WO2013174913A1 - Method and device of remotely controlling electrical equipment - Google Patents

Method and device of remotely controlling electrical equipment Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2013174913A1
WO2013174913A1 PCT/EP2013/060602 EP2013060602W WO2013174913A1 WO 2013174913 A1 WO2013174913 A1 WO 2013174913A1 EP 2013060602 W EP2013060602 W EP 2013060602W WO 2013174913 A1 WO2013174913 A1 WO 2013174913A1
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electrical equipment
power consumption
group
time period
specified time
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PCT/EP2013/060602
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French (fr)
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Niclas EHN
Gustav BERGMAN
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Expektra Ab
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06QDATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS OR METHODS, SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES; SYSTEMS OR METHODS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G06Q10/00Administration; Management
    • G06Q10/06Resources, workflows, human or project management, e.g. organising, planning, scheduling or allocating time, human or machine resources; Enterprise planning; Organisational models
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06QDATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS OR METHODS, SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES; SYSTEMS OR METHODS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G06Q50/00Systems or methods specially adapted for specific business sectors, e.g. utilities or tourism
    • G06Q50/06Electricity, gas or water supply

Abstract

The present invention relates to a method of, and device for, remotely controlling electrical equipment. The method comprises the step of receiving (S101), from each of a group of electrical equipment, a difference measure of an expected power consumption according to a run schedule required for said each electrical equipment to control a physical property associated with the electrical equipment to arrive at a target value during a specified time period, and a possible power consumption during the specified time period, which possible power consumption controls the physical property to assume a value within a specified operating range associated with said each electrical equipment. The method further comprises the steps of aggregating (S102) all difference measures for the group of electrical equipment, registering (S103) the aggregated difference measures, and receiving (S104) a request to access at least a part of the registered aggregated difference measures. Moreover, the method comprises the step of sending (S105), in reply to the request, a control signal to said each electrical equipment instructing the equipment to effect a change in power consumption, which is smaller than or equal to the received difference measure of said each electrical equipment, in relation to that according to the run schedule during said specified time period, wherein the sum of the changes effected for the group of electrical equipment equals said at least a part of the registered aggregated difference measures.

Description

METHOD AND DEVICE OF REMOTELY CONTROLLING

ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT

TECHNICAL FIELD

The invention relates to a method and device of remotely controlling electrical equipment.

BACKGROUND

Today's electricity grid is designed with centralized large scale power generation and unidirectional power flow to consumers, which grid is dimensioned for peak demand conditions. An increasing power demand in combination with goals to convert into a carbon neutral power system implies an increasing amount of intermittent power generation which defines the needs of more intelligent grid architecture.

Large scale- and small scale power generation will need to work together to ensure a balanced and effective bidirectional grid. Communication and consumption management in response to supply side conditions, such as power shortage or peak prices, will be an important feature in the future grid. This is known in the art as Demand Side Management (DSM) and Demand Response (DR). This mechanism enables an efficient technique to reduce power congestions but also providing a system flexibility which is important to the deployment of intermittent power generation technologies.

With reference to Figure 1, Demand Response systems can be illustrated by events occurring in different stages along a time line. Demand Response in a planning stage is based on load management in response to forward looking parameters, i.e. load scheduling considering the day-ahead spot price of electricity on an hourly basis. Demand Response in a regulating stage is near real time interaction with load management to perform regulatory actions within minutes.

Demand Response as a means for regulating power can be commanded by the Transmission System Operator, the Distribution System Operator or the Balance Responsible Party. Today's market solutions for regulating power are not efficient, considering volume as well as competition.

A great potential that has remained unused so far is the inertia of thermal energy in buildings. Short switch-off of space heating that uses electricity will not affect the building comfort much, and could be used as a dispatchable load to compensate imbalances in the electrical grid. The steady rise in heat pumps through Europe constitutes a starting point for enabling access to this type of energy storage.

SUMMARY

An object of the present invention is to overcome, or at least mitigate the problems in the art relating to an unbalanced and ineffective electricity grid and provide a method and device for controlling electrical equipment such that reduction of C02 emissions is facilitated.

This object is achieved in a first aspect of the present invention by a method of remotely controlling electrical equipment. The method comprises the step of receiving, from each of a group of electrical equipment, a difference measure of an expected power consumption according to a run schedule required for said each electrical equipment to control a physical property associated with the electrical equipment to arrive at a target value during a specified time period, and a possible power consumption during the specified time period, which possible power consumption controls the physical property to assume a value within a specified operating range associated with said each electrical equipment. The method further comprises the steps of aggregating all difference measures for the group of electrical equipment, registering the aggregated difference measures, and receiving a request to access at least a part of the registered aggregated difference measures.

Moreover, the method comprises the step of sending, in reply to the request, a control signal to said each electrical equipment instructing the equipment to effect a change in power consumption, which is smaller than or equal to the received difference measure of said each electrical equipment, in relation to the expected power consumption according to the run schedule during said specified time period, wherein the sum of the changes for the group of electrical equipment equals said at least a part of the registered aggregated difference measures.

This object is achieved in a second aspect of the present invention by a device for remotely controlling electrical equipment. The device comprises a processing unit arranged to receive, from each of a group of electrical equipment, a difference measure of an expected power consumption according to a run schedule required for said each electrical equipment to control a physical property associated with the electrical equipment to arrive at a target value during a specified time period, and a possible power consumption during the specified time period, which possible power consumption controls the physical property to assume a value within a specified operating range associated with said each electrical equipment. Further, the processing unit is arranged to aggregate all difference measures for the group of electrical equipment, register the aggregated difference measures, and receive a request to access at least a part of the registered aggregated difference measures. Moreover, the processing unit is arranged to send, in reply to the request, a control signal to said each electrical equipment instructing the equipment to effect a change in power consumption, which is smaller than or equal to the received difference measure of said each electrical equipment, in relation to the expected power consumption according to the run schedule during said specified time period, wherein the sum of the changes for the group of electrical equipment equals said at least a part of the registered aggregated difference measures. The electrical equipment to be controlled is arranged with an interface via which it is capable of communicating its run schedule, for instance via the Internet. This, interface may be built-in by the manufacturer of the electrical equipment or provided as an add-on peripheral unit which is connected to the electrical equipment. The electrical equipment communicates with, and may be controlled by, a remotely located central device, for example a central server, if so allowed by the end user. In the following, the interface of the electrical equipment will be referred to as the peripheral unit. In the following, the electrical equipment will be exemplified in the form of a heat pump, and will further occasionally be referred to as a host device throughout the application.

According to the aspects of the present invention, a host device such as a heat pump calculates its normal run schedule. For instance, the heat pump may be scheduled to increase indoor temperature from 20°C to 2i°C within the next couple of hours. Such a change in indoor temperature would be brought about by an expected power consumption of the heat pump. This could be a change in power consumption, in this case an increase, but could

alternatively be a maintained power consumption in case outdoor

temperature would increase, resulting in an increase indoor temperature despite a maintained power consumption. In this exemplifying embodiment, an increase in indoor temperature from 20°C to 2i°C would require an increase in power consumption of 2 kW for an hour. Hence, the run schedule is set to attain an expected change in power consumption required for the heat pump to control an associated physical property, in this case indoor temperature, to arrive at a target value of 2i°C during a specified time period. In this example, the run schedule could be arranged such that the expected power consumption of the heat pump is set to occur two hours from now, and the stipulated power will then be delivered during one hour. The heat pump further calculates possible power consumption during the specified time period, which possible power consumption controls the physical property to assume a value within a specified operating range associated with the heat pump. Thus, the heat pump considers specific constraints for the indoor temperature typically stipulated by comfort performance. For instance, a minimum indoor temperature that can be accepted could be i8°C. The difference between the expected power consumption (i.e. power consumed by the heat pump for an indoor temperature of 2i°C to be reached according to the normal run schedule) and the possible power consumption while still retaining the indoor temperature above the threshold value of i8°C is then calculated by the heat pump. This difference is referred to in the following as flexibility, and denotes ability to increase/decrease load/generation by a specified power during a specified time period, i.e. the heat pump may have the ability to switch off, thereby decrease load, during the delivery hour.

This measure of difference referred to as flexibility will then be reported by each one of a plurality of heat pumps. Potentially, thousands of heat pumps could be included in a group reporting its flexibility. A central server receives the calculated flexibility of each heat pump included in the group and aggregates the reported flexibility of the respective heat pump in the group. The aggregated flexibility of the group is then registered. The aggregated flexibility represents regulating power, and is a package that could bid at existing markets for power regulation or could be available as actions called by a balance responsible party. Thus, the server receives a request to access the registered aggregated flexibility measures, or at least a part of the total registered aggregated flexibility measure, in the form of a bid or an action request from a balance responsible party, and determines individual actions assigned to each heat pump or its associated peripheral unit to fulfil the package. This is achieved by sending, in reply to the request, a control signal to each heat pump instructing the pump to effect a change in power consumption in relation to the expected power consumption during the specified time period according to the run schedule, wherein the sum of the contrary changes for the group of heat pumps equals the registered aggregated measures of flexibility.

Hence, in this example, as the comfort indoor temperature minimum threshold is i8°C, the flexibility would be -2 kW, i.e. the power consumption of the heat pump would be decreased during the delivery hour provided that the indoor temperature would not drop below i8°C when the heat pump is switched off during at least parts of the delivery hour. Assuming that the group consists of 5000 heat pumps each reporting a flexibility of -2 kW, the aggregated flexibility would then become -10 MW which could be requested by e.g. a power operator. The respective control signal could thus instruct the heat pump to turn off during parts of the delivery hour and consequently decrease its power consumption with 2 kW with respect to the planned or expected run schedule, but not more than the initially reported flexibility of the individual heat pump. Note that the instructed contrary change in power consumption not necessarily is evenly distributed over the heat pumps; as an example, a 5 MW package is requested by the power operator wherein 2500 heat pumps in the group could be instructed to decrease the power consumption with respect to the planned run schedule with 1.3 kW during the delivery hour while the remaining 2500 heat pumps in the group could be instructed to decrease the power consumption with respect to the planned run schedule with 0.7 kW during the delivery hour. The sum of the contrary changes would then still amount to the requested aggregated flexibility.

Thus, by having electrical equipment such as for example heat pumps, space heaters or household appliances in the form of e.g. refrigerators or washing machines report its planned or expected run schedule to a central device for subsequent control of the electrical equipment, it is possible to better balance the electricity grid and further to control the electrical equipment such that power is used more efficiently and C02 emission consequently is reduced.

End-users with applicable contracts of power delivery - hourly measured and charged - may experience reduced electricity bills as their electrical equipment uses less power during peak hours and more power during off- peak hours when electricity is cheaper. It can further be envisaged that end- users can be refunded based on the volume of regulating power provided by their electrical equipment. Thus, the present invention facilitates for the end- users to allocate their power consumption more efficiently and gives the end- users a possibility to actively and straightforwardly participate in the power management process. The device for remotely controlling electrical equipment according to embodiments of the invention is, as can be deducted from the above, based on a central server connected to a plurality of peripheral units, representing components that consume or produce electric power. A primary function of the central server is to - Enable regulating power through Automated Demand Response (ADR) aggregation. The central server determines the settlements of regulatory actions based on bids of increases-/decreases in power load-/generation from peripheral units. Secondary functions of the central server are to

- Communicate external parameters relevant to an improved operation of the electrical equipment, i.e. a heat pump could be assisted by receiving time-of- use electricity prices and weather forecasts, and

- Handle/store/share data generated by the peripheral units. The present invention thus allows more intelligent control of electrical equipment in homes and buildings that respond to supply side conditions and enables utilization of the thermal inertia of the homes and buildings as a resource for regulating power to help balance the electrical grid.

Thus, as can be seen, even though the exemplifying embodiment of the present invention set out in the above illustrates an expected change in power consumption according to the run schedule as an expected increase in power consumption, one could envisage control of electrical equipment which produces power, which would be analogous to an expected decrease in power consumption. Likewise one could envisage the control of electrical storage, electrical equipment with the purpose to temporary store electricity for the use at a later time. As an example, electricity storing means with a maximum capacity of 10 kW with a current level of 4 kW would be able to provide 6 kW of increase in power consumption or alternatively 4 kW of decrease in power consumption.

Further, in an embodiment of the present invention, the central server may be arranged to provide external control variables, such as electricity prices or weather forecasts, to the peripheral units. The peripheral units may be standardized OEM-hardware integrated in the electric equipment by the manufacturers or a third party software

incorporating a defined Application Programming Interface (API).

It is noted that the invention relates to all possible combinations of features recited in the claims. Further features of, and advantages with, the present invention will become apparent when studying the appended claims and the following description. Those skilled in the art realize that different features of the present invention can be combined to create embodiments other than those described in the following. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The invention is now described, by way of example, with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:

Figure l illustrates events occurring in different stages along a time line in a prior art Demand Response system; Figure 2 illustrates electrical equipment communicating, directly or via a peripheral unit, with a remotely located central server according to

embodiments of the present invention; and

Figure 3 shows a flow chart illustrating an embodiment of the method of remotely controlling electrical equipment according to an embodiment of the present invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

The invention will now be described more fully hereinafter with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which certain embodiments of the invention are shown. This invention may, however, be embodied in many different forms and should not be construed as limited to the embodiments set forth herein; rather, these embodiments are provided by way of example so that this disclosure will be thorough and complete, and will fully convey the scope of the invention to those skilled in the art. As previously has been discussed, Figure l illustrates a prior art Demand Response system.

Figure 2 illustrates electrical equipment 11 in the form of e.g. a heat pump communicating via a peripheral unit 12 either built-in or provided as an add- on with a remotely located central server 13 according to embodiments of the present invention. In practice, the central server 13 communicates with hundreds or even thousands electrical equipment, typically via a

communication channel 14 provided via the Internet (Ethernet, WLAN, GSM/3G, etc). Each one of the electrical equipment comprised in the group potentially comprising thousands of electrical equipment reports its flexibility to the central server 13 which subsequently controls change in power consumption of the respective electrical equipment 11 on the basis of an aggregated flexibility measure for the electrical equipment comprised in the group. The central server 13 is arranged with a communication interface 18 for communicating, e.g. via the Internet, with the Transmission System

Operator, the Distribution System Operator or the Balance Responsible Party 19.

The peripheral unit 12 may further be arranged to provide the electrical equipment 11 with data such as electricity prices and/or weather forecasts such that a run schedule can be setup which takes into account these parameters. For instance, the run schedule can be arranged such that power consumption of the electrical equipment is at its highest in non-peak hours, i.e. when the price of electricity is at its lowest. Further, weather data may advantageously be considered in order to in advance optimize a run schedule. In embodiments of the present invention, the central server 13 provides the respective peripheral unit 12 with prices and weather forecast data. The peripheral unit is typically standardized and designed to be integrated in electrical equipment such as heating systems, freezers/refrigerators, dishing machines, electrical car chargers etc. to enable a more qualitative control of these devices with respect to energy consumption, environmental impact and operational costs.

In practice, the controlling of the electrical equipment may, if so allowed by the end user, be performed by a processing unit 15 embodied in the form of one or more microprocessors arranged to execute a computer program 17 downloaded to a suitable storage medium 16 associated with the

microprocessor, such as a RAM, a Flash memory or a hard disk. The microprocessor 15 is arranged to at least partly carry out the method according to embodiments of the present invention when the appropriate computer program 17 comprising computer-executable components is downloaded to the memory 16 and executed by the microprocessor 15. The storage medium 16 may be a computer program product comprising the computer program 17. Alternatively, the computer program 17 may be transferred to the storage medium 16 by means of a suitable computer program product, such as a floppy disk or a memory stick. As a further alternative, the computer program 17 may be downloaded to the storage medium 16 over a network. The microprocessor 15 may alternatively be embodied in the form of an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), a complex programmable logic device (CPLD), etc.

The storage medium 16 may be an external memory a memory internal to the central server 13, and hosts a Structured Query Language (SQL) database. The database comprises data necessary for identifying a peripheral unit 12, determining its data subscriptions and potential upload schematics, as well as providing a platform for maintenance and upgrading of the units and storage for the updated data variables.

Again with reference to Figure 2, the electrical equipment located in a home, an office building, a hotel, etc., can be set in "ADR-mode" by an end-user, thus allowing intelligent market based control of the equipment. Controlling the flexible power consumption of electronic equipment, such as space heaters, heat pumps or home appliances, will provide the following benefits: • Power Regulation from ADR

- ADR can provide valuable power regulation if the flexibility of the electrical equipment is aggregated to a sufficient amount. This will lead to a more cost efficient power regulation. Additional available regulating power from ADR enables the electrical grid to facilitate increased power generation from intermittent energy sources.

• Load planning becomes price sensitive:

- Load planning with regards to day-ahead electricity prices will lead to more price sensitive consumption pattern, which implies less

congestion problematic, less volatile electricity prices and lower average prices of electricity. Allocating flexible power consumption to off-peak hours implies reduced CO2 emissions from margin power generation. Shifting load from peak hours to off-peak hours implies reduced congestions in the power transmission grid resulting in increased transmission capacity without new investments in the grid. Thus, the grid is more effectively used since bottlenecks more efficiently can be balanced out.

• Enabling new services

- Manufacturers of electronic equipment can enable online services related to their products, such as online monitoring, administration, alarm features, improved support response to product failures etc.

The peripheral units are provided to, or produced by, OEM manufacturers of electronic equipment. The end-user shall always retain the control of whether he/she wishes to use the ADR-mode functionality. It can be envisaged that the peripheral units is envisaged with a selector that the end-user can operate to set the unit in ADR-mode or normal mode. The technology is invariant of the manufacturer, the grid owner or the electricity reseller in place and is thus typically open to third party interaction. Further, each peripheral unit is provided with a unique identifier. This could further enhance security be means of e.g. having the central server use the unique identifier for encryption purposes. The server is optionally provided with information regarding the equipment, i.e. location and type of equipment.

Figure 3 shows a flow chart illustrating an embodiment of the method of remotely controlling electrical equipment according to an embodiment of the present invention. In a first step, S101, the processing unit 15 of the server 13 receives via communication path 14, from each electrical equipment 11 comprised in a group, the flexibility of the equipment. As previously has been defined, the flexibility is defined as the ability to increase/decrease

load/generation by a specified power during a specified time period, while still retaining the physical property to be controlled by the equipment within a specified operating range. In the case of e.g. a heat pump regulating indoor temperature, the specified operating range may be defined as "indoor temperature should not fall below i8°C". In step S102, the processing unit 15 of the central server 13 aggregates all flexibility measures for the group of electrical equipment and registers, in step S103, the aggregated flexibility measures. Thereafter, in step S104, the server 13 receives - from e.g. the Transmission System Operator, the Distribution System Operator or the Balance Responsible Party - a request to access the registered aggregated flexibility measures. Finally, in reply to the request, the server 13 sends in step S105 a control signal to each electrical equipment instructing the equipment to effect a change in power consumption in relation to the expected power consumption during the specified time period, wherein the sum of the changes for the group of electrical equipment equals the requested registered aggregated flexibility measures.

Table 1 in the following illustrates an ADR cycle according to an embodiment of the present invention, where a group consisting of 5000 heat pumps report their flexibility and are controlled by the central server accordingly.

Time Event

Prior to 1. The control system of a heat pump reads input data from sensors of temperature indoor, outdoor, radiator water out-/in, accumulator tank, etc. Next, the control system of the heat pump reads input from the peripheral unit, such as electricity spot price and outdoor temperature forecast. The peripheral unit has either downloaded this data and stored it locally, or turns to the central server for the data.

2. The control system of the heat pump calculates a run schedule considering the input parameters that will minimize the cost while retaining the indoor temperature within given comfort intervals. The run schedule is straightforwardly translated to a load schedule.

3. The control system can thus calculate the flexibility available during each hour, based upon its run schedule and boundaries of comfort parameters. The run schedule is set to maximum power (2 kW) during hour 11 to increase the indoor

temperature from 20°C to 2i°C. As the comfort temperature minimum threshold is typically 18 degrees, the flexibility would then be to decrease load (-2 kW) during the hour starting at 11:00 (provided that the indoor temperature would not drop below 18 °C when the unit is switched off during this hour).

4. At 09:00, the control system of the heat pump reports the flexibility available in the hour between 11:00-12:00 to the peripheral unit that transmits it to the central server.

5. Prior to 10:00, the processing unit of the server aggregates the available flexibility of all connected peripheral units into regulating power packages that can be called off by various parties engaged in balancing the grid. i.e. a package of 10 MW load decrease, composed by 5000 heat pumps as above, is bid into the secondary regulating power market or made available to Balance Responsible Parties through a user interface as a possibility to more effectively balance the grid. 10.00- 6. The packages that are called-off translate to called-off 11.00 flexibility at individual peripheral units, i.e. the package of 10

MW load decrease is bought by the TSO on the regulating power market or by a Balance Responsible Party. This translates into the action to decrease load by 2 kW to all peripheral units included in the underlying package. 7. Prior to 11:00, the peripheral unit of the respective heat pump receives the instruction to effect a contrary change in power consumption, i.e. a decrease by 2 kW, and notify the control system of the heat pump of this instruction.

11.00- 8. The control system of the heat pump performs the action to 12.00 switch off the heat pump during the hour starting at 11:00 and notify the peripheral unit that the action is initiated. The peripheral unit sends a notification to the server that the action is accepted and initiated.

12.00 9. At 12:00, the control system of the heat pump notifies the peripheral unit that the action is completed, upon which the peripheral unit sends a receipt of the regulatory action performed by the peripheral unit at the heat pump to the server.

Table 1

Table 2 in the following illustrates an ADR cycle according to a further embodiment of the present invention, where a group consisting of 5000 heat pumps report their flexibility and are controlled by the central server accordingly. In contrast to the embodiment discussed with reference to Table 1 hereinabove, the load of the peripheral units included in the underlying package will be increased in the example of Table 2.

Time Event

Prior to 1. The control system of a heat pump reads input data from sensors of temperature indoor, outdoor, radiator water out-/in, accumulator tank, etc. Next, the control system of the heat pump reads input from the peripheral unit, such as electricity spot price and outdoor temperature forecast. The peripheral unit has either downloaded this data and stored it locally, or turns to the central server for the data.

2. The control system of the heat pump calculates a run schedule considering the input parameters that will minimize the cost while retaining the indoor temperature within given comfort intervals. The run schedule is straightforwardly translated to a load schedule.

3. The control system can thus calculate the flexibility available during each hour, based upon its run schedule and boundaries of comfort parameters. The run schedule is set to a power level of 1 kW during hour 11 to keep the indoor temperature at 2i°C. As the comfort temperature minimum and maximum threshold is set to 19 and 23 degrees at this particular unit, the flexibility would then be to decrease load (-1 kW) during the hour starting at 11:00, provided that the indoor temperature would not drop below 19 °C when the unit is switched off during this hour. Alternatively, the flexibility would be to increase load by 1 kW to maximum power outage (2kW), provided that the indoor temperature would not rise above 23 °C during this hour.

4. At 09:00, the control system of the heat pump reports the flexibility available in the hour between 11:00-12:00 to the peripheral unit that transmits it to the central server.

5. Prior to 10:00, the processing unit of the server aggregates the available flexibility of all connected peripheral units into regulating power packages that can be called off by various parties engaged in balancing the grid. i.e. a package of 5 MW load increase, composed by 5000 heat pumps as above, is bid into the secondary regulating power market or made available to Balance Responsible Parties through a user interface as a possibility to more effectively balance the grid.

10.00- 6. The packages that are called-off translate to called-off 11.00 flexibility at individual peripheral units, i.e. the package of 5

MW load increase is bought by the TSO on the regulating power market or by a Balance Responsible Party. This translates into the action to increase load by 1 kW to all peripheral units included in the underlying package.

7. Prior to 11:00, the peripheral unit of the respective heat pump receives the instruction to effect a contrary change in power consumption, i.e. an increase by 1 kW, and notify the control system of the heat pump of this instruction.

11.00- 8. The control system of the heat pump performs the action to 12.00 increase the heat pump power level during the hour starting at

11:00 and notifies the peripheral unit that the action is initiated. The peripheral unit sends a notification to the server that the action is accepted and initiated.

12.00 9. At 12:00, the control system of the heat pump notifies the peripheral unit that the action is completed, upon which the peripheral unit sends a receipt of the regulatory action performed by the peripheral unit at the heat pump to the server.

Table 2

Table 3 in the following illustrates an ADR cycle according to a further embodiment of the present invention, where a different type of electrical equipment is controlled in the form of 15000 battery chargers, which report their flexibility and are controlled by the central server accordingly.

Time Event Prior to 1. The control system of a battery charger to electric vehicles 09:00 reads input data from a user interface, i.e. time of day when the user need the vehicle fully charged and minimum stand-by charge level.

A scenario may be that the user has parked an electric or hybrid car at work, connected to the battery charger and entered requirement data that the battery must be fully charged by the end of the workday (at 17:00).

2. The control system of the battery charger calculates a run schedule considering the input parameters that will fulfil the user's preferences. The run schedule is straightforwardly translated to a load schedule.

3. The control system can thus calculate the flexibility available during each hour, based upon its run schedule and boundaries of the parameters describing the users' preferences. The run schedule is set to a power level of 3 kW during hour 11 in order to increase the charge level to 100 %. As the user only needs the battery fully charged by 17:00, the flexibility would then be to decrease load (-3 kW) during the hour starting at 11:00, postponing the charge process somewhat.

Alternatively, the flexibility would be to generate power by discharging the battery and supplying 3 kW generated power to the grid, provided that the charger could still re-charge the battery to 100 % by 17:00.

4. At 09:00, the control system of the battery charger reports the flexibility available in the hour between 11:00-12:00 to the peripheral unit that transmits it to the central server.

09.00 - 5. Prior to 10:00, the processing unit of the server aggregates 10.00 the available flexibility of all connected peripheral units into regulating power packages that can be called off by various parties engaged in balancing the grid. i.e. a package of 15 MW load decrease, composed by 5000 units as above, is bid into the l8 secondary regulating power market or made available to Balance Responsible Parties through a user interface as a possibility to more effectively balance the grid.

10.00- 6. The packages that are called-off translate to called-off 11.00 flexibility at individual peripheral units, i.e. the package of 15

MW load decrease is bought by the TSO on the regulating power market or by a Balance Responsible Party. This translates into the action to decrease load by 3 kW to all peripheral units included in the underlying package. 7. Prior to 11:00, the peripheral unit of the respective battery charger receives the instruction to effect a contrary change in power consumption, i.e. a decrease by 3 kW, and notify the control system of this instruction.

11.00- 8. The control system of the battery charger performs the 12.00 action to decrease the power level during the hour starting at

11:00 and notify the peripheral unit that the action is initiated.

The peripheral unit sends a notification to the server that the action is accepted and initiated.

12.00 9. At 12:00, the control system of the battery charger notifies the peripheral unit that the action is completed, upon which the peripheral unit sends a receipt of the regulatory action performed by the peripheral unit at the battery charger to the server.

Table 3

As can be seen in the exemplifying embodiments described in Tables 1-3, the power consumption of the electrical equipment for the physical property associated with the electrical equipment to arrive at a target value during a specified time period is either expected to increase or decrease according to the set run schedule. However, it could also be possible to maintain the power consumption of the electrical equipment at its current value for the physical property associated with the electrical equipment to arrive at a target value during a specified time period.

For instance, in case of a heat pump, a situation may arise where outdoor temperature is expected to increase, and if a user would want the indoor temperature to increase as well, say from 20°C to 2i°C, this could very well be attained by maintaining the power consumption of the heat pump at a constant value. There would still be a possible change in power consumption, and a corresponding flexibility to be determined.

In a further embodiment of the present invention, in case an electrical equipment (exemplified by a heat pump) cannot perform the instruction stipulated by the control signal, since the instruction would effect a change in power consumption causing the indoor temperature to attain a value outside said operating range, i.e. to fall below i8°C, the heat pump will reply correspondingly to the central server. When the central server receives the response that the desired change in power consumption cannot be effected, the central server will send a further control signal stipulating an alternative change in power consumption. For instance, with reference to the

embodiment set forth in the above in Table 1, assuming that a control signal from the server to the heat pump instructing a effect a contrary change in power consumption by 2 kW would result in the indoor temperature falling below i8°C, the heat pump (or rather its peripheral unit) will respond accordingly to the server. The server could subsequently send an updated instruction to the heat pump to effect a contrary change in power

consumption, i.e. to decrease the power consumption, by 1 kW, wherein the heat pump transmits a confirmation that such a decrease will be initiated, i.e. the decrease in indoor temperature as a consequence of the updated instruction will result in an indoor temperature above i8°C. Additionally, it is possible that the difference between the actual power decrease and the initial intended decrease not accepted by the heat pump (i.e. a difference of 1 kW) will be used to further decrease power consumption of another heat pump comprised in the group, if such a decrease still would retain the indoor temperature above i8°C for said another heat pump. Hence, the sum of the contrary changes for the group of heat pumps equals the registered aggregated flexibility measures.

Even though the invention has been described with reference to specific exemplifying embodiments thereof, many different alterations, modifications and the like will become apparent for those skilled in the art. The described embodiments are therefore not intended to limit the scope of the invention, as defined by the appended claims.

Claims

1. A method of remotely controlling electrical equipment comprising the steps of:
receiving (Sioi), from each of a group of electrical equipment, a difference measure of an expected power consumption according to a run schedule required for said each electrical equipment to control a physical property associated with the electrical equipment to arrive at a target value during a specified time period, and a possible power consumption during the specified time period, which possible power consumption controls the physical property to assume a value within a specified operating range associated with said each electrical equipment;
aggregating (S102) all difference measures for the group of electrical equipment;
registering (S103) the aggregated difference measures;
receiving (S104) a request to access at least a part of the registered aggregated difference measures; and
sending (S105), in reply to the request, a control signal to said each electrical equipment instructing the equipment to effect a change in power consumption, which is smaller than or equal to the received difference measure of said each electrical equipment, in relation to that according to the run schedule during said specified time period, wherein the sum of the changes effected for the group of electrical equipment equals said at least a part of the registered aggregated difference measures.
2. The method of claim 1, further comprising the step of:
receiving a respective confirmation that said each electrical equipment has accepted the instruction stipulated by the control signal.
3. The method of claims 1 or 2, further comprising the step of:
receiving, at the end of said specified time period, a receipt from said each electrical equipment that said change in power consumption has been effected.
4. The method of any one of the preceding claim, further comprising the steps of:
receiving a respective response that said each electrical equipment has not accepted the instruction stipulated by the control signal, if the instruction effects a change in power consumption causing said physical property to attain a value outside said operating range; and
sending a further control signal to said each electrical equipment to effect a change in power consumption such that said physical property attains a value within said operating range.
5. The method of any one of the preceding claims, further comprising the step of:
providing the group of electrical equipment with data pertaining to spot electricity prices and weather forecasts.
6. The method of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the power consumption is expected to increase according to the run schedule.
7. The method of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the power consumption is expected to decrease according to the run schedule.
8. The method of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the power consumption is expected to be maintained at a current value according to the run schedule.
9. A device (13) for remotely controlling electrical equipment (11), the device comprising a processing unit (15) being arranged to:
receive, from each of a group of electrical equipment, a difference measure of an expected power consumption according to a run schedule required for said each electrical equipment to control a physical property associated with the electrical equipment to arrive at a target value during a specified time period, and a possible power consumption during the specified time period, which possible power consumption controls the physical property to assume a value within a specified operating range associated with said each electrical equipment; aggregate all difference measures for the group of electrical equipment; register the aggregated difference measures;
receive a request to access at least a part the registered aggregated difference measures; and
send, in reply to the request, a control signal to said each electrical equipment instructing the equipment to effect a change in power
consumption, which is smaller than or equal to the received difference measure of said each electrical equipment, in relation to that according to the run schedule during said specified time period, wherein the sum of the changes effected for the group of electrical equipment equals said at least a part the registered aggregated difference measures.
10. The device (13) of claim 9, said processing unit (15) further being arranged to:
receive a respective confirmation that said each electrical equipment (11) has accepted the instruction stipulated by the control signal.
11. The device (13) of claims 9 or 10, said processing unit (15) further being arranged to:
receive, at the end of said specified time period, a receipt from said each electrical equipment (11) that said change in power consumption has been effected.
12. The device (13) of any one of claims 9-11, said processing unit (15) further being arranged to:
receive a respective response that said each electrical equipment (11) has not accepted the instruction stipulated by the control signal, if the instruction effects a change in power consumption causing said physical property to attain a value outside said operating range; and
send a further control signal to said each electrical equipment to effect a change in power consumption such that said physical property attains a value within said operating range.
13. The device (13) of any one of claims 9-12, said processing unit (15) further being arranged to:
provide the group of electrical equipment (11) with data pertaining to spot electricity prices and/or weather forecasts.
14. A computer program (17) comprising computer-executable components for causing a device (13) to perform at least parts of steps recited in any one of claims 1-8 when the computer-executable components are run on a processing unit (15) included in the device.
15. A computer program product (16) comprising a computer readable medium, the computer readable medium having the computer program (17) according to claim 14 embodied therein.
PCT/EP2013/060602 2012-05-24 2013-05-23 Method and device of remotely controlling electrical equipment WO2013174913A1 (en)

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