WO2013139623A1 - Method for operating a process and/or production plant, control device of such a plant and module for the control device - Google Patents

Method for operating a process and/or production plant, control device of such a plant and module for the control device Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2013139623A1
WO2013139623A1 PCT/EP2013/054721 EP2013054721W WO2013139623A1 WO 2013139623 A1 WO2013139623 A1 WO 2013139623A1 EP 2013054721 W EP2013054721 W EP 2013054721W WO 2013139623 A1 WO2013139623 A1 WO 2013139623A1
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Prior art keywords
control
control device
coprocessor
main processor
input signals
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PCT/EP2013/054721
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German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
Dominic BUCHSTALLER
Johannes Reinschke
Albrecht Sieber
Original Assignee
Siemens Aktiengesellschaft
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
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Priority to DE201210204358 priority Critical patent/DE102012204358A1/en
Priority to DE102012204358.6 priority
Application filed by Siemens Aktiengesellschaft filed Critical Siemens Aktiengesellschaft
Publication of WO2013139623A1 publication Critical patent/WO2013139623A1/en

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    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05BCONTROL OR REGULATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL; FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SUCH SYSTEMS; MONITORING OR TESTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SUCH SYSTEMS OR ELEMENTS
    • G05B19/00Programme-control systems
    • G05B19/02Programme-control systems electric
    • G05B19/04Programme control other than numerical control, i.e. in sequence controllers or logic controllers
    • G05B19/042Programme control other than numerical control, i.e. in sequence controllers or logic controllers using digital processors
    • G05B19/0421Multiprocessor system
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05BCONTROL OR REGULATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL; FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SUCH SYSTEMS; MONITORING OR TESTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SUCH SYSTEMS OR ELEMENTS
    • G05B2219/00Program-control systems
    • G05B2219/10Plc systems
    • G05B2219/15Plc structure of the system
    • G05B2219/15125Multiple kernels

Abstract

The invention relates to a control device (14) of a process and/or production plant (10). The control device (14) has an interface module (28), which is designed to receive input signals relating to current operating variables of the plant (10) at a signal input (34) and to output control signals to actuation units (26) of the plant at a control output (36). According to the invention, a coprocessor device (30, 54) is provided, which has at least one coprocessor (42) having a multiplicity of computation cores (50) and a main processor (44), which is designed to receive the input signals and trigger processing of the individual input signals by the computation cores (50). The invention also includes a corresponding method for operating the plants by means of a control device (14) having a coprocessor device (30, 4).

Description

description

Method for operating a process and / or production plant, control device of such a plant and module for the control device

The invention relates to a method for operating a process and / or production plant by means of a control device and a correspondingly designed for this control device. The invention also includes a module that can be retrofitted in the control device.

A control device of the type mentioned is known, for example, from the company Siemens under the product name "SIMATIC S7-400." Control devices of this type make it possible to regulate the operating variables of individual units of a plant, for example, conveyors, filling plants or rollers, or even the aggregates themselves For example, the control device of such a system can be accommodated on a rack, eg in a control cabinet, and connected to the periphery via an external communication bus, for example according to the Profinet standard The control unit then receives the input signals relating to the instantaneous operating variables of the system via the external communication bus These input signals can be used, for example, to measure signals from the sensor purity, such as light barriers or temperature sensors, be. Other operating variables are the state variables of the individual units, which can also be transmitted from the control units thereof via the communication bus to the control device.

For the operating variables is determined by the control device on the basis of control loops or a higher-level process control regulation, as the actuators and units of the plant are to be set by control signals, for example, to keep the production process running in the plant. These control signals can then be transmitted again via the external communication bus to the actuators or units.

In large systems, the problem may arise, the total number of control loops, which must be implemented to coordinate all actuators and units in the large system together, can be so large that the computing power of the control device is not sufficient for this. The entirety of the control loops is also referred to here as basic automation. In order to enable a basic automation of a large system by means of a control device, it is provided, for example, in the S7-400, to couple several processors together. However, the use of multiple processors within a control device leads to a relatively expensive to produce circuit. Although there are already processors that are equipped with multiple processor cores and therefore require the same amount of wiring on a board as a single processor. But if you want to increase the computing power of such a circuit even further, so circuit complexity multiplied to have more processors for the calculation of the control signals available.

In connection with a higher-level process control of a plant, ie a form of plant optimization (eg quality or throughput), it is usually not possible even with smaller plants to realize this process control within a control device. The computational power required to solve the optimization problem is therefore performed on a separate, external personal computer, usually via a so-called OPC interface (OPC - OLE for process control, OLE - Object Linking and Embedding, object linking and - Embedding) is coupled to the control device. However, the use of an external personal computer for relieving a control device also leads, on account of the additional wiring at an increased expense for the provision of process control.

An object of the present invention is to operate a process and / or manufacturing plant economically.

The object is achieved by a method according to claim 1, a control device according to claim 9 and a module according to claim 11. Advantageous developments of the invention are given by the dependent claims.

The control device according to the invention has, in the manner known per se, an interface module which is set up to receive input signals relating to instantaneous operating variables of the system at a signal input and to output actuating signals to control and positioning units of the system at a control output. It may be at the

Interface module, for example, a board with a CPU used in today's control devices (Central Processing Unit, processor) act. These are used in today's control devices for a so-called memory-programmed control of a plant.

The control device according to the invention now additionally has a device designated here as coprocessor device. This comprises at least one coprocessor, which has a multiplicity of computing cores. By a computing kernel, in contrast to a full-fledged processor, and in particular a processor core, is meant that it is an electronic circuit which is set up exclusively for carrying out a limited number of arithmetic operations. The computing cores of the coprocessor may, for example, each be a computation kernel, as used in graphics processors, or a computational kernel for a vector processor or else a computational kernel for a streaming processor. The provision as coprocessor here means that this in contrast to a full-fledged processor is not able to autonomously manage calculation processes, for example by executing an operating system, and to prepare them for processing. The advantage of such a coprocessor in this case is that a large number of processor cores can be provided on a chip of a coprocessor, without requiring a particularly complicated interconnection of the coprocessor with the other components of the controller. Instead, it is only necessary to provide in the coprocessor device only a full processor, referred to herein as the main processor, and to receive with it the said input signals from the sensor devices and the equipment of the system in a memory for the coprocessor device in such a way that the Rulers can process the stored signals. Thereafter, the main processor only has to trigger the processing of the individual input signals by the computing cores, which then work independently on the stored input signals. The actual processing of the input signals, which leads to the generation of the actuating signals or at least to intermediate variables for a further calculation of the actuating signals, is thus done by the computing cores of the coprocessors. The main processor is only necessary to coordinate the calculations and, if necessary, to calculate the control signals from the intermediate quantities, both of which require a relatively low computing power. So it is z. For example, it is possible to provide a coprocessor with 16 or more arithmetic cores, in particular with more than 100 arithmetic cores, with a main processor controlling this coprocessor in a coprocessor device. Two or more coprocessors can be provided with little effort. In this way, it is possible to achieve a multiple of the computing power of a multiprocessor system with only one or in special cases a few full main processors.

The processing of the input signals by a control device according to the invention is characterized in detail in the following manner: In a memory for the main processor for Controlling the coprocessors, at least one specific automation rule is initially stored, which specifies how at least one of the input signals is to be calculated from at least one of the input signals. The automation rule is subdivided into sequential and parallel executable calculation instructions. This makes it possible, by operating the calculation cores, to execute the parallel execution of calculation rules in a very short time.

According to the automation rule, for example, at least one of the operating variables of the system can be adjusted to a respective, predetermined desired value. In particular, an automation regulation can be used to implement a PID controller, preferably a loop-in PID controller, for the operating variable. With PID controller here also every subclass is meant, so about a PI controller. In the same way, it can be achieved by a corresponding automation rule that a model-predictive control of an operating variable is carried out by operating at least one of the calculation cores. Since the calculation cores are optimized for carrying out certain arithmetic operations, it can be achieved by an appropriate choice of the calculation cores that such a very compute-intensive model predictive control can also be implemented within the control device and not, as in the prior art, an external personal computer be provided got to.

It is even possible to implement so-called scheduling optimization by executing a corresponding automation rule, as it was hitherto possible to implement exclusively in the described external personal computers. Such scheduling optimization determines whether and when certain aggregates of the plant are to be switched on or off and / or in which state the aggregates are to be operated. The aggregate state usually depends on the production sequence. The optimization of the aggregate states or the production sequence can take place, for example, according to criteria of the costs, whereby also production-related Boundary conditions can be taken into account. Such boundary conditions can be, for example, that for quality reasons, certain products must be produced one after the other. Such a scheduling optimization is usually based on a mathematical optimization problem that can only be solved with very computationally intensive methods.

The model predictive control and the scheduling optimization each include both a mathematical model of the plant and a predetermined cost function to be minimized. Based on these two, a solution to an optimization problem is determined prior to operation of the plant by an engineering station or in operation by the main processor. The solution is divided into sequential and parallel computation rules, the former being executed by the main processor and the latter by the cores. A corresponding division is also carried out for control loops, wherein the parallel-executable calculation instructions of the automation rule in this case preferably include matrix ector multiplications.

As soon as the automation regulations are stored in the control device according to the invention, it is ready to carry out basic automation and / or process control for a system. For this purpose, the received input signals are transmitted to the coprocessor device. There are then from the input signals, the control signals for example. calculates the PID control from the cores according to the automation rules. Subsequently, calculated control signals are transmitted to the control output of the control device.

The invention thus has the advantage that on the basis of a large number of computing cores, a control device with a computing power can be provided, which is also sufficient for a control of a large system and even for their process control. Nevertheless, the circuit complexity for realizing the circuit boards for the control device very low. This is achieved by not increasing the computing power on the basis of an external personal computer or on the basis of a multiprocessor system, but by providing only a large number of processor cores. In order to be able to operate these calculation cores in the control device, only one or a few processors are required for controlling the calculation cores.

With regard to the choice of the type of calculation cores in the production of the coprocessing device, a SIMD method (SIMD - Single Instruction Multiple Data) is particularly preferably implemented by at least one of the computing cores. The advantage here is that, on the one hand, many of the described automation instructions can be formulated in a way that allows a large number of data to be processed using the same calculation rules. In addition, the calculation time needed to calculate an actuating signal from the input signals can be further reduced by means of the SIMD method. A short response time is very important in the field of plant control because otherwise the aggregates can not react fast enough to changes in the process flow.

In this connection, a further preferred embodiment of the invention provides that the processor of the coprocessor device, which controls the calculation cores, executes a real-time operating system. Such a real-time operating system has the advantage that it has a predeterminable response time, so that the coprocessor device respects this response time with respect to the calculation of the actuating signals. In other words, the coprocessor device in the control device behaves deterministically in such a way that unforeseen delays in the provision of the actuating signals do not occur, since the time duration from receiving a specific input signal to outputting the associated actuating signal is within a predetermined cycle time. By cycle time is meant the period of the control cycles. A further advantage of the invention is that a user does not have to be familiar in any particular way with the elaboration of the automation instructions for the individual processor cores in order to be able to operate the control device according to the invention. In order to realize this advantage, according to one embodiment of the invention, only one specification of a process control or automation solution for the system is received at an operating device of the system (also called engineering station), as is usual in today's control devices. In this case, a specification of an automation solution designates a data record which the user of the operating device specifies and which describes how the units of the installation are to be operated, a production process (for example bottling) or another process (for example operation) a power plant) in the desired manner by the control device. On the basis of the specification, the automation solution is then divided by a corresponding processing unit of the operating device into the individual automation instructions. These are then transmitted to the control device, where they are stored in the manner described for programming the calculation cores in a memory.

A user can typically combine individual process control elements, such as a particular controller loop, at the operator to set the specification, according to his needs, ultimately resulting in the overall specification. The individual process control elements themselves do not change. Therefore, appropriate automation regulations can be provided in advance for the individual elements. If a user has therefore ended the specification of a particular automation solution, ie if a combination of the individual elements of the process control desired by the user is certain, then this specification can then be simply inserted, for example, into the automation system. tion rules are divided by the respective automation regulations are transmitted to the individual elements to the control device.

With regard to the configuration of the coprocessor device, provision can be made for the coprocessor to be mounted on a common board with a processor or processors of the coprocessor

Interface module is arranged. It is even possible to integrate the coprocessor device in such a processor of the interface module. This is possible, for example, by using a corresponding IP core (IP - intellectual property) in the production of the interface module. The main processor of the coprocessor device which controls the coprocessor may then be a processor of the interface module.

However, a particularly preferred embodiment of the control device according to the invention provides that the coprocessor device is designed as a retrofittable module of the control device. The main processor of the coprocessor device is then coupled via an internal communication bus of the control device to the interface module of the control device. This embodiment has the advantage that the control device itself can be produced at a relatively low price and that the additional computing power provided by the coprocessor device can only be purchased by a user of the control device if necessary. In addition, it is not necessary to develop different models of the control device with correspondingly different computing powers.

In connection with the modular construction of the control device just described, the invention also encompasses a corresponding module of a control device of a process and / or production plant. The module according to the invention has a bus interface, which is designed to exchange signals with an internal communication bus of the control device. Through the module, as described, at least one coprocessor provided, which has a plurality of computing cores. In addition, the main processor is also provided on the module, which receives the input signals via the bus interface and stores them in a memory of the module. By the main processor then the computing cores are driven in the manner described and thereby carried out a calculation of the control signals from stored input signals using the computing cores. Finally, the calculated processor signals are also output via the bus interface by the main processor.

The module according to the invention has the advantage that it also opens up the possibility of providing greater computing power in a control device of the prior art by the module being coupled to this control device via the bus interface. An embodiment of the module which is particularly favorable to manufacture results if at least one GPU (Graphical Processing Unit) is provided as coprocessor. As already described, a coprocessor can be provided as a separate chip on a board of the module or as part of another chip, for example that which also includes the processor for the control of the coprocessor.

The described embodiments of the invention relate both to the method according to the invention and to the control device and the module.

In the following, the invention will be explained once more in more concrete terms with reference to exemplary embodiments. For this purpose, the single figure shows a large-scale system with a control device, which is a preferred embodiment of the control device according to the invention. In the illustrated examples, the described components of the control device each represent individual features of the control device that are to be considered independently of one another, which also further develop the control device independently of each other and thus also include a control device. or to be regarded as part of the invention in any other than the combination shown.

The single FIGURE shows a plant 10, which may be a Fertigungs- aläge, a process plant or a combination thereof. The plant may be, for example, a rolling mill and associated treatment line, a food and beverage processing plant, a paper and pulp mill, a power plant, an industrial furnace, a cement factory, a chemical plant or a refinery or a petrochemical plant. The system 10 comprises a process section 12, a control device 14, an engineering station designated as an operating device 16 and an operator station 18. The operating device 16 and the operator station 18 are optional. The process section 12 comprises a plurality of units, which in the figure are provided with the same reference numerals 20 for the sake of simplicity. Depending on the type of installation, an aggregate 20 can be, for example, a conveyor belt, a filling installation, a boiler, an agitator, an oven, a basin with an agitator. To be able to determine an overall state of the process path 12, sensor devices 22 may be provided on and in the units 20, such as, for example, a temperature sensor, a camera, a current transformer, a gas sensor and further sensor units known per se for production or

Process equipment. Furthermore, control units 24 of individual units can be designed to output an operating state of the respective unit 20 in the form of a data signal. In order to change the operating state of an aggregate 20, this may have a controllable actuating unit 26 which acts as an actuator in dependence on an external actuating signal. Such an adjusting device 26 can be, for example, an electric motor, a heater, a controllable valve, a pump and / or another actuating device known per se from plant engineering. The control units 24 can also be controlled for switching on and off the units 20, for example. The process section 12 is controlled by the control device 14. The control device 14 can be arranged, for example, in a control cabinet in a factory in which the system 10 is constructed. The control device 14 may include an interface module 28, a coprocessor module 30 and a communication module 32. The three modules 28, 30, 32 can be coupled to each other via an internal communication bus 34, via which the three modules 28, 30, 32 can exchange data with each other. In the example shown in the figure, the interface module 28 has a signal input 34 and a control output 36. Via the signal input 34, the interface module 28 receives the signals of the sensor units 22 and the control units 24 regarding the current operating variables. The signal input 34 and the control output 36 can also be located on a separate further module.

Via the control output 36, the interface module 28 is coupled to the control units 24 and the actuators 26. The transmission of the signals between the control device 14 and the process path 12 may be made possible by an external communication bus 38, for example a Profinet bus.

The control device 14 is connected via the communication module 32 via a data network 40, for example an Ethernet network.

The coprocessor module 30 represents a coprocessor device. It has a coprocessor 42, a main processor or, for short, a processor 44 and a memory 46. The processor 44 is connected to the internal bus 34 via a bus interface 48. The processor 44 and the coprocessor 42 may be implemented on a common chip or provided as separate chips on a board. The coprocessor module 30 may also include a plurality of co-processors 42. For example, a coprocessor 42 may be a GPU. Preferably, the coprocessor 42 more than a hundred computing cores 50, of which only a few are provided in the figure with a reference numeral. Each of the computation cores 50 is assigned a memory area of, for example, 10 KB (kilobytes) to several MB (megabytes) in the memory 46, which may be, for example, a random access memory (RAM). Although coprocessor 42 may be a GPU, it is not designed as a GPU, such as may be on a graphics card of a personal computer. The coprocessor 42 consumes very little electrical power relative to an ordinary GPU, and therefore also emits little waste heat to its environment. This makes it possible to operate the control device 14 in the control cabinet without providing additional cooling measures due to the use of the coprocessor module 30. This is made possible in the coprocessor 42 in that an IP core was used in its production, which can indeed describe the circuit logic of a GPU or a similar powerful coprocessor, but which was then used to produce a chip by means of a technology, as it is also used for processors in the field of plant control. This allows the realization of a low power consumption and thus a fanless operation or at least a low ventilation operation. Also, the processor 44 is designed in the manner described for long-term use in an industrial environment.

By the processor 44, for example, a real-time operating system 52 can be executed, which ensures by a corresponding operating program that of the

Interface module 28 signals can be received and stored in the memory 46. Likewise, coprocessor 42 may be controlled by real time operating system 52. The operating system 52 is thereby able to process received signals stored in the memory 46 by the computing cores 50 by generating corresponding control signals by the processor 44 and sending them to the coprocessor. processor 42 are output, in the memory areas 50 work programs are stored for the individual cores, which each represent an automation rule.

The operation of the control device 14 is carried out by the operating device 16, which may be a workstation computer, for example. At the operating device 16, a user specifies an automation solution, which in the case of a specification of PID controllers, for example, can be in the form of a CFC (continuous function chart). Other graphical or text-based specification possibilities are also possible, as are known per se from the prior art, or a specification of a solution to a MPC problem (MPC model-predictive control).

Based on the specification, the operation programs for the calculation cores 50 were automatically generated by the operation device 16. The automatic conversion of the specification into the work programs may vary depending on the type of specification (PID controller, solution to an MPC problem). For automation, e.g. in a manner known per se, corresponding algorithms for the parallelization of programming problems can be used.

The created work programs have been transmitted from the operating device 16 via the network 40 and the communication module 32 to the processor 44, whose operating system 52 has then stored the work programs in the memory 46.

During operation of the system 10, the measured values of the sensor units 22 and the process variables of the control units 24 are cyclically transferred via the bus 38 to the interface module 28. This transmits the measured values and process variables as received signals via the internal bus 34 to the processor 44, where they pass through the operating system 52 are also stored in the memory 46. The input signals stored for the current control cycle are then stored in the coprocessor module 30 The operating system 52 processes the coprocessor 42 in such a way that the computing cores 50 process the measured values and process variables in the memory 46 in accordance with the work programs assigned to them and thereby generate intermediate variables of actuating signals for the actuating devices 26. The intermediate values are then read out of the memory 46 to the processor 44 and combined by the processor 44 into desired setting signals by executing a sequentially executed part of the respective work programs and transmitted via the internal bus 34 back to the interface module 28 where they are output at the control output 36 and the bus 38 to the control devices 24 and adjusting devices 26 are supplied.

By means of the coprocessor module 30, such a large computing power is provided in the control device 14 that it is also a process control, in particular a quality or throughput optimization, even if the system 10 is a large-scale system should be implemented, these automation tasks must be performed by the control device 14 itself and not by an external PC. Since the co-processor device 30 provides one or more coprocessors 42, for example GPUs, and these are operated by the real-time operating system 52 through a real-time capable system consisting of the processor 44, this automation task can also be performed in an industrial environment Environment (small space, little cooling options) to realize.

Instead of or in addition to the coprocessor module 30, it may also be provided to integrate a coprocessor 54 into the interface module 28.

In the following, three applications are considered in more detail, which illustrate how the system 10 can be operated by means of the coprocessor module 30. The first example describes the implementation of a large number of single-loop PID controllers. The PID controller structure is first specified in the operating device 16 as CFC plan, as also known from the prior art. The user may hereby choose to execute the specified PID controller structure on the coprocessor module 30. As a result, the operating device 16 is caused to combine the plurality of PID controllers on the coprocessor module 30. Each of the PID controllers defines the interaction of a sensor device 22 or a control device 24 with an actuating device 26 or a control device 24. A single arithmetic core 50 of the coprocessor 42 can image more than one PID controller. The distribution of how many PID controllers are assigned to a computer core 50 can be automatic and can be done, for example, as a function of the clock rate with which the individual PID controllers are supplied with the input signals or with which their control signals are output.

The second example concerns a model predictive control. The associated MPC controller calculates optimized manipulated variables for a large number of operating variables to be controlled. The values of the operating variables are predicted in a prediction time window using a model for the process to be controlled. On the basis of the operating variables predicted by means of the model, the control signals are calculated taking into account given boundary conditions for the current control cycle. For common process lines, linear process models can be used which simulate the processes in the process section with sufficient accuracy. Parameters of the process models can be fixed or identified on the basis of measured values. In today's control devices, the use of MPC control is usually not possible. The optimized manipulated variables must be determined by solving an optimization problem for a cost function, the optimization problem typically being formulated as an optimization problem of quadratic programming (QP) is. The solution of such a QP problem is very computationally intensive and can be accelerated only in the control device according to the invention by means of the plurality of simultaneously operable computing cores 50 so far that a regulation of the Begiebsizes based on the MPC control by the

Control device 14 itself is possible. In order to process the input signals, ie the measured values and the other operating variables of the process path 12, in such a way that they can be processed by the processing cores 50 in accordance with the regulation of the MPC control, a program is also stored in the memory 46 which, when executed by the processor 44 causes a corresponding processing of the data. The third example concerns a scheduling optimization for the production planning of the entire plant 10. The scheduling optimizer optimizes when which aggregates are to be switched on or off or in which state the aggregates are to be operated. As already described, the optimization of the states of aggregation or of the production sequence takes place according to criteria of plant optimization and can take into account production-related boundary conditions. In this case, the coprocessor module 30 makes it possible to solve the optimization problem underlying a scheduling optimization of a cost function with a sufficiently high computing speed during operation of the system. As a rule, such an optimization problem is described as a "mixed-integer linear programming problem" (MILP problem) The parameters for the optimization are set again in the described manner via the operating device 16. In the operator station 18 the respective current solution of the scheduling problem is visualized, ie it is displayed when which unit is activated or deactivated according to the current state of the solution or when which production steps are carried out.On the operator status 18 can then marginal conditions during operation of the system 10 For example, the production sequence can be changed, for example, the production sequence can be changed because, for example, the production sequence can be changed certain means of production are not yet available. The mentioned boundary conditions are transmitted to the coprocessor module 30 via the network 40 again. There they will be considered in a next calculation cycle of the scheduling optimization.

The coprocessor 42 itself need not necessarily be real-time capable. Nevertheless, due to the large computing power, which is realized by the totality of the calculation cores 50, there is a quasi-deterministic reaction behavior. In other words, it is also possible in the coprocessor 42 to provide corresponding control signals to the input signals within a predetermined maximum reaction time. By choosing a corresponding number of calculation cores 50, it is possible to achieve response times by means of the coprocessor 42 within a few microseconds to milliseconds.

Claims

claims
1. A method for operating a process and / or manufacturing plant (10) by means of a control device (14), comprising the steps of:
 - Receiving input signals relating to instantaneous values of operating variables of the system (10) at a signal input (34) of the control device (14);
 - Generating control signals for control and positioning units (26) of the system (10) in response to the received input signals;
 - Transferring the control signals from a control output (36) of the control device (14) to the control and adjustment units
(26);
characterized by the steps:
 - in the control device (14) providing a main processor (44) and at least one coprocessor (42) having a plurality of computing cores (50),
 - in a memory (46) of the main processor (44) storing at least one predetermined automation rule, which is divided into sequential and parallel executable computation rules, each automation rule indicates how at least one of the input signals to calculate at least one of the control signals,
 - transmitting input signals conditioned by the main processor (44) for parallel processing to the at least one coprocessor (42);
 in the at least one coprocessor, executing the parallel executable calculation instructions of the at least one automation rule by the computing cores and thereby calculating intermediate quantities from the processed input signals;
 Transferring the intermediate variables calculated by the computing cores (50) to the main processor (44),
Execution of the sequential calculation instructions by the main processor (44) and thereby calculating the actuating signal Nale through the main processor (44) on the basis of intermediate sizes,
 - Transferring the control signals to the control output (36).
2. The method of claim 1, wherein by the main processor (44) a EchtZeitbetriebssystem (52) is carried out by which a predetermined response time of the main processor (44) and controlled by him at least one coprocessor (42) with respect to the calculation of the control signals from the Input signals is maintained, so that the period of time from the receipt of a certain input signal to the output of the associated control signal is within a predetermined cycle time.
3. The method of claim 1 or 2, wherein by at least one of the calculation cores (50) an intermediate size is calculated on the basis of a SIMD calculation method.
4. The method according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein at least one of the operating variables is controlled to a respective predetermined desired value by executing at least one automation rule.
5. Method according to one of the preceding claims, wherein by executing at least one automation rule, a model-predictive control of at least one aggregate (20) of the plant (10) is performed, wherein the model-predictive control both a mathematical model of the plant (10) and a predetermined, and a solution to an optimization problem, preferably a quadratic programming problem, is determined by an engineering station (16) or by the main processor (44), which can be executed sequentially and in parallel Calculation rules is divided.
6. The method according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein by performing at least one automation rule a scheduling optimization is realized by which is determined whether and when aggregates (20) of the system (10) are switched on or off and / or in which state the aggregates (20) are to be operated, the scheduling optimization both a mathematical model of the system (10) as well as a predetermined cost function to be minimized and on the basis of both a solution to an optimization problem, preferably a mixed-integer optimization problem, by an engineering station (16) or by the main processor (44) is determined, which is divided into the sequential and parallel executable calculation rules.
7. The method according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein by executing at least one automation rule, a plurality of PID control loops is realized, wherein the parallel executable calculation rules of the automation rule in this case preferably matrix vector multiplications.
8. The method according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein at an engineering station (16) of the system (10) a specification of an automation solution for the system (10) is received and based on the specification of the automation solution is divided into the automation regulations and the automation regulations be transmitted to the control device (14).
9. Control device (14) of a process and / or manufacturing plant (10), with an interface module (28), which is adapted to receive at a signal input (34) input signals concerning instantaneous operating variables of the system (10) and at a control output (36) output control signals to actuators (26) of the system,
marked by
a coprocessor device (30, 54) which has at least one coprocessor (42) with a plurality of processor cores (50) and a main processor (44), the main program zessor (44) is adapted to receive the input signals and to process the individual input signals by means of the computing cores (50).
10. Control device (14) according to claim 9, wherein the coprocessor device (30) is designed as a retrofittable module of the control device (14) and the main processor (44) via an internal communication bus (34) of the control device (14) with the interface module ( 28) is coupled.
11. module (30) of a control device (14) of a process and / or manufacturing plant (10), with a bus interface (48), which is configured to expire signals with an internal communication bus (34) of the control device (14) , and at least one coprocessor (42) having a plurality of computing cores (50) and a main processor (44) adapted to receive input signals via the bus interface (48) and stored in a memory (46) of the To store module (30) and the computing cores (50) to control and thereby a calculation of
Performing control signals to the stored input signals using the calculation cores (50) and output the calculated control signals via the bus interface (48).
The module of claim 11, wherein at least one co-processor (42) has sixteen or more cores (50).
The module of claim 11 or 12, wherein at least one coprocessor (42) is provided by a GPU.
PCT/EP2013/054721 2012-03-20 2013-03-08 Method for operating a process and/or production plant, control device of such a plant and module for the control device WO2013139623A1 (en)

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