5E6 CFU/50 μΐ) into the left nostril. Five mice of each group were euthanized 2 hours, 2 days, 5 days and 8 days after the bacterial challenge. The lungs were aseptically harvested and individually homogenized. The lung bacterial clearance was measured by counting the colony growth on Bordet- Gengou agar plates. Data were plotted according to the mean of number of colony- forming unit (CFU - log 10) per lung in each treatment group for each collection time. The statistical method employed is an Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) on the log 10 values with 2 factors (treatment and day) using a heterogeneous variance model.

[0213] In this model, the acellular B. pertussis vaccine (Pa) protects mice against an intranasal challenge with the bacteria. This animal model is therefore useful for studying the capability of a B. pertussis-based vaccine to mediate bacterial clearance in the lungs. The combination of B. pertussis (PT, FHA and PRN) and RSV (Pre-F) antigens in a single vaccine was then tested for protective efficacy in the intranasal challenge mouse model. Representative results are illustrated in FIG. 6B. As expected, the adjusted human dose (one fourth dose of the commercial DTPa vaccine Infanrix) efficiently promoted bacterial clearance compared to the unvaccinated mice. Both Pa standalone and Pa-RSV combination vaccines were also capable of eliciting a protective immune response leading to bacterial elimination. As expected, the standalone Pre-F RSV vaccine was unable to protect in this animal model against B. pertussis.

[0214] These results demonstrate in an animal model that the Pa-RSV combination vaccine elicited a protective immune response against B. pertussis as well as against RSV as demonstrated in Example 2 above. This immune response was associated with the production of specific antibodies against the three subunit antigens found in the acellular Pa vaccine (PT, FHA and PRN).

Claims

We claim:
1. A vaccination regimen for protecting an infant against infection or disease caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and Bordetella pertussis (pertussis), the vaccination regimen comprising: administering to a pregnant female with a gestational infant at least one immunogenic composition capable of boosting a humoral immune response specific for both RSV and B. pertussis, which at least one immunogenic composition comprises a recombinant RSV antigen comprising an F protein analog and at least one pertussis antigen, wherein at least one subset of RSV-specific antibodies and at least one subset of pertussis-specific antibodies elicited or increased in the pregnant female by the at least one immunogenic composition are transferred via the placenta to the gestational infant, thereby protecting the infant against infection or disease caused by RSV and pertussis.
2. A method for protecting an infant against infection or disease caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and Bordetella pertussis (pertussis), the method comprising: administering to a pregnant female with a gestational infant at least one immunogenic composition capable of boosting a humoral immune response specific for both RSV and B. pertussis, which at least one immunogenic composition comprises a recombinant RSV antigen comprising an F protein analog and at least one pertussis antigen, wherein at least one subset of RS V-specific antibodies and at least one subset of pertussis-specific antibodies elicited or increased in the pregnant female by the at least one immunogenic composition are transferred via the placenta to the gestational infant, thereby protecting the infant against infection or disease caused by RSV and pertussis.
3. An immunogenic composition or plurality of immunogenic compositions comprising a recombinant RSV antigen comprising an F protein analog and at least one pertussis antigen for use in protecting an infant against infection or disease caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and Bordetella pertussis (pertussis), wherein the immunogenic composition(s) is/are formulated for administration to a pregnant female and wherein the immunogenic composition(s) is/are capable of boosting a humoral immune response specific for both RSV and B. pertussis, and wherein at least one subset of RSV- specific antibodies and at least one subset of pertussis-specific antibodies boosted in the pregnant female by the immunogenic composition(s) are transferred via the placenta to the gestational infant, thereby protecting the infant against infection or disease caused by RSV and pertussis.
4. A kit comprising a plurality of immunogenic compositions formulated for administration to a pregnant female, wherein the kit comprises:
(a) a first immunogenic composition comprising an F protein analog capable of inducing, elicit or boosting a humoral immune response specific for RSV; and
(b) a second immunogenic composition comprising at least one pertussis antigen capable of inducing, elicit or boosting a humoral response specific for B.
pertussis, wherein upon administration to a pregnant female, the first and second immunogenic compositions induce, elicit or boost at least one subset of RS V-specific antibodies and at least one subset of pertussis-specific antibodies, which antibodies are transferred via the placenta to a gestating infant of the pregnant female, thereby protecting the infant against infection or disease caused by RSV and pertussis.
5. The vaccination regimen of claim 1, method of claim 2, use of claim 3, or kit of claim 4, wherein the pregnant female is a human.
6. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the infant is immunologically immature.
7. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the infant is less than six months of age.
8. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of claim 7, wherein the infant is less than two months of age, for example less than one month of age, for example a newborn.
9. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the at least one subset of RSV-specific and/or pertussis-specific antibodies comprise IgG antibodies.
10. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the at least one subset of RSV-specific antibodies and/or pertussis-specific antibodies transferred via the placenta comprises lgG\ antibodies.
11. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the recombinant RSV antigen comprising an F protein analog and at least one pertussis antigen are coformulated in the same immunogenic composition.
12. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of any one of claims 1-10, wherein the recombinant RSV antigen comprising an F protein analog and at least one pertussis antigen are formulated in two different immunogenic compositions.
13. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of claim 12, wherein the two different immunogenic compositions are administered on the same day (co-administered).
14. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of claim 12, wherein the two different immunogenic compositions are administered on different days.
15. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the at least one subset of RSV-specific antibodies transferred via the placenta are neutralizing antibodies.
16. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the at least one subset of RSV-specific antibodies is detectable at a level at or greater than 30 mcg/ml in the infant's serum at birth.
17. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the at least one subset of pertussis-specific antibodies is detectable at a level at or greater than 10 Elisa Units/ml (EU) in the infant's serum at birth.
18. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of any of the preceding claims, wherein the at least one subset of RSV-specific antibodies and the at least one subset of pertussis-specific antibodies are present in the infant's serum at a level that confers protection against infection or disease caused by RSV and pertussis without impairing the response of the infant to active immunization an RSV antigen or a pertussis antigen or to exposure to RSV or B. pertussis.
19. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the at least one subset of RS V-specific antibodies transferred via the placenta comprises IgGi neutralizing antibodies.
20. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of any one of the preceding claims, further comprising administering to the infant at least one composition that primes or induces an active immune response against RSV in the infant.
21. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of any one of the preceding claims, further comprising administering to the infant at least one composition that primes or induces an active immune response against pertussis in the infant.
22. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of claim 20 or 21, comprising administering to the infant at least one composition that primes or induces an active immune response against RSV and at least one composition that primes or induces an active immune response against pertussis.
23. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of claim 22, wherein the at least one composition that primes or induces an active immune response against RSV and the at least one composition that primes or induces an active immune response against pertussis are the same composition.
24. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of claim 22, wherein the at least one composition that primes or induces an active immune response against RSV and the at least one composition that primes or induces an active immune response against pertussis are different compositions.
25. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of claim 24, wherein the different compositions are administered on the same or different days.
26. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of any one of claims 20-6, wherein the at least one composition administered to the infant comprises an RSV antigen comprising an F protein analog.
27. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of any one of claims 20-6 , wherein the at least one composition administered to the infant comprises a nucleic acid, a recombinant viral vector or a viral replicon particle, which nucleic acid, recombinant viral vector or viral replicon particle encodes at least one RSV protein antigen or antigen analog.
28. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of any of the preceding claims, wherein said at least one Bordetella pertussis antigen is at least one acellular pertussis antigen selected from the group consisting of: pertussis toxoid (PT), filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (PRN), fimbrae type 2 (FIM2), fimbrae type 3 (FIM3) and BrkA.
29. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of claim 28, wherein the PT is chemically toxoided, or is genetically toxoided for example by one or both of the mutations: R9K and E129G.
30. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of claim 29, wherein said at least one pertussis antigen comprises: PT and FHA; PT, FHA and PRN; or PT, FHA, PRN and either or both of FIM2 and FIM3.
31. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of claim 30, comprising:
i. 10-30ug, for example exactly or approximately 25ug of PT;
ii. 10-3 Oug, for example exactly or approximately 25ug of FHA.
32. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of claim 30, further comprising:
2-1 Oug, for example exactly or approximately 8ug of PRN.
33. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of claim 30, comprising:
i. 10-30ug, for example exactly or approximately 20ug of PT;
ii. 10-3 Oug, for example exactly or approximately 20ug of FHA; iii. 2-1 Oug, for example exactly or approximately 3ug of PRN ; and iv. 1-1 Oug, for example exactly or approximately 5ug total of FIM2 and FIM3.
34. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of claim 30, comprising:
i. 2-1 Oug, for example exactly or approximately 8ug of PT;
ii. 2- 1 Oug, for example exactly or approximately 8ug of FHA; and iii. 0.5-4ug, for example exactly or approximately 2.5ug of PRN.
35. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of claim 30, comprising
i. 2-10ug, for example exactly or approximately 2.5ug of PT;
ii. 2-10ug, for example exactly or approximately 5ug of FHA;
iii. 0.5-4ug, for example exactly or approximately 3ug of PRN; and iv. 1-lOug, for example exactly or approximately 5ug total of FIM2 and FIM3.
36. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of claim 30, comprising
i. 2-5 ug, for example exactly or approximately 3.2ug of PT;
ii. 25-40ug, for example exactly or approximately 34.4ug of FHA; iii. 0.5-3ug, for example exactly or approximately 1.6ug of PRN; and iv. 0.5- lug, for example exactly or approximately 0.8ug of FIM2.
37. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of claim 30, comprising:
i. 2- lOug, for example exactly or approximately 8ug of PT;
ii. l-4ug, for example exactly or approximately 2.5ug of FHA; and iii. l-4ug, for example exactly or approximately 2.5ug of PRN.
.
38. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of any- one of claims 1-27, wherein the at least one pertussis antigen is whole cell (Pw) pertussis.
39. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of claim 38, wherein said Pw vaccine has reduced endotoxin content.
40. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of claim 39, wherein said reduced endotoxin content is achieved by chemical extraction of lipo-oligosaccharide (LOS), or by genetic manipulation of endotoxin production, for example to induce overexpression or heterologous expression of a 3-O-deacylase.
41. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of claim 38, wherein said Pw vaccine comprises B. pertussis cells comprising at least partially 3-O-deacylated LOS.
42. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the F protein analog is a soluble F protein analog.
43. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the F protein analog is a PreF antigen that includes at least one modification that stabilizes the prefusion conformation of the F protein.
44. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the infant is less than six months of age.
45. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of any one of the preceding claims, wherein protecting the infant comprises reducing the incidence or severity of infection or disease caused by RSV and reducing the incidence or severity of infection or disease caused by pertussis.
46. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of claim 45, wherein reducing the incidence or severity of infection or disease comprises inhibiting infection by RSV.
47. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of claim 45, wherein reducing the incidence or severity of infection or disease comprises inhibiting infection by pertussis.
48. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of any one of the preceding claims, wherein reducing the incidence or severity of infection or disease caused by RSV comprises reducing the incidence and/or severity of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI).
49. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of claim 52, wherein severe LRTI caused by RSV is reduced by 50% or more as measured by a 50% or more reduction in the rate of severe LRTI in a cohort of infants of vaccinated mothers compared to infants of unvaccinated mothers.
50. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the at least one immunogenic composition is administered to a pregnant female at 26 weeks of gestation or later.
51. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of any of the preceding claims, wherei the pregnant female is between 26 and 38 weeks of gestation, for example between 28 and 34 weeks of gestation.
52. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the F protein analog comprises in an N-terminal to C-terminal direction: an F2 domain and an Fi domain of an RSV F protein polypeptide, and a heterologous trimerization domain, wherein there is no furin cleavage site between the F2 domain and the Fi domain.
53. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of claim 52, wherein the F protein analog comprises at least one modification selected from:
(i) a modification that alters glycosylation.
(ii) a modification that eliminates at least one non-furin cleavage site;
(iii) a modification that deletes one or more amino acids of the pep27 domain; and
(iv) a modification that substitutes or adds a hydrophilic amino acid in a hydrophobic domain of the F protein extracellular domain.
54. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of claim 52, wherein the F2 domain comprises an RSV F protein polypeptide corresponding to at least a portion or all of amino acids 26-105 and/or wherein the F| domain comprises an RSV F protein polypeptide corresponding to at least a portion or all of amino acids 137-516 of the reference F protein precursor polypeptide (F0) of SEQ ID NO:2.
55. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the F protein analog is selected from the group of:
a) a polypeptide comprising a polypeptide selected from the group of SEQ ID NO:6, SEQ ID NO:8, SEQ ID NO:10, SEQ ID NO: 18, SEQ ID NO:20 and SEQ ID NO:22;
b) a polypeptide encoded by a polynucleotide selected from the group of SEQ ID NO:5, SEQ ID NO:7, SEQ ID NO:9, SEQ ID NO: 17, SEQ ID NO: 19 and SEQ ID NO:21 , or by a polynucleotide sequence that hybridizes under stringent conditions over substantially its entire length to a polynucleotide selected from the group of SEQ ID NO:5, SEQ ID NO:7, SEQ ID NO:9, SEQ ID NO: 17, SEQ ID NO: 19 and SEQ ID NO:21 , which polypeptide comprises an amino acid sequence corresponding at least in part to a naturally occurring RSV strain;
c) a polypeptide with at least 95% sequence identity to a polypeptide selected from the group of SEQ ID NO:6, SEQ ID NO:8, SEQ ID NO: 10, SEQ ID NO: 18, SEQ ID NO:20 and SEQ ID NO:22, which polypeptide comprises an amino acid sequence that does not correspond to a naturally occurring RSV strain.
56. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of any one of claims 52-55, wherein the F protein analog further comprises a signal peptide.
57. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of any one of claims 52-56, wherein the heterologous trimerization domain comprises a coiled-coil domain, for example an isoleucine zipper.
58. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of any one of claims 52-57, wherein the at least one modification that alters glycosylation comprises a substitution of one or more amino acids comprising and/or adjacent to the amino acid corresponding to position 500 of SEQ ID NO:2.
59. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of claim 58, wherein amino acids corresponding to positions 500-502 of SEQ ID NO:2 are selected from: NGS, NKS, NGT and NKT.
60. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the F protein analog and/or the pertussis antigen is formulated in at least one immunogenic composition comprising an adjuvant.
61. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of claim 60, wherein the adjuvant comprises at least one of: 3D-MPL, QS21, an oil-in- water emulsion, and a mineral salt.
62. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of claim 60 or 61, wherein the adjuvant comprises an aluminium salt (alum).
63. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of any one of claims 60-62, wherein the adjuvant comprises 3D-MPL.
64. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of any one of claims 60-63, wherein the adjuvant comprises QS21.
65. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of any one of claims 1-57, wherein the F protein analog and/or the pertussis antigen is formulated in at least one immunogenic composition without an adjuvant.
66. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the immunogenic composition is administered to the pregnant female by an intramuscular, cutaneous or intradermal administration route.
67. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of any one of claims 20-66, wherein the at least one immunogenic composition is administered to the infant by an intramuscular, cutaneous, intradermal or intranasal route.
68. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the at least one immunogenic composition comprising the F protein analog and/or the pertussis antigen further comprises at least one additional antigen from a pathogenic organism other than RSV and B. pertussis.
69. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of claim 68, further comprising one or more antigens selected from the group consisting of: diphtheria toxoid (D); tetanus toxoid (T); Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg); inactivated polio virus (IPV); capsular saccharide of H. influenzae type b (Hib) conjugated to a carrier protein; capsular saccharide of N. meningitidis type C conjugated to a carrier protein; capsular saccharide of N. meningitidis type Y conjugated to a carrier protein; capsular saccharide of N.
meningitidis type A conjugated to a carrier protein; capsular saccharide of N. meningitidis type W conjugated to a carrier protein; an antigen from N. meningitidis type B and an antigen from influenza virus.
70. The vaccination regimen, method, use or kit of claim 69, further comprising D and T; D, T and IPV; D, T and HBsAg; D, T and Hib; D, T, IPV and HBsAg; D, T, IPV and Hib; D, T, HBsAg and Hib; or D, T, IPV, HBsAg and Hib.
71. The kit of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the first immunogenic composition and/or the second immunogenic composition are in at least one pre-filled syringe.
72. The kit of claim 71, wherein the pre-filled syringe is dual chamber syringe.
PCT/IB2013/001722 2012-08-06 2013-08-05 Method for eliciting in infants an immune response against rsv and b. pertussis WO2014024026A1 (en)

Priority Applications (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US201261679928P true 2012-08-06 2012-08-06
US61/679,928 2012-08-06
US201313138358A true 2013-03-15 2013-03-15
US13/,835,829 2013-03-15

Applications Claiming Priority (10)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
BR112015002549A BR112015002549A2 (en) 2012-08-06 2013-08-05 vaccination regimen to protect a child against infection or disease caused by respiratory syncytial virus, or immunogenic composition plurality of immunogenic compositions, use of an immunogenic composition or a plurality of immunogenic compositions
EP18215004.5A EP3488865A1 (en) 2012-08-06 2013-08-05 Method for eliciting in infants an immune response against rsv and b. pertussis
US14/419,990 US20150202283A1 (en) 2012-08-06 2013-08-05 Method for eliciting in infants an immune response against rsv and b. pertussis
EP13774498.3A EP2879704A1 (en) 2012-08-06 2013-08-05 Method for eliciting in infants an immune response against rsv and b. pertussis
CA2879939A CA2879939A1 (en) 2012-08-06 2013-08-05 Method for eliciting in infants an immune response against rsv and b. pertussis
JP2015525952A JP2015525794A (en) 2012-08-06 2013-08-05 The method for raising an immune response against rsv and pertussis in infants
CN201380052284.2A CN104755100B (en) 2012-08-06 2013-08-05 Method for eliciting an immune rsv and Bordetella pertussis response in infants
AU2013301312A AU2013301312A1 (en) 2012-08-06 2013-08-05 Method for eliciting in infants an immune response against RSV and B. pertussis
SG11201500573RA SG11201500573RA (en) 2012-08-06 2013-08-05 Method for eliciting in infants an immune response against rsv and b. pertussis
ZA2015/00676A ZA201500676B (en) 2012-08-06 2015-01-29 Method for eliciting in infants an immune response against rsv and b. pertussis

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
WO2014024026A1 true WO2014024026A1 (en) 2014-02-13
WO2014024026A8 WO2014024026A8 (en) 2015-04-02

Family

ID=50067471

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
PCT/IB2013/001722 WO2014024026A1 (en) 2012-08-06 2013-08-05 Method for eliciting in infants an immune response against rsv and b. pertussis

Country Status (5)

Country Link
JP (1) JP2015525794A (en)
AU (1) AU2013301312A1 (en)
CA (1) CA2879939A1 (en)
SG (1) SG11201500573RA (en)
WO (1) WO2014024026A1 (en)

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2014160463A1 (en) * 2013-03-13 2014-10-02 The United States Of America, As Represented By The Secretary, Department Of Health & Human Services Prefusion rsv f proteins and their use
WO2015018806A1 (en) * 2013-08-05 2015-02-12 Glaxosmithkline Biologicals S.A. Combination immunogenic compositions
US9738689B2 (en) 2013-03-13 2017-08-22 The United States Of America, As Represented By The Secretary, Department Of Health And Human Services Prefusion RSV F proteins and their use

Citations (91)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4235877A (en) 1979-06-27 1980-11-25 Merck & Co., Inc. Liposome particle containing viral or bacterial antigenic subunit
US4270537A (en) 1979-11-19 1981-06-02 Romaine Richard A Automatic hypodermic syringe
US4372945A (en) 1979-11-13 1983-02-08 Likhite Vilas V Antigen compounds
US4436727A (en) 1982-05-26 1984-03-13 Ribi Immunochem Research, Inc. Refined detoxified endotoxin product
US4474757A (en) 1981-01-13 1984-10-02 Yeda Research & Development Co., Ltd. Synthetic vaccine and process for producing same
US4596556A (en) 1985-03-25 1986-06-24 Bioject, Inc. Hypodermic injection apparatus
US4707543A (en) 1985-09-17 1987-11-17 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Process for the preparation of detoxified polysaccharide-outer membrane protein complexes, and their use as antibacterial vaccines
EP0275689A1 (en) 1986-12-23 1988-07-27 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Modified pertussis exotoxin
US4790824A (en) 1987-06-19 1988-12-13 Bioject, Inc. Non-invasive hypodermic injection device
EP0306318A1 (en) 1987-09-04 1989-03-08 Amgen Inc. Recombinant DNA-derived bordetella toxin subunit analogs
EP0322115A2 (en) 1987-11-24 1989-06-28 Connaught Laboratories Limited Genetic detoxification of pertussis toxin
EP0322533A1 (en) 1987-11-02 1989-07-05 SCLAVO S.p.A. Bordetella pertussis toxin with altered toxicity
US4866034A (en) 1982-05-26 1989-09-12 Ribi Immunochem Research Inc. Refined detoxified endotoxin
US4877611A (en) 1986-04-15 1989-10-31 Ribi Immunochem Research Inc. Vaccine containing tumor antigens and adjuvants
US4886499A (en) 1986-12-18 1989-12-12 Hoffmann-La Roche Inc. Portable injection appliance
GB2220211A (en) 1988-06-29 1990-01-04 Ribi Immunochem Research Inc Modified lipopolysaccharides
US4940460A (en) 1987-06-19 1990-07-10 Bioject, Inc. Patient-fillable and non-invasive hypodermic injection device assembly
US4941880A (en) 1987-06-19 1990-07-17 Bioject, Inc. Pre-filled ampule and non-invasive hypodermic injection device assembly
EP0396964A1 (en) 1989-04-28 1990-11-14 SCLAVO S.p.A. Pertussis toxin mutants, bordetella strains capable of producing such mutants and their use in the development of antipertussis vaccines
EP0109942B1 (en) 1982-10-18 1991-03-06 Bror Morein Immunogenic protein or peptide complex, method of producing said complex and the use thereof as an immune stimulant and as a vaccine
US5015235A (en) 1987-02-20 1991-05-14 National Carpet Equipment, Inc. Syringe needle combination
WO1991012020A1 (en) 1990-02-12 1991-08-22 Smithkline Beecham Biologicals (S.A.) Novel vaccine and method therefor
US5057540A (en) 1987-05-29 1991-10-15 Cambridge Biotech Corporation Saponin adjuvant
US5064413A (en) 1989-11-09 1991-11-12 Bioject, Inc. Needleless hypodermic injection device
US5141496A (en) 1988-11-03 1992-08-25 Tino Dalto Spring impelled syringe guide with skin penetration depth adjustment
US5190521A (en) 1990-08-22 1993-03-02 Tecnol Medical Products, Inc. Apparatus and method for raising a skin wheal and anesthetizing skin
WO1993024148A1 (en) 1992-05-23 1993-12-09 Smithkline Beecham Biologicals (S.A.) Combined vaccines comprising hepatitis b surface antigen and other antigens
US5278302A (en) 1988-05-26 1994-01-11 University Patents, Inc. Polynucleotide phosphorodithioates
US5312335A (en) 1989-11-09 1994-05-17 Bioject Inc. Needleless hypodermic injection device
US5328483A (en) 1992-02-27 1994-07-12 Jacoby Richard M Intradermal injection device with medication and needle guard
US5334144A (en) 1992-10-30 1994-08-02 Becton, Dickinson And Company Single use disposable needleless injector
US5339163A (en) 1988-03-16 1994-08-16 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Automatic exposure control device using plural image plane detection areas
WO1994021292A1 (en) 1993-03-23 1994-09-29 Smithkline Beecham Biologicals (S.A.) Vaccine compositions containing 3-o deacylated monophosphoryl lipid a
EP0362279B1 (en) 1987-05-29 1995-01-11 Cambridge Biotech Corporation Saponin adjuvant
US5383851A (en) 1992-07-24 1995-01-24 Bioject Inc. Needleless hypodermic injection device
US5417662A (en) 1991-09-13 1995-05-23 Pharmacia Ab Injection needle arrangement
WO1995014026A1 (en) 1993-11-17 1995-05-26 Laboratoires Om S.A. Glucosamine disaccharides, method for their preparation, pharmaceutical composition comprising same, and their use
WO1995026204A1 (en) 1994-03-25 1995-10-05 Isis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Immune stimulation by phosphorothioate oligonucleotide analogs
US5466220A (en) 1994-03-08 1995-11-14 Bioject, Inc. Drug vial mixing and transfer device
US5480381A (en) 1991-08-23 1996-01-02 Weston Medical Limited Needle-less injector
WO1996002555A1 (en) 1994-07-15 1996-02-01 The University Of Iowa Research Foundation Immunomodulatory oligonucleotides
WO1996011711A1 (en) 1994-10-12 1996-04-25 Iscotec Ab Saponin preparations and use thereof in iscoms
US5527288A (en) 1990-12-13 1996-06-18 Elan Medical Technologies Limited Intradermal drug delivery device and method for intradermal delivery of drugs
US5569189A (en) 1992-09-28 1996-10-29 Equidyne Systems, Inc. hypodermic jet injector
WO1996033739A1 (en) 1995-04-25 1996-10-31 Smithkline Beecham Biologicals S.A. Vaccines containing a saponin and a sterol
WO1997000697A1 (en) 1995-06-23 1997-01-09 Smithkline Beecham Biologicals S.A. A vaccine composition comprising a polysaccharide conjugate antigen adsorbed onto aluminium phosphate
US5599302A (en) 1995-01-09 1997-02-04 Medi-Ject Corporation Medical injection system and method, gas spring thereof and launching device using gas spring
WO1997013537A1 (en) 1995-10-10 1997-04-17 Visionary Medical Products Corporation Gas pressured needle-less injection device
US5649912A (en) 1994-03-07 1997-07-22 Bioject, Inc. Ampule filling device
US5666153A (en) 1995-10-03 1997-09-09 Virtual Shopping, Inc. Retractable teleconferencing apparatus
WO1997037705A1 (en) 1996-04-11 1997-10-16 Weston Medical Limited Spring-powered dispensing device for medical purposes
US5726292A (en) 1987-06-23 1998-03-10 Lowell; George H. Immuno-potentiating systems for preparation of immunogenic materials
WO1998019702A1 (en) 1996-11-07 1998-05-14 Smithkline Beecham Biologicals S.A. Acellular pertussis vaccine with diphthriae- and tetanus-toxoids
WO1998050399A1 (en) 1997-05-08 1998-11-12 Corixa Corporation Aminoalkyl glucosamine phosphate compounds and their use as adjuvants and immunoeffectors
US5856462A (en) 1996-09-10 1999-01-05 Hybridon Incorporated Oligonucleotides having modified CpG dinucleosides
US5893397A (en) 1996-01-12 1999-04-13 Bioject Inc. Medication vial/syringe liquid-transfer apparatus
WO1999033488A2 (en) 1997-12-24 1999-07-08 Smithkline Beecham Biologicals S.A. Adjuvanted vaccine formulation
WO1999034850A1 (en) 1998-01-08 1999-07-15 Fiderm S.R.L. Device for controlling the penetration depth of a needle, for application to an injection syringe
US5985284A (en) 1993-10-29 1999-11-16 Pharmos Corp Oral or intranasal vaccines using hydrophobic complexes having proteosomes and lipopolysaccharides
US5993412A (en) 1997-05-19 1999-11-30 Bioject, Inc. Injection apparatus
WO1999064301A1 (en) 1998-06-08 1999-12-16 Sca Emballage France Fast flattening packaging
WO2000000462A1 (en) 1998-06-30 2000-01-06 Om Pharma Novel acyl pseudodipeptides, preparation method and pharmaceutical compositions containing same
WO2000074766A1 (en) 1999-06-09 2000-12-14 The Procter & Gamble Company Intracutaneous edged microneedle structure
WO2000074765A1 (en) 1999-06-09 2000-12-14 The Procter & Gamble Company Intracutaneous microneedle array apparatus
EP1092444A1 (en) 1999-10-14 2001-04-18 Becton, Dickinson and Company Intradermal delivery device including a needle assembly
WO2001046127A1 (en) 1999-12-22 2001-06-28 Om Pharma Acyl pseudopeptides bearing a functionalised auxiliary spacer
US6303347B1 (en) 1997-05-08 2001-10-16 Corixa Corporation Aminoalkyl glucosaminide phosphate compounds and their use as adjuvants and immunoeffectors
WO2002000249A2 (en) 2000-06-29 2002-01-03 Glaxosmithkline Biologicals S.A. Multivalent vaccine composition
WO2002085905A1 (en) 2001-04-17 2002-10-31 Sumitomo Pharmaceuticals Company, Limited Novel adenine derivatives
WO2003011223A2 (en) 2001-07-31 2003-02-13 Eisai Co., Ltd. Immunomodulatory compounds and methods of use thereof
US20030044425A1 (en) 2001-03-09 2003-03-06 Burt David S. Novel proteosome-liposaccharide vaccine adjuvant
WO2003043572A2 (en) 2001-11-16 2003-05-30 3M Innovative Properties Company Methods and compositions related to irm compounds and toll-like receptor pathways
WO2003099195A2 (en) 2002-05-28 2003-12-04 Eisai Co., Ltd. Immunomodulatory compounds and methods of use thereof
US20040087992A1 (en) 2002-08-09 2004-05-06 Vladimir Gartstein Microstructures for delivering a composition cutaneously to skin using rotatable structures
US6764840B2 (en) 1997-05-08 2004-07-20 Corixa Corporation Aminoalkyl glucosaminide phosphate compounds and their use as adjuvants and immunoeffectors
WO2004071459A2 (en) 2003-02-13 2004-08-26 3M Innovative Properties Company Methods and compositions related to irm compounds and toll-like receptor 8
US20050042230A1 (en) 2003-07-15 2005-02-24 Id Biomedical Corporation Of Quebec Subunit vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus infection
WO2005032584A2 (en) 2003-10-02 2005-04-14 Glaxosmithkline Biologicals S.A. Pertussis antigens and use thereof in vaccination
WO2006002502A1 (en) 2004-07-05 2006-01-12 Fundação Butantan Process for obtention of new cellular pertussis vaccine
WO2006055844A2 (en) 2004-11-18 2006-05-26 3M Innovative Properties Company Method of contact coating a microneedle array
WO2006055799A1 (en) 2004-11-18 2006-05-26 3M Innovative Properties Company Masking method for coating a microneedle array
WO2006065139A2 (en) 2004-12-17 2006-06-22 Nvi Nederlands Vaccininstituut Deacylation of lps in gram negative bacteria
WO2008114149A2 (en) 2007-03-21 2008-09-25 Id Biomedical Corporation Of Quebec Respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) chimeric polypeptide comprising the g protein central region domain located in between the f2 and f1 fusion protein domains
WO2008130587A2 (en) 2007-04-16 2008-10-30 Corium International, Inc. Solvent-cast microneedle arrays containing active
WO2009048607A1 (en) 2007-10-10 2009-04-16 Corium International, Inc. Vaccine delivery via microneedle arrays
WO2010124255A2 (en) 2009-04-24 2010-10-28 Corium International, Inc. Methods for manufacturing microprojection arrays
WO2010149745A1 (en) 2009-06-24 2010-12-29 Glaxosmithkline Biologicals S.A. Recombinant rsv antigens
WO2010149743A2 (en) 2009-06-24 2010-12-29 Id Biomedical Corporation Of Quebec Vaccine
WO2011008974A2 (en) 2009-07-15 2011-01-20 Novartis Ag Rsv f protein compositions and methods for making same
WO2012089231A1 (en) 2010-12-30 2012-07-05 Okairòs Ag Paramyxovirus vaccines
WO2012103361A1 (en) 2011-01-26 2012-08-02 Novartis Ag Rsv immunization regimen

Patent Citations (99)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4235877A (en) 1979-06-27 1980-11-25 Merck & Co., Inc. Liposome particle containing viral or bacterial antigenic subunit
US4372945A (en) 1979-11-13 1983-02-08 Likhite Vilas V Antigen compounds
US4270537A (en) 1979-11-19 1981-06-02 Romaine Richard A Automatic hypodermic syringe
US4474757A (en) 1981-01-13 1984-10-02 Yeda Research & Development Co., Ltd. Synthetic vaccine and process for producing same
US4436727A (en) 1982-05-26 1984-03-13 Ribi Immunochem Research, Inc. Refined detoxified endotoxin product
US4866034A (en) 1982-05-26 1989-09-12 Ribi Immunochem Research Inc. Refined detoxified endotoxin
EP0109942B1 (en) 1982-10-18 1991-03-06 Bror Morein Immunogenic protein or peptide complex, method of producing said complex and the use thereof as an immune stimulant and as a vaccine
US4596556A (en) 1985-03-25 1986-06-24 Bioject, Inc. Hypodermic injection apparatus
US4707543A (en) 1985-09-17 1987-11-17 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Process for the preparation of detoxified polysaccharide-outer membrane protein complexes, and their use as antibacterial vaccines
US4877611A (en) 1986-04-15 1989-10-31 Ribi Immunochem Research Inc. Vaccine containing tumor antigens and adjuvants
US4886499A (en) 1986-12-18 1989-12-12 Hoffmann-La Roche Inc. Portable injection appliance
EP0275689A1 (en) 1986-12-23 1988-07-27 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Modified pertussis exotoxin
US5015235A (en) 1987-02-20 1991-05-14 National Carpet Equipment, Inc. Syringe needle combination
US5057540A (en) 1987-05-29 1991-10-15 Cambridge Biotech Corporation Saponin adjuvant
EP0362279B1 (en) 1987-05-29 1995-01-11 Cambridge Biotech Corporation Saponin adjuvant
US4790824A (en) 1987-06-19 1988-12-13 Bioject, Inc. Non-invasive hypodermic injection device
US4940460A (en) 1987-06-19 1990-07-10 Bioject, Inc. Patient-fillable and non-invasive hypodermic injection device assembly
US4941880A (en) 1987-06-19 1990-07-17 Bioject, Inc. Pre-filled ampule and non-invasive hypodermic injection device assembly
US5726292A (en) 1987-06-23 1998-03-10 Lowell; George H. Immuno-potentiating systems for preparation of immunogenic materials
EP0306318A1 (en) 1987-09-04 1989-03-08 Amgen Inc. Recombinant DNA-derived bordetella toxin subunit analogs
EP0322533A1 (en) 1987-11-02 1989-07-05 SCLAVO S.p.A. Bordetella pertussis toxin with altered toxicity
EP0322115A2 (en) 1987-11-24 1989-06-28 Connaught Laboratories Limited Genetic detoxification of pertussis toxin
US5339163A (en) 1988-03-16 1994-08-16 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Automatic exposure control device using plural image plane detection areas
US5278302A (en) 1988-05-26 1994-01-11 University Patents, Inc. Polynucleotide phosphorodithioates
GB2220211A (en) 1988-06-29 1990-01-04 Ribi Immunochem Research Inc Modified lipopolysaccharides
US4912094A (en) 1988-06-29 1990-03-27 Ribi Immunochem Research, Inc. Modified lipopolysaccharides and process of preparation
US4912094B1 (en) 1988-06-29 1994-02-15 Ribi Immunochem Research Inc. Modified lipopolysaccharides and process of preparation
US5141496A (en) 1988-11-03 1992-08-25 Tino Dalto Spring impelled syringe guide with skin penetration depth adjustment
EP0396964A1 (en) 1989-04-28 1990-11-14 SCLAVO S.p.A. Pertussis toxin mutants, bordetella strains capable of producing such mutants and their use in the development of antipertussis vaccines
US5503627A (en) 1989-11-09 1996-04-02 Bioject, Inc. Ampule for needleless injection
US5064413A (en) 1989-11-09 1991-11-12 Bioject, Inc. Needleless hypodermic injection device
US5312335A (en) 1989-11-09 1994-05-17 Bioject Inc. Needleless hypodermic injection device
WO1991012020A1 (en) 1990-02-12 1991-08-22 Smithkline Beecham Biologicals (S.A.) Novel vaccine and method therefor
US5190521A (en) 1990-08-22 1993-03-02 Tecnol Medical Products, Inc. Apparatus and method for raising a skin wheal and anesthetizing skin
US5527288A (en) 1990-12-13 1996-06-18 Elan Medical Technologies Limited Intradermal drug delivery device and method for intradermal delivery of drugs
US5480381A (en) 1991-08-23 1996-01-02 Weston Medical Limited Needle-less injector
US5417662A (en) 1991-09-13 1995-05-23 Pharmacia Ab Injection needle arrangement
US5328483A (en) 1992-02-27 1994-07-12 Jacoby Richard M Intradermal injection device with medication and needle guard
WO1993024148A1 (en) 1992-05-23 1993-12-09 Smithkline Beecham Biologicals (S.A.) Combined vaccines comprising hepatitis b surface antigen and other antigens
US5383851A (en) 1992-07-24 1995-01-24 Bioject Inc. Needleless hypodermic injection device
US5520639A (en) 1992-07-24 1996-05-28 Bioject, Inc. Needleless hypodermic injection methods and device
US5704911A (en) 1992-09-28 1998-01-06 Equidyne Systems, Inc. Needleless hypodermic jet injector
US5569189A (en) 1992-09-28 1996-10-29 Equidyne Systems, Inc. hypodermic jet injector
US5334144A (en) 1992-10-30 1994-08-02 Becton, Dickinson And Company Single use disposable needleless injector
WO1994021292A1 (en) 1993-03-23 1994-09-29 Smithkline Beecham Biologicals (S.A.) Vaccine compositions containing 3-o deacylated monophosphoryl lipid a
EP0689454A1 (en) 1993-03-23 1996-01-03 Smithkline Beecham Biolog Vaccine compositions containing 3-o deacylated monophosphoryl lipid a
US5985284A (en) 1993-10-29 1999-11-16 Pharmos Corp Oral or intranasal vaccines using hydrophobic complexes having proteosomes and lipopolysaccharides
WO1995014026A1 (en) 1993-11-17 1995-05-26 Laboratoires Om S.A. Glucosamine disaccharides, method for their preparation, pharmaceutical composition comprising same, and their use
US6005099A (en) 1993-11-17 1999-12-21 Laboratoires Om S.A. Glucosamine disaccharides, method for their preparation, pharmaceutical composition comprising same, and their use
EP0729473B1 (en) 1993-11-17 2000-08-23 DEUTSCHE OM ARZNEIMITTEL GmbH Glucosamine disaccharides, method for their preparation, pharmaceutical composition comprising same, and their use
US5649912A (en) 1994-03-07 1997-07-22 Bioject, Inc. Ampule filling device
US5466220A (en) 1994-03-08 1995-11-14 Bioject, Inc. Drug vial mixing and transfer device
WO1995026204A1 (en) 1994-03-25 1995-10-05 Isis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Immune stimulation by phosphorothioate oligonucleotide analogs
WO1996002555A1 (en) 1994-07-15 1996-02-01 The University Of Iowa Research Foundation Immunomodulatory oligonucleotides
WO1996011711A1 (en) 1994-10-12 1996-04-25 Iscotec Ab Saponin preparations and use thereof in iscoms
US5599302A (en) 1995-01-09 1997-02-04 Medi-Ject Corporation Medical injection system and method, gas spring thereof and launching device using gas spring
WO1996033739A1 (en) 1995-04-25 1996-10-31 Smithkline Beecham Biologicals S.A. Vaccines containing a saponin and a sterol
WO1997000697A1 (en) 1995-06-23 1997-01-09 Smithkline Beecham Biologicals S.A. A vaccine composition comprising a polysaccharide conjugate antigen adsorbed onto aluminium phosphate
US5666153A (en) 1995-10-03 1997-09-09 Virtual Shopping, Inc. Retractable teleconferencing apparatus
WO1997013537A1 (en) 1995-10-10 1997-04-17 Visionary Medical Products Corporation Gas pressured needle-less injection device
US5893397A (en) 1996-01-12 1999-04-13 Bioject Inc. Medication vial/syringe liquid-transfer apparatus
WO1997037705A1 (en) 1996-04-11 1997-10-16 Weston Medical Limited Spring-powered dispensing device for medical purposes
US5856462A (en) 1996-09-10 1999-01-05 Hybridon Incorporated Oligonucleotides having modified CpG dinucleosides
WO1998019702A1 (en) 1996-11-07 1998-05-14 Smithkline Beecham Biologicals S.A. Acellular pertussis vaccine with diphthriae- and tetanus-toxoids
US6303347B1 (en) 1997-05-08 2001-10-16 Corixa Corporation Aminoalkyl glucosaminide phosphate compounds and their use as adjuvants and immunoeffectors
WO1998050399A1 (en) 1997-05-08 1998-11-12 Corixa Corporation Aminoalkyl glucosamine phosphate compounds and their use as adjuvants and immunoeffectors
US6764840B2 (en) 1997-05-08 2004-07-20 Corixa Corporation Aminoalkyl glucosaminide phosphate compounds and their use as adjuvants and immunoeffectors
US5993412A (en) 1997-05-19 1999-11-30 Bioject, Inc. Injection apparatus
WO1999033488A2 (en) 1997-12-24 1999-07-08 Smithkline Beecham Biologicals S.A. Adjuvanted vaccine formulation
WO1999034850A1 (en) 1998-01-08 1999-07-15 Fiderm S.R.L. Device for controlling the penetration depth of a needle, for application to an injection syringe
WO1999064301A1 (en) 1998-06-08 1999-12-16 Sca Emballage France Fast flattening packaging
WO2000000462A1 (en) 1998-06-30 2000-01-06 Om Pharma Novel acyl pseudodipeptides, preparation method and pharmaceutical compositions containing same
WO2000074765A1 (en) 1999-06-09 2000-12-14 The Procter & Gamble Company Intracutaneous microneedle array apparatus
WO2000074766A1 (en) 1999-06-09 2000-12-14 The Procter & Gamble Company Intracutaneous edged microneedle structure
EP1092444A1 (en) 1999-10-14 2001-04-18 Becton, Dickinson and Company Intradermal delivery device including a needle assembly
WO2001046127A1 (en) 1999-12-22 2001-06-28 Om Pharma Acyl pseudopeptides bearing a functionalised auxiliary spacer
WO2002000249A2 (en) 2000-06-29 2002-01-03 Glaxosmithkline Biologicals S.A. Multivalent vaccine composition
US20030044425A1 (en) 2001-03-09 2003-03-06 Burt David S. Novel proteosome-liposaccharide vaccine adjuvant
WO2002085905A1 (en) 2001-04-17 2002-10-31 Sumitomo Pharmaceuticals Company, Limited Novel adenine derivatives
WO2003011223A2 (en) 2001-07-31 2003-02-13 Eisai Co., Ltd. Immunomodulatory compounds and methods of use thereof
WO2003043572A2 (en) 2001-11-16 2003-05-30 3M Innovative Properties Company Methods and compositions related to irm compounds and toll-like receptor pathways
WO2003099195A2 (en) 2002-05-28 2003-12-04 Eisai Co., Ltd. Immunomodulatory compounds and methods of use thereof
US20040087992A1 (en) 2002-08-09 2004-05-06 Vladimir Gartstein Microstructures for delivering a composition cutaneously to skin using rotatable structures
WO2004071459A2 (en) 2003-02-13 2004-08-26 3M Innovative Properties Company Methods and compositions related to irm compounds and toll-like receptor 8
US20050042230A1 (en) 2003-07-15 2005-02-24 Id Biomedical Corporation Of Quebec Subunit vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus infection
WO2005032584A2 (en) 2003-10-02 2005-04-14 Glaxosmithkline Biologicals S.A. Pertussis antigens and use thereof in vaccination
WO2006002502A1 (en) 2004-07-05 2006-01-12 Fundação Butantan Process for obtention of new cellular pertussis vaccine
WO2006055844A2 (en) 2004-11-18 2006-05-26 3M Innovative Properties Company Method of contact coating a microneedle array
WO2006055799A1 (en) 2004-11-18 2006-05-26 3M Innovative Properties Company Masking method for coating a microneedle array
WO2006065139A2 (en) 2004-12-17 2006-06-22 Nvi Nederlands Vaccininstituut Deacylation of lps in gram negative bacteria
WO2008114149A2 (en) 2007-03-21 2008-09-25 Id Biomedical Corporation Of Quebec Respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) chimeric polypeptide comprising the g protein central region domain located in between the f2 and f1 fusion protein domains
WO2008130587A2 (en) 2007-04-16 2008-10-30 Corium International, Inc. Solvent-cast microneedle arrays containing active
WO2009048607A1 (en) 2007-10-10 2009-04-16 Corium International, Inc. Vaccine delivery via microneedle arrays
WO2010124255A2 (en) 2009-04-24 2010-10-28 Corium International, Inc. Methods for manufacturing microprojection arrays
WO2010149745A1 (en) 2009-06-24 2010-12-29 Glaxosmithkline Biologicals S.A. Recombinant rsv antigens
WO2010149743A2 (en) 2009-06-24 2010-12-29 Id Biomedical Corporation Of Quebec Vaccine
WO2011008974A2 (en) 2009-07-15 2011-01-20 Novartis Ag Rsv f protein compositions and methods for making same
WO2012089231A1 (en) 2010-12-30 2012-07-05 Okairòs Ag Paramyxovirus vaccines
WO2012103361A1 (en) 2011-01-26 2012-08-02 Novartis Ag Rsv immunization regimen

Non-Patent Citations (46)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
"Vaccine Design-the subunit and adjuvant approach", vol. 61, 1995, PLENUM PRESS, article "Pharmaceutical Biotechnology"
ALTSCHUL ET AL., J MOL. BIOL., vol. 215, 1990, pages 403
ALTSCHUL ET AL., NATURE GENET., vol. 6, 1994, pages 119
ASENSIO ET AL., VACCINE, vol. 29, 2011, pages 1649 - 1656
BENJAMIN LEWIN: "Genes V", 1994, OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
BOMFORD ET AL., VACCINE, vol. 10, no. 9, 1992, pages 572 - 577
CALDER, VIROLOGY, vol. 271, 2000, pages 122 - 131
CONNOLLY ET AL., PROC. NATL. ACAD. SCI. USA, vol. 103, 2006, pages 17903 - 17908
CORPET ET AL., NUCLEIC ACIDS RESEARCH, vol. 16, pages 10881
DIAS ET AL., HUMAN VACCINES & IMMUNOTHERAPEUTICS, vol. 9, no. 2, 2012, pages 339 - 348
E. W. MARTIN: "Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, 15th Edition", 1975, MACK PUBLISHING CO.
E. W. MARTIN: "Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, 5th Edition", MACK PUBLISHING CO.
GALL S.A. ET AL.: "Maternal Immunization with tetanus- diphtheria-pertussis vaccine: effect on maternal and neonatal serum antibody levels", AM J OBSTET GYNECOL, 2011, pages 204
GALL STANLEY A ET AL: "Maternal immunization with tetanus-diphtheria-pertussis vaccine: effect on maternal and neonatal serum antibody levels", AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY, vol. 204, no. 4, April 2011 (2011-04-01), XP028160496 *
GEURTSEN ET AL., INFECTION AND IMMUNITY, vol. 74, no. 10, 2006, pages 5574 - 5585
GEURTSEN ET AL., MICROBES AND INFECTION, vol. 9, 2007, pages 1096 - 1103
GILLENIUS ET AL.: "The standardization of an assay for pertussis toxin and antitoxin in microplate culture of Chinese hamster ovary cells", J. BIOL. STAND., vol. 13, 1985, pages 61 - 66
GUPTA ET AL., J. BIOL. STAND., vol. 15, 1987, pages 87
GUPTA ET AL., VACCINE, vol. 4, 1986, pages 185
HARBURY ET AL., SCIENCE, vol. 262, 1993, pages 1401 - 1407
HEALY C MARY: "Vaccines in pregnant women and research initiatives.", CLINICAL OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY JUN 2012, vol. 55, no. 2, June 2012 (2012-06-01), pages 474 - 486, XP008166640, ISSN: 1532-5520 *
HIGGINS; SHARP, CABIOS, vol. 5, 1989, pages 151
HIGGINS; SHARP, GENE, vol. 73, 1988, pages 237
JULIE E. FISCHER ET AL: "Vaccination with Pertussis Toxin Alters the Antibody Response to Simultaneous Respiratory Syncytial Virus Challenge", THE JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES, vol. 180, no. 3, 1 September 1999 (1999-09-01), pages 714 - 719, XP055095812, ISSN: 0022-1899, DOI: 10.1086/314947 *
KAISHO; AKIRA, BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA, vol. 1589, 2002, pages 1 - 13
KENDREW ET AL.: "The Encyclopedia ofMolecular Biology", 1994, BLACKWELL SCIENCE LTD
KENSIL, C. R.: "Saponins as vaccine adjuvants", CRIT REV THER DRUG CARRIER SYST, vol. 12, no. 1-2, 1996, pages 1 - 55
LOWELL ET AL., J. EXP. MED., vol. 167, 1988, pages 658
LOWELL ET AL., SCIENCE, vol. 240, 1988, pages 800
LOWELL GH: "New Generation Vaccines", 1997, MARCEL DEKKER, INC., article "Proteosomes for Improved Nasal, Oral, or Injectable Vaccines", pages: 193 - 206
LOWELL: "New Generation Vaccines", 1997, MARCEL DEKKER, INC., pages: 193
LYNCH, BIOPHYS. J., vol. 45, 1984, pages 104
MARR ET AL., THE JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES, vol. 202, no. 12, 2010, pages 1897 - 1906
MARR ET AL., VACCINE, vol. 26, no. 34, 2008, pages 4306 - 4311
MEADE ET AL.: "Description and evaluation of serologic assays used in a multicenter trial of acellular pertussis vaccines", PEDIATRICS, vol. 96, 1995, pages 570 - 5
MORTON ET AL., VIROLOGY, vol. 311, pages 275 - 288
MUNOZ F M ET AL: "Safety and immunogenicity of respiratory syncytial virus purified fusion protein-2 vaccine in pregnant women", VACCINE, ELSEVIER LTD, GB, vol. 21, no. 24, 28 July 2003 (2003-07-28), pages 3465 - 3467, XP004436457, ISSN: 0264-410X, DOI: 10.1016/S0264-410X(03)00352-9 *
NEEDLEMAN; WUNSCH, J MOL. BIOL., vol. 48, 1970, pages 443
PEARSON; LIPMAN, PROC. NATL. ACAD. SCI. USA, vol. 85, 1988, pages 2444
PENTSUK; VAN DER LAAN, BIRTH DEFECTS RESEARCH (PART B, vol. 86, 2009, pages 328 - 344
ROBERT A. MEYERS: "Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: a Comprehensive Desk Reference", 1995, VCH PUBLISHERS, INC.
ROBERTS ET AL., VACCINE, vol. 26, 2008, pages 4639 - 4646
SABROE ET AL., JI, 2003, pages 1630 - 5
SMITH; WATERMAN, ADV. APPL. MATH., vol. 2, 1981, pages 482
VOLLER ET AL.: "New Trends and Developments in Vaccines", 1978, UNIVERSITY PARK PRESS
ZHANG; HENZEL, PROTEIN SCI., vol. 13, 2004, pages 2819 - 2824

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2014160463A1 (en) * 2013-03-13 2014-10-02 The United States Of America, As Represented By The Secretary, Department Of Health & Human Services Prefusion rsv f proteins and their use
US9738689B2 (en) 2013-03-13 2017-08-22 The United States Of America, As Represented By The Secretary, Department Of Health And Human Services Prefusion RSV F proteins and their use
US10017543B2 (en) 2013-03-13 2018-07-10 The United States Of America, As Represented By The Secretary, Department Of Health And Human Services Prefusion RSV F proteins and their use
WO2015018806A1 (en) * 2013-08-05 2015-02-12 Glaxosmithkline Biologicals S.A. Combination immunogenic compositions
EP3492097A1 (en) * 2013-08-05 2019-06-05 GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals S.A. Combination immunogenic compositions

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
AU2013301312A1 (en) 2015-03-19
WO2014024026A8 (en) 2015-04-02
SG11201500573RA (en) 2015-02-27
JP2015525794A (en) 2015-09-07
CA2879939A1 (en) 2014-02-13

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
Clements et al. The global impact of vaccines containing aluminium adjuvants
CN1087176C (en) Vaccine compositions containing 3-O deacylated monophosphoryl lipid A
JP3734263B2 (en) Adjuvant for the vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus
EP2097102B1 (en) Combination vaccine having reduced polio virus antigen quantities
ES2479165T3 (en) Vaccine compositions comprising a saponin adjuvant
AU765824B2 (en) Vaccines
EP0528859B1 (en) Oral vaccine comprising antigen surface-associated with red blood cells
Amorij et al. Towards tailored vaccine delivery: needs, challenges and perspectives
JP5838193B2 (en) A composition comprising a pneumococcal antigen
KR101617895B1 (en) Recombinant RSV antigens
AU2014243756B2 (en) Prefusion RSV F proteins and their use
JP5829210B2 (en) Rsvf protein compositions and methods for making same
KR101696002B1 (en) Recombinant rsv antigens
ES2293708T3 (en) Vaccines containing a saponin and a sterol.
EP2114444B1 (en) Extracellular matrix materials as vaccine adjuvants for diseases associated with infectious pathogens or toxins
US20130089570A1 (en) Oral vaccine compromising an antigen and a toll-like receptor agonist
WO2002028422A2 (en) Split enveloped virus preparation for intranasal delivery
EP0939650A1 (en) Vaccines
CZ20021045A3 (en) Auxiliary preparation
JP5796011B2 (en) vaccine
AU2009236585A1 (en) Deletion mutants of flagellin and methods of use
JP2003522802A (en) Proteosome influenza vaccine
HU0101619A2 (en) An adjuvant
Glück Adjuvant activity of immunopotentiating reconstituted influenza virosomes (IRIVs)
JP2011512152A (en) Escherichiacoli immunogen having improved solubility

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
121 Ep: the epo has been informed by wipo that ep was designated in this application

Ref document number: 13774498

Country of ref document: EP

Kind code of ref document: A1

ENP Entry into the national phase in:

Ref document number: 2879939

Country of ref document: CA

ENP Entry into the national phase in:

Ref document number: 2015525952

Country of ref document: JP

Kind code of ref document: A

WWE Wipo information: entry into national phase

Ref document number: 14419990

Country of ref document: US

NENP Non-entry into the national phase in:

Ref country code: DE

WWE Wipo information: entry into national phase

Ref document number: 2013774498

Country of ref document: EP

ENP Entry into the national phase in:

Ref document number: 2013301312

Country of ref document: AU

Date of ref document: 20130805

Kind code of ref document: A

REG Reference to national code

Ref country code: BR

Ref legal event code: B01A

Ref document number: 112015002549

Country of ref document: BR

ENP Entry into the national phase in:

Ref document number: 112015002549

Country of ref document: BR

Kind code of ref document: A2

Effective date: 20150205

REG Reference to national code

Ref country code: BR

Ref legal event code: B01E

Ref document number: 112015002549

Country of ref document: BR

Kind code of ref document: A2

ENP Entry into the national phase in:

Ref document number: 112015002549

Country of ref document: BR

Kind code of ref document: A2

Effective date: 20150205

ENPC Correction to former announcement of entry into national phase, pct application did not enter into the national phase

Free format text: ANULADA A PUBLICACAO CODIGO 1.3 NA RPI NO 2426 DE 04/07/2017 POR TER SIDO INDEVIDA.