WO2014005475A1 - Smart balanced vehicle system - Google Patents

Smart balanced vehicle system Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2014005475A1
WO2014005475A1 PCT/CN2013/076728 CN2013076728W WO2014005475A1 WO 2014005475 A1 WO2014005475 A1 WO 2014005475A1 CN 2013076728 W CN2013076728 W CN 2013076728W WO 2014005475 A1 WO2014005475 A1 WO 2014005475A1
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Prior art keywords
speed
control
wheeled vehicle
motor
rod
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PCT/CN2013/076728
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French (fr)
Chinese (zh)
Inventor
朱陈焜
Original Assignee
上海跑酷机器人科技有限公司
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Priority claimed from CN201210230742.4 external-priority
Priority claimed from CN 201220321805 external-priority patent/CN202657171U/en
Priority claimed from CN201210230742.4A external-priority patent/CN102774453B/en
Application filed by 上海跑酷机器人科技有限公司 filed Critical 上海跑酷机器人科技有限公司
Publication of WO2014005475A1 publication Critical patent/WO2014005475A1/en

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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L15/00Methods, circuits, or devices for controlling the traction-motor speed of electrically-propelled vehicles
    • B60L15/20Methods, circuits, or devices for controlling the traction-motor speed of electrically-propelled vehicles for control of the vehicle or its driving motor to achieve a desired performance, e.g. speed, torque, programmed variation of speed
    • B60L15/2036Electric differentials, e.g. for supporting steering vehicles
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B62LAND VEHICLES FOR TRAVELLING OTHERWISE THAN ON RAILS
    • B62KCYCLES; CYCLE FRAMES; CYCLE STEERING DEVICES; RIDER-OPERATED TERMINAL CONTROLS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR CYCLES; CYCLE AXLE SUSPENSIONS; CYCLE SIDE-CARS, FORECARS, OR THE LIKE
    • B62K11/00Motorcycles, engine-assisted cycles or motor scooters with one or two wheels
    • B62K11/007Automatic balancing machines with single main ground engaging wheel or coaxial wheels supporting a rider
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L2200/00Type of vehicles
    • B60L2200/12Bikes
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L2200/00Type of vehicles
    • B60L2200/16Single-axle vehicles
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L2240/00Control parameters of input or output; Target parameters
    • B60L2240/10Vehicle control parameters
    • B60L2240/12Speed
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L2240/00Control parameters of input or output; Target parameters
    • B60L2240/40Drive Train control parameters
    • B60L2240/42Drive Train control parameters related to electric machines
    • B60L2240/421Speed
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L2250/00Driver interactions
    • B60L2250/24Driver interactions by lever actuation
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/64Electric machine technologies in electromobility
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/72Electric energy management in electromobility

Abstract

A smart balanced vehicle system. The smart balanced vehicle system at least comprises: a bicycle body, two hand grips (101), two pressure sensors (102), and a control module (103) disposed at the bicycle body. The two hand grips (101) are installed at the two ends of a directional rod (3) contained in the bicycle body, respectively. The two pressure sensors (102) are configured to sense the pressure of the hand grips (101), respectively. The control module (103) controls the turning of the directional rod (3) based on pressure values sensed by the two pressure sensors (102). The control module (3) further comprises a speed detection unit (131), a first control subunit (132) controlling riding of the bicycle according to relevant information by adopting a response model that combines an inverted pendulum model and manual active intervention movements, and a second control subunit (133) configured to adjust the vehicle speed by increasing and then decreasing the speed of the bicycle within the preset range when the speed of the bicycle reaches a preset maximum value based on relevant parameters of the bicycle. The smart balanced vehicle system can control balanced riding of a bicycle based on pressure, speed, and the like, so as to guarantee stable and safe riding.

Description

智能平衡车系统  Intelligent balance car system
技术领域 Technical field
本发明属于车辆控制技术领域, 涉及一种智能车系统, 尤其涉及一种智能平衡车系统。 背景技术  The invention belongs to the technical field of vehicle control, and relates to a smart car system, in particular to a smart balance car system. Background technique
随着科学技术的发展, 电动车以其操作简单、 使用方便灵活的特性, 成为了大多数人的 出行所选择的代步工具。 目前市面上的两轮电动车, 主要有以下不足:  With the development of science and technology, electric vehicles have become the transportation tool of choice for most people's travel with its simple operation, convenient and flexible use. At present, the two-wheeled electric vehicles on the market mainly have the following shortcomings:
1、 其车轮多为前后分布, 运行中只能靠驾驶者自身来保持平衡, 由于车辆自身不能维持 平衡, 行驶过程中一旦驾驶者失去平衡, 就极为容易造成危险, 严重时甚至会引起交通事故;  1. The wheels are mostly distributed back and forth. In the operation, the driver can only maintain balance. Since the vehicle itself cannot maintain balance, once the driver loses balance during driving, it is extremely easy to cause danger. In serious cases, it may even cause traffic accidents. ;
2、 方向控制杆和车体支脚分开设置, 其生产厂家需要同时制造控制杆和车支脚, 且需要 对车支脚的位置进行设计;  2. The direction control lever and the body foot are separately set. The manufacturer needs to manufacture the control rod and the vehicle foot at the same time, and needs to design the position of the vehicle foot;
3、 耗电量大, 导致电池利用率低, 不够环保。  3. The power consumption is large, resulting in low battery utilization and environmental protection.
这种传统的电动车已经不能满足人们对代步工具的要求, 一种能够通过车身自平衡、 使 用更加方便、 环保的代步工具的出现, 成为了必然。  This kind of traditional electric vehicle can no longer meet the requirements of people's walking tools, and the emergence of a means of transportation that can be self-balancing, more convenient and environmentally friendly has become a necessity.
有鉴于此, 如今迫切需要一种平衡系统来对行驶中的两轮车进行有效控制, 以保持其平 衡。  In view of this, there is an urgent need for a balancing system to effectively control the two-wheeled vehicle in motion to maintain its balance.
本发明所要解决的技术问题是: 提供一种智能平衡车系统, 以确保两轮车在行驶过程中 的平衡及安全。 The technical problem to be solved by the present invention is to provide an intelligent balance car system to ensure the balance and safety of the two-wheeled vehicle during driving.
为解决上述技术问题, 本发明采用如下技术方案:  In order to solve the above technical problem, the present invention adopts the following technical solutions:
一种智能平衡车系统, 所述智能平衡车系统至少包括:  A smart balance car system, the smart balance car system comprising at least:
两轮车本体;  Two-wheeled vehicle body;
两个手握件, 分别安装在所述两轮车本体所包含的方向杆两端;  Two hand grips respectively mounted on both ends of the directional rod included in the body of the two-wheeled vehicle;
两压力传感器, 分别用于感测一个手握件的压力;  Two pressure sensors for sensing the pressure of a hand grip;
设置在所述两轮车本体的控制模块, 基于所述两压力传感器所感测的压力值来控制所述 方向杆的转向。  A control module disposed on the two-wheeled vehicle body controls steering of the steering rod based on a pressure value sensed by the two pressure sensors.
作为本发明的一种优选方案, 所述控制模块包括: 速度检测单元, 用于基于当前所获得 的霍尔状态数据, 采用预定测速法来确定所述两轮车的速度。 As a preferred solution of the present invention, the control module includes: a speed detecting unit, configured to obtain based on current The Hall state data is determined by a predetermined speed measurement method to determine the speed of the two-wheeled vehicle.
作为本发明的一种优选方案, 所述速度检测单元包括:  As a preferred solution of the present invention, the speed detecting unit includes:
误差消除单元, 用于基于当前所获得的霍尔状态数据与所有霍尔状态各自的标定数据之 间的相关性来确定与所述当前所获得的霍尔状态数据对应的标定数据;  An error canceling unit, configured to determine calibration data corresponding to the currently obtained Hall state data based on a correlation between currently obtained Hall state data and respective calibration data of all Hall states;
速度确定单元, 用于基于所确定的与所述当前所获得的霍尔状态数据对应的标定数据、 采用以下滤波算法来确定所述两轮车的速度及加速度:  a speed determining unit, configured to determine a speed and an acceleration of the two-wheeled vehicle based on the determined calibration data corresponding to the currently obtained Hall state data, using the following filtering algorithm:
_ 1 X{n)  _ 1 X{n)
Vk = r Y(k) (E[X(n)]) , V k = r Y(k) (E[X(n)]) ,
Ε[Χ(η)] =∑Χ(η) , vk = ν^ + ά^Τ + ξ ν - (vt_! + )] , ¾ = ¾-ι + ?7(¾ - ¾-ι) ' 其中, 是与所述当前所获得的霍尔状态数据对应的标定数据, Υ( 为当前采集的 霍尔持续时间, 是每进行一次霍尔状态转换对应轮子所走过的距离,其值可根据电机一周霍 尔状态个数、 齿轮箱转速比及车轮外径关系得到, 在 0.0001m至 0.01m之间取值, ^当前时 刻车轮速度的最优估计值, 上一时刻车轮速度的最优估计值, 当前时刻车轮加速度的最 优估计值, 上一时刻车轮加速度的最优估计值, 是车轮的速度, ^当前所测得的电机加 速度, 是当前时刻与上一时刻的时间间隔, ^为预定滤波系数。 Ε[Χ(η)] =∑Χ(η) , v k = ν^ + ά^Τ + ξ ν - (v t _! + )] , 3⁄4 = 3⁄4-ι + ? 7(3⁄4 - 3⁄4- ι) ' where is the calibration data corresponding to the currently obtained Hall state data, Υ (for the currently collected Hall duration, the distance traveled by the wheel for each Hall state transition, The value can be obtained according to the number of Hall states in the motor, the gearbox speed ratio and the wheel outer diameter, and the value is between 0.0001m and 0.01m, ^ the optimal estimation of the wheel speed at the current time, and the wheel speed at the previous moment. The optimal estimate, the optimal estimate of the wheel acceleration at the current time, the optimal estimate of the wheel acceleration at the previous moment, is the speed of the wheel, ^ the current measured motor acceleration, is the time interval between the current time and the previous time , ^ is the predetermined filter coefficient.
作为本发明的一种优选方案, 所述控制模块包括: 第一子控制单元, 用于根据相关信息、 采用基于倒立摆模型及人主动干预运动相结合的响应模型来控制两轮车的行驶。  As a preferred solution of the present invention, the control module includes: a first sub-control unit, configured to control the driving of the two-wheeled vehicle according to the related information, using a response model based on the inverted pendulum model and the human active intervention motion.
作为本发明的一种优选方案, 所述响应模型包括:  As a preferred solution of the present invention, the response model includes:
,, Ik(M + mk) + Mmkrk 2 , /,, 、,, I k (M + m k ) + Mm k r k 2 , /,, ,
Figure imgf000004_0001
Figure imgf000005_0001
Figure imgf000004_0001
Figure imgf000005_0001
¾+i = vk + ak + Ak
Figure imgf000005_0002
3⁄4 + i = v k + a k + A k
Figure imgf000005_0002
mk+l = (1 - K)mk + κτΑ,, m k+l = (1 - K)m k + κτΑ,,
其中, ^是绕车轮转动的平台及平台上的人绕质心运动的力矩; M是车轮质量; 是 系统对平台及平台上的人的质量总和 在 k 时刻估计值; Λ是系统对平台及平台上的人绕其 质心转动的转动惯量 /在 k时刻的估计值; 是转动轴心与 w质心的距离 的估计值; Λ+1, mk+l , 分别是 k+1时刻对 /, m , r的估计值并替代 mk , 参与 k+1时刻运算; ok' 是角加速度, ^是所述两轮车的行驶速度; g是重力加速度; ί¾是所述两轮车相对于水平位 置的倾斜角度; ¾是为所述两轮车保持平衡状态所预设的加速度; P。与 I。分别是预定比例与 预定积分系数; 为所述两轮车的加速度估计值; 为上一时刻的速度最优估计值, 为 所述两轮车的速度控制量; η、 κ、 ρ分别是 Λ、 mk、 ^的预定一阶滤波系数; φ、 τ、 δ 别是 预定反馈系数。 Where ^ is the moment on the platform that rotates around the wheel and the motion of the person on the platform around the centroid; M is the wheel quality; is the estimated value of the sum of the masses of the system on the platform and the platform at time k; Λ is the system to the platform and platform The moment of inertia of the upper man about its centroid rotation / the estimated value at time k; is the estimated value of the distance between the axis of rotation and the centroid of w; Λ +1 , m k+l , respectively, k+1 time pair /, m , the estimated value of r is substituted for m k , participates in the k+1 time operation; o k ' is the angular acceleration, ^ is the traveling speed of the two-wheeled vehicle; g is the acceleration of gravity; ί3⁄4 is the level of the two-wheeled vehicle relative to the horizontal The angle of inclination of the position; 3⁄4 is the acceleration preset for the balance of the two-wheeled vehicle; P. With I. The predetermined ratio and the predetermined integral coefficient are respectively; the estimated value of the acceleration of the two-wheeled vehicle; the estimated speed of the last time is the speed control amount of the two-wheeled vehicle; η, κ, ρ are respectively , m k , ^ predetermined first-order filter coefficients; φ, τ, δ are predetermined feedback coefficients.
作为本发明的一种优选方案, 所述控制模块包括: 第二子控制单元, 用于基于所述两轮 车的相关参数, 在所述两轮车车速已达到预定最大值时, 使所述两轮车在预定范围内先加速 再减速来调整车速。  As a preferred solution of the present invention, the control module includes: a second sub-control unit, configured to: when the two-wheeled vehicle speed has reached a predetermined maximum value, based on the relevant parameters of the two-wheeled vehicle The two-wheeled vehicle accelerates and then decelerates to adjust the speed in the predetermined range.
作为本发明的一种优选方案, 所述两轮车本体包括: 横向布置的两个车轮, 与各自的驱 动电机相连接, 所述的车轮被横向固定在车轴上, 所述的车轴连接有绕车轴自由转动的载人 踏板, 车轮、 车轴和载人踏板相互固定连接成一整体;  As a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the two-wheeled vehicle body comprises: two wheels arranged laterally, connected to respective driving motors, the wheels are laterally fixed on the axle, and the axles are connected a manned pedal with a freely rotating axle, the wheel, the axle and the passenger pedal are fixedly connected to each other as a whole;
所述方向杆包括一横梁, 横梁与两轮车本体的载人踏板之间设有立杆;  The direction bar includes a beam, and the beam is provided with a pole between the carrying pedal of the body of the two-wheeled vehicle;
所述控制模块包括传感器采集系统、 左电机驱动系统和右电机驱动系统, 传感器采集系 统输入端与压力传感器和车身的电流、 电压、 加速度等传感器相连, 左电机驱动系统与左电 机相连, 右电机驱动系统与右电机相连。  The control module comprises a sensor acquisition system, a left motor drive system and a right motor drive system. The input end of the sensor acquisition system is connected to the pressure sensor and the current, voltage, acceleration and the like of the vehicle body, and the left motor drive system is connected to the left motor, the right motor The drive system is connected to the right motor.
作为本发明的一种优选方案, 所述控制模块还包括主控单片机、 CPLD模块、 电源电路, 传感器采集系统的输出端与主控单片机输入端相连, 主控单片机与 CPLD模块之间双向连接, CPLD模块输出端分别与左电机驱动系统和右电机驱动系统相连。 As a preferred solution of the present invention, the control module further includes a main control single chip, a CPLD module, and a power supply circuit. The output end of the sensor acquisition system is connected to the input end of the main control MCU, and the bidirectional connection between the main control MCU and the CPLD module is connected. The output end of the CPLD module is respectively connected with the left motor drive system and the right motor drive system.
作为本发明的一种优选方案, 所述主控单片机使用 4个 10口与传感器采集系统进行数据 总线通信,能够对传感器采集系统传送的数据的提取、运算、分析和控制,并及时传送到 CPLD 模块中, 所述的主控单片机同时接收 CPLD模块实时检测的电机霍尔状态; 所述的主控单片 机通过控制电机驱动系统的驱动力, 进而控制车身在运动过程中的最大速度;  As a preferred solution of the present invention, the main control single-chip microcomputer uses four 10-port and sensor acquisition systems for data bus communication, and can extract, calculate, analyze and control the data transmitted by the sensor acquisition system, and timely transmit to the CPLD. In the module, the main control MCU simultaneously receives the motor Hall state detected by the CPLD module in real time; the main control MCU controls the driving speed of the motor drive system to control the maximum speed of the vehicle body during the movement;
所述 CPLD模块一方面与左、 右电机驱动系统连接, 一方面与主控单片机相应管脚连接, 能够接收经主控单片机计算得出的电机控制的方向、相位和 PWM数据, 并将数据由 12路 10 口同时输出, 进而控制电机驱动模块; 同时, 所述 CPLD模块与左、 右电机的霍尔信号采集 端相连, 实时采集电机的霍尔状态, 并传送给主控单片机进行处理。  The CPLD module is connected with the left and right motor drive systems on one hand, and is connected with the corresponding pins of the main control MCU on the one hand, and can receive the direction, phase and PWM data of the motor control calculated by the main control single chip, and the data is 12 channels and 10 ports simultaneously output, and then control the motor drive module; meanwhile, the CPLD module is connected with the Hall signal acquisition ends of the left and right motors, and the Hall state of the motor is collected in real time and transmitted to the main control MCU for processing.
作为本发明的一种优选方案, 所述传感器采集系统包括 A/D采集模块, 能够对外部的电 压、 电流、 压力、 加速度等传感器信号进行实时采集, 再将所采集到的位置和状态信号传送 给主控单片机进行分析处理;  As a preferred solution of the present invention, the sensor acquisition system includes an A/D acquisition module, which can perform real-time acquisition of external voltage, current, pressure, acceleration and other sensor signals, and then transmit the collected position and status signals. Analyze and process the main control MCU;
所述左电机驱动系统及右电机驱动系统中, 电机控制采用三相桥式控制电路, 每个系统 设置 6个大功率 MOS管, 每个 MOS管各需要一路的控制信号, 左、 右电机驱动系统共需 12 路 10控制信号, 12路 10控制信号均与 CPLD模块相应管脚相连, 由 CPLD模块对 12路 10 控制信号进行多路、 并发控制。  In the left motor drive system and the right motor drive system, the motor control adopts a three-phase bridge type control circuit, and each system is provided with six high-power MOS tubes, each of which requires one control signal, left and right motor drives The system requires a total of 12 10 control signals, and 12 10 control signals are connected to the corresponding pins of the CPLD module. The CPLD module performs multi-channel and concurrent control on the 12-channel 10 control signals.
作为本发明的一种优选方案, 所述立杆包括固定杆和升降杆, 升降杆一端与横梁连接, 固定杆一端与车体活动连接, 所述方向控制杆上设有能够使升降杆升降的装置;  As a preferred solution of the present invention, the pole includes a fixing rod and a lifting rod, and one end of the lifting rod is connected with the beam, and one end of the fixing rod is movably connected with the vehicle body, and the directional control rod is provided with a lifting rod capable of lifting and lowering Device
所述能够使升降杆升降的装置是一个 "Ω"形的中环, 升降杆插到中环内, 固定杆上设有 紧固螺杆, 紧固螺杆与固定杆的 "Ω"形中环相连, 旋转紧固螺杆可带动中环抱紧或放松粗杆; 固定杆的另一端采用设置有锁扣的弯折接头与车体连接, 打开锁扣, 控制杆能任意角度 横向倾倒;  The device capable of lifting the lifting rod is an "Ω"-shaped middle ring, the lifting rod is inserted into the middle ring, and the fixing rod is provided with a fastening screw, and the fastening screw is connected with the "Ω"-shaped middle ring of the fixing rod, and the rotation is tight The solid screw can drive the middle ring to hold or loosen the thick rod; the other end of the fixed rod is connected with the vehicle body by a bent joint provided with a lock, and the lock is opened, and the control rod can be tilted horizontally at any angle;
所述升降杆小于固定杆的直径; 所述升降杆的长度应大于等于固定杆的长度与固定杆被 车体固定端至地面的高度之和。  The lifting rod is smaller than the diameter of the fixing rod; the length of the lifting rod should be greater than or equal to the sum of the length of the fixing rod and the height of the fixed rod from the fixed end of the vehicle body to the ground.
所述智能平衡车系统通过对其自身的速度及倾斜角度进行控制和调整, 进而达到控制车 身平衡的目的。 对于平衡车的速度检测, 常用方案如在智能平衡控制装置中加入编码器或加 入线性霍尔, 通过对编码器计算或对线性霍尔进行 AD采集计算出速度值, 再进一步计算出 速度值, 这在一定程度上增加了硬件成本, 增加了信号连接也必然会降低整车的可靠性, 而 且必须有额外的空间来安装这些器件, 增加了便携式设备的重量及大小, 也增加了正常运行 中的功耗。 本发明中直接采集电机内部霍尔的方法计算速度。 霍尔的测量是电机转动必须测 量值, 因此只需要一次测量霍尔状态, 一方面用于控制电机转动, 另一方面用于速度采集。 The intelligent balance car system controls and adjusts its own speed and inclination angle to achieve the purpose of controlling the balance of the vehicle body. For the speed detection of the balance car, a common solution is to add an encoder or a linear Hall to the intelligent balance control device, calculate the speed value by calculating the encoder or performing AD acquisition on the linear Hall, and further calculate the speed value. This increases the hardware cost to a certain extent, and the increase of the signal connection will inevitably reduce the reliability of the whole vehicle. Moreover, there must be extra space to install these devices, increase the weight and size of the portable device, and increase the normal operation. Power consumption in . In the present invention, the method of directly collecting the internal Hall of the motor is used to calculate the speed. Hall's measurement is a measure of the motor's rotation, so it is only necessary to measure the Hall state once, on the one hand to control the motor rotation and on the other hand for speed acquisition.
所述速度检测与计算, 通过 CPLD模块引脚与电机霍尔信号采集端相应引脚相连, 实时 采集引脚电平, 电机在运转时, 引脚的电平会有规律的变化, 组合成不同的数据, 控制电机 的换相, 同时, 当霍尔值变化时主控单片机定时器开始计时, 当下一次霍尔值改变时, 读取 这个计数值, 并清空计时器, 开始下一次计数, 然后根据两个霍尔点的距离 L, 和根据计时器 得到的时间 t,根据公式就可得出在微观状态下的速度值 = ^/ 由于在微观的情况下, 数值 扰动一点就会影响很大, 所以, 需要对其进行一阶滤波,  The speed detection and calculation is connected to the corresponding pin of the motor Hall signal acquisition terminal through the pin of the CPLD module, and the pin level is collected in real time. When the motor is running, the level of the pin changes regularly, and the composition is different. The data controls the commutation of the motor. At the same time, when the Hall value changes, the master microcontroller timer starts counting. When the next Hall value changes, the count value is read, the timer is cleared, the next count is started, and then According to the distance L of the two Hall points, and the time t obtained from the timer, according to the formula, the velocity value in the microscopic state can be obtained = ^/ Since in the microscopic case, the numerical disturbance will have a great influence. , so, you need to do first-order filtering,
V = V1 * K + Vl * (\ - K) 其中 VI为上次滤波后的值, V2为本次计算出的值, V是本次滤波后的速度值, K为滤 波系数 (K的范围是 (0,1))。 修正后, 得到比常规的对霍尔点计数的方法更准确的速度值, 精度 可以达到使用编码盘的效果。 V = V 1 * K + V l * (\ - K) where VI is the last filtered value, V2 is the current calculated value, V is the filtered speed value, and K is the filter coefficient (K The range is (0, 1)). After the correction, a more accurate speed value is obtained than the conventional method of counting the Hall points, and the accuracy can be achieved by using the encoder disk.
所述车身倾斜角度的检测与计算, 一般采用陀螺仪值进行计算, 但所述陀螺仪受温度影 响较大, 易产生零点漂移, 因此本发明采集温度传感器的数据, 用于修正陀陀螺仪的零点,对 采集到的陀螺仪值进行积分, 可以得到车体倾斜的角度值。 所述陀螺仪值只在短时间内准确, 而加速度计值在长时间内准确, 所以本发明采用水平加速度的值来修正陀螺仪的值: 首先使 用加速度传感器的重力效应, 得到一个准确的静止时的车体在垂直方向上倾斜的角度值, 但 当车体在行驶的过程中, 加速度传感器采集到的角度值是一个水平和垂直方向上的合加速度, 为了得到垂直方向的倾斜角度, 就需要先计算出水平方向的加速度; 因为车体在水平方向运 动, 在水平方向产生了一个速度, 所以根据公式 a = 对水平速度进行微分, 就得到当前 dt  The detection and calculation of the tilt angle of the vehicle body is generally performed by using a gyro value, but the gyroscope is greatly affected by temperature and is prone to zero drift. Therefore, the present invention collects data of the temperature sensor for correcting the gyro Zero point, the integrated gyro value is integrated to obtain the angle value of the vehicle body tilt. The gyroscope value is accurate only in a short time, and the accelerometer value is accurate over a long period of time, so the present invention uses the value of the horizontal acceleration to correct the value of the gyroscope: First, using the gravity effect of the acceleration sensor to obtain an accurate still The angle at which the vehicle body is tilted in the vertical direction, but when the vehicle body is in motion, the angle value acquired by the acceleration sensor is a combined acceleration in the horizontal and vertical directions, in order to obtain the tilt angle in the vertical direction, It is necessary to calculate the acceleration in the horizontal direction first; because the car body moves in the horizontal direction, a speed is generated in the horizontal direction, so according to the formula a = differentiating the horizontal speed, the current dt is obtained.
时刻的水平加速度值, 对陀螺仪的值进行修正后, 进而得到相对准确的角度值。 The horizontal acceleration value at the time is corrected, and the value of the gyroscope is corrected to obtain a relatively accurate angle value.
所述智能平衡车系统为保证驾驶者的安全性, 对速度进行智能限速处理, 即根据电机和 车体参数, 在程序中设置速度的最高值 , 使其在满足速度的要求的下, 又使速度留有一个 的安全空间, 使其永远不会达到车体的极限值。 当驾驶者驾驶速度已经达到限定的最大值时, 车体通过留有的安全空间, 在安全空间内增加一定的电机驱动力, 使车体在行驶中有个加速 的过程, 而驾驶者由于惯性, 滞后车体的变化, 产生一个向后的拉力。 根据传感器和速度的 反馈, 使车体产生减速的效果, 车体达到新的速度平衡。 实际测试中, 安全空间内的加速过 程, 时间短, 幅度小, 驾驶者几乎感觉不到, 这种方法比常用的直接限速调整, 更加安全和 舒适, In order to ensure the safety of the driver, the intelligent balance car system intelligently limits the speed, that is, according to the motor and the vehicle body parameters, the highest value of the speed is set in the program, so that the speed is met, Leave a safe space for the speed so that it never reaches the limit of the car body. When the driver's driving speed has reached a certain maximum value, the vehicle body increases the certain motor driving force in the safe space through the remaining safety space, so that the vehicle body has an acceleration process while driving, and the driver is inertia. , lags the change of the car body, producing a backward pulling force. According to the feedback of the sensor and the speed, the car body is decelerated, and the car body reaches a new speed balance. In the actual test, the acceleration process in the safe space, the time is short, the amplitude is small, and the driver can hardly feel it. This method is safer than the commonly used direct speed limit adjustment. Comfortable,
所述智能平衡车系统的载人踏板上还设有质量传感器, 质量传感器的另一端与传感器采 集系统输入端相连, 能够对不同驾驶者体重进行检测, 智能调控电机的功率, 提高驾驶者的 舒适度, 提高电池的利用率。 当驾驶者站立在车体上时, 车体在保持平衡的同时自动检测驾 驶者的体重, 然后根据检测值, 调整 PID调节中的 P (比例相)参数, 控制电机的输出力矩, 当 驾驶者体重较重时, 通过增大 P的值来增大电机的输出力矩, 反之, 则减小 P的值来减小电 机的力矩, 动态调整参数, 增加驾驶者的舒适度, 提高电池的利用率。 本发明的有益效果在于: 本发明提出的智能平衡车系统, 能在两轮车行驶过程中, 基于 压力、 速度等信息来控制两轮车的平衡, 以确保行车安全。  The smart balance vehicle system also has a mass sensor on the passenger pedal, and the other end of the quality sensor is connected to the input end of the sensor acquisition system, which can detect the weight of different drivers, intelligently regulate the power of the motor, and improve the comfort of the driver. Degree, improve battery utilization. When the driver is standing on the vehicle body, the vehicle body automatically detects the driver's weight while maintaining balance, and then adjusts the P (proportional phase) parameter in the PID adjustment according to the detected value to control the output torque of the motor, when the driver When the weight is heavier, increase the output torque of the motor by increasing the value of P. Conversely, reduce the value of P to reduce the torque of the motor, dynamically adjust the parameters, increase the comfort of the driver, and improve the utilization of the battery. . The beneficial effects of the present invention are as follows: The intelligent balance car system proposed by the present invention can control the balance of the two-wheeled vehicle based on information such as pressure and speed during the driving of the two-wheeled vehicle to ensure driving safety.
本发明控制模块由于采用能够多路、并发控制的驱动控制芯片, 结合简便的速度信号采集 方案, 能将多路的控制信号时间差控制在纳秒级, 提升了运算效率, 缩短运行时间, 降低成 本, 更大提高了系统的稳定性。  The control module of the invention adopts a drive control chip capable of multi-channel and concurrent control, and combines a simple speed signal acquisition scheme, can control the time difference of the multi-channel control signals to the nanosecond level, improve the operation efficiency, shorten the running time, and reduce the cost. , greatly improve the stability of the system.
所述智能平衡车系统采用智能限速处理, 对运动过程中的最大速度进行限制, 并留有一定 的上升空间, 为驾驶者的安全性和舒适性提供一定保证。 所述智能平衡车系统能够对不同驾 驶者体重进行检测, 智能调控电机的功率, 提高驾驶者的舒适度, 提高电池的利用率。 此外, 所述智能平衡车系统架构简单、 操作方便, 运动过程中能够自动保持平衡, 比较适合大型场 所, 飞机场, 高尔夫球场, 警察巡逻等相关人员的使用。 附图说明  The intelligent balance car system adopts intelligent speed limit processing to limit the maximum speed during the movement, and leaves a certain rising space, which provides a certain guarantee for the safety and comfort of the driver. The intelligent balance car system can detect the weight of different drivers, intelligently regulate the power of the motor, improve the comfort of the driver, and improve the utilization rate of the battery. In addition, the intelligent balance car system has a simple structure and convenient operation, and can automatically maintain balance during the movement process, and is suitable for use by large fields, airports, golf courses, police patrols and the like. DRAWINGS
图 1为本发明实施例中智能平衡车系统的一示例性示意图。  FIG. 1 is an exemplary schematic diagram of a smart balance vehicle system according to an embodiment of the present invention.
图 2为本发明实施例中智能平衡车系统的控制模块的优选示意图。  2 is a schematic diagram of a control module of a smart balance vehicle system according to an embodiment of the present invention.
图 3为本发明实施例二中智能平衡控制装置的整体结构图。  FIG. 3 is an overall structural diagram of a smart balance control device according to Embodiment 2 of the present invention.
图 4为本发明实施例二中智能平衡控制装置的集成电路图。  4 is an integrated circuit diagram of a smart balance control device according to Embodiment 2 of the present invention.
图 5为本发明实施例二中智能自平衡控制装置的传感器采集系统的引脚示意图。  FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram of a pin of a sensor acquisition system of an intelligent self-balancing control device according to Embodiment 2 of the present invention.
图 6为本发明实施例二中智能平衡车系统的倾斜角度算法流程图。  6 is a flow chart of a tilt angle algorithm of a smart balance vehicle system according to a second embodiment of the present invention.
图 7为本发明实施例二中右电机驱动系统与 CPLD模块连接的引脚示意图。  FIG. 7 is a schematic diagram of a pin connection between a right motor driving system and a CPLD module according to Embodiment 2 of the present invention.
图 8为本发明实施例二中智能自平衡控制装置的霍尔信号采集的引脚示意图。  FIG. 8 is a schematic diagram of a pin of a Hall signal acquisition of an intelligent self-balancing control device according to Embodiment 2 of the present invention.
图 9为本发明实施例二中方向杆作为车支脚时的结构图。 图 10为本发明实施例二中方向杆横向倾倒后的结构图。 Fig. 9 is a structural view showing a direction lever as a vehicle leg in the second embodiment of the present invention. Figure 10 is a structural view showing the direction bar being tilted laterally in the second embodiment of the present invention.
具体实施方式 detailed description
下面结合附图详细说明本发明的优选实施例。  Preferred embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail below with reference to the accompanying drawings.
实施例一  Embodiment 1
请参阅图 1、 图 2, 本发明揭示了一种智能平衡车系统; 所述智能平衡车系统至少包括: 两轮车本体、 两个手握件 101、 两压力传感器 102、 及控制模块 103。  Referring to FIG. 1 and FIG. 2, the present invention discloses a smart balance vehicle system. The smart balance vehicle system includes at least: a two-wheeled vehicle body, two hand grips 101, two pressure sensors 102, and a control module 103.
需要说明的是, 为简化图示, 图 1 中仅示出两轮车本体所包含的方向杆 3及支撑所述方 向杆的立杆 6, 控制模块 103在图 1中也未示出, 控制模块 103的组成请参阅图 2。  It should be noted that, in order to simplify the illustration, only the directional rod 3 included in the two-wheeled vehicle body and the vertical pole 6 supporting the directional rod are shown in FIG. 1, and the control module 103 is also not shown in FIG. See Figure 2 for the composition of module 103.
所述两轮车包括任何一种只有前后两个车轮的车辆, 优选地, 包括但不限于: 电动车等。 由于本领域技术人员应该已经理解两轮车本体的结构, 故在此不再予以详述。  The two-wheeled vehicle includes any vehicle having only two front and rear wheels, preferably including but not limited to: an electric vehicle or the like. Since the structure of the two-wheeled vehicle body should be understood by those skilled in the art, it will not be described in detail herein.
所述两个手握件 101分别安装在所述两轮车本体所包含的方向杆 3的左右两端, 作为所 述两轮车的驾驶者的手握之处。 优选地, 每一手握件 101夹设在两轮车方向杆 3的一端, 通 过施加在方向杆 3的压力来控制所述方向杆 3的转向。  The two hand grips 101 are respectively mounted on the left and right ends of the direction bar 3 included in the two-wheeled vehicle body as the grip of the driver of the two-wheeled vehicle. Preferably, each of the hand grips 101 is interposed at one end of the two-wheel direction rod 3, and the steering of the direction rod 3 is controlled by the pressure applied to the direction rod 3.
所述两压力传感器 102分别用于感测一个手握件 101的压力, 如图 1所示, 一个压力传 感器 102连接左端的手握件 101, 另一个压力传感器 102连接右端的手握件 101。  The two pressure sensors 102 are respectively used to sense the pressure of a hand grip 101. As shown in Fig. 1, one pressure sensor 102 is connected to the left hand grip 101, and the other pressure sensor 102 is connected to the right end grip 101.
所述控制模块 103设置在所述两轮车本体, 用于基于所述两压力传感器 102所感测的压 力值来控制所述方向杆 3的转向。 例如, 所述控制模块 103基于两个压力传感器 102所感测 的压力值的差值来确定方向杆 3的最佳转向角度, 进而控制驱动该方向杆 3转动的驱动装置, 以使该方向杆 3转动该最佳转向角度。  The control module 103 is disposed on the two-wheeled vehicle body for controlling the steering of the direction bar 3 based on the pressure values sensed by the two pressure sensors 102. For example, the control module 103 determines the optimal steering angle of the direction bar 3 based on the difference between the pressure values sensed by the two pressure sensors 102, thereby controlling the driving device that drives the rotation of the direction bar 3, so that the direction bar 3 Turn the optimal steering angle.
作为一种优选方式, 所述控制模块 103包括速度检测单元 131, 如图 2所示。  As a preferred mode, the control module 103 includes a speed detecting unit 131, as shown in FIG.
所述速度检测单元 131基于当前所获得的霍尔状态数据,采用预定测速法来确定所述两轮 车的速度。  The speed detecting unit 131 determines the speed of the two-wheeled vehicle using a predetermined speed measuring method based on the currently obtained Hall state data.
其中, 所述霍尔状态数据由设置在所述两轮车的电机的霍尔传感器所提供。通常, 电机运 转一周共有 12个霍尔状态。  Wherein, the Hall state data is provided by a Hall sensor provided on a motor of the two-wheeled vehicle. Usually, there are 12 Hall states in the motor running week.
具体地, 所述速度检测单元 131基于当前所获得的霍尔状态数据, 采用诸如周期法、频率 法或周期与频率混合法等预定测速法来确定所述两轮车的速度。  Specifically, the speed detecting unit 131 determines the speed of the two-wheeled vehicle using a predetermined speed measuring method such as a period method, a frequency method, or a period and frequency mixing method based on the currently obtained Hall state data.
需要说明的是, 本领域技术人员应该理解周期法、频率法及周期与频率混合法, 故在此不 再予以详述。 优选地, 所述速度检测单元 131包括: 误差消除单元(未予图示)及速度确定单元(未予 图示)。 It should be noted that those skilled in the art should understand the periodic method, the frequency method, and the period-frequency mixing method, and therefore will not be described in detail herein. Preferably, the speed detecting unit 131 includes an error eliminating unit (not shown) and a speed determining unit (not shown).
所述误差消除单元用于基于当前所获得的霍尔状态数据与所有霍尔状态各自的标定数据 之间的相关性来确定与所述当前所获得的霍尔状态数据对应的标定数据。  The error eliminating unit is configured to determine calibration data corresponding to the currently obtained Hall state data based on a correlation between currently obtained Hall state data and respective calibration data of all Hall states.
具体地,所述误差消除单元基于以下公式来确定与所述当前所获得的霍尔状态数据对应的 标定数据:  Specifically, the error eliminating unit determines calibration data corresponding to the currently obtained Hall state data based on the following formula:
12  12
Z(u) = X(k + )» Y(n -12 + k) 其中, χ ') = {xx,x2,xi,xA,x5,x6,x1,x%,x9,xw,x ,xn}为电机运转一周霍尔状态的标定数 据, 其值可归一化处理, 在 0 到 1 之间取值, 为方便运算, 将 x(0扩展为两个周期即 Z(u) = X(k + )» Y(n -12 + k) where χ ') = {x x , x 2 , x i , x A , x 5 , x 6 , x 1 , x % , x 9 , x w , x , x n } is the calibration data of the Hall state of the motor running for one week. The value can be normalized and the value is between 0 and 1. For the convenience of operation, x (0 is expanded to two. Cycle
Figure imgf000010_0001
}为运行过程中测量所得的霍尔状 态数据序列, w为当前霍尔状态的序列号, Y(«)为当前时刻采集到的霍尔状态数据, "取 0至 11的整数, ∑(1 为《序列时霍尔状态数据 Υ(«)与标定 Χ )的相关运算函数。 具体计算方法为: 每得到一个 Υ(«)值, 根据上述公式便会得到一个 Ζ关于 Μ的函数, 其中 Μ取 0至 11的整数, Ζ(Μ)是 Χ )与 Υ(«)的相关函数, 从中可以得到 Ζ(Μ)的最大值, 我们并不关心 ζ(Μ)中具体值, 而是关心其中的最大值的序列号, 找到对应的序列号, 便 可根据序列号找到对应的 X中的数据, 即此对应数据便是与 Υ(«)时刻霍尔状态最相关的 标定数据, 例如: u = a (a取 0至 11的整数常量) 时 Z(M)取得最大值, 代入上述公式便 得到 Χ + Ω;)与 Y 7-12 + 对应相关(k取 1至 12的任意值对应数据相关), 此处 值取 12 代入便得 (12 + 0)与¥(«)相关, 其中 Χ(12 + Ω)为标定数据的具体数值, 参数本次速度 运算。
Figure imgf000010_0001
} is the Hall state data sequence measured during the running process, w is the serial number of the current Hall state, Y(«) is the Hall state data collected at the current time, "take an integer from 0 to 11, ∑ (1 It is the correlation operation function of the Hall state data «(«) and calibration Χ in sequence. The specific calculation method is: Every time you get a Υ(«) value, according to the above formula, you will get a function about Μ, where Μ Take an integer from 0 to 11, Ζ( Μ ) is a correlation function between Χ and Υ(«), from which we can get the maximum value of Ζ( Μ ), we don't care about the specific value in ζ( Μ ), but care about it. The serial number of the maximum value, find the corresponding serial number, and then find the corresponding data in X according to the serial number, that is, the corresponding data is the calibration data most relevant to the Hall state at the time of Υ(«), for example: u = a (a takes an integer constant from 0 to 11). Z( M ) takes the maximum value. Substituting the above formula yields Χ + Ω ;) is related to Y 7-12 + (k takes any value from 1 to 12) correlation), substituting the values taken here gets 12 (12 + 0) ¥ ( « ) associated with, wherein Χ (12 + Ω) of Specific values of the given data, this speed calculation parameters.
所述速度确定单元用于基于所确定的与所述当前所获得的霍尔状态数据对应的标定数据、 采用以下滤波算法来确定所述两轮车的速度及加速度:
Figure imgf000011_0001
The speed determining unit is configured to determine the speed and acceleration of the two-wheeled vehicle based on the determined calibration data corresponding to the currently obtained Hall state data, using the following filtering algorithm:
Figure imgf000011_0001
E[X(n)] =∑X(n)  E[X(n)] =∑X(n)
vk =vk_l+ k_lT + ξ[ν/ζ - (vk_, +
Figure imgf000011_0002
v k =v k _ l + k _ l T + ξ[ ν/ζ - (v k _, +
Figure imgf000011_0002
,
¾ =¾-i+?7(¾-¾-i)7 其中, 是与所述当前所获得的霍尔状态数据对应的标定数据, ^^("^是所有霍尔 状态的标定数据的平均值, γ( 为所述当前所获得的霍尔状态数据, 是每进行一次霍尔状 态转换对应轮子所走过的距离, 其值可根据电机一周霍尔状态个数、 齿轮箱转速比及车轮外 径关系得到,一般在 0.0001m至 0.01m之间取值, ^当前时刻车轮速度的最优估计值, W上 一时刻车轮速度的最优估计值, 当前时刻车轮加速度的最优估计值, W上一时刻车轮加速 度的最优估计值, Vi是车轮的速度, ^当前所测得的电机加速度, T是当前时刻与上一时刻 的时间间隔, ^为预定滤波系数,优先的, 在 0至 1之间取值, /;在 0.1至 1000之间取值。 越趋近于 1响应速度越快, 相应的滤波数据波动越大。 取值过大将引起数据震荡。 3⁄4 =3⁄4-i +? 7(3⁄4-3⁄4-i) 7 where is the calibration data corresponding to the currently obtained Hall state data, ^^("^ is the average of the calibration data for all Hall states Value, γ (for the currently obtained Hall state data, is the distance traveled by the wheel for each Hall state transition, the value can be based on the number of Hall states in the motor, the gearbox speed ratio and the wheel The relationship of the outer diameter is obtained, generally between 0.0001m and 0.01m, ^ the optimal estimate of the wheel speed at the current time, the optimal estimate of the wheel speed at the moment W , and the optimal estimate of the wheel acceleration at the current time. The optimal estimate of the wheel acceleration at a time on W , Vi is the speed of the wheel, ^ the current measured motor acceleration, T is the time interval between the current time and the previous time, ^ is the predetermined filter coefficient, priority, at 0 The value is between 1 and /; the value is between 0.1 and 1000. The closer the response is to the faster the response, the larger the fluctuation of the corresponding filtered data. If the value is too large, the data will be oscillated.
作为另一种优选方式, 所述控制模块 103包括: 第一子控制单元 132, 如图 2所示。 所述第一子控制单元 132用于根据相关信息、采用基于倒立摆模型及人主动干预运动相结 合的响应模型来控制两轮车的行驶。  As another preferred mode, the control module 103 includes: a first sub-control unit 132, as shown in FIG. The first sub-control unit 132 is configured to control the driving of the two-wheeled vehicle according to the related information, using a response model based on the inverted pendulum model and the human active intervention motion combination.
其中, 所述相关信息包括由设置在所述两轮车本体的诸如压力传感器、 陀螺仪传感器、速 度传感器、 加速度传感器等器件所提供的信息等。  The related information includes information provided by devices such as a pressure sensor, a gyro sensor, a speed sensor, an acceleration sensor, and the like provided on the body of the two-wheeled vehicle.
优选地, 所述响应模型为:  Preferably, the response model is:
,, Ik(M + mk) + Mmkrk 2 , 、 ,, I k (M + m k ) + Mm k r k 2 , ,
Ik(M + mk) + Mmk k Ik(M + mk) + Mmkrk Ik(M + mk) + Mmkrk vk+l = vk + ak + AAk I k (M + m k ) + Mm kk I k (M + m k ) + Mm k r k I k (M + m k ) + Mm k r k v k+l = v k + a k + AA k
mk+l = (\ - K)mk + K^k , m k+l = (\ - K)m k + K^ k ,
其中, ^是绕车轮转动的平台及平台上的人绕质心运动的力矩; M是车轮质量; 是 系统对平台及平台上的人的质量总和 在 k 时刻估计值; Λ是系统对平台及平台上的人绕其 质心转动的转动惯量 /在 k时刻的估计值; 是转动轴心与 w质心的距离 的估计值; Λ+1、 mt+l , 分别是 k+1时刻对 /、 m 、 r的估计值并替代 4、 mk , 参与 k+1时刻运算。 是角加速度, Vi是所述两轮车的行驶速度; g是重力加速度; 是所述两轮车相对于水平位 置的倾斜角度; 是为所述两轮车保持平衡状态所预设的加速度; P。与 I。分别是预定比例与 预定积分系数, 预定比例系数 P。根据系统响应强度可以在 0到 100之间取值, 优先的, P。可 以在 0到 1之间取值; 为所述两轮车的加速度估计值; ,为上一时刻的速度最优估计值, 为所述两轮车的速度控制量; η、 κ、 ρ分别是 /t、 mk、 ^的预定一阶滤波系数, 优选的, η、 κ、 ρ可在 0到 1之间取值, 其值越大 、 mk、 ^的响应越迅速, 同时也会可能造成误 差, 选取合适的参数是系统稳定运行的前提; φ、 τ、 分别是预定反馈系数, 优选的, 可以 在 ± 1之间取值。 反馈系数限制了当前状态对下一状态变量的影响。 Where ^ is the moment on the platform that rotates around the wheel and the motion of the person on the platform around the centroid; M is the wheel quality; is the estimated value of the sum of the masses of the system on the platform and the platform at time k; Λ is the system to the platform and platform The moment of inertia of the upper man about its centroid rotation / the estimated value at time k; is the estimated value of the distance between the axis of rotation and the centroid of w; Λ +1 , m t+l , respectively, k+1 time pair /, m The estimated value of r, instead of 4, m k , participates in the k+1 time operation. Is the angular acceleration, Vi is the traveling speed of the two-wheeled vehicle; g is the acceleration of gravity; is the inclination angle of the two-wheeled vehicle with respect to the horizontal position; is the acceleration preset for the two-wheeled vehicle to maintain the equilibrium state; P. With I. They are a predetermined ratio and a predetermined integral coefficient, respectively, and a predetermined proportional coefficient P. According to the system response strength, the value can be between 0 and 100, priority, P. The value may be between 0 and 1; is the estimated value of the acceleration of the two-wheeled vehicle; and is the optimal speed estimation value of the previous time, which is the speed control quantity of the two-wheeled vehicle; η, κ, ρ respectively Is a predetermined first-order filter coefficient of / t , mk , ^, preferably, η, κ, ρ can take values between 0 and 1, the larger the value, the faster the response of m k , ^, and also It may cause errors. Selecting the appropriate parameters is the premise of stable operation of the system; φ, τ, respectively are predetermined feedback coefficients, and preferably, values can be taken between ±1. The feedback factor limits the effect of the current state on the next state variable.
由此,所述第一子控制单元 132基于所计算出的力矩来控制两轮车的电机的电流、转速等, 由此来调整所述两轮车的车速, 从而, 当驾驶者体重较重时, 增大电机的输出力矩, 反之, 则减小电机的力矩, 动态调整参数, 增加驾驶者的舒适度, 提高电池的利用率。  Thereby, the first sub-control unit 132 controls the current, the rotational speed, and the like of the motor of the two-wheeled vehicle based on the calculated torque, thereby adjusting the vehicle speed of the two-wheeled vehicle, thereby making the driver's weight heavier. When the output torque of the motor is increased, the torque of the motor is reduced, the parameters are dynamically adjusted, the comfort of the driver is increased, and the utilization rate of the battery is improved.
作为有一种优选方式, 所述控制模块 103包括: 第二子控制单元 133, 如图 2所示。 所述第二子控制单元 133用于基于所述两轮车的相关参数,在所述两轮车车速已达到预定 最大值时, 使所述两轮车在预定范围内先加速再减速来调整车速。  As a preferred mode, the control module 103 includes: a second sub-control unit 133, as shown in FIG. The second sub-control unit 133 is configured to adjust the two-wheeled vehicle to accelerate and then decelerate within a predetermined range when the two-wheeled vehicle speed has reached a predetermined maximum value based on the relevant parameters of the two-wheeled vehicle. Speed.
其中, 所述两轮车的相关参数包括但不限于: 所述两轮车电机的霍尔状态信息、所述两轮 车平台相对于水平方向的偏移角度、 车辆的速度及加速度等。 所述第二子控制单元 133通过 设置在所述两轮车上的霍尔传感器、 陀螺仪及速度检测单元等来获得所述两轮车的相关参数。 The relevant parameters of the two-wheeled vehicle include, but are not limited to: Hall state information of the two-wheeled motor, the two wheels The offset angle of the platform relative to the horizontal direction, the speed and acceleration of the vehicle, and the like. The second sub-control unit 133 obtains related parameters of the two-wheeled vehicle through a Hall sensor, a gyroscope, a speed detecting unit, and the like provided on the two-wheeled vehicle.
具体地, 当所述两轮车的速度达到预定最大值(小于所述两轮车的速度极限值)时, 所述 第二子控制单元 133基于所述两轮车的相关参数、 在预定范围内增加所述两轮车电机的驱动 力, 以使两轮车电机加速, 进而所述两轮车在行驶中有个加速的过程, 而所述两轮车的驾驶 者由于惯性, 滞后所述两轮车车体的变化, 从而产生一个向后的拉力, 使驾驶者身体带着平 台翘起, 随后, 所述第二子控制单元 133 再根据各传感器所感测的信息及速度检测单元提供 的速度信息, 控制所述两轮车减速, 使两轮车达到新的速度平衡。 经过实际测试, 在预定范 围内的加速过程, 时间短, 幅度小, 驾驶者几乎感觉不到, 此种控制方式比常用的直接限速 调整, 更加安全和舒适。  Specifically, when the speed of the two-wheeled vehicle reaches a predetermined maximum value (less than the speed limit value of the two-wheeled vehicle), the second sub-control unit 133 is based on the relevant parameters of the two-wheeled vehicle, in a predetermined range. The driving force of the two-wheeled motor is increased to accelerate the two-wheeled motor, and the two-wheeled vehicle has an acceleration process while driving, and the driver of the two-wheeled vehicle lags due to inertia. The change of the body of the two-wheeled vehicle, thereby generating a backward pulling force, causing the driver's body to lift up with the platform, and then the second sub-control unit 133 is further provided according to the information sensed by each sensor and the speed detecting unit. The speed information controls the deceleration of the two-wheeled vehicle to achieve a new speed balance between the two-wheeled vehicle. After the actual test, the acceleration process within the predetermined range, the time is short, the amplitude is small, and the driver can hardly feel it. This control method is safer and more comfortable than the commonly used direct speed limit adjustment.
综上所述, 本发明的智能平衡车系统基于各传感器所采集数据, 由控制模块经过处理后, 使两轮车的平衡过程更加流畅, 舒适, 速度达到预定最大值时能进行限速以保证驾驶者安全。 实施例二  In summary, the intelligent balance car system of the present invention is based on the data collected by each sensor, and after the control module is processed, the balance process of the two-wheeled vehicle is smoother and more comfortable, and the speed limit can be guaranteed when the speed reaches a predetermined maximum value. The driver is safe. Embodiment 2
本实施例与实施例一的区别在于, 本实施例中, 在左、 右把手与横梁之间, 分别装有左 压力传感器和右压力传感器。 左把手和右把手可以带动方向杆左右摆动, 进而协助驾驶者保 持平衡。 左压力传感器和右压力传感器能够检测左、 右把手的压力值, 并将其传送给主控单 片机, 由主控单片机进行数据分析, 控制平衡车的左右转向, 提高方向控制的稳定性。  The difference between this embodiment and the first embodiment is that, in this embodiment, a left pressure sensor and a right pressure sensor are respectively disposed between the left and right handles and the beam. The left and right handles can swing the steering wheel to the left and right to help the driver maintain balance. The left pressure sensor and the right pressure sensor can detect the pressure values of the left and right handles and transmit them to the main control single chip machine. The data is analyzed by the main control single chip microcomputer to control the left and right steering of the balance car to improve the stability of the direction control.
本发明智能平衡车系统的智能平衡控制装置 (即控制模块), 如图 3、 图 4所示, 其由传 感器采集系统 8、 主控单片机 7、 CPLD模块 9、 左电机驱动系统 11、 右电机驱动系统 10、 电 源电路组成,传感器采集系统 8的输出端与主控单片机 7输入端相连,主控单片机 7与 CPLD 模块 9之间双向连接, CPLD模块 9输出端分别与左电机驱动系统 11和右电机驱动系统 10 相连, 对车体的速度、 方向、 安全进行调整, 实现车身自平衡。 工作流程如下:  The intelligent balance control device (ie, control module) of the intelligent balance car system of the present invention, as shown in FIG. 3 and FIG. 4, is composed of a sensor acquisition system 8, a main control single chip 7, a CPLD module 9, a left motor drive system 11, and a right motor. The driving system 10 and the power circuit are composed. The output end of the sensor collecting system 8 is connected to the input end of the main control single chip microcomputer 7, the main control single chip 7 and the CPLD module 9 are bidirectionally connected, and the output end of the CPLD module 9 is respectively connected with the left motor driving system 11 and The right motor drive system 10 is connected to adjust the speed, direction and safety of the car body to achieve self-balancing. The workflow is as follows:
传感器采集系统 8对电压、 电流、 压力、 加速度等信号传感器进行实时采集, 再将所采 集到的位置和状态信号传送给主控单片机进行分析处理。主控单片机 7通过传感器采集系统 8 传过来的位置和状态信号, 进行计算, 得出电机控制的方向、相位和 PWM数据, 并及时传送 到 CPLD模块 9中, CPLD模块 9对电机控制的方向、 相位和 PWM数据进行处理, 然后由 12路 10口同时输出相应的时序信号,及时更新状态信息,以便对电机 12和 13进行相位变换。 主控单片机 7同时接收 CPLD模块 9实时检测的电机霍尔状态。,  The sensor acquisition system 8 collects the signal sensors such as voltage, current, pressure and acceleration in real time, and then transmits the collected position and status signals to the main control MCU for analysis and processing. The main control MCU 7 calculates the direction, phase and PWM data of the motor control through the position and status signals transmitted from the sensor acquisition system 8, and transmits the direction, phase and PWM data of the motor control to the CPLD module 9, and the direction of the motor control by the CPLD module 9 is The phase and PWM data are processed, and then the corresponding timing signals are simultaneously outputted by 12 channels and 10 ports, and the state information is updated in time to perform phase transformation on the motors 12 and 13. The main control MCU 7 simultaneously receives the motor Hall state detected by the CPLD module 9 in real time. ,
如图 5所示, 传感器采集系统 8的管脚 DOUT、 BUSY、 DIN、 DLK分别与主控芯片的 DOUT、 BUSY、 DIN、 DLK相连, 组成一个简易的 SPI总线通信, 传感器采集系统 8的 1到 8引脚为 8个传感器输入脚, 分别接相应的传感器。初始时, 主控单片机 7通过总线写入传感 器采集系统 8的工作模式、 采样精度、 等命令字, 当传感器采集系统 8的管脚 BUSY端显示 空闲时, 可通过总线写入相应的通道地址, 再读取此通道地址的传感器数据, 并由主控单片 机 7 对数据进行计算分析, 得出左电机 12、 右电机 13控制的方向、 相位和 PWM数据。 As shown in FIG. 5, the pins DOUT, BUSY, DIN, and DLK of the sensor acquisition system 8 are respectively associated with the main control chip. DOUT, BUSY, DIN, DLK are connected to form a simple SPI bus communication. The sensor acquisition system 8 has 8 sensor input pins from 1 to 8 pins, and is connected to the corresponding sensors. Initially, the main control MCU 7 writes the working mode, sampling precision, and other command words of the sensor acquisition system 8 through the bus. When the BUSY end of the sensor acquisition system 8 is idle, the corresponding channel address can be written through the bus. The sensor data of the channel address is read again, and the data is calculated and analyzed by the main control MCU 7, and the direction, phase and PWM data controlled by the left motor 12 and the right motor 13 are obtained.
如图 7所示, 是右电机驱动系统 10与 CPLD模块连接的引脚示意图, 电机控制采用三相 桥式控制电路,左电机驱动系统 11与右电机驱动系统 10各需 6个大功率 MOS管,每个 MOS 管各需要一路的控制信号, 左右驱动系统共需 12路 10控制, 均与 CPLD模块 9相应管脚相 连。 现以右电机驱动系统 10为例说明: MOTORR_AO、 MOTORR_Al为一对驱动上下桥信 号的控制输出脚, 控制上下桥的 MOS管导通和截止, 同理 MOTORR_BO和 MOTORL_B、 MOTORL CO和 MOTORL_CO也为一对驱动上下桥信号的控制输出脚, 控制相应的上下桥 MOS管的导通和截止。  As shown in FIG. 7 , it is a schematic diagram of a pin connection between the right motor drive system 10 and the CPLD module. The motor control adopts a three-phase bridge control circuit, and the left motor drive system 11 and the right motor drive system 10 each require six high-power MOS tubes. Each MOS transistor needs one way of control signal, and the left and right drive system needs a total of 12 channels and 10 controls, which are all connected with the corresponding pins of the CPLD module 9. Now take the right motor drive system 10 as an example: MOTORR_AO, MOTORR_Al is a pair of control output pins that drive the upper and lower bridge signals, and control the MOSFETs of the upper and lower bridges to be turned on and off. Similarly, MOTORR_BO and MOTORL_B, MOTORL CO and MOTORL_CO are also one. The control output pin for driving the upper and lower bridge signals controls the on and off of the corresponding upper and lower bridge MOS tubes.
如图 8所示, 是右电机 13霍尔信号采集端的引脚示意图, 左电机 12霍尔信号采集端的 引脚与右电机 13霍尔信号采集端的引脚相同, 现以右电机 13霍尔信号采集端的引脚示意图 为例说明: R_AIN、 _BIN CIN引脚连接到 CPLD模块 9的 R_HALL[A..C]IN引脚, CPLD 模块 9实时采集右电机 13引脚电平。 电机在运转时, 这三个引脚的电平会有规律的变化, 组 合成不同的数据, 控制电机的换相, 同时, 当霍尔值变化时主控单片机定时器开始计时, 当 下一次霍尔值改变时, 读取这个计数值, 并清空计时器, 开始下一次计数, 然后根据两个霍 尔点的距离 L,和根据计时器得到的时间 t,根据公式就可得出在微观状态下的速度值 V = Llt 为精确所得数值, 再对其进行一阶滤波, 得到精确如编码盘效果的速度值。  As shown in Figure 8, it is the pin diagram of the Hall signal acquisition end of the right motor. The pin of the left motor 12 Hall signal acquisition terminal is the same as the pin of the right motor 13 Hall signal acquisition terminal, and now the right motor 13 Hall signal. The pin diagram of the acquisition terminal is taken as an example: R_AIN, _BIN The CIN pin is connected to the R_HALL[A..C]IN pin of the CPLD module 9, and the CPLD module 9 collects the pin level of the right motor 13 in real time. When the motor is running, the levels of these three pins will change regularly, synthesizing different data, controlling the commutation of the motor, and at the same time, when the Hall value changes, the master MCU timer starts timing, when the next time When the value changes, the count value is read, and the timer is cleared, the next count is started, and then according to the distance L of the two Hall points, and the time t obtained according to the timer, the microscopic state can be obtained according to the formula. The lower velocity value V = Llt is the exact value obtained, and then it is first-order filtered to obtain a velocity value that is accurate as the encoder disk effect.
如图 5所示, 根据主控单片机对速度的计算, 得出本发明运动过程中的水平加速度, 再 根据加速度传感器的数据, 计算垂直方向的倾斜角度, 进而对陀螺仪检测的倾斜角度进行修 正, 得到较为准确的倾斜角度值。  As shown in FIG. 5, according to the calculation of the speed of the main control single chip microcomputer, the horizontal acceleration during the motion of the invention is obtained, and then the tilt angle of the vertical direction is calculated according to the data of the acceleration sensor, and then the tilt angle detected by the gyroscope is corrected. , get a more accurate tilt angle value.
本发明智能平衡车系统对速度进行智能限速处理, 即根据电机和车体参数, 在程序中设 置速度的最高值 , 使其在满足速度的要求的下, 又使速度留有一个的安全空间, 使其永远 不会达到车体的极限值。 当驾驶者驾驶速度已经达到限定的最大值时, 车体通过留有的安全 空间, 在安全空间内对左电机驱动系统 11和右电机驱动系统 10增加一定的的驱动力, 使车 体在行驶中有个加速的过程, 而驾驶者由于惯性, 滞后车体的变化, 产生一个向后的拉力。 根据传感器和速度的反馈, 使车体产生减速的效果, 车体达到新的速度平衡。 主控单片机 7将计算得出的左电机 12、右电机 13控制的方向、相位和 PWM数据传送到 CPLD模块 9中, CPLD模块 9经过处理, 然后经由图 7所示引脚, 由 12路 10口同时输出相 应的时序信号, 及时更新状态信息, 对电机 12和 13进行相位变换。 主控单片机 7同时接收 CPLD模块 9按照图 8所示检测的电机霍尔状态数据, 经过计算分析,得出本发明运动过程中 的速度, 并按照图 5所示的方法步骤, 计算出本发明的倾斜角度。 根据速度值和车体倾斜角 度值对本发明的平衡车进行智能控制。 The intelligent balance car system of the invention intelligently speed-limits the speed, that is, according to the motor and the vehicle body parameters, the highest value of the speed is set in the program, so that the speed meets the requirement of the speed, and the speed has a safe space. , so that it will never reach the limit of the car body. When the driving speed of the driver has reached a limited maximum value, the vehicle body passes through the remaining safety space, and a certain driving force is added to the left motor driving system 11 and the right motor driving system 10 in the safe space, so that the vehicle body is driving. There is an acceleration process in which the driver generates a backward pulling force due to inertia and lag of the car body. According to the feedback of the sensor and the speed, the car body is decelerated, and the car body reaches a new speed balance. The master control unit 7 transfers the calculated direction, phase and PWM data controlled by the left motor 12 and the right motor 13 to the CPLD module 9, and the CPLD module 9 is processed, and then through the pin shown in FIG. The port simultaneously outputs the corresponding timing signals, and the status information is updated in time to perform phase transformation on the motors 12 and 13. The main control single-chip microcomputer 7 simultaneously receives the motor Hall state data detected by the CPLD module 9 according to FIG. 8, and calculates and analyzes the speed of the motion process of the present invention, and calculates the present invention according to the method steps shown in FIG. The angle of inclination. The balance car of the present invention is intelligently controlled based on the speed value and the body tilt angle value.
如图 9所示, 所述方向控制杆由立杆 6和横梁 3 (即方向杆 3 ) 组成, 其中立杆 6分为 固定杆 61和升降杆 63两部分, 升降杆 63上端与横梁 3连接, 固定杆 61下端与车体连接, 升降杆 63的下端置于固定杆 61内。 作为本发明优选实施例, 固定杆 61中设有 "Ω"形的中环, 升降杆 63插到中环内, 固定杆 61上设有紧固螺杆 62, 紧固螺杆 62与固定杆内的 "Ω"形中环 相连, 旋转紧固螺杆 62可带动中环抱紧或放松固定杆 6。  As shown in FIG. 9, the directional control rod is composed of a vertical rod 6 and a beam 3 (ie, a directional rod 3). The vertical rod 6 is divided into two parts, a fixed rod 61 and a lifting rod 63. The upper end of the lifting rod 63 is connected with the beam 3. The lower end of the fixing rod 61 is connected to the vehicle body, and the lower end of the lifting rod 63 is placed in the fixing rod 61. As a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the fixing rod 61 is provided with an "Ω"-shaped middle ring, and the lifting rod 63 is inserted into the middle ring. The fixing rod 61 is provided with a fastening screw 62, the fastening screw 62 and the "Ω in the fixing rod". "The central ring is connected, and the rotating fastening screw 62 can drive the middle ring to hold or loosen the fixing rod 6.
需要说明的是, 本实施例中, 升降杆的直径应小于固定杆的直径, 且升降杆的长度应大 于等于固定杆的长度与固定杆被车体固定端至地面的高度之和。  It should be noted that, in this embodiment, the diameter of the lifting rod should be smaller than the diameter of the fixing rod, and the length of the lifting rod should be greater than the sum of the length of the fixing rod and the height of the fixed rod from the fixed end of the vehicle body to the ground.
所述平衡车方向控制杆, 升降杆 63的长度大于等于固定杆 61的长度与固定杆 61垂直于 地面时下端距离地面的长度之和, 当旋转紧固螺杆 62时, 中环放松固定杆 61, 升降杆 63下 端从固定杆 61穿出直至接触地面, 起到车支脚的作用。  The balancing vehicle direction control lever, the length of the lifting rod 63 is greater than or equal to the length of the fixing rod 61 and the length of the lower end from the ground when the fixing rod 61 is perpendicular to the ground. When the fastening screw 62 is rotated, the middle ring relaxes the fixing rod 61, The lower end of the lifting rod 63 passes through the fixing rod 61 until it contacts the ground, and functions as a vehicle leg.
优选地, 所述平衡车方向控制杆, 固定杆 61 的下端采用弯折接头 64与车体的连接, 弯 折接头 64上设置有锁扣, 打开锁扣, 控制杆可以任意角度横向倾倒, 控制杆倾倒后的形状如 图 10所示, 横向倾倒后, 横梁 3成为提携车辆的拉手, 便于存放在各种场合和置入汽车后备 箱内。 这里本发明的描述和应用是说明性的, 并非想将本发明的范围限制在上述实施例中。 这 里所披露的实施例的变形和改变是可能的, 对于那些本领域的普通技术人员来说实施例的替 换和等效的各种部件是公知的。 本领域技术人员应该清楚的是, 在不脱离本发明的精神或本 质特征的情况下, 本发明可以以其它形式、 结构、 布置、 比例, 以及用其它组件、 材料和部 件来实现。 在不脱离本发明范围和精神的情况下, 可以对这里所披露的实施例进行其它变形 和改变。  Preferably, the balance vehicle direction control lever, the lower end of the fixed rod 61 is connected with the vehicle body by a bending joint 64, the buckle joint 64 is provided with a buckle, the lock buckle is opened, and the control rod can be horizontally tilted at an arbitrary angle, and the control is controlled. The shape after the pole is dumped is as shown in Fig. 10. After the horizontal tilting, the beam 3 becomes the handle of the carrying vehicle, which is convenient for storage in various occasions and placed in the trunk of the automobile. The description and application of the present invention are intended to be illustrative, and not intended to limit the scope of the invention. Variations and modifications of the embodiments disclosed herein are possible, and various alternative and equivalent components of the embodiments are well known to those of ordinary skill in the art. It is apparent to those skilled in the art that the present invention may be embodied in other forms, structures, arrangements, ratios, and other components, materials and components without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. Other variations and modifications of the embodiments disclosed herein may be made without departing from the scope and spirit of the invention.

Claims

WO 2014/005475 杈 利 要 求 书 PCT/CN2013/076728 、 一种智能平衡车系统, 其特征在于, 所述智能平衡车系统至少包括:  WO 2014/005475 要 要 PCT/CN2013/076728, a smart balance car system, characterized in that the smart balance car system comprises at least:
两轮车本体;  Two-wheeled vehicle body;
两个手握件, 分别安装在所述两轮车本体所包含的方向杆两端;  Two hand grips respectively mounted on both ends of the directional rod included in the body of the two-wheeled vehicle;
两压力传感器, 分别用于感测一个手握件的压力;  Two pressure sensors for sensing the pressure of a hand grip;
设置在所述两轮车本体的控制模块,基于所述两压力传感器所感测的压力值来控制所 述方向杆的转向。 、 根据权利要求 1所述的智能平衡车系统, 其特征在于:  A control module disposed on the body of the two-wheeled vehicle controls steering of the direction bar based on a pressure value sensed by the two pressure sensors. The smart balance car system according to claim 1, wherein:
所述控制模块包括: 速度检测单元, 用于基于当前所获得的霍尔状态数据, 采用预定 测速法来确定所述两轮车的速度。 、 根据权利要求 2所述的智能平衡车系统, 其特征在于:  The control module includes: a speed detecting unit configured to determine a speed of the two-wheeled vehicle by using a predetermined speed measurement method based on currently obtained Hall state data. The smart balance vehicle system according to claim 2, characterized in that:
所述速度检测单元包括:  The speed detecting unit includes:
误差消除单元,用于基于当前所获得的霍尔状态数据与所有霍尔状态各自的标定数据 之间的相关性来确定与所述当前所获得的霍尔状态数据对应的标定数据;  An error elimination unit configured to determine calibration data corresponding to the currently obtained Hall state data based on a correlation between currently obtained Hall state data and respective calibration data of all Hall states;
速度确定单元, 用于基于所确定的与所述当前所获得的霍尔状态数据对应的标定数 据、 采用以下滤波算法来确定所述两轮车的速度及加速度:  a speed determining unit, configured to determine a speed and an acceleration of the two-wheeled vehicle based on the determined calibration data corresponding to the currently obtained Hall state data, using the following filtering algorithm:
_ 1 X{n)  _ 1 X{n)
Vk = r Y(k) (E[X(n)]) , V k = r Y(k) (E[X(n)]) ,
Ε[Χ(η)] =∑Χ(η) , vk = ν^ + ά^Τ + ξ ν - (vt_! + )] , ¾ = ¾-ι + ?7(¾ - ¾-ι) ' 其中, 是与所述当前所获得的霍尔状态数据对应的标定数据, Υ( 为当前采 集的霍尔持续时间, 是每进行一次霍尔状态转换对应轮子所走过的距离, 其值可根据电 机一周霍尔状态个数、齿轮箱转速比及车轮外径关系得到,在 0.0001m至 0.01m之间取值, Ε[Χ(η)] =∑Χ(η) , v k = ν^ + ά^Τ + ξ ν - (v t _! + )] , 3⁄4 = 3⁄4-ι + ? 7(3⁄4 - 3⁄4- ι) ' where is the calibration data corresponding to the currently obtained Hall state data, Υ (for the currently acquired Hall duration, the distance traveled by the corresponding wheel for each Hall state transition, The value can be obtained according to the number of Hall states in the motor, the gearbox speed ratio and the outer diameter of the wheel, and the value is between 0.0001m and 0.01m.
^当前时刻车轮速度的最优估计值, 上一时刻车轮速度的最优估计值, 当前时刻车 轮加速度的最优估计值, w上一时刻车轮加速度的最优估计值, ^是车轮的速度, 当 前所测得的电机加速度, 是当前时刻与上一时刻的时间间隔, 为预定滤波系数。 根据权利要求 1所述的智能平衡车系统, 其特征在于: The current best estimate of the time of ^ the wheel speed, the optimal moment estimated value of the wheel speeds, an optimal estimate of the current time in the wheel speed, wheel acceleration estimated value of the optimal moment in a W, ^ is the speed of the wheel, when The previously measured motor acceleration is the time interval between the current time and the previous time, which is a predetermined filter coefficient. The smart balance vehicle system of claim 1 wherein:
所述控制模块包括: 第一子控制单元, 用于根据相关信息、采用基于倒立摆模型及人 主动干预运动相结合的响应模型来控制两轮车的行驶。 根据权利要求 4所述的智能平衡车系统, 其特征在于:  The control module includes: a first sub-control unit, configured to control the driving of the two-wheeled vehicle according to the related information, using a response model based on the inverted pendulum model and the human active intervention motion. The smart balance vehicle system of claim 4, wherein:
所述响应模型包括:  The response model includes:
,, Ik{M + mk) + Mmkrk , . 、 ,, I k {M + m k ) + Mm k r k , .
Mk = ^ 丄 ω + rkvk - grk (M + mk )ah k M k = ^ 丄ω + r k v k - gr k (M + m k )a h k
m k  m k
-Ik +mkrk mk grk Ik + mkrk ak =- ― -vk +- -≥Ji -ak +- ― -Mk (M + mk) + Mmkrk Ik(M + mk) + Mmkrk Ik(M + mk) + Mmkrk -I k +m k r k m k gr k I k + m k r k a k =- ― -v k +- - ≥Ji -a k +- ― -M k (M + m k ) + Mm k r k I k (M + m k ) + Mm k r k I k (M + m k ) + Mm k r k
Figure imgf000017_0001
mk+l =(1- K)mk + κτΑ,,
Figure imgf000017_0001
m k+l =(1- K)m k + κτΑ,,
^+i =(^-p k+p^k , 其中, ^是绕车轮转动的平台及平台上的人绕质心运动的力矩; M是车轮质量; ihk 是系统对平台及平台上的人的质量总和 在 k 时刻估计值; Λ是系统对平台及平台上的 人绕其质心转动的转动惯量 /在 k时刻的估计值; 是转动轴心与 w质心的距离 的估计 值; Λ+1, mk+l, 4+1分别是 k+1时刻对 /, m , r的估计值并替代 , mk, 参与 k+1 时刻运算; 是角加速度, ^是所述两轮车的行驶速度; g是重力加速度; 是所述两 轮车相对于水平位置的倾斜角度; at是为所述两轮车保持平衡状态所预设的加速度; P。与 ^+i =(^-p k +p^ k , where ^ is the moment around the wheel and the moment on the platform where the person moves around the centroid; M is the wheel mass; ih k is the system on the platform and the person on the platform The sum of the masses is estimated at time k; Λ is the moment of inertia of the system on the platform and the rotation of the person around its centroid / the estimated value at time k; is the estimated value of the distance between the axis of rotation and the centroid of w; Λ +1 , m k+l , 4 +1 are the estimated values of /, m , r at the time of k+1 and respectively substituted, m k , participating in the k+1 time operation; is the angular acceleration, ^ is the driving of the two-wheeled vehicle Speed; g is the acceleration of gravity; is the angle of inclination of the two-wheeled vehicle relative to the horizontal position; a t is the acceleration preset for the two-wheeled vehicle to maintain the equilibrium state; P.
I。分别是预定比例与预定积分系数; 为所述两轮车的加速度估计值; 为上一时刻 的速度最优估计值, 为所述两轮车的速度控制量; η、 κ、 ρ分别是 /t、 mk、 rt的预 定一阶滤波系数; φ、 τ、 分别是 预定反馈系数。 I. a predetermined ratio and a predetermined integral coefficient; respectively, an estimated value of the acceleration of the two-wheeled vehicle; The optimal speed estimation value is the speed control amount of the two-wheeled vehicle; η, κ, ρ are predetermined first-order filter coefficients of / t , mk , rt , respectively; φ, τ, respectively are predetermined feedback coefficients.
、 根据权利要求 1所述的智能平衡车系统, 其特征在于: The smart balance car system according to claim 1, wherein:
所述控制模块包括: 第二子控制单元, 用于基于所述两轮车的相关参数, 在所述两轮 车车速已达到预定最大值时, 使所述两轮车在预定范围内先加速再减速来调整车速。 、 根据权利要求 1所述的智能平衡车系统, 其特征在于:  The control module includes: a second sub-control unit, configured to accelerate the two-wheeled vehicle within a predetermined range when the two-wheeled vehicle speed has reached a predetermined maximum value based on the relevant parameters of the two-wheeled vehicle Slow down again to adjust the speed. The smart balance car system according to claim 1, wherein:
所述两轮车本体包括: 横向布置的两个车轮, 与各自的驱动电机相连接, 所述的车轮 被横向固定在车轴上, 所述的车轴连接有绕车轴自由转动的载人踏板, 车轮、 车轴和载人 踏板相互固定连接成一整体;  The two-wheeled vehicle body comprises: two wheels arranged laterally, connected to respective driving motors, the wheels are laterally fixed on the axle, and the axle is connected with a passenger pedal freely rotating around the axle, the wheel , the axle and the passenger pedal are fixedly connected to each other as a whole;
所述方向杆包括一横梁, 横梁与两轮车本体的载人踏板之间设有立杆;  The direction bar includes a beam, and the beam is provided with a pole between the carrying pedal of the body of the two-wheeled vehicle;
所述控制模块包括传感器采集系统、左电机驱动系统和右电机驱动系统, 传感器采集 系统输入端与压力传感器和车身的电流、 电压、加速度等传感器相连, 左电机驱动系统与 左电机相连, 右电机驱动系统与右电机相连。 、 根据权利要求 7所述的智能平衡车系统, 其特征在于:  The control module comprises a sensor acquisition system, a left motor drive system and a right motor drive system. The input end of the sensor acquisition system is connected to the pressure sensor and the current, voltage, acceleration and other sensors of the vehicle body, and the left motor drive system is connected to the left motor, the right motor The drive system is connected to the right motor. The smart balance vehicle system according to claim 7, wherein:
所述控制模块还包括主控单片机、 CPLD模块、 电源电路, 传感器采集系统的输出端 与主控单片机输入端相连, 主控单片机与 CPLD模块之间双向连接, CPLD模块输出端分 别与左电机驱动系统和右电机驱动系统相连。 、 根据权利要求 8所述的智能平衡车系统, 其特征在于:  The control module further comprises a main control single chip, a CPLD module and a power supply circuit. The output end of the sensor acquisition system is connected with the input end of the main control single chip, the bidirectional connection between the main control single chip and the CPLD module, and the output end of the CPLD module are respectively driven by the left motor. The system is connected to the right motor drive system. The smart balance car system according to claim 8, wherein:
所述主控单片机使用 4个 10口与传感器采集系统进行数据总线通信, 能够对传感器 采集系统传送的数据的提取、运算、 分析和控制, 并及时传送到 CPLD模块中, 所述的主 控单片机同时接收 CPLD模块实时检测的电机霍尔状态;所述的主控单片机通过控制电机 驱动系统的驱动力, 进而控制车身在运动过程中的最大速度;  The main control single-chip microcomputer uses four 10-ports to communicate with the sensor acquisition system for data bus, and can extract, calculate, analyze and control the data transmitted by the sensor acquisition system, and timely transmit to the CPLD module, the main control single-chip microcomputer Simultaneously receiving the motor Hall state detected by the CPLD module in real time; the main control single chip microcomputer controls the driving force of the motor driving system to control the maximum speed of the vehicle body during the movement;
所述 CPLD模块一方面与左、右电机驱动系统连接, 一方面与主控单片机相应管脚连 接, 能够接收经主控单片机计算得出的电机控制的方向、 相位和 PWM数据, 并将数据由 12路 10口同时输出, 进而控制电机驱动模块; 同时, 所述 CPLD模块与左、 右电机的霍 尔信号采集端相连, 实时采集电机的霍尔状态, 并传送给主控单片机进行处理。 、 根据权利要求 7所述的智能平衡车系统, 其特征在于: The CPLD module is connected with the left and right motor drive systems on one hand, and is connected with the corresponding pin of the main control MCU on the one hand, and can receive the direction, phase and PWM data of the motor control calculated by the main control single chip, and the data is 12 channels and 10 ports simultaneously output, and then control the motor drive module; meanwhile, the CPLD module and the left and right motor The signal acquisition end is connected, and the Hall state of the motor is collected in real time and transmitted to the main control MCU for processing. The smart balance car system according to claim 7, wherein:
所述传感器采集系统包括 A/D采集模块, 能够对外部的电压、 电流、 压力、 加速度 等传感器信号进行实时采集,再将所采集到的位置和状态信号传送给主控单片机进行分析 处理;  The sensor acquisition system includes an A/D acquisition module, which can perform real-time acquisition of external voltage, current, pressure, acceleration and other sensor signals, and then transmit the collected position and status signals to the main control single chip for analysis and processing;
所述左电机驱动系统及右电机驱动系统中, 电机控制采用三相桥式控制电路, 每个系 统设置 6个大功率 MOS管, 每个 MOS管各需要一路的控制信号, 左、 右电机驱动系统 共需 12路 10控制信号, 12路 10控制信号均与 CPLD模块相应管脚相连, 由 CPLD模块 对 12路 10控制信号进行多路、 并发控制。 、 根据权利要求 7所述的智能平衡车系统, 其特征在于:  In the left motor drive system and the right motor drive system, the motor control adopts a three-phase bridge type control circuit, and each system is provided with six high-power MOS tubes, each of which requires one control signal, left and right motor drives The system requires a total of 12 10 control signals, and 12 10 control signals are connected to the corresponding pins of the CPLD module. The CPLD module performs multi-channel and concurrent control on the 12-channel 10 control signals. The smart balance vehicle system according to claim 7, wherein:
所述立杆包括固定杆和升降杆,升降杆一端与横梁连接,固定杆一端与车体活动连接, 所述方向控制杆上设有能够使升降杆升降的装置;  The pole includes a fixed rod and a lifting rod, and one end of the lifting rod is connected with the beam, and one end of the fixing rod is movably connected with the vehicle body, and the directional control rod is provided with a device capable of lifting the lifting rod;
所述能够使升降杆升降的装置是一个 "Ω"形的中环,升降杆插到中环内, 固定杆上设 有紧固螺杆, 紧固螺杆与固定杆的 "Ω"形中环相连, 旋转紧固螺杆可带动中环抱紧或放松 粗杆;  The device capable of lifting the lifting rod is an "Ω"-shaped middle ring, the lifting rod is inserted into the middle ring, and the fixing rod is provided with a fastening screw, and the fastening screw is connected with the "Ω"-shaped middle ring of the fixing rod, and the rotation is tight The solid screw can drive the middle ring to hold or loosen the thick rod;
固定杆的另一端采用设置有锁扣的弯折接头与车体连接, 打开锁扣, 控制杆能任意角 度横向倾倒;  The other end of the fixing rod is connected with the vehicle body by a bending joint provided with a locking buckle, and the locking buckle is opened, and the control rod can be horizontally dumped at an arbitrary angle;
所述升降杆小于固定杆的直径;所述升降杆的长度应大于等于固定杆的长度与固定杆 被车体固定端至地面的高度之和。  The lifting rod is smaller than the diameter of the fixing rod; the length of the lifting rod should be greater than or equal to the sum of the length of the fixing rod and the height of the fixed rod from the fixed end of the vehicle body to the ground.
PCT/CN2013/076728 2012-07-04 2013-06-04 Smart balanced vehicle system WO2014005475A1 (en)

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CN 201220321805 CN202657171U (en) 2012-07-04 2012-07-04 Intelligent self-balancing electric vehicle and direction control rod thereof
CN201210230742.4A CN102774453B (en) 2012-07-04 2012-07-04 Intelligent vehicle balancing system
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