WO2013170937A1 - Particles for electrophoretic displays - Google Patents

Particles for electrophoretic displays Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2013170937A1
WO2013170937A1 PCT/EP2013/001340 EP2013001340W WO2013170937A1 WO 2013170937 A1 WO2013170937 A1 WO 2013170937A1 EP 2013001340 W EP2013001340 W EP 2013001340W WO 2013170937 A1 WO2013170937 A1 WO 2013170937A1
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Prior art keywords
particles
polymerisable
electrophoretic
preferably
monomer
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PCT/EP2013/001340
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French (fr)
Inventor
Lewis BLACKMAN
Louise Diane Farrand
Jonathan Henry Wilson
Simon Biggs
Olivier Cayre
Simon Lawson
Alexandre RICHEZ
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Merck Patent Gmbh
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02FDEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS, THE OPTICAL OPERATION OF WHICH IS MODIFIED BY CHANGING THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE MEDIUM OF THE DEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF THE INTENSITY, COLOUR, PHASE, POLARISATION OR DIRECTION OF LIGHT, e.g. SWITCHING, GATING, MODULATING OR DEMODULATING; TECHNIQUES OR PROCEDURES FOR THE OPERATION THEREOF; FREQUENCY-CHANGING; NON-LINEAR OPTICS; OPTICAL LOGIC ELEMENTS; OPTICAL ANALOGUE/DIGITAL CONVERTERS
    • G02F1/00Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics
    • G02F1/0009Materials therefor
    • G02F1/0018Electro-optical materials
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B05SPRAYING OR ATOMISING IN GENERAL; APPLYING LIQUIDS OR OTHER FLUENT MATERIALS TO SURFACES, IN GENERAL
    • B05DPROCESSES FOR APPLYING LIQUIDS OR OTHER FLUENT MATERIALS TO SURFACES, IN GENERAL
    • B05D1/00Processes for applying liquids or other fluent materials
    • B05D1/18Processes for applying liquids or other fluent materials performed by dipping
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B05SPRAYING OR ATOMISING IN GENERAL; APPLYING LIQUIDS OR OTHER FLUENT MATERIALS TO SURFACES, IN GENERAL
    • B05DPROCESSES FOR APPLYING LIQUIDS OR OTHER FLUENT MATERIALS TO SURFACES, IN GENERAL
    • B05D3/00Pretreatment of surfaces to which liquids or other fluent materials are to be applied; After-treatment of applied coatings, e.g. intermediate treating of an applied coating preparatory to subsequent applications of liquids or other fluent materials
    • B05D3/007After-treatment
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B05SPRAYING OR ATOMISING IN GENERAL; APPLYING LIQUIDS OR OTHER FLUENT MATERIALS TO SURFACES, IN GENERAL
    • B05DPROCESSES FOR APPLYING LIQUIDS OR OTHER FLUENT MATERIALS TO SURFACES, IN GENERAL
    • B05D3/00Pretreatment of surfaces to which liquids or other fluent materials are to be applied; After-treatment of applied coatings, e.g. intermediate treating of an applied coating preparatory to subsequent applications of liquids or other fluent materials
    • B05D3/12Pretreatment of surfaces to which liquids or other fluent materials are to be applied; After-treatment of applied coatings, e.g. intermediate treating of an applied coating preparatory to subsequent applications of liquids or other fluent materials by mechanical means
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    • C08ORGANIC MACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS; THEIR PREPARATION OR CHEMICAL WORKING-UP; COMPOSITIONS BASED THEREON
    • C08FMACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS OBTAINED BY REACTIONS ONLY INVOLVING CARBON-TO-CARBON UNSATURATED BONDS
    • C08F2/00Processes of polymerisation
    • C08F2/44Polymerisation in the presence of compounding ingredients, e.g. plasticisers, dyestuffs, fillers
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C08ORGANIC MACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS; THEIR PREPARATION OR CHEMICAL WORKING-UP; COMPOSITIONS BASED THEREON
    • C08FMACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS OBTAINED BY REACTIONS ONLY INVOLVING CARBON-TO-CARBON UNSATURATED BONDS
    • C08F220/00Copolymers of compounds having one or more unsaturated aliphatic radicals, each having only one carbon-to-carbon double bond, and only one being terminated by only one carboxyl radical or a salt, anhydride ester, amide, imide or nitrile thereof
    • C08F220/02Monocarboxylic acids having less than ten carbon atoms; Derivatives thereof
    • C08F220/04Acids; Metal salts or ammonium salts thereof
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    • C08ORGANIC MACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS; THEIR PREPARATION OR CHEMICAL WORKING-UP; COMPOSITIONS BASED THEREON
    • C08FMACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS OBTAINED BY REACTIONS ONLY INVOLVING CARBON-TO-CARBON UNSATURATED BONDS
    • C08F292/00Macromolecular compounds obtained by polymerising monomers on to inorganic materials
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; MISCELLANEOUS COMPOSITIONS; MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS
    • C09BORGANIC DYES OR CLOSELY-RELATED COMPOUNDS FOR PRODUCING DYES, e.g. PIGMENTS; MORDANTS; LAKES
    • C09B69/00Dyes not provided for by a single group of this subclass
    • C09B69/10Polymeric dyes; Reaction products of dyes with monomers or with macromolecular compounds
    • C09B69/106Polymeric dyes; Reaction products of dyes with monomers or with macromolecular compounds containing an azo dye
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; MISCELLANEOUS COMPOSITIONS; MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS
    • C09CTREATMENT OF INORGANIC MATERIALS, OTHER THAN FIBROUS FILLERS, TO ENHANCE THEIR PIGMENTING OR FILLING PROPERTIES; PREPARATION OF CARBON BLACK; PREPARATION OF INORGANIC MATERIALS WHICH ARE NO SINGLE CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS AND WHICH ARE MAINLY USED AS PIGMENTS OR FILLERS
    • C09C1/00Treatment of specific inorganic materials other than fibrous fillers; Preparation of carbon black
    • C09C1/02Compounds of alkaline earth metals or magnesium
    • C09C1/021Calcium carbonates
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; MISCELLANEOUS COMPOSITIONS; MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS
    • C09CTREATMENT OF INORGANIC MATERIALS, OTHER THAN FIBROUS FILLERS, TO ENHANCE THEIR PIGMENTING OR FILLING PROPERTIES; PREPARATION OF CARBON BLACK; PREPARATION OF INORGANIC MATERIALS WHICH ARE NO SINGLE CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS AND WHICH ARE MAINLY USED AS PIGMENTS OR FILLERS
    • C09C1/00Treatment of specific inorganic materials other than fibrous fillers; Preparation of carbon black
    • C09C1/22Compounds of iron
    • C09C1/24Oxides of iron
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; MISCELLANEOUS COMPOSITIONS; MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS
    • C09CTREATMENT OF INORGANIC MATERIALS, OTHER THAN FIBROUS FILLERS, TO ENHANCE THEIR PIGMENTING OR FILLING PROPERTIES; PREPARATION OF CARBON BLACK; PREPARATION OF INORGANIC MATERIALS WHICH ARE NO SINGLE CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS AND WHICH ARE MAINLY USED AS PIGMENTS OR FILLERS
    • C09C1/00Treatment of specific inorganic materials other than fibrous fillers; Preparation of carbon black
    • C09C1/28Compounds of silicon
    • C09C1/30Silicic acid
    • C09C1/3072Treatment with macro-molecular organic compounds
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; MISCELLANEOUS COMPOSITIONS; MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS
    • C09CTREATMENT OF INORGANIC MATERIALS, OTHER THAN FIBROUS FILLERS, TO ENHANCE THEIR PIGMENTING OR FILLING PROPERTIES; PREPARATION OF CARBON BLACK; PREPARATION OF INORGANIC MATERIALS WHICH ARE NO SINGLE CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS AND WHICH ARE MAINLY USED AS PIGMENTS OR FILLERS
    • C09C1/00Treatment of specific inorganic materials other than fibrous fillers; Preparation of carbon black
    • C09C1/28Compounds of silicon
    • C09C1/30Silicic acid
    • C09C1/3081Treatment with organo-silicon compounds
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; MISCELLANEOUS COMPOSITIONS; MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS
    • C09CTREATMENT OF INORGANIC MATERIALS, OTHER THAN FIBROUS FILLERS, TO ENHANCE THEIR PIGMENTING OR FILLING PROPERTIES; PREPARATION OF CARBON BLACK; PREPARATION OF INORGANIC MATERIALS WHICH ARE NO SINGLE CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS AND WHICH ARE MAINLY USED AS PIGMENTS OR FILLERS
    • C09C1/00Treatment of specific inorganic materials other than fibrous fillers; Preparation of carbon black
    • C09C1/36Compounds of titanium
    • C09C1/3607Titanium dioxide
    • C09C1/3676Treatment with macro-molecular organic compounds
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; MISCELLANEOUS COMPOSITIONS; MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS
    • C09CTREATMENT OF INORGANIC MATERIALS, OTHER THAN FIBROUS FILLERS, TO ENHANCE THEIR PIGMENTING OR FILLING PROPERTIES; PREPARATION OF CARBON BLACK; PREPARATION OF INORGANIC MATERIALS WHICH ARE NO SINGLE CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS AND WHICH ARE MAINLY USED AS PIGMENTS OR FILLERS
    • C09C1/00Treatment of specific inorganic materials other than fibrous fillers; Preparation of carbon black
    • C09C1/36Compounds of titanium
    • C09C1/3607Titanium dioxide
    • C09C1/3684Treatment with organo-silicon compounds
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; MISCELLANEOUS COMPOSITIONS; MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS
    • C09CTREATMENT OF INORGANIC MATERIALS, OTHER THAN FIBROUS FILLERS, TO ENHANCE THEIR PIGMENTING OR FILLING PROPERTIES; PREPARATION OF CARBON BLACK; PREPARATION OF INORGANIC MATERIALS WHICH ARE NO SINGLE CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS AND WHICH ARE MAINLY USED AS PIGMENTS OR FILLERS
    • C09C1/00Treatment of specific inorganic materials other than fibrous fillers; Preparation of carbon black
    • C09C1/40Compounds of aluminium
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; MISCELLANEOUS COMPOSITIONS; MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS
    • C09CTREATMENT OF INORGANIC MATERIALS, OTHER THAN FIBROUS FILLERS, TO ENHANCE THEIR PIGMENTING OR FILLING PROPERTIES; PREPARATION OF CARBON BLACK; PREPARATION OF INORGANIC MATERIALS WHICH ARE NO SINGLE CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS AND WHICH ARE MAINLY USED AS PIGMENTS OR FILLERS
    • C09C3/00Treatment in general of inorganic materials, other than fibrous fillers, to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties
    • C09C3/10Treatment with macromolecular organic compounds
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; MISCELLANEOUS COMPOSITIONS; MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS
    • C09CTREATMENT OF INORGANIC MATERIALS, OTHER THAN FIBROUS FILLERS, TO ENHANCE THEIR PIGMENTING OR FILLING PROPERTIES; PREPARATION OF CARBON BLACK; PREPARATION OF INORGANIC MATERIALS WHICH ARE NO SINGLE CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS AND WHICH ARE MAINLY USED AS PIGMENTS OR FILLERS
    • C09C3/00Treatment in general of inorganic materials, other than fibrous fillers, to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties
    • C09C3/12Treatment with organosilicon compounds
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02FDEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS, THE OPTICAL OPERATION OF WHICH IS MODIFIED BY CHANGING THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE MEDIUM OF THE DEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF THE INTENSITY, COLOUR, PHASE, POLARISATION OR DIRECTION OF LIGHT, e.g. SWITCHING, GATING, MODULATING OR DEMODULATING; TECHNIQUES OR PROCEDURES FOR THE OPERATION THEREOF; FREQUENCY-CHANGING; NON-LINEAR OPTICS; OPTICAL LOGIC ELEMENTS; OPTICAL ANALOGUE/DIGITAL CONVERTERS
    • G02F1/00Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics
    • G02F1/01Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour
    • G02F1/13Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour based on liquid crystals, e.g. single liquid crystal display cells
    • G02F1/133Constructional arrangements; Operation of liquid crystal cells; Circuit arrangements
    • G02F1/1333Constructional arrangements; Manufacturing methods
    • G02F1/1339Gaskets; Spacers, also spacers with conducting properties; Sealing of the cell
    • G02F1/13392Gaskets; Spacers, also spacers with conducting properties; Sealing of the cell spacers dispersed on the cell substrate, e.g. spherical particles, microfibres
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02FDEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS, THE OPTICAL OPERATION OF WHICH IS MODIFIED BY CHANGING THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE MEDIUM OF THE DEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF THE INTENSITY, COLOUR, PHASE, POLARISATION OR DIRECTION OF LIGHT, e.g. SWITCHING, GATING, MODULATING OR DEMODULATING; TECHNIQUES OR PROCEDURES FOR THE OPERATION THEREOF; FREQUENCY-CHANGING; NON-LINEAR OPTICS; OPTICAL LOGIC ELEMENTS; OPTICAL ANALOGUE/DIGITAL CONVERTERS
    • G02F1/00Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics
    • G02F1/01Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour
    • G02F1/167Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour based on electrophoresis
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C01INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C01PINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO STRUCTURAL AND PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF SOLID INORGANIC COMPOUNDS
    • C01P2004/00Particle morphology
    • C01P2004/60Particles characterised by their size
    • C01P2004/62Submicrometer sized, i.e. from 0.1-1 micrometer
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    • C01INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
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    • C01P2004/80Particles consisting of a mixture of two or more inorganic phases
    • C01P2004/82Particles consisting of a mixture of two or more inorganic phases two phases having the same anion, e.g. both oxidic phases
    • C01P2004/84Particles consisting of a mixture of two or more inorganic phases two phases having the same anion, e.g. both oxidic phases one phase coated with the other
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    • C01INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C01PINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO STRUCTURAL AND PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF SOLID INORGANIC COMPOUNDS
    • C01P2006/00Physical properties of inorganic compounds
    • C01P2006/40Electric properties
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02FDEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS, THE OPTICAL OPERATION OF WHICH IS MODIFIED BY CHANGING THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE MEDIUM OF THE DEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF THE INTENSITY, COLOUR, PHASE, POLARISATION OR DIRECTION OF LIGHT, e.g. SWITCHING, GATING, MODULATING OR DEMODULATING; TECHNIQUES OR PROCEDURES FOR THE OPERATION THEREOF; FREQUENCY-CHANGING; NON-LINEAR OPTICS; OPTICAL LOGIC ELEMENTS; OPTICAL ANALOGUE/DIGITAL CONVERTERS
    • G02F1/00Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics
    • G02F1/01Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour
    • G02F1/167Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour based on electrophoresis
    • G02F2001/1678Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour based on electrophoresis having a particular composition or particle type

Abstract

This invention relates to particles comprising a core particle and a polymeric shell, a process for their preparation, electrophoretic fluids comprising such particles, and electrophoretic display devices comprising such fluids.

Description

Particles for Electrophoretic Displays

This invention relates to particles comprising a core particle and a polymeric shell, a process for their preparation, electrophoretic fluids comprising such particles, and electrophoretic display devices comprising such fluids, and the use of the particles in optical, electrooptical, electronic, electrochemical, electrophotographic, electrowetting and electrophoretic displays and/or devices, in security, cosmetic, decorative or diagnostic applications. EPDs (Electrophoretic Displays) and their use for electronic paper are known for a number of years. An EPD generally comprises charged electrophoretic particles dispersed between two substrates, each

comprising one or more electrodes. The space between the electrodes is filled with a dispersion medium which is a different colour from the colour of the particles. If a voltage is applied between the electrodes, charged particles move to the electrode of opposite polarity. The particles can cover the observer's side electrode, so that a colour identical to the colour of the particles is displayed when an image is observed from the observer's side. Any image can be observed using a multiplicity of pixels. Mainly black and white particles are used. Particles coated with a surface layer to promote good dispersibility in dielectric media are disclosed in WO 2004/067593, US 2011/0079756, US 5,964,935, US 5,932,633, US 6,117,368, WO

2010/148061 , WO 2002/093246, WO 2005/036129, US 2009/0201569, US 7,236,290, JP 2009031329, US 7,880,955, and JP 2008122468.

There continues to be a demand for improved electrophoretic fluids and a simple preparation of coloured and white reflective particles which can be easily dispersed in non-polar media. An improved route to provide such particles and new electrophoretic fluids has now been found. Fluid compositions containing these particles can be used in monochrome and colour electrophoretic displays (EPD). The present invention relates to particles comprising organic or inorganic pigment core particles encapsulated by a polymeric shell comprising monomer units of at least one polymerisable steric stabiliser, at least one coupling reagent, at least one co-monomer, optionally at least one charged co-monomer, optionally at least one polymerisable dye, and optionally at least one crosslinking co-monomer, a process for their preparation, the use of the particles in electrophoretic fluids, and electrophoretic display devices comprising these fluids. The subject matter of this invention specifically relates to white reflective particles, and to electrophoretic fluids and displays comprising such white reflective particles.

The invention provides a method to produce particles suitable for use in EPD which have controllable size, reflectivity, density, monodispersity, and steric stability and require no drying process to disperse in a solvent suitable for EPD. The particles are synthesised in a method which has in-situ surface stabilisation of the pigment core particles, i.e. white reflective component which improves synthesis for a number of reasons. The white reflective components are often inorganic and as such they are difficult to disperse in organic media. Surface treatment during polymerisation facilitates dispersion, and facilitates covalent bonding of the polymeric coating to the titania during polymerisation.

The present invention provides pigment particles, especially white reflective particles which can be easily dispersed in non-polar media and show electrophoretic mobility. Particle size, polydispersity, and density can be controlled and the present incorporation of pigment into polymeric particles does neither require multiple process steps nor expensive drying steps, i.e. freeze drying. The present process involves one simple polymerisation step. The present process facilitates the formulation of electrophoretic fluids since it is done in a non-polar organic solvent instead of aqueous media. The particles can be prepared in the solvent of choice for EPD formulations, therefore no unwanted solvent contamination occurs and no disposal, or recycling of solvent is necessary. Particles of the invention are easily dispersed in dielectric, organic media, which enables switching of the particles in an applied electric field, preferably as the electrically switchable component of a full colour e-paper or electrophoretic display.

Highly reflective polymer particles can be produced by encapsulating a highly reflective inorganic particle in an organic polymer by a dispersion polymerisation. This yields a hybrid particle which exhibits excellent reflectivity where the inorganic material is encapsulated by a tough polymer shell. This tough shell prevents particle agglomeration.

Particles of the invention comprise sterical stabilisers covalently bonded into the pigment core particles. Advantageously, the present invention does not require custom synthesised stabilisers with difficult to control steric lengths and multistep complex syntheses with expensive or difficult to synthesise components.

In addition, the particles may have a homogeneous cross-linked network structure for solvent resistance, impact strength and hardness, high electrophoretic mobility in dielectric media, excellent switching behavior, and faster response times at comparable voltages.

The core particles can be selected to achieve different optical effects.

Properties can vary from being highly scattering to being transparent. The pigments can be coloured including black or white.

Primarily, the invention provides white reflective particles by incorporating an inorganic material of sufficiently high refractive index and white reflectivity into an organic polymer based particle to yield a hybrid polymeric particle which exhibits good white reflective properties. Preferably, white reflective particles are used having a refractive index of≥ 1.8, especially > 2.0, are used. Especially titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, silicon dioxide, alumina, barium sulphate, zirconium dioxide, calcium carbonate, kaolinite, diantimony trioxide and/or tin dioxide, especially titanium dioxide, can be used. Preferably, titanium dioxide based pigments are used which could have the rutile, anatase, or amorphous modification, preferably rutile or ahatase. Examples are: Sachtleben RDI-S, Sachtleben R610-L, Sachtleben LC-S, Kronos 2081, Kronos 2305, Sachtleben Hombitan Anatase, Sachtleben Hombitan Rutile, Du Pont R960, Du Pont R350, Du Pont R104, Du Pont R105, Du Pont R794, Du Pont R900, Du Pont R931 , Du Pont R706, Du

Pont R902+, Du Pont R103, Huntsman TR-81 , Huntsman TR-28, Huntsman TR-92, Huntsman R-TC30, Huntsman R-FC5, Evonik P25, Evonik T805, Merck Eusolex T2000, Merck UV Titan M765. Preferably, Du Pont R960, and Sachtleben Hombitan Anatase are used.

Examples for pigments suitable to achieve color or black are: mixed oxides chromium (III) oxide green, cobalt blue spinel, ultramarine pigments, iron blue, iron (III) oxide red, iron (III) oxide orange, iron oxide hydroxide

(FeOOH) yellow, iron oxide (Fe304) black, iron (II, III) oxide black, carbon black.

The invention allows density control by tunability of the shell around the inorganic pigment. The amount of the organic material in the reaction can be increased relative to the inorganic pigment which results in a lower density particle, or if higher density is desired, the pigment ratio can be increased.

Pigments encapsulated within the particles are preferably well dispersed in a non-aggregated state in order to achieve the optimum optical properties. If the pigment is high density, the optimum loading of the pigment within polymer may not only be affected by the optical properties but also the density of the resulting particle in order to achieve improved bistability. Pigments are present in the particle (on weight of total particle) from 5-95%, preferably 20-60% and even more preferably 30-50%.

A further essential component of the present invention is a polymerisable steric stabiliser. The polymerisable steric stabilisers need to be soluble in non-polar solvents, particularly dodecane, and have some reactive functionality such that they take part in the polymerisation. This creates a particle with a covalently bound surface of sterically stabilising compounds providing stability during and after polymerisation. The polymerisable steric stabiliser can be used in a range of molecular weights which allows strict control over the steric barrier surrounding the particles to prevent

aggregation. The polymerisable group incorporates irreversibly into the particles and is therefore anchored to the surface. A typical polymerisable steric stabiliser of the invention is a poly(dimethyl- siloxane) macro-monomer (PDMS). The poly(dimethylsiloxane) may comprise one or two polymerisable groups, preferably one polymerisable group. The following stabiliser types could be used and are commercially available from Gelest Inc.:

Methacryloyloxypropyl terminated polydimethylsiloxanes (mws 380, 900, 4500, 0000, 25000) Methacryloyloxypropyl terminated

polydimethylsiloxanes (mw 600), Methacryloyloxypropyl terminated polydimethylsiloxanes (1500, 1700), (3-acryloxy-2-hydroxypropoxypropyl) terminated PDMS (mw 600), Acryloxy terminated ethyleneoxide- dimethylsiloxane-ethyleneoxide ABA block copolymers (mw 1500, 1700), methacyloyloxpropyl terminated branched polydimethylsiloxanes (683), (methacryloxypropyl)methylsiloxanes -Dimethylsiloxane copolymers

(viscosity 8000, 1000, 2000), (acryloxypropyl)methylsiloxane - dimethylsiloxanes copolymers (viscosity 80, 50), (3-acryloxy-2- hydroxypropoxypropyl)methylsiloxane-dimethylsiloxane copolymers (mw 7500), mono(2,3-epoxy)propyl ether terminated polydimethylsilxoanes (mw 1000, 5000), monomethacryloxypropyl terminated polydimethylsiloxanes asymmetric (mw 600, 800, 5000, 10000), monomethacryloxypropyl functional polydimethylsiloxanes- symmetric (mw 800), monometha- cryloxypropyl terminated polytrifluoropropylmethylsiloxanes- symmetric (mw 800) monovinyl terminated polydimethylsiloxanes (mw 5500, 55000, monovinyl functional polydimethylsilxanes - symmetric (mw 1200).

Preferred polymerisable groups are methacrylate, acrylate, and vinyl groups, preferably methacrylate and acrylate groups. Most preferred are poly(dimethylsiloxane) methacrylates (PDMS-MA), especially

methacryloyloxypropyl terminated PDMS-MAs as shown in Formulas 1 and 2, wherein n = 5-10000. Most preferred are poly(dimethylsiloxanes) with one methacrylate group.

Formula 1

Figure imgf000007_0001
Formula 2

The polymerisable steric stabiliser of the invention preferably has a molecular weight in the range of 1000 - 50000, preferably 3500 - 35000, most preferably 5000-25000. Most preferred are methacrylate terminated polydimethylsiloxanes with a molecular weight of 10,000 or more.

Additionally, a coupling reagent is an essential component of the invention. The coupling reagent may be at least one polymerisable organosilane, -, -titanate and/or zirconate of the general formula (X)4-n-mZ(R)n(B-Y)m where X = OH, halogen, alkoxy, aryloxy

Z = Si, Ti, Zr

R = alkyl, phenyl or hydrogen

B = single bond, organic, at least bifunctional group (alkylene,

alkyleneoxyalkylene)

Y = vinyl, styryl, acrylamide, methacrylamide, acryloyi, and/or methacryloyi group n, = 0,1 ,2,3 and m = 1,2,3 where n+m < 3.

The coupling reagents comprises at least one anchor group (X)4-n-m, which bonds to the surface of the pigment particle, optionally at least one hydrophobic group (R) and one or more polymerisable groups (Y).

The coupling reagents are preferably compounds where Z = Si. The anchor group preferably consists of alkoxy groups. In addition, it is also possible to employ mixtures of various coupling reagents. Preferred examples of coupling agents are vinyltrimethoxysilane,

vinyltriethoxysilane,

3-(Trichlorosilyl)propyl methacrylate

(methacryloxymethyl)trimethoxysilane,

(methacryloxymethyl)triethoxysilane,

(methacryloxymethyl)methyldimethoxysilane,

(methacryloxymethyl)ethyldimethoxysilane,

3-(trimethoxy silyl)propyl methacrylate (MPS)

3-(trimethoxy silyl)propyl methacrylate is especially preferred.

The amount of the coupling agent is between 0.1-200% by weight, based on the pigment particle, preferably 75-125% by weight. The particles of the invention can be prepared from many polymer types. Preferably, monomers are used where the monomer is soluble in the reactive mixture and the polymer is insoluble in the reactive mixture with relatively high Tg. This allows hard composite particles to be formed which tend to be spherical in shape and have easily tunable size.

The main requirement for the polymer composition is that it needs to be produced from a monomer that is soluble but polymer insoluble in the EPD fluid, i.e. dodecane and can also provide some linkage to the surface of the titania during polymerisation. Low solubility of the polymer material in the EPD dispersion media reduces the tendency for ripening processes to take place and helps define the particle size and size dispersity.

The particles can be prepared from most monomer types, in particular rnethacrylates, acrylates, methacrylamides, acrylonitriles, a-substituted acrylates, styrenes and vinyl ethers, vinyl esters, propenyl ethers, oxetanes and epoxys but would typically be prepared from largest percentage to be monomer, then cross-linker, and include a charged monomer (e.g.

quaternised monomer). Especially preferred is methyl methacrylate but many others could be used, the following are all examples of which could be used which are commercially available from the Sigma-Aldrich chemical company.

The following are all examples which could be used and which are commercially available from the Sigma-Aldrich chemical company. Mixtures of monomers may also be used.

Methacrylates:

Methyl methacrylate (MMA), Ethyl methacrylate (EMA), n-Butyl methacrylate (BMA), 2-Aminoethyl methacrylate hydrochloride, Allyl methacrylate, Benzyl methacrylate, 2-Butoxyethyl methacrylate, 2-(terf-Butylamino)ethyl methacrylate, Butyl methacrylate, ferf-Butyl methacrylate, Caprolactone 2- (methacryloyloxy)ethyl ester, 3-Chloro-2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate, Cyclohexyl methacrylate, 2-(Diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate, Di(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate, 2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate, 2- Ethoxyethyl methacrylate, Ethylene glycol dicyclopentenyl ether

methacrylate, Ethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate, Ethylene glycol phenyl ether methacrylate, 2-Ethylhexyl methacrylate, Furfuryl methacrylate, Glycidyl methacrylate, Glycosyloxyethyl methacrylate, Hexyl methacrylate, Hydroxybutyl methacrylate, 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate, 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate, Hydroxypropyl methacrylate Mixture of hydroxypropyl and hydroxyisopropyl methacrylates, 2-Hydroxypropyl 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl phthalate, Isobornyl methacrylate, Isobutyl methacrylate, 2-lsocyanatoethyl methacrylate, Isodecyl methacrylate, Lauryl methacrylate, Methacryloyl chloride, Methacrylic acid, 2-(Methylthio)ethyl methacrylate, mono-2- (Methacryloyloxy)ethyl maleate, mono-2-(Methacryloyloxy)ethyl succinate, Pentabromophenyl methacrylate, Phenyl methacrylate, Phosphoric acid 2- hydroxyethyl methacrylate ester, Stearyl methacrylate, 3-Sulfopropyl methacrylate potassium salt, Tetrahydrofurfuryl methacrylate, Tridecyl methacrylate, 3,3,5-Trimethylcyclohexyl methacrylate, Trimethylsilyl methacrylate, Vinyl methacrylate.

Preferably Methyl methacrylate (MMA), Methacrylic acid,

Ethyl methacrylate (EMA), and/or n-Butyl methacrylate (BMA) are used.

Acrylates:

Acrylic acid, 4-Acryloylmorpholine, [2-(Acryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride, 2-(4-Benzoyl-3-hydroxyphenoxy)ethyl acrylate, Benzyl 2- propylacrylate, 2-Butoxyethyl acrylate, Butyl acrylate, ferf-Butyl acrylate, 2- [(Butylamino)carbonyl]oxy]ethyl acrylate, terf-Butyl 2-bromoacrylate, A-tert- Butylcyclohexyl acrylate, 2-Carboxyethyl acrylate, 2-Carboxyethyl acrylate oligomers anhydrous, 2-(Diethylamino)ethyl acrylate, ((ethylene glycol) ethyl ether acrylate technical grade, Di(ethylene glycol) 2-ethylhexyl ether acrylate, 2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl acrylate, 3-(Dimethylamino)propyl acrylate, Dipentaerythritol penta-/hexa-acrylate, 2-Ethoxyethyl acrylate, Ethyl acrylate, 2-Ethylacryloyl chloride, Ethyl 2-(bromomethyl)acrylate, Ethyl cis- ( -cyano)acrylate, Ethylene glycol dicyclopentenyl ether acrylate, Ethylene glycol methyl ether acrylate, Ethylene glycol phenyl ether acrylate, Ethyl 2- ethylacrylate, 2-Ethylhexyl acrylate, Ethyl 2-propylacrylate, Ethyl 2- (trimethylsilylmethyl)acrylate, Hexyl acrylate, 4-Hydroxybutyl acrylate, 2- Hydroxyethyl acrylate, 2-Hydroxy-3-phenoxypropyl acrylate, Hydroxypropyl acrylate, Isobornyl acrylate, Isobutyl acrylate, Isodecyl acrylate, Isooctyl acrylate, Lauryl acrylate, Methyl 2-acetamidoacrylate, Methyl acrylate, Methyl a-bromoacrylate, Methyl 2-(bromomethyl)acrylate, Methyl 3-hydroxy- 2-methylenebutyrate, Octadecyl acrylate, Pentabromobenzyl acrylate, Pentabromophenyl acrylate, Poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate,

Poly(propylene glycol) acrylate, Poly(propylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate Soybean oil, epoxidized acrylate, 3-Sulfopropyl acrylate potassium salt, Tetrahydrofurfuryl acrylate, , 3,5,5-Trimethylhexyl acrylate.

Preferably Methyl acrylate, acrylic acid, Ethyl acrylate (EMA), and/or n-Butyl acrylate (BMA) are used.

Acrylamides:

2-Acrylamidoglycolic acid, 2-Acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid, 2- Acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid sodium salt solution, (3- Acrylamidopropyl)trimethylammonium chloride solution, 3-Acryloylamino-1- propanol solution purum, N-(Butoxymethyl)acrylamide, N-tert- Butylacrylamide, Diacetone acrylamide, N,N-Dimethylacrylamide, N-[3- (Dimethylamino)propyl]methacrylamide, N-Hydroxyethyl acrylamide, N- (Hydroxymethyl)acrylamide, N-(lsobutoxymethyl)acrylamide, N- Isopropylacrylamide, N-lsopropylmethacrylamide, Methacrylamide, N- Phenylacrylamide, N-[T ris(hydroxymethyl)methyl]acrylamide.

Styrenes

Styrene, Divinyl benzene, 4-Acetoxystyrene, 4-Benzyloxy-3- methoxystyrene, 2-Bromostyrene, 3-Bromostyrene, 4-Bromostyrene, a- Bromostyrene, 4-terf-Butoxystyrene, 4-terf-Butylstyrene, 4-Chloro-a- methylstyrene, 2-Chlorostyrene, 3-Chlorostyrene, 4-Chlorostyrene, 2,6- Dichlorostyrene, 2,6-Difluorostyrene, 1 ,3-Diisopropenylbenzene, 3,4- Dimethoxystyrene, a,2-Dimethylstyrene, 2,4-Dimethylstyrene, 2,5- Dimethylstyrene,/V,/V-Dimethylvinylbenzylamine, 2,4-Diphenyl-4-methyl-1- pentene, 4-Ethoxystyrene, 2-Fluorostyrene, 3-Fluorostyrene, 4- Fluorostyrene, 2-lsopropenylaniline, 3-lsopropenyl-a,a-dimethylbenzyl isocyanate, Methylstyrene, a-Methylstyrene, 3-Methylstyrene, 4- Methylstyrene, 3-Nitrostyrene, 2,3,4,5,6-Pentafluorostyrene, 2- (Trifluoromethyl)styrene, 3-(Trifluoromethyl)styrene, 4- (Trifluoromethyl)styrene, 2,4,6-Trimethylstyrene. Preferably Styrene and/or Divinyl benzene are used.

Vinyl Groups

3- Vinylaniline, 4-Vinylaniline, 4-Vinylanisole, 9-Vinylanthracene, 3- Vinylbenzoic acid, 4-Vinylbenzoic acid, Vinylbenzyl chloride, 4-Vinylbenzyl chloride, (Vinylbenzyl)trimethylammonium chloride, 4-Vinylbiphenyl, 2-

Vinylnaphthalene, 2-Vinylnaphthalene, Vinyl acetate, Vinyl benzoate, Vinyl

4- te/-f-butylbenzoate, Vinyl chloroformate, Vinyl chloroformate, Vinyl cinnamate, Vinyl decanoate, Vinyl neodecanoate, Vinyl neononanoate, Vinyl pivalate, Vinyl propionate, Vinyl stearate, Vinyl trifluoroacetate.

Other monomers which may be used are those which have groups to help stabilisation of the particles, e.g. Poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate, Poly(ethylene glycol) phenyl ether acrylate, lauryl methacrylate,

Poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate, Poly(propylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate, Lauryl acrylate and fluorinated monomers of above.

Some of the monomers have groups for further reaction if so desired, e.g. Glycidyl ethacrylate, 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate. The following compounds can be used as intraparticle crosslinking

monomers for solubility control and solvent swelling resistance: ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA), allyl methacrylate (ALMA), divinyl benzene, Bis[4-(vinyloxy)butyl] adipate, Bis[4-(vinyloxy)butyl] 1 ,6- hexanediylbiscarbamate, Bis[4-(vinyloxy)butyl] isophthalate, Bis[4- (vinyloxy)butyl] (methylenedi-4,1-phenylene)biscarbamate, Bis[4- (vinyloxy)butyl] succinate, Bis[4-(vinyloxy)butyl]terephthalate, Bis[4- (vinyloxymethyl)cyclohexylmethyl] glutarate, ,4-Butanediol divinyl ether, 1 ,4-Butanediol vinyl ether, Butyl vinyl ether, ferf-Butyl vinyl ether, 2- Chloroethyl vinyl ether, 1 ,4-Cyclohexanedimethanol divinyl ether, 1 ,4- Cyclohexanedimethanol vinyl ether, Di(ethylene glycol) divinyl ether, Di(ethylene glycol) vinyl ether, Ethylene glycol butyl vinyl ether, Ethylene glycol vinyl ether, Tris[4-(vinyloxy)butyl] trimellitate, 3-(Acryloyloxy)-2- hydroxypropyl methacrylate, Bis[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl] phosphate, Bisphenol A propoxylate diacrylate, 1 ,3-Butanediol diacrylate, 1 ,4- Butanediol diacrylate, 1 ,3-Butanediol dimethacrylate, 1 ,4-Butanediol dimethacrylate, Λ/,Λ/'-( ,2-Dihydroxyethylene)bisacrylamide,

Di(trimethylolpropane) tetraacrylate, Diurethane dimethacrylate, Λ/,Λ/'- Ethylenebis(acrylamide), Glycerol 1 ,3-diglycerolate, Glycerol

dimethacrylate, ,6-Hexanediol diacrylate, 1 ,6-Hexanediol dimethacrylate, 1 ,6-Hexanediylbis[oxy(2-hydroxy-3,1-propanediyl)] bisacrylate,

Hydroxypivalyl hydroxypivalate bis[6-(acryloyloxy)hexanoate], Neopentyl glycol diacrylate, Pentaerythritol diacrylate, Pentaerythritol tetraacrylate, Pentaerythritol triacrylate, Polypropylene glycol) diacrylate, Poly(propylene glycol) dimethacrylate, 1 ,3,5-Triacryloylhexahydro-1 ,3,5-triazine,

Tricyclo[5.2.1.0]decanedimethanol diacrylate, Trimethylolpropane benzoate diacrylate, Trimethylolpropane ethoxylate methyl ether diacrylate,

Trimethylolpropane ethoxylate triacrylate, Trimethylolpropane triacrylate, Trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate, Tris[2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl] isocyanurate, Tri(propylene glycol) diacrylate.

Optionally, the monomer composition comprises at least one charged co- monomer.

Examples of cationic monomers for particle stability and particle size control are 2-methacryloxy ethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (MOTAC), acryloxy ethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (AOTAC), [3- (Methaci loylamino)propyl]trimethylammonium chloride, [2- (Methacryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium methyl sulfate solution, tetraallyl ammonium chloride, diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride,

(Vinylbenzyl)trimethylammonium chloride.

Preferably 2-methacryloxy ethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (MOTAC) and acryloxy ethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (AOTAC) are used.

Examples of anionic monomers are sodium, potassium or triethylamine salts of methacrylic acid, Acrylic acid, 2-(Trifluoromethyl)acrylic acid, 3-(2- Furyl)acrylic acid, 3-(2-Thienyl)acrylic acid, 3-(Phenylthio)acrylic acid, Poly(acrylic acid) potassium salt, Poly(acrylic acid) sodium salt, Poly(acrylic acid), Poly(acrylic acid, sodium salt) solution, trans-Z-(4- Methoxybenzoyl)acrylic acid, 2-Methoxycinnamic acid, 3-lndoleacrylic acid, 3-Methoxycinnamic acid, 4-lmidazoleacrylic acid, 4-Methoxycinnamic acid, Poly(styrene)-b/oc -poiy(acrylic acid), Poly(acrylonitrile-co-butadiene-co- acrylic acid), dicarboxy terminated, Poly(acrylonitrile-co-butadiene-co-acrylic acid), dicarboxy terminated, glycidyl methacrylate diester,

2,3-Diphenyl-Acrylic Acid, 2-Me-Acrylic Acid, 3-(1-Naphthyl)Acrylic Acid, 3- (2,3,5,6-Tetramethylbenzoyl)Acrylic Acid, 3-(4-Methoxyphenyl)Acrylic Acid, 3-(4-Pyridyl)Acrylic Acid, 3-p-Tolyl-Acrylic Acid, 5-Norbornene-2-Acrylic Acid, Trans-3-(2,5-Dimethylbenzoyl)Acrylic Acid, Trans-3-(4- Ethoxybenzoyl)Acrylic Acid, Trans-3-(4-Methoxybenzoyl)Acrylic Acid, 2,2'- (1 ,3-Phenylene)Bis(3-(2-aminophenyl)Acrylic Acid), 2,2'-(1 ,3- Phenylene)Bis(3-(2-Aminophenyl)Acrylic Acid) hydrochloride, 2,2'-(1 ,3- Phenylene)Bis(3-(2-Nitrophenyl)Acrylic Acid), 2-[2-(2',4,-Difluoro[1 ,1 - Biphenyl]-4-YI)-2-Oxoethyl]Acrylic Acid, 2-(2-(2-Chloroanilino)-2-Oxoethyl)- 3-(4-Methoxyphenyl)Acrylic Acid, 2-(2-((2-Hydroxyethyl)Amino)-2-Oxoethyl)- 3-(4-Methoxyphenyl)Acrylic Acid , 2-(2-(Cyclohexylamino)-2-Oxoethyl)-3-(4- Methoxyphenyl)Acrylic Acid.

A further co-monomer may be a polymerisable dye. In general the

polymerisable dyes may be solvent soluble or water soluble and they may be anionic, cationic, zwitterionic or neutral. Polymerisable dyes consist of a chromophore, at least one polymerisable groups, optional linker groups (spacers), and optional groups to modify physical properties (like). Preferred polymerisable dyes are azo dyes, metallised dyes, anthraquinone dyes, phthalocyanine dyes, benzodifuranones dyes, Brilliant Blue derivatives, pyrroline dyes, squarilium dyes, triphendioxazine dyes or mixtures of these dyes, especially azo dyes, metallised dyes, anthraquinone dyes,

phthalocyanine dyes, benzodifuranones dyes, pyrroline dyes, squarilium dyes or mixtures of these dyes. Preferably dyes with more than one polymerisable group are used. In principle any polymerisable dye can be used, preferable with more than one polymerisable group (most preferably with 2 polymerisable groups) and preferably with a methacrylate or acrylate function. Advantageously, the polymerisable dyes disclosed in

WO20 0/089057 and WO2012/019704 are used. Preferably dyes of Formulas (Γ) - (VI') are used:

Figure imgf000015_0001

Figure imgf000015_0002

Figure imgf000016_0001

Figure imgf000016_0002

Figure imgf000016_0003
wherein R is H; R1 and R2 are independently of one another alkyi, preferably C1-C6 alkyi, -OR', -SR', -C(0)R\ -C(O)OR\ -NHCOR', -NO2, - CN, with R" equal to H or alkyi, preferably C1-C6 alkyi, especially C1-C3 alkyi; L1 and L2 are independently of one another a single bond, C1-C6 alkyi, a polyether alkyi chain, or a combination thereof, preferably C2-C4 alkyi, especially C2 and C4 alkyi, especially identical groups L1 and L2 are preferred; and Y and Y2 are methyl acrylate or methyl methacrylate, especially identical groups Y1 and Y2 are preferred.

Especially preferred are polymerisable dyes of Formulas ( ) - (VI') wherein R is H; R1 and R2 are independently of one another -CH3, -NO2, -OH, -CN, -COCH3, -CO2CH2CH3, -NHCOR'; L1 and L2 are, preferably identical, C2-C4 alkyl, and Y and Y2 are, preferably identical, methyl acrylate or methyl methacrylate, wherein R2 is preferably -CH3, -OH or -NHCOR'.

Especially preferred co-monomers are methyl methacrylate, methyl acrylate, and methacrylic acid, acrylic acid, ethane-1 ,2 diacrylate, butane-1 ,4 diacrylate, hexane-1 ,6-diacrylate. Furthermore, mixtures of co-monomers described in the foregoing may be used. Preferred co-monomers mixtures comprise methyl methacrylate methyl acrylate, methacrylic acid, acrylic acid, ethane-1 ,2 diacrylate, butane-1 ,4 diacrylate, hexane-1 ,6-diacrylate, trimethylolpropane triacrylate, 2-methacryloxy ethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (MOTAC) and/or acryloxy ethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride

(AOTAC).

A further subject of the invention is a process for the preparation of particles comprising organic or inorganic pigment core encapsulated by a polymeric shell comprising monomer units of at least one polymerisable steric stabiliser, at least one coupling reagent, at least one co-monomer, optionally at least one charged co-monomer, optionally at least one polymerisable dye, and optionally at least one crosslinking co-monomer. The present process comprises the following steps:

a) dispersing at least one organic or inorganic pigment particle in a solution of at least one polymerisable steric stabiliser in a non-polar organic solvent; b) adding at least on co-monomer, at least one coupling reagent, at least one initiator, and optionally at least one chain transfer agent;

c) subjecting the dispersion of step b) to heating and sonication for polymerisation,

d) optionally washing by repeated centrifugation and redispersion in fresh solvent, and

e) optionally isolating the resulting coated particles.

This process provides pigment particles, especially titania embedded in a polymeric shell by addition of a coupling reagent during polymerisation. The preparation process of the particles of the invention is done directly in a non-polar fluid suitable for. No expensive drying steps are necessary. The particles can then also be easily formulated for EPD fluids by addition of any required surfactants directly into the dispersion without necessarily changing solvents. Furthermore, a polymerisable steric stabiliser which has reactivity to the polymer and is highly soluble in the non-polar fluid is used in the process for the preparation of the particles. This results in a covalently bonded layer on the outer surface of the pigment core particle which effects simple dispersion in non-polar EPD media.

The embedding of the inorganic pigment in the organic polymer is enhanced through surface modification of the polymer using bind to the surface and also take part in the polymerisation. These agents are designed to have high reactivity to a growing polymer chain but not to stop or hinder the polymerisation in any way in order to develop a coherent polymer shell around a pigment particle. Typically used are trialkoxy silyl acrylates and methacrylates, most preferably 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate is used in combination with methyl methacrylate.

Size and polydispersity of the particles according to the invention can be controlled through control of the polymerisation and the use of ultrasound. Through correct design of the experiment and quantities of reagents used in synthesis, particles can be created which exhibit low polydispersity and have controllable sizes over a wide range. The use of ultrasound in the reaction can enhance this. Typical process conditions are known to experts in the field.

The particles of the invention are preferably prepared using a dispersion polymerisation. This is a convenient single step method of preparing monodisperse coloured particles. The solvent for the dispersion can be chosen primarily on the basis of dielectric constant, refractive index, density and viscosity. A preferred solvent choice would display a low dielectric constant (<10, more preferably <5), high volume resistivity (about 1015 ohm- cm), a low viscosity (less than 5cst), low water solubility, a high boiling point (>80°C) and a refractive index and density similar to that of the undyed particles. Tweaking these variables can be useful in order to change the behaviour of the final application. Preferred solvents are often non-polar hydrocarbon solvents such as the Isopar series (Exxon-Mobil), Norpar, Shell-Sol (Shell), Sol-Trol (Shell), naphtha, and other petroleum solvents, decalin, tetralin as well as long chain alkanes such as dodecane,

hexadecane, tetradecane, decane and nonane. These tend to be low dielectric, low viscosity, and low density solvents. A density matched particle / solvent mixture will yield much improved settling/sedimentation

characteristics and thus is desirable. For this reason, often it can be useful to add a halogenated solvent to enable density matching. Typical examples of such solvents are the Halocarbon oil series (Halocarbon products), or tetrachlorethylene, carbon tetrachloride, 1 ,2,4-trichlorobenzene and similar solvents. The solvent which is particularly suitable is a dodecane.

The selection of the polymerisation conditions depends on the required size and size distribution of the particles. Adjustment of polymerisation

conditions is well known to someone skilled in the art.

Preferably, a batch polymerisation process is used wherein all reactants are completely added at the outset of the polymerisation process. In such process only relatively few variables have to be adjusted for a given formulation. Preferred changes which can be made in such cases are to the reaction temperature, reactor design and the type and speed of stirring. Thus, a batch polymerisation process is used for manufacture versus a semi-continuous batch process because of limited versatility and simple evaluations of reaction formulation. Preferably the polymerisation according to the invention is a free radical polymerisation.

Typical process conditions are described for titanium dioxide particles coated according to the invention. Unfunctionalized titanium dioxide is added to a non-polar hydrocarbon solvents, preferably dodecane and PDMS-methacrylate. The solution is lightly sonicated to disperse the pigment. A comonomer, preferably MMA, a polymerisable silane, preferably MPS and a chain transfer agent, preferably octanethiol are then added to the solution which is stirred under nitrogen, then heated to 60-90°C, preferably 85°C in a sonic bath. Sonication is applied to the reaction and an initiator, preferably azobisisobutyronitrile is added to initiate polymerisation. The reaction is allowed to proceed for 2-6, preferably 4 hours after which time the reaction is cooled and the particles are cleaned by centrifugation and redipersion in dodecane if required.

Particles are often monodisperse and any particles which are free of pigment can be separated by centrifugation if required.

The concentration of the final particles in the non-polar solvent can be increased if desired by centrifugation, i.e. forced settling of the particles and pouring off excess solvent, or a stirred cell filtration system can be used.

The dispersion can be washed with a non-polar solvent if required. If necessary, the particles are simply separated from the reaction suspension by filtration, preferably by pouring the suspension through a pore size filter, i.e. a 0.1 pm pore size filter, or the particles can be cleaned by centrifuging.

Usually, a polymerisation composition for the preparation of particles according to the invention comprises at least one organic or inorganic pigment particle, at least one coupling reagent, at least one polymerisable steric stabiliser, at least one co-monomer, at least one initiator, optionally at least one charged co-monomer, optionally at least one polymerisable dye, optionally at least one chain transfer agent, and optionally at least one crosslinking co-monomer in a non-aqueous solvent.

Advantageously, the polymerisable compositions of the invention comprise a combination of the above-mentioned preferred compounds for inorganic pigment particles, coupling reagent, polymerisable steric stabiliser, co- monomer, and cross-linking co-monomer. Most preferred are combinations of titanium dioxide in the rutile or anatase modification, 3-(trimethoxy silyl)propyl methacrylate, methacrylate terminated polydimethylsiloxanes with a molecular weight of 10,000 or more, and methyl methacrylate.

Charging the polymer can also be facilitated by using an initiator which is charged leaving that charge residing as an end-group on the polymer. Such examples are 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine)dihydrochloride (V-50) (Wako Chemicals), potassium peroxodisulfate (KPS), ammonium

peroxodisulfate (APS), sodium peroxodisulfate (SPS), 2,2'- azobiscyanovaleric acid (ACVA) (Wako Chemicals), 2,2'-azobis[2-(2- imidazolin-2-yl)propane]dihydrochloride (VA044) (Wako Chemicals).

Charging does not have to come from the initiator fragment so initiators which can also be used are those such as 2,2'-azobis(isobutyronitrile) (AIBN) (Wako Chemicals), 2,2'-azobis(2-methylbutyronitrile) (Vazo 67) (Wako Chemicals) and benzoyl peroxide.

Optionally, the polymerisable compositions of the invention comprise a chain transfer agent, e.g. catalytic chain transfer reagents, alkyl and aryl thiols, alcohols and carboxylic acids, halogenated organics and selected inorganic salts. Examples of suitable chain transfer agents are 2-propanol, adipic acid, thioglycolic acid, 2-mercaptoethanol, sodium hypochlorite, carbon tetrachloride and heavy metal poryphyrins, particularly cobalt poryphyrins preferably octane thiol. The polymerisable composition of the invention usually comprises 0.1 - 75%, preferably 10 - 50%, by weight of at least one organic or inorganic pigment particle, 0.001 - 75%, preferably 10 - 50%, by weight of at least one coupling reagent, 0.1 - 50 %, preferably 10 - 40, by weight of at least one polymerisable steric stabiliser, 20 - 95 %, preferably 30 - 90 %, by weight of co-monomer, optionally 1 - 40 %, preferably 1 - 10 %, by weight of cross-linking co-monomer, optionally 1 - 30 %, preferably 1 - 10 %, by weight of charged co-monomer, optionally 0 - 3 %, by weight of chain transfer agent, and 0.1 - 10 %, preferably 0.1 - 7.5 %, by weight of initiator, all percentages are based on the total weight of the polymerisable composition (except solvent).

All components added to the synthesis are readily available from chemical suppliers allowing facile tunability of parameters to design and prepare particles with desired properties. Properties can be selected in many cases by simply choosing from a range of commercially available components from which to synthesise the particles.

Polymer particles prepared according to the invention are preferably spherical particles with a size (diameter) in the range of 50 - 1200 nm, preferably 400 - 1000 nm, especially 400 - 700 nm, and preferably with a monodisperse size distribution.

Smaller or larger particles can be further separated if required by

centrifugation.

Particle sizes are determined by photon correlation spectroscopy of hydrocarbon particle dispersions by a common apparatus such as a

Malvern NanoZS particle analyser or preferably by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) and image analysis. Particles of the invention are primarily designed for use in electrophoretic displays, especially for use in mono, bi or polychromal electrophoretic devices. A typical electrophoretic display comprises an electrophoretic fluid comprising the particles dispersed in a low polar or non-polar solvent along with additives to improve electrophoretic properties, such as stability and charge. Examples of such electrophoretic fluids are well described in the literature, for example US 7,247,379; WO 99/ 0767; US 2007/0128352; US 7,236,290; US 7,170,670; US 7,038,655; US 7,277,218; US 7,226,550; US 7,110,162; US 6,956,690; US 7,052,766; US 6,194,488; US 5,783,614; US 5,403,518; US 5,380,362.

The particles of the invention, especially the presented white reflective particles may be used in combination with a dyed fluid, an additional particles such as oppositely charged black fluid, with oppositely charged coloured particles or with equally charged coloured particles and oppositely charged black particles. The particles of the invention, especially the present white reflective particles may be used for example in combination with coloured or black polymer particles.

Preferably these additional black or coloured polymer particles comprise a polymerised or co-polymerised dye. Especially coloured copolymers particles comprising monomer units of at least one monomer, of at least one polymerisable dye, optionally of at least one charged co-monomer, and optionally of at least one crosslinking co-monomer are preferred. The polymerisable dye comprises preferably a chromophore, preferably an azo group, anthraquinone group or phthalocyanine group, one or more polymerisable groups, and optional linker groups. To enhance the surface stabilisation or steric repulsions of the coloured polymeric particles in a non- polar continuous phase, a steric stabiliser is preferably incorporated into the coloured polymer particles. Especially, the polymer particles described in WO 2009/100803, WO 2010/089057, WO 2010/089058, WO 2010/089059, WO 2010/089060, WO 2011/154103 and/or WO 2012/019704 are suitable for incorporation in the CSD polymers of the invention. Preferably, polymer particles described in WO 2010/089057 and/or WO 2012/019704 may be used. Typical additives to improve the stability of the fluid (either by steric stabilisation or by use as a charging agent) are known to experts in the field and include (but are not limited to) the Brij, Span and Tween series of surfactants (Aldrich), Infineum surfactants (Infineum), the Solsperse,

Ircosperse and Colorburst series (Lubrizol), the OLOA charging agents (Chevron Chemicals) and Aerosol-OT (Aldrich). Typical surfactants used in this process are cationic, anionic, zwitterionic or non-ionic with a hydrophilic portion usually termed the head group which is mono-, di- or polysubstituted with a hydrophobic portion usually termed the tail. The hydrophilic head group of the surfactant in this process can be, but is not limited to being, made up of derivatives of sulfonates, sulfates, carboxylates, phosphates, ammoniums, quaternary ammoniums, betaines, sulfobetaines, imides, anhydrides, polyoxyethylene (eg. PEO/PEG/PPG), polyols (eg. sucrose, sorbitan, glycerol etc), polypeptides and polyglycidyls. The hydrophobic tail of the surfactant in this process can be, but is not limited to being, made up of straight and branched chain alkyls, olefins and polyolefins, rosin derivatives, PPO, hydroxyl and polyhydroxystearic acid type chains, perfluoroalkyls, aryls and mixed alkyl-aryls, silicones, lignin derivatives, and partially unsaturated versions of those mentioned above. Surfactants for this process can also be catanionic, bolaforms, gemini, polymeric and

polymerisable type surfactants.

Any other additives to improve the electrophoretic properties can be incorporated provided they are soluble in the formulation medium, in particular thickening agents or polymer additives designed to minimise settling effects.

The dispersion solvent can be chosen primarily on the basis of dielectric constant, refractive index, density and viscosity. A preferred solvent choice would display a low dielectric constant (<10, more preferably <5), high volume resistivity (about 1015 ohm-cm), a low viscosity (less than 5cst), low water solubility, a high boiling point (>80°C) and a refractive index and density similar to that of the particles. Adjustment of these variables can be useful in order to change the behavior of the final application. For example, in a slow-switching application such as poster displays or shelf labels, it can be advantageous to have an increased viscosity to improve the lifetime of the image, at the cost of slower switching speeds. However in an application requiring fast switching, for example e-books and displays, a lower viscosity will enable faster switching, at the cost of the lifetime in which the image remains stable (and hence an increase in power consumption as the display will need more frequent addressing). The preferred solvents are often non- polar hydrocarbon solvents such as the Isopar series (Exxon-Mobil), Norpar, Shell-Sol (Shell), Sol-Trol (Shell), naphtha, and other petroleum solvents, as well as long chain alkanes such as dodecane, tetradecane, decane and nonane). These tend to be low dielectric, low viscosity, and low density solvents. A density matched particle / solvent mixture will yield much improved settling/sedimentation characteristics and thus is desirable. For this reason, often it can be useful to add a halogenated solvent to enable density matching. Typical examples of such solvents are the Halocarbon oil series (Halocarbon products), or tetrachlorethylene, carbon tetrachloride, 1 ,2,4-trichlorobenzene and similar solvents. The negative aspect of many of these solvents is toxicity and environmental friendliness, and so in some cases it can also be beneficial to add additives to enhance stability to sedimentation rather than using such solvents.

The preferred additives and solvents used in the formulation of the particles of the invention are Aerosol OT (Aldrich), Span 85 (Aldrich), and dodecane (Sigma Aldrich).

The solvents and additives used to disperse the particles are not limited to those used within the examples of this invention and many other solvents and/or dispersants can be used. Lists of suitable solvents and dispersants for electrophoretic displays can be found in existing literature, in particular WO 99/10767 and WO 2005/017046. The Electrophoretic fluid is then incorporated into an Electrophoretic display element by a variety of pixel architectures, such as can be found in C. M. Lampert, Displays; 2004, 25(5) published by Elsevier B.V., Amsterdam.

The Electrophoretic fluid may be applied by several techniques such as inkjet printing, slot die spraying, nozzle spraying, and flexographic printing, or any other contact or contactless printing or deposition technique. Electrophoretic displays comprise typically, the electrophoretic display media in close combination with a monolithic or patterned backplane electrode structure, suitable for switching the pixels or patterned elements between the black and white optical states or their intermediate greyscale states.

The coloured and white reflective polymer particles according to the present invention are suitable for all known electrophoretic media and

electrophoretic displays, e.g. flexible displays, TIR-EPD (total internal reflection electrophoretic devices), one particle systems, two particle systems, dyed fluids, systems comprising microcapsules, microcup systems, air gap systems and others as described in C. M. Lampert, Displays; 2004, 25(5) published by Elsevier B.V., Amsterdam. Examples of flexible displays are dynamic keypads, e-paper watches, dynamic pricing and advertising, e-readers, rollable displays, smart card media, product packaging, mobile phones, lab tops, display card, digital signage.

Particles of the invention may also be used in optical, electrooptical, electronic, electrochemical, electrophotographic, electrowetting displays and/or devices, e.g. TIR (total internal reflection electronic devices), and in security, cosmetic, decorative, and diagnostic applications. The use in electrowetting displays is preferred. Electrowetting (ew) is a physical process where the wetting properties of a liquid droplet are modified by the presence of an electric field. This effect can be used to manipulate the position of a coloured fluid within a pixel. For example, a nonpolar

(hydrophobic) solvent containing colourant can be mixed with a clear colourless polar solvent (hydrophilic), and when the resultant biphasic mixture is placed on a suitable electrowetting surface, for example a highly hydrophobic dielectric layer, an optical effect can be achieved. When the sample is at rest, the coloured non-polar phase will wet the hydrophobic surface, and spread across the pixel. To the observer, the pixel would appear coloured. When a voltage is applied, the hydrophobicity of the surface alters, and the surface interactions between the polar phase and the dielectric layer are no longer unfavourable. The polar phase wets the surface, and the coloured non-polar phase is thus driven to a contracted state, for example in one corner of the pixel. To the observer, the pixel would now appear transparent. A typical electrowetting display device consists of the particles in a low polar or non-polar solvent along with additives to improve properties, such as stability and charge. Examples of such electrowetting fluids are described in the literature, for example in WO2011/017446, WO 2010/104606, and WO2011075720. The disclosures in the cited references are expressly also part of the disclosure content of the present patent application. In the claims and the description, the words "comprise/comprises/comprising" and

"contain/contains/containing" mean that the listed components are included but that other components are not excluded. The following examples explain the present invention in greater detail without restricting the scope of protection.

Examples

All materials and solvents used are sourced from Sigma-Aldrich and used without further purification unless otherwise stated. TiPure R960 titanium dioxide is sourced from Du Pont and is used as supplied, TiOxide TR-92 is obtained from Huntsman and is used as supplied, Hombitan Anatase is supplied by Sachtleben and is used as supplied. Polydimethylsiloxane- methacrylate (PDMS-MA) with a molecular weight of 10,000 is obtained from Gelest and used without further purification.

Particle size is measured by SEM.

The characterisation of the formulations is performed using a Malvern NanoZS particle analyser. This instrument measures the size of particles in dispersion and the zeta potential of an electrophoretic fluid. The Zeta potential (ZP) is derived from the real-time measurement of the

electrophoretic mobility and thus is an indicator of the suitability of the fluid for use in electrophoretic applications.

Example 1: Synthesis of particles containing 65% (on weight of MMA) Hombitan Anatase pigment

3.274 g Hombitan Anatase Ti02 is added to a solution of PDMS-MA (mw 10,000) (1.7 g, 1.7 mmol) solubilised in dodecane (39.0 ml). After 30 minutes under ultrasound using a Fisherbrand 11201 ultrasonic bath at 100% power and 37Hz, methyl methacrylate monomer (5.40 ml, 0.050 mol), 3-(trimethoxy silyl)propyl methacrylate monomer (3.0 ml, 0.013 mol) AIBN (107 mg, 0.65 mmol) and octanethiol chain transfer agent (126 μΙ_, 0.73 mmol)) are added. A centrifugal shaft stirrer is then fitted to the 3-necked round bottom flask and the reaction mixture is placed in an ice bath.

Nitrogen bubbling is then applied for 30 minutes. The round bottomed flask is finally placed in the ultrasonic bath at 80°C, 100% power and 37Hz, and the reaction is carried out for 3 hours at 80°C and mechanical stirring (300 rpm), nitrogen and ultrasound (100% power).

The particles are cleaned by centrifugation. Centrifugations are carried out at 10,000 rpm for 0 minutes, replacing the supernatant with dodecane. Centrifugation / redispersion is repeated 3 times. Average particle size obtained by SEM: 243 nm. Example 2: Synthesis of particles containing 65% (on weight of MMA) TiPure R960 pigment

3.274 g TiPure R960 Ti02 is added to a solution of PDMS-MA (mw 0,000) (1.7 g, 1.7 mmol) solubilised in dodecane (39.0 ml). After 30 minutes under ultrasound using a Fisherbrand 11201 ultrasonic bath at 00% power and 37Hz, methyl methacrylate monomer (5.40 ml, 0.050 mol), 3- (trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate monomer (3.0 ml, 0.013 mol) AIBN (107 mg, 0.65 mmol) and octanethiol chain transfer agent (126 μΐ_, 0.73 mmol) are added. A centrifugal shaft stirrer is then fitted to the 3-necked round bottom flask and the reaction mixture is placed in an ice bath. Nitrogen bubbling is then applied for 30 minutes. The round bottomed flask is finally placed in the ultrasonic bath at 80°C, 100% power and 37Hz, and the reaction is carried out for 3 hours at 80°C and mechanical stirring (300 rpm), nitrogen and ultrasound (100% power).

The particles are cleaned by centrifugation. Centrifugations are carried out at 10,000 rpm for 10 minutes, replacing the supernatant with dodecane. Centrifugation / redispersion is repeated 3 times. Average particle size obtained by SEM: 525 nm. Example 3: Synthesis of particles containing 65% (on weight of MMA) TiOxide TR-92 pigment

3.274 g TiOxide TR-92 TiO2 is added to a solution of PDMS-MA (mw

10,000) (1.7 g, 1.7 mmol) solubilised in dodecane (39.0 mL). After 30 minutes under ultrasound using a Fisherbrand 11201 ultrasonic bath at 100% power and 37Hz, methyl methacrylate monomer (5.40 mL, 0.050 mol), 3-(trimethoxy silyl)propyl methacrylate monomer (3.0ml, 0.013 mol) AIBN (107 mg, 0.65 mmol) and octanethiol chain transfer agent (126 pl_, 0.73 mmol)) are added. A centrifugal shaft stirrer is then fitted to the 3- necked round bottom flask and the reaction mixture is placed in an ice bath. Nitrogen bubbling is then applied for 30 minutes. The round bottomed flask is finally placed in the ultrasonic bath at 80°C, 100% power and 37Hz, and the reaction is carried out for 3 hours at 80°C and mechanical stirring (300 rpm), nitrogen and ultrasound (100% power).

The particles are cleaned by centrifugation. Centrifugations are carried out at 10,000 rpm for 10 minutes, replacing the supernatant with dodecane. Centrifugation / redispersion is repeated 3 times. Average particle size obtained by SEM: 366 nm.

Example 4: Synthesis of particles containing 97% (on weight of MMA) TiOxide TR-92 pigment

4.911 g TiOxide TR-92 TiO2 is added to a solution of PDMS-MA (mw

10,000) (2.55 g, 2.55 mmol) solubilised in dodecane (39.0 ml). After 30 minutes under ultrasound using a Fisherbrand 1201 ultrasonic bath at 100% power and 37Hz, methyl methacrylate monomer (5.40 ml, 0.050 mol), 3-(trimethoxy silyl)propyl methacrylate monomer (4.5ml, 0.020 mol) AIBN (107 mg, 0.65 mmol) and octanethiol chain transfer agent (126 μΙ_, 0.73 mmol)) are added. A centrifugal shaft stirrer is then fitted to the 3-necked round bottom flask and the reaction mixture is placed in an ice bath.

Nitrogen bubbling is then applied for 30 minutes. The round bottomed flask is finally placed in the ultrasonic bath at 80°C, 100% power and 37Hz, and the reaction is carried out for 3 hours at 80°C and mechanical stirring (300 rpm), nitrogen and ultrasound (100% power).

The particles are cleaned by centrifugation. Centrifugations are carried out at 10,000 rpm for 10 minutes, replacing the supernatant with dodecane. Centrifugation / redispersion is repeated 3 times. Average particle size obtained by SEM: 360 nm.

Example 5: Synthesis of cross-linked particles containing 65% TiPure R960 pigment

3.274 g TiPure R960 TiO2 is added to a solution of PDMS-MA (mw. 10,000) (1.7 g, 1.7 mmol) solubilised in dodecane (39.0 ml). After 30 minutes under ultrasound using a Fisherbrand 1201 ultrasonic bath at 100% power and 37Hz, methyl methacrylate monomer (5.40 ml, 0.050 mol), 3-(trimethoxy silyl)propyl methacrylate monomer (3.0ml, 0.013 mol), ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate monomer (0.1ml, 0.53mmol) AIBN (107 mg, 0.65 mmol) and octanethiol chain transfer agent (126 μΙ_, 0.73 mmol)) are added. A centrifugal shaft stirrer is then fitted to the 3-necked round bottom flask and the reaction mixture is placed in an ice bath. Nitrogen bubbling is then applied for 30 minutes. The round bottomed flask is finally placed in the ultrasonic bath at 80°C, 100% power and 37Hz, and the reaction is carried out for 3hours at 80°C and mechanical stirring (300 rpm), nitrogen and ultrasound (100% power).

The particles are cleaned by centrifugation. Centrifugations are carried out at 10,000 rpm for 10 minutes, replacing the supernatant with dodecane. Centrifugation / redispersion is repeated 3 times. Average particle size obtained by SEM: 1536 nm. Example 6: Formulation example of Example 1

0.0624 g of particles from example 1 is combined with 0.0599 g Aerosol OT and 1.8761 g dodecane. The solution is mixed for 30 minutes on a roller mixer and diluted in dodecane. The zetapotential of this particle is determined to be -15.0mV.

Example 7: Formulation example of Example 2

0.0597 g of particles from example 2 is combined with 0.0601 g Aerosol OT and 1.8803 g dodecane. The solution is mixed for 30 minutes on a roller mixer and diluted in dodecane. The zetapotential of this particle is determined to be -54.6mV.

Claims

Claims
Particles comprising organic or inorganic pigment core particles encapsulated by a polymeric shell comprising monomer units of at least one polymerisable steric stabiliser, at least one coupling reagent, at least one co-monomer, optionally at least one charged co-monomer, optionally at least one polymerisable dye, and optionally at least one crosslinking co-monomer.
Particles according to claim 1 , characterised in that the pigment core particle is titanium dioxide in the rutile, anatase, or amorphous
modification or carbon black.
Particles according to one or more of claims 1-2, characterised in that the coupling reagent is a polymerisable alkoxysilane or chlorosilane.
Particles according to one or more of claims 1-3, characterised in that the polymerisable steric stabiliser is a poly(dimethylsiloxane)
macromonomer with at least one polymerisable group and a molecular weight in the range of 1000 - 50000.
Particles according to one or more of claims 1-4, characterised in that the polymerisable steric stabiliser is a mono-methacrylate terminated poly-dimethylsiloxanes.
Particles according to one or more of claims 1-5, characterised in that the percentage of polymerisable steric stabiliser is at least 5% by weight based on the weight of the particle, preferably at least 20% by weight. 7. Particles according to one or more of claims 1-6, characterised
the particles have a diameter of 400 - 1000 nm.
8. Process for the preparation of particles according to one or more of claims 1-7 comprising
a) dispersing at least one organic or inorganic pigment particle in a solution of at least one polymerisable steric stabiliser in a non-polar organic solvent;
b) adding at least one co-monomer, at least one coupling reagent, at least one initiator, optionally at least one polymerisable dye, and optionally at least one chain transfer agent;
c) subjecting the dispersion of step b) to heating and sonication for polymerisation,
d) optionally washing by repeated centrifugation and redispersion in fresh solvent, and
e) optionally isolating the resulting coated particles.
9. Process according to claim 8, characterised in that the non-polar organic solvent is a non-polar hydrocarbon.
10. Use of particles according to one or more of claims 1-7 in optical,
electrooptical, electronic, electrochemical, electrophotographic, electrowetting and electrophoretic displays and/or devices, and in security, cosmetic, decorative, and diagnostic applications, preferably in mono, bi or polychromal electrophoretic devices.
11. Use of particles prepared by a process according to one or more of claims 8-9 in optical, electrooptical, electronic, electrochemical, electrophotographic, electrowetting and electrophoretic displays and/or devices, and in security, cosmetic, decorative, and diagnostic
applications, preferably in mono, bi or polychromal electrophoretic device.
12. Electrophoretic fluid comprising particles according to one or more of claims 1 to 7. 3. Electrophoretic fluid comprising particles prepared by a process according to one or more of claims 8-9.
14. Electrophoretic display device comprising an electrophoretic fluid according to one or more of claims 12 to 13.
15. Electrophoretic display device according to claim 14, characterised in that the electrophoretic fluid is applied by a technique selected from inkjet printing, slot die spraying, nozzle spraying, and flexographic printing, or any other contact or contactless printing or deposition technique.
PCT/EP2013/001340 2012-05-14 2013-05-07 Particles for electrophoretic displays WO2013170937A1 (en)

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US9697778B2 (en) 2013-05-14 2017-07-04 E Ink Corporation Reverse driving pulses in electrophoretic displays
WO2015120294A1 (en) * 2014-02-06 2015-08-13 E Ink Corporation Electrophoretic particles and processes for the production thereof
CN106103600A (en) * 2014-02-06 2016-11-09 伊英克公司 Electrophoretic particles and processes for the production thereof
US9688859B2 (en) 2014-02-06 2017-06-27 E Ink Corporation Electrophoretic particles and processes for the production thereof

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