WO2013167398A1 - Disintegrating device - Google Patents

Disintegrating device Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2013167398A1
WO2013167398A1 PCT/EP2013/058737 EP2013058737W WO2013167398A1 WO 2013167398 A1 WO2013167398 A1 WO 2013167398A1 EP 2013058737 W EP2013058737 W EP 2013058737W WO 2013167398 A1 WO2013167398 A1 WO 2013167398A1
Authority
WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
rotor
crushing chamber
chamber
impact
tools
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/EP2013/058737
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
Peter SCHARFE
Original Assignee
Pms Handelskontor Gmbh
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to DE102012104031.1A priority Critical patent/DE102012104031B4/en
Priority to DE102012104031.1 priority
Application filed by Pms Handelskontor Gmbh filed Critical Pms Handelskontor Gmbh
Publication of WO2013167398A1 publication Critical patent/WO2013167398A1/en

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Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B02CRUSHING, PULVERISING, OR DISINTEGRATING; PREPARATORY TREATMENT OF GRAIN FOR MILLING
    • B02CCRUSHING, PULVERISING, OR DISINTEGRATING IN GENERAL; MILLING GRAIN
    • B02C13/00Disintegrating by mills having rotary beater elements ; Hammer mills
    • B02C13/14Disintegrating by mills having rotary beater elements ; Hammer mills with vertical rotor shaft, e.g. combined with sifting devices
    • B02C13/16Disintegrating by mills having rotary beater elements ; Hammer mills with vertical rotor shaft, e.g. combined with sifting devices with beaters hinged to the rotor
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B02CRUSHING, PULVERISING, OR DISINTEGRATING; PREPARATORY TREATMENT OF GRAIN FOR MILLING
    • B02CCRUSHING, PULVERISING, OR DISINTEGRATING IN GENERAL; MILLING GRAIN
    • B02C13/00Disintegrating by mills having rotary beater elements ; Hammer mills
    • B02C13/20Disintegrating by mills having rotary beater elements ; Hammer mills with two or more co-operating rotors
    • B02C13/205Disintegrating by mills having rotary beater elements ; Hammer mills with two or more co-operating rotors arranged concentrically
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B02CRUSHING, PULVERISING, OR DISINTEGRATING; PREPARATORY TREATMENT OF GRAIN FOR MILLING
    • B02CCRUSHING, PULVERISING, OR DISINTEGRATING IN GENERAL; MILLING GRAIN
    • B02C13/00Disintegrating by mills having rotary beater elements ; Hammer mills
    • B02C13/26Details
    • B02C13/286Feeding or discharge
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B02CRUSHING, PULVERISING, OR DISINTEGRATING; PREPARATORY TREATMENT OF GRAIN FOR MILLING
    • B02CCRUSHING, PULVERISING, OR DISINTEGRATING IN GENERAL; MILLING GRAIN
    • B02C13/00Disintegrating by mills having rotary beater elements ; Hammer mills
    • B02C13/26Details
    • B02C13/288Ventilating, or influencing air circulation
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B02CRUSHING, PULVERISING, OR DISINTEGRATING; PREPARATORY TREATMENT OF GRAIN FOR MILLING
    • B02CCRUSHING, PULVERISING, OR DISINTEGRATING IN GENERAL; MILLING GRAIN
    • B02C13/00Disintegrating by mills having rotary beater elements ; Hammer mills
    • B02C13/26Details
    • B02C13/30Driving mechanisms
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B02CRUSHING, PULVERISING, OR DISINTEGRATING; PREPARATORY TREATMENT OF GRAIN FOR MILLING
    • B02CCRUSHING, PULVERISING, OR DISINTEGRATING IN GENERAL; MILLING GRAIN
    • B02C13/00Disintegrating by mills having rotary beater elements ; Hammer mills
    • B02C13/26Details
    • B02C13/286Feeding or discharge
    • B02C2013/28618Feeding means
    • B02C2013/28672Feed chute arrangements

Abstract

The invention relates to a device (10) for mechanically disintegrating material conglomerates of materials having differing density and/or consistency, which comprises a disintegration chamber (14) having a feed side and an outlet side, which disintegration chamber is surrounded by a circular cylindrical and/or conically downwardly expanded disintegration chamber wall (42) and has at least two sections that follow each other in the axial direction, in each of which at least one rotor (26, 28, 30) is arranged so as to be coaxial to the disintegration chamber having impacting tools (38) that extend radially into the disintegration chamber during operation, having the following features: removal ribs (48) are annularly arranged on the inside of the disintegration chamber wall at axial distances and/or the radius of the disintegration chamber wall (42) increases downward, and an air flow device (17, 72) for discharging a particle/air mixture from the disintegration chamber (14) is arranged in connection with the disintegration chamber. By means of such a device, very high impact energies of material conglomerates to be separated on the impacting tools are achieved, wherein the disintegrated particles can be effectively transferred to a further process.

Description

 comminution device

The present invention relates to a crushing or Exilegungsvorrich- device, in particular for metals and mineral compounds in ores (mining), metal-containing industrial slag, metal-containing slags of thermal waste utilization and other material conglomerates. In ore known to be various metals and mineral compounds, which can be separated only very expensive from the corresponding ores according to the current state of the art.

An efficient extraction of the metals is simplified by a total exposure or separation of all materials occurring in the ores. In the smelting process of the metals, molten metals (for example Fe and Cu) always enter the slag as a result of the melting process, which are also problematic to recover.

In the slags and ashes of thermal waste processing and in the slags of metal production are numerous iron and non-ferrous metals, which are involved in dehydrated form in mineral slags or heavily scaled. An efficient recovery of these metals from the material conglomerates is only possible if these metals are so digested or separated from their composites / scalings that they can then be separated from the stream by magnets or non-ferrous metal separators.

According to the prior art, such slags are comminuted with conventional hammer and impact mills and then fed to magnets and non-ferrous metal separators. With hammer and impact mills, the digestion and recovery of metals with a particle size of more than 20 mm is possible and also efficient. For the digestion of smaller metal particles with these mills, very small gap distances, for example less than 20 mm, would have to be set, which would then lead to a sharp increase in comminution at the expense of impact comminution. This comminution would mean that soft non-ferrous metals are so worn down that they can no longer be separated by a non-ferrous metal separator. Thus, the recovery of small metal particles present in the slags in dignified form, with the shredders according to the prior art only limited possible.

The invention is therefore based on the object to provide a device with which the mechanical pulping or comminution and / or separation of bound in the slags and ores dignified metal particles and mineral compounds is possible. The invention should also be applicable to other material conglomerates of materials of different density and / or consistency. This object is achieved by a device having the features of claim 1. Advantageous developments of the invention are the subject of the dependent claims.

The comminution device according to the invention has a known size reduction chamber with a feed side and an outlet side. The crushing chamber is surrounded by a preferably cylindrical crushing chamber wall, which is typically vertically oriented, with the feed side up and the outlet side down or sideways. In principle, however, it is also possible to arrange the axis horizontally, if the system for erecting preparation of only very small material conglomerates by means of horizontal air flow is used. Otherwise, in the vertical arrangement, the material supply is gravimetrically supported from top to bottom and by forced ventilation. The crushing device according to the invention can be used for separating material conglomerates, but also only for crushing conglomerates.

The crushing chamber has in the direction of the cylinder axis at least two, preferably three successive sections. In each of these sections is at least one centrally or concentrically arranged to the crushing chamber rotor, on which impact tools are arranged, which extend radially at least during operation of the device in the crushing chamber. If chains or moving impact tools are used as striking tools, they extend only radially into the size reduction chamber when the rotor rotates at a corresponding rotational speed. The impact tools are used, possibly in conjunction with later described per se known impact bars on the crushing chamber wall, a breaking up of the material conglomerates in a manner described in more detail.

The rotors preferably have a rotor shell in the form of a cylinder with a constant radius. This means that the radius or the base area of the cylinder is the same in all sections. On the one hand, such a rotor shell prevents material from hangs firmly in the rotor. On the other hand, a cylinder is easy to produce in terms of manufacturing technology. The cylinder can have a polygonal or round, eg circular base. For reasons of easy cleaning and prevention of material adhesion and low wear, a circular base surface of the cylinder is suitable. In advantageous polygonal base of the cylinder, a certain entrainment effect for the particles can be achieved, ie that particles falling down on the rotor shell, are transferred by the edges of the polygon back to the outside in the sphere of action of the striking tools. The polygonal, for example, square or star-shaped base surface is therefore suitable if one wants to achieve a high shredding efficiency in an improved interaction with the striking tools.

Axially or obliquely extending entrainment bars are preferably arranged on the rotor casing, which deflect the flow of material from the rotor casing in the direction of the impact area of the impact tools. Preferably, the entrainment bars, which preferably extend axially and radially into the comminution chamber, are formed at least on the second rotor, or on the rotor which is the penultimate in the material flow direction. These entrainment strips take along material particles and accelerate them radially outward, so that this material then again reaches the area of action of the impact tools and can be smashed there effectively.

Preferably, axially or obliquely extending impact strips are arranged on the comminution chamber wall, on which the material stream impinges and deflects the flow of material from the comminuting chamber wall back towards the area of action of the impact tools, so that this material then again enters the area of action of the impact tools and effectively smashes there can be. The radius of the crushing chamber wall is constant or preferably increasing from the feed side to the outlet side, with the result that the particles do not accumulate in the region of the crushing chamber wall but repeatedly fall into the region of the striking tools, where they are further broken up. In principle, the radius of the crushing chamber wall may even decrease, which may be problematic because of the increased risk of clogging. As the radius of the crushing chamber wall increases, the increase can be continuous or in stages.

The crushing chamber wall contains, at least when it is cylindrical, circumferential discharge ribs with which the flow of material from the crushing chamber wall is directed into the area of action of the impact tools. In this way, a high efficiency in the separation of the material conglomerate is achieved. Alternatively, or in addition to the Ableitrippen also the diameter of the crushing chamber from the inlet side (or supply side) increase towards the outlet side, whereby also the material flow is directed by the Erdanziehung and forced air flow in the direction of action of the impact tools.

The direction of rotation of the successive rotors is preferably in opposite directions. In this way it is achieved that the particles that are accelerated by the impact tools of a rotor, meet the material flow in the direction of the following directional front rotor against the counter-rotating impact tools. The impact energy is thus added by the particle velocity and the velocity of the impact tools. As a result, an extremely high impact energy of the material particles is achieved on the subsequent impact tools or on the impact bars on the crushing chamber wall, which leads to a rupture of the material conglomerate, if there is materia- len different density and / or consistency z. B. elasticity. Finally, according to the invention, the rotational speed of the rotors may differ between the sections of the feed side and outlet side of the crushing chamber. In this way it is achieved that the impact energy of the material conglomerates can increase in the region of increasing particle density in the direction of the outlet side, because there the rotational speeds of the rotors and thus the absolute speeds of the impact tools increase. The combination of the above-described technical features thus leads to the fact that on the one hand increases the impact energy of the material conglomerates to the outlet side, at the same time the particle density, which should ultimately lead to that in the last section before the output of the crushing chamber, the material conglomerates with a high impact energy on the Impact tools and collision bars impinge, resulting in a collapse of the material conglomerates, without these are ground as in the prior art. The size of the metal particles obtained in the material conglomerates is thus not reduced. The resulting fine material particles are forced by an additional air flow device forcibly in the direction of the outlet side of the crushing chamber in a treatment area in which the material particles are separated from the air flow. Centrifugal separators, ie cyclones, are particularly suitable for this purpose.

Therefore, according to the invention in connection with the crushing chamber, an air flow device is arranged, which guides the air in the crushing chamber into a treatment area of the device. The material particles are thus forcibly discharged from the crushing chamber after sufficient comminution and thus do not hinder the comminution process for larger particles. Second, it ensures that the small, Particle even dust-like material particles are also safely transferred from the crushing chamber in the treatment area, where they can then be separated from the air flow through separators, in particular Flieight force, in particular cyclones or eliminated. After the separation, a process step, for example a density separation to separate the ore content from the paint, can then be carried out in order to obtain the desired ore share.

The air flow device preferably has at least one fan arranged coaxially to the rotor axis. In this way, a homogeneous flow of air can be generated in the crushing chamber in the direction of the outlet side, which dissipates the particulate matter, which is partly as dust, in the direction of the treatment area. The air flow device preferably has at least one fan and / or fan as the fan, the suction region of which is connected to the comminution chamber or to its outlet side.

Preferably, the fan is attached to a rotor. In this case, one saves a separate drive for the air flow device and, moreover, achieves a homogenous air flow in the entire comminution chamber, i. over 360 degrees of the crushing chamber.

Preferably, in this case, the fan is attached to the rotor of the last section, with its suction side facing the crushing chamber. The generation of the air flow is thus very effective.

Of course, the air flow device, which preferably comprises at least one fan and / or at least one fan u, can also be located in a discharge region for the discharge side of the comminuting chamber the material can be arranged. The air flow device must therefore not be arranged in the crushing chamber or in the housing.

Preferably, the treatment area of the device comprises at least one cyclone for separating the material particles from the air flow of the air flow device. As a result, a separation of the material particles is effectively effected by the air flow generated by the air flow device.

The outlet of the air flow device, e.g. the blower or fan is then preferably connected to the tangential inlet of the cyclone, after which the substantially purified air exits at the top and the separated material particles at the bottom outlet of the cyclone.

The device of the invention thus allows by an effective crushing a separation or exposure z. B. of metals and mineral compounds contained in ores or Fe or non-ferrous metals from slags or scaling, which is hardly possible by the known devices according to the prior art. The invention makes use of a construction which leads to a maximization of the impact energy of the material to be broken up on impact tools and / or impact strips in the comminution chamber, without the metal parts themselves being comminuted. Thus, even the smallest parts of material in composites can still be economically separated by the invention. Thus, with the invention, the highest impact energies of material conglomerates to be separated are achieved on impact tools, which result in break-up and exposure of the material conglomerates with only a small grinding action.

While it is in principle possible to use a drive for the rotors and the opposite direction of rotation and different rotational speed It is preferable that each rotor has its own drive which is operable or controllable independently of the other rotors. In this way, the rotational speeds can be adapted individually to different aufzuschließende material conglomerates, which would be more complex to implement with a single drive for all rotors.

Preferably, the impact tools are releasably or interchangeably held by a fastening device formed on the rotor, whereby they are easily replaceable.

The fastening device preferably contains mutually concentric plates which are fixed to the rotor at an axial distance from one another, which plates have holes which are concentric with one another and can be penetrated by bolts which in turn pass through recesses in the fastening part of the striking tools. The attachment part of the striking tools may be e.g. include a recess or a hole, which is penetrated by the bolt between two plates. The attachment part of the impact tool may be e.g. be formed by at least one chain link. This allows easy releasable attachment of the impact tools to the rotor.

Preferably, the fastening device has at least two axially offset receptacles for the striking tools. In this way striking tools can be offset axially but circumferentially overlapping attached to the rotor, which brings a high shredding efficiency with it.

Preferably, the striking tools are formed in a known manner by chains and / or blow bars. These are produced industrially and are available on the market. As a rule, a dispensing cone is arranged above the crushing chamber and / or a material outlet is arranged below the crushing chamber, which allows a simple material supply and removal.

The rotor shell preferably contains a plurality of rotor shell elements which are held exchangeably on the rotor. When transferring the material particles into the radially outer region of the comminuting chamber, the rotor casing is subjected to a certain degree of wear, so that replacement of only the rotor shell elements is considerably less expensive than if the entire rotor had to be replaced. The rotor shell also protects the more internal parts of the rotor, e.g. Warehouse.

Preferably, the rotor shell of the rotors has the shape of a cylinder with a circular or polygonal base. Such a rotor is easy to manufacture and is insensitive to contamination and therefore requires a long service life of the rotor. In addition, the rotor shell protects the bearing of the rotor from the moving at high speed abrasive material flow. Preferably, in the region of at least two rotors or between the rotors, at least one circulating Ableitrippe disposed on the crushing chamber wall, whereby the material flow, which falls down on the inside of the crushing chamber, is effectively directed into the sphere of action of the impact tools. For this purpose, the discharge rib preferably has an upper edge, which extends conically from the top to the bottom inwards, which improves its guiding function.

The invention will be explained with reference to a crushing chamber with three sections. However, it should be made clear that the invention also with two sections or even four or more sections works in the same way. The axial crushing chamber sections correspond to the axial regions of the rotors. A basic idea of the invention is to increase the kinetic energy of all material particles in the comminution chamber so that an impact of the material particles or material conglomerates with impact tools or impact bars is achieved at a certain impact energy. The Applicant has found that such an impact energy relatively safely results in a break-up of the material conglomerates, without the metal components themselves being substantially comminuted.

In order to increase the number of collisions of material particles or material conglomerates in the crushing chamber, impact strips may be formed on the shredding chamber wall, or the number of impact tools may be increased, which extend axially and radially inwards. Material particles will bounce against these baffles after acceleration by impact tools and then break up. In the rotors following in the feed direction of the material, the percussion tools can be arranged in a constant or different number. So z. B. the first rotor, the number of impact tools be even lower, since the task of this section is to convey the material particles radially outward, so that they get into the range of impact tools of the following rotors, where already more impact tools are arranged as on the first rotor. In addition, driver strips may be formed on the rotor shell on the first rotor in order to realize effective transfer of the material particles in the radially outer region of the comminuting chamber. On the second rotor significantly more striking tools can be arranged, as on the first rotor. These impact tools are used to accelerate the increasingly present in greater density material particles outwards and downwards towards the outlet side. Also, the rotor shell of the second rotor may have entrainment or have a polygonal base to transfer the particles in the radially outer region, where they are accelerated by the more numerous drums in the acceleration chamber strongly towards the third rotor.

In the third section in the region of the outlet-side rotor, most impact tools are preferably arranged, which serve to smash the strongly accelerated material particles with a high probability. The increasing number of striking tools in the successive sections as well as the increasing rotational speed in the successive sections in connection with the counter-rotating direction thus results in a maximization of the impact energy in all transition areas from one section to the next, resulting in effective mechanical disengagement of the material conglomerates , The disassembled into the individual components material conglomerates can later after the removal from the crushing chamber in known deposition or crushing devices, such as. B. flotation, wind separators, magnetic separators, etc. are separated from each other.

In order to maximize the impact energy of the metal particles in the crushing chamber, as well as to ensure the impact of a metal particle on a striking tool, it has proven to be advantageous to mount the striking tools offset from top to bottom per rotor (see FIG. The rotor speeds (speeds) in this example in the three sections from top to bottom 800, 1200 and 1500 rev / min. be, with the rotors in the first and second sections in the same direction and in the second and third sections rotate in opposite directions. The absolute speed of the striking tools in the outer area of the third section (high-speed impact chamber) is thus more than 150 m / s. In conjunction with the counter-acceleration of the particles in the pre-treatment chamber and the acceleration chamber so impact speeds of over 200 m / s can be realized.

The impact energy is calculated by the rotational speed of a rotor in connection with the weight of a striking tool and the diameter of the crushing chambers. In other words, in order to achieve optimum size reduction or exposure (particle size or grain size), different rotational speeds are tested in order to achieve the necessary impact energy.

In this way, the impact velocity and thus the impact energy of the metal particles are maximized when striking impact tools and / or impact bars in the comminuting chamber within the physically possible and reasonable limits

The striking tools are formed in a conventional manner, as it is z. B. by DE 102005046207 is shown. They can be formed from chains and / or blow bars or combinations of these elements. Ultimately, the formation of impact tools is not significant to the invention.

Preferably, the impact tools are hinged to the rotors so that they always remain in their horizontal position. It is therefore not high Rotation speeds (as in conventional chains) necessary to bring the striking tools in the horizontal position. In addition, several impact tools can be arranged offset on a rotor, because they no longer hang down at a standstill and can get tangled. The movable arrangement of the percussion tools in such a way that they can only move axially normal to the cylinder axis of the comminution chamber in one plane is therefore highly advantageous. It can also be provided that the impact tools are attached at least approximately rigidly to the rotors. Preferably, the striking tools are arranged on a rotor in several planes offset from one another. This allows a high probability of likelihood of the downflowing material with the impact tools and thus an efficient crushing of the material particles. The inventive device preferably has an input cone on the input side and an outlet funnel on the outlet side, via which the mechanically digested material z. B. can be passed on a conveyor belt or a Abschei- dungsvorrichtung. Of course, the invention is not limited to the use of metal particles in slags, but may be applied to all types of material conglomerates consisting of materials of different density or elasticity. If the rotor of each section has its own drive, the rotors can be driven separately via concentric shafts arranged at one end of the crushing chamber, or the drives can be located radially inside the rotor shells of the corresponding rotors, in particular in the form of external rotor motors. The crushing chamber wall as well as the striking tools and the rotor shell are preferably made of hard impact resistant materials such as metal or ceramic metal composites. The rotor shell and the crushing chamber wall may be lined with wear plates.

The crushing chamber wall may have a plurality of annular discharge ribs for deflecting material that falls down the chamber wall in the direction of the rotor. As a result, the material is brought into the sphere of action of the impact tools and thus effectively fed to comminution.

The invention will be described below by way of example with reference to the schematic drawing. In this show:

1 shows a longitudinal section through a mechanical crusher of the invention with three rotors,

 Fig. 2 is a cross section of the crushing device of Fig. 1, and

3 is a perspective view of one of the three rotors of the crushing device of Fig. 1,

 4 shows a section through a mechanical comminution device with a coaxial air flow device.

Figures 1 and 2 show a material crushing device 10, which has an upper task cone 12, a circular cylindrical crushing chamber 14 and a lower discharge hopper 16. The task cone causes a homogeneous material supply in the sphere of action of the crushing device without damaging or wearing away their components. Task cone 12, crushing chamber 14 and outlet funnel 1 6 are interconnected and resting on a frame 18 shown schematically in Figures 1 and 2. The circular cylindrical crushing chamber 14 is arranged vertically with its axis. In the center of the crushing chamber 14, three concentric shafts 20, 22, 24 are provided, to which a first rotor 26, an underlying second rotor 28 and a lowermost outlet-side third rotor 30 are connected. These three concentric shafts are driven by a drive device 32, which is shown only schematically in the present example. The drive device 32 allows a separate control of the three rotors 26, 28, 30 via the three shafts 20, 22, 24 with the desired direction of rotation and the desired rotational speed. Each rotor has a circular cylindrical rotor shell 34 whose diameter is identical in all three rotors 26, 28, 30. Each rotor further includes a fastener 36 for impact tools 38, which are attached to the mounting means 36 of the rotors 26, 28, 30 by means of chain links 40. The chain links thus form the attachment part of the impact tools 40, which ensures both the attachment of the impact tool and its mobility in the plane achsnormal to the axis of the crushing chamber. The striking tools thus remain independent of the rotation of the rotors in a horizontal position, ie transversely to the rotor axis. The exact design of the rotors, including the fastening device, can best be seen in FIG. However, the provision of a separate fastener 40 of chain links to the striking tools 38 is optional and not essential, although it is advantageous for the above reasons. An air flow device 17 in the form of a blower, which can be flanged laterally or down to the outlet funnel 16, can adjoin the outlet funnel 16. The outlet 19 of the air flow device leads to a material separator, eg a gravity separator, a rotary separator, eg a cyclone. Due to the high performance of the 6 In Figure 2, the construction of the crushing chamber 14 can be seen in a detailed view. Accordingly, the crushing chamber 14 includes a cylindrical crushing chamber wall 42, to the inside of the crushing chamber facing wear plates 44 are attached, which protect the crushing chamber wall. The wear plates are preferably removably attached to the crushing chamber wall. Furthermore, eight vertically extending impact strips 46 are arranged on the inner wall of the crushing chamber 14 at a distance of 45 degrees, which serve as Aufpral lfläche for accelerated by the striking tools 38 material.

Preferably, at a height in the area of the first and second rotor, discharge ribs 48, 49 are provided, which are arranged in particular annularly on the inside of the comminution chamber wall 42 and serve to direct the flow of material from the comminution chamber wall 42, 44 into the impact area of the impact tools to lead.

The attachment means 36 of each rotor 26, 28, 30 preferably comprises four concentric discs 50, 52, 54, 56 having concentric holes 58 with each other. These concentric holes 58 are enforced by bolts 60, which pass through the chain links 40 at the rotor 26, 28, 30 facing the end of the striking tools 38 and thus set on the rotor. However, the fastening device can also be designed differently.

In the present example, between the four discs 50, 52, 54, 56, the striking tools 38 can be fixed in three different height positions.

Although the rotors 26, 28, 30 are identically provided in the present exemplary embodiment, it can also be provided that the rotors lying further down have an increasing number of fastening possibilities for the striking tools or that more impact forces can be applied to the lower rotors. Tools are suspended as on the upper rotors. For example, more concentric discs may be formed on the lower rotors and less concentric discs on the upper rotors. In this way it can be achieved that the density of the impact tools in the lower part of the cutting comb, where high particle velocities prevail, is greater, thus improving the efficiency of the system.

In the present embodiment, 38 impact strips 38 are provided as impact tools, which are fixed with chain links 40 to the fastening device 36 of the rotors 26, 28, 30. Instead of blow bars also link chains or other per se known impact tools can be used. When the rotor is standing, the striking tools usually hang down and are pressed with increasing rotational speed by the rotational force to the outside until they receive the operating orientation shown in the figure, in which radially from the rotor 26, 28, 30 toward the outside in the direction the crushing chamber wall 42, 44 white.

The operation of the material crusher will be briefly explained below:

Material to be separated, eg. As metal-containing ores, metal-containing industrial slags or slags with Metalleinschlüssen be supplied via the task cone 12 of the crushing chamber 14 of the crushing device 10, in which the coarse material falls initially due to its gravity down and in the course of increasing crushing in the crushing device 10 by the blower 1 7 is sucked in the direction of the outlet funnel. At the discharge hopper 16, the crushed material is in very fine grain sizes and with a high dust content. Due to the air flow device in the form of the blower 1 7, this can be due to the effective crushing par- tikel / air mixture are effectively transported in the direction of further treatment, for example, a density separation or rotation separation (eg cyclone). The rotors 26, 28, 30 preferably each rotate in opposite directions to each other, ie with an alternating direction of rotation, wherein the rotational speed can preferably increase from top to bottom. The rotational speed of the upper rotor can, for. B.800 U / min while the middle rotor rotates at 1200 rpm and the lower rotor at 1500 rpm. The trickling material is partially comminuted by the impact tools 38 on the uppermost first rotor 26 and partially accelerated in the circumferential direction of the rotor. The material strikes against either the impact 46 or the impact tools 38 of the counter-rotating central rotor 28, where the material particles now hit due to the pre-acceleration by the upper rotor in the opposite direction at a higher speed, whereby the crushing effect is significantly increased. In addition, the rotational speed may be greater than in the case of the first rotor 26 even in the middle second rotor, so that the material particles also act on the material particles by a much stronger impact than in the case of the upper rotor. In addition, the material particles bounce on the vertical impact afford 46 and are also crushed there. Material, which trickles down in the region of the comminution chamber wall 42, is transferred by the diversion ribs 48 back into the radially further interior region of the comminution chamber 14, where it is fed to the field of action of the impact tools 38. Since the striking tools are arranged on each rotor at different heights (see FIG. 3), a very high probability of hit of each material particle is achieved with a striking tool, which brings about a good efficiency of the installation.

The lowermost third rotor 30 in the outlet region can rotate at the highest speed. Again, it should be noted that the material particles through the middle second rotor 28 a stronger acceleration in the opposite direction have received, so that the particles now impinge on the counter-rotating lower rotor 30 with a correspondingly increased counter-speed. Preferably, most striking tools are arranged in the region of the lower rotor 30, so that here a high probability of collision of the particles with impact tools 30 or with the vertical impact strips 46 is achieved. This leads to a very effective material shredding.

FIG. 4 shows a shredding device 70 similar to FIG. 1. Identical or functionally identical parts are provided here with identical reference numerals. This embodiment differs from the embodiment of Fig. 1 in that here the air flow device 72 is formed by a fan which is mounted on the third outlet side rotor 30a and rotates therewith. The resulting in the crushing fine particle parts and dust are thus promoted by a homogeneous generated throughout the Zer- reduction chamber largely linear air flow in the direction of the outlet funnel 16, where the particle / air mixture can then be further processed. The flow may e.g. can be used directly to blow into a tangential inlet of a cyclone, as shown in Figure 5 and described later. Alternatively, the fan 72 can also sit on a separate centric shaft and thus be operated separately from the third rotor 30, 30a.

FIG. 4 also shows, beyond FIG. 1, the provision of wear plates 44, which line the entire inner wall of the comminution chamber 14 and can be changed as required (after wear).

The invention is not limited to the present embodiment but variations are possible within the scope of the following claims. In particular, the number and the distribution of impact tools may differ from the illustrated example. Different impact tools such as chains and blow bars can be used. In the area of the lowest rotor, many more impact tools can be distributed over the circumference than in the areas above. This leads to an increased probability of collisions in the area of the third section.

The crushing chamber wall may have a sector which is to be opened to allow it to be e.g. to allow access to the crushing chamber for maintenance. The replacement of wearing parts, such as the striking tools 38 or the wear plates 44 can be greatly simplified.

Claims

Claims:
1 . Device (10) for the mechanical comminution of material conglomerates of materials with different density and / or consistency,
comprising a crushing chamber (14) having a feed side and an outlet side, said crushing chamber being surrounded by a circular cylindrical and / or conically flared crushing chamber wall (42) and having at least two axially successive sections in each of which at least one rotor (26 , 28, 30) is arranged coaxially with the comminuting chamber with striking tools (38) extending at least substantially radially into the comminution chamber during operation, with the following features:
at axial intervals Ableitrippen (48) are arranged annularly on the inside of the crushing chamber wall and / or the radius of the crushing chamber wall (42) increases from top to bottom, and
in connection with the crushing chamber, an air flow device (1 7, 72) for discharging a particle / air mixture from the crushing chamber (14) is arranged.
2. Apparatus according to claim 1, characterized in that the air flow device has at least one coaxial with the rotor axis arranged fan.
3. Apparatus according to claim 2, characterized in that the fan is attached to a rotor.
4. Apparatus according to claim 3, characterized in that the fan attached to the rotor of the last section
5. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the treatment area of the device comprises at least one cyclone.
6. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the Sch lagwerkzeuge only in one plane axially normal to the axis of rotation of the device bewegl I are attached to the rotors.
7. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the Sch lagwerkzeuge on a rotor in several planes offset from one another.
8. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the air flow device wen least one venti lator or blower whose suction is m connected with the ngskammer ing chamber or this ieser facing.
9. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the rotors in the successive from the supply side to the outlet side Abschn ity have a rotor shell (34) whose wheel ius remains constant over the axial length of the crushing chamber
Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the directions of rotation of the rotor (30) in the section of the comminution chamber facing the outlet side and of the rotor (28) of the section in front of it in the direction of the material flow are in heat.
1 1. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that each rotor (26, 28, 30) has its own drive which is controllable independently of the other rotors.
12. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that each rotor (26, 28, 30) has a fastening device (36) for a releasable attachment of the striking tools (38).
1 3. A device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that in the feed direction of the material following rotor (28, 30) has more impact tools, as the rotor arranged in front (26, 28).
14. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that on the crushing chamber (14) a task cone (12) is arranged, which covers the rotors.
1 5. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that an outlet funnel (1 6) or lateral outlet is arranged under the crushing chamber / are.
6. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the crushing chamber wall (42) is cylindrical 1. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the diameter of the crushing chamber wall (42) is constant or from the supply side to the outlet side the crushing chamber (14) increases towards.
1 8. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that on the crushing chamber wall axially or obliquely Pral l afford (46) are arranged.
PCT/EP2013/058737 2012-05-08 2013-04-26 Disintegrating device WO2013167398A1 (en)

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DE102012104031.1A DE102012104031B4 (en) 2012-05-08 2012-05-08 Separating device for material conglomerates
DE102012104031.1 2012-05-08

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WO (1) WO2013167398A1 (en)

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WO2016130778A3 (en) * 2014-02-14 2016-09-15 Sontag Glennon C Grinder
JP2018508357A (en) * 2015-03-18 2018-03-29 ペーエムエス ハンデルスコントア ゲゼルシャフト ミット ベシュレンクテル ハフツングPMS Handelskontor GmbH Crusher
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