WO2013124841A1 - Charging management method and system - Google Patents

Charging management method and system Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2013124841A1
WO2013124841A1 PCT/IL2013/050109 IL2013050109W WO2013124841A1 WO 2013124841 A1 WO2013124841 A1 WO 2013124841A1 IL 2013050109 W IL2013050109 W IL 2013050109W WO 2013124841 A1 WO2013124841 A1 WO 2013124841A1
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WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
charging
power
electric
cycle
charge
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PCT/IL2013/050109
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Place Labs Israel Ltd. Better
Eran Genzel
Emek Sadot
Lior Storfer
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Better Place GmbH
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Filing date
Publication date
Priority to IL218213A priority Critical patent/IL218213D0/en
Priority to IL218213 priority
Priority to US201261603489P priority
Priority to US61/603,489 priority
Application filed by Better Place GmbH filed Critical Better Place GmbH
Publication of WO2013124841A1 publication Critical patent/WO2013124841A1/en

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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J3/00Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks
    • H02J3/12Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks for adjusting voltage in ac networks by changing a characteristic of the network load
    • H02J3/14Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks for adjusting voltage in ac networks by changing a characteristic of the network load by switching loads on to, or off from, network, e.g. progressively balanced loading
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L53/00Methods of charging batteries, specially adapted for electric vehicles; Charging stations or on-board charging equipment therefor; Exchange of energy storage elements in electric vehicles
    • B60L53/60Monitoring or controlling charging stations
    • B60L53/63Monitoring or controlling charging stations in response to network capacity
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L53/00Methods of charging batteries, specially adapted for electric vehicles; Charging stations or on-board charging equipment therefor; Exchange of energy storage elements in electric vehicles
    • B60L53/60Monitoring or controlling charging stations
    • B60L53/65Monitoring or controlling charging stations involving identification of vehicles or their battery types
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J3/00Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks
    • H02J3/28Arrangements for balancing of the load in a network by storage of energy
    • H02J3/32Arrangements for balancing of the load in a network by storage of energy using batteries with converting means
    • H02J3/322Arrangements for balancing of the load in a network by storage of energy using batteries with converting means the battery being on-board an electric or hybrid vehicle, e.g. vehicle to grid arrangements [V2G], power aggregation, use of the battery for network load balancing, coordinated or cooperative battery charging
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J2310/00The network for supplying or distributing electric power characterised by its spatial reach or by the load
    • H02J2310/50The network for supplying or distributing electric power characterised by its spatial reach or by the load for selectively controlling the operation of the loads
    • H02J2310/52The controlling of the operation of the load not being the total disconnection of the load, i.e. entering a degraded mode or in current limitation
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J2310/00The network for supplying or distributing electric power characterised by its spatial reach or by the load
    • H02J2310/50The network for supplying or distributing electric power characterised by its spatial reach or by the load for selectively controlling the operation of the loads
    • H02J2310/56The network for supplying or distributing electric power characterised by its spatial reach or by the load for selectively controlling the operation of the loads characterised by the condition upon which the selective controlling is based
    • H02J2310/58The condition being electrical
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02BCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. HOUSING, HOUSE APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B70/00Technologies for an efficient end-user side electric power management and consumption
    • Y02B70/30Systems integrating technologies related to power network operation and communication or information technologies for improving the carbon footprint of the management of residential or tertiary loads, i.e. smart grids as climate change mitigation technology in the buildings sector, including also the last stages of power distribution and the control, monitoring or operating management systems at local level
    • Y02B70/3225Demand response systems, e.g. load shedding, peak shaving
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies; Technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/70Energy storage systems for electromobility, e.g. batteries
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/7072Electromobility specific charging systems or methods for batteries, ultracapacitors, supercapacitors or double-layer capacitors
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T90/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02T90/10Technologies relating to charging of electric vehicles
    • Y02T90/12Electric charging stations
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T90/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02T90/10Technologies relating to charging of electric vehicles
    • Y02T90/16Information or communication technologies improving the operation of electric vehicles
    • Y02T90/167Systems integrating technologies related to power network operation and communication or information technologies for supporting the interoperability of electric or hybrid vehicles, i.e. smartgrids as interface for battery charging of electric vehicles [EV] or hybrid vehicles [HEV]
    • Y02T90/169
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y04INFORMATION OR COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES HAVING AN IMPACT ON OTHER TECHNOLOGY AREAS
    • Y04SSYSTEMS INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO POWER NETWORK OPERATION, COMMUNICATION OR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVING THE ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION, TRANSMISSION, DISTRIBUTION, MANAGEMENT OR USAGE, i.e. SMART GRIDS
    • Y04S10/00Systems supporting electrical power generation, transmission or distribution
    • Y04S10/12Monitoring or controlling equipment for energy generation units, e.g. distributed energy generation [DER] or load-side generation
    • Y04S10/126Monitoring or controlling equipment for energy generation units, e.g. distributed energy generation [DER] or load-side generation the energy generation units being or involving electric vehicles [EV] or hybrid vehicles [HEV], i.e. power aggregation of EV or HEV, vehicle to grid arrangements [V2G]
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y04INFORMATION OR COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES HAVING AN IMPACT ON OTHER TECHNOLOGY AREAS
    • Y04SSYSTEMS INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO POWER NETWORK OPERATION, COMMUNICATION OR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVING THE ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION, TRANSMISSION, DISTRIBUTION, MANAGEMENT OR USAGE, i.e. SMART GRIDS
    • Y04S20/00Management or operation of end-user stationary applications or the last stages of power distribution; Controlling, monitoring or operating thereof
    • Y04S20/20End-user application control systems
    • Y04S20/222Demand response systems, e.g. load shedding, peak shaving
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y04INFORMATION OR COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES HAVING AN IMPACT ON OTHER TECHNOLOGY AREAS
    • Y04SSYSTEMS INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO POWER NETWORK OPERATION, COMMUNICATION OR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVING THE ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION, TRANSMISSION, DISTRIBUTION, MANAGEMENT OR USAGE, i.e. SMART GRIDS
    • Y04S30/00Systems supporting specific end-user applications in the sector of transportation
    • Y04S30/10Systems supporting the interoperability of electric or hybrid vehicles
    • Y04S30/14Details associated with the interoperability, e.g. vehicle recognition, authentication, identification or billing

Abstract

Charging management techniques for electrically charging a chargeable device by electrically connecting and disconnecting electric charging power to the chargeable device and selectively performing at least one charging session by a plurality of timely separated charging cycles, depending on power management conditions or instructions.

Description

CHARGING MANAGEMENT METHOD AND SYSTEM
TECHNOLOGICAL FIELD
The present invention generally relates to the management of electric charging of chargeable devices.
BACKGROUND
An increasing number of devices used in households and in industry are manufactured in the form of electrically chargeable devices (hereinafter also referred to as rechargeable or charging devices e.g. , for electric vehicles), for practical reasons (e.g. , obviating the need for power cords) and/or due to convenience of use. Electrical charging devices utilize rechargeable batteries, or another type of electrically renewable power source, as their main power source. One important use of rechargeable batteries is in the electric vehicle industry, which intends to gradually replace air polluting petrol and diesel internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles with electric motor engine vehicles powered by rechargeable battery packs, or with so-called hybrid vehicles which utilize both internal combustion and electric motors.
Vehicles (e.g. , cars, trucks, planes, boats, motorcycles, autonomous vehicles, robots, forklift trucks, etc.), mainly used for transportation of passengers and goods, have become an integral part of the modern economy. Most vehicles used nowadays for transportation of passengers and goods are powered by internal combustion engines (ICE) which burn fossil fuels. Unfortunately, the use of fossil fuels, like gasoline, have numerous drawbacks, such as dependence on limited sources of fossil fuels (foreign sources of fossil fuels are often in volatile geographic locations), and pollution produced by their combustion, which contributes to global warming.
The vehicle industry is encouraged nowadays to shift to clean technologies employing electric motors powered by rechargeable fuel cells or batteries (generally referred to herein as rechargeable batteries), also known as electric vehicles. However, rechargeable batteries need to be recharged relatively often, and for this purpose charge spots (also referred to herein as charge poles or charger apparatus) that provide electrical current for recharging of the vehicles' batteries need to be widely spread and available to the users' of the vehicles in as many locations as possible. For example the vehicles may require that their batteries be recharged in parking lots of shopping centers or office buildings.
It is expected that as usage of electric vehicles increases electrical current demand from the charge spots sites will also increase, which may require substantial increase in the electricity supplying infrastructure, as well as increase in electrical power production capabilities, for addressing the increased demand for electrical charging currents.
US 2011/133693 to Lowenthal Richard et al , describes an electric vehicle charging station installed in users' residence, coupled with a main circuit breaker in an electrical service panel. The charging station described in this publication includes a current control device having a control pilot circuitry that modulates a pilot duty cycle to control the amount of electric current that can be drawn from the service drop power lines by the electric vehicle.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
There is therefore a need for grid management solutions (also referred to herein as smart grid management) in electric power networks suitable to controllably manage the supply of electrical charging power to charging devices such as electric vehicles, as the demand for such electrical charging power increases. Accordingly, in some embodiments of the present invention there is provided a charge spot that is capable of controlling the electrical power that is being supplied to the batteries being charged, based on the capabilities of the electric power network (grid) and also based on the demand for electric charging power from a charging device associated with the battery.
Conventional charge spots and charging devices associated with batteries of electric vehicles typically utilize signaling schemes which mainly concern regulation of the amount of electric charging current drawn by the charging device. However, as the demand for supply of electrical charging power from the power network increases, it is desirable to enable the charge spot to controllably switch the electric charging power supply connected to charging devices of some vehicles between connected and disconnected states to properly manage charging of multiple vehicles by the power grid. A charge spot according to possible embodiments of the present invention, is thus further configured to switch the electric charging power supplied to batteries of charging devices between ON {i.e., in which electrical charging power is supplied) and OFF (i.e. , in which the electrical charging power supply is disconnected) states, to thereby provide control over the electrical charging power supplied by the electrical grid to the charging devices.
Preferably, the charge spot of the present invention is configured to notify the charging device its intent to switch the state of the electric charging power supply, and thereafter to switch the state of the electric charging power supply only after receiving a confirming indication from the charging device. In this way, a charge spot of the present invention is able to divide a charging session into a plurality of charging cycles. Each charging cycle may include charging cycle commencement and charging cycle termination notifications issued by the charge spot. Desirably, the charge spot connects the electrical charging power to the charging device only after receiving a charging cycle commencement confirmation from the charging device, and disconnects the electrical charging power from the charging device after receiving a charging cycle termination confirmation from the charging device.
Conventional charge spots utilize pilot signals, as defined in the standards used nowadays, to receive indications from the charging device connected thereto, and to regulate the electrical charging power drawn by the charging device. However, these pilot signaling schemes does not provide support for allowing the charge spot to indicate the charging device connected to its temporal termination or resumption of the electrical charging power supply.
Though the charge spot may forcibly terminate and resume the electrical charging power supply, applying this type of switching while the vehicle is actively drawing current from the grid is not desirable, and may have negative effects on the charge spot, such as a decrease in the mean time between failures (MTBF) component of the charge spot. Furthermore, the charging devices used in electrical vehicles to manage the charging of the battery are typically designed to consider sudden (unpredictable) removal of the electrical charging power as indicating the end of the charging session, and thus do not permit resumption of the charging session when the electrical charging power is reapplied.
There is therefore a need for a system and method for reliably managing a charging session allowing the charge spot to issue signals indicating that charging is to be temporarily disabled, and that the charging load needs to be removed prior to electrically disconnecting the charging supply power by the charge spot. For example, for electric vehicles, such charging session managing techniques may consider numerous charging signaling schemes employed in the recharging of vehicles' batteries, and use signaling schemes that do not contradict the standards used in the field of electric vehicle charging.
The inventors of the present invention found that a network comprising a plurality of communicatively coupled charge spots may be used to efficiently control the supply of electric charging power supplied by the charge spots. In possible embodiments, the charge spots include a communication interface configured and operable to communicate data with a central control system, and a conventional charging interface mechanically connectable to a charging device (e.g. , at least partially electric vehicle). For example, in possible embodiments the charge spots are compliant with the IEC61851 specification, which does not allow the termination and/or the recommencement of the electric charging supply power to be initiated by the charge spot, and therefore does not provide signaling schemes allowing the charge spot to indicate that it needs to terminate the electric charging supply, or to allow resuming the electric charging supply after such termination.
The inventors of the present invention have developed electric charging session management signaling schemes that can employ conventional communication carried out over a pilot signal line in compliance with standard specifications. In possible embodiments the electric charging session management signaling schemes are designed to allow the charge spot to divide a charging session into a plurality of charging cycles by signaling its intent to temporarily terminate a charging cycle, thereby allowing the charging device to remove its charging load prior to electrically disconnecting the charging supply power by the charge spot. For example, in possible embodiments the charge spot is adapted to indicate the end of a charging cycle upon receipt of data from the control system indicating that supply of the electrical charging power needs to be stopped.
In some embodiments the electric charging session management signaling schemes exploit pilot signals defined in the standard specifications to allow the charge spot to signal to the charging device that the draw of electrical charging power is to be temporarily stopped. For example, in possible embodiments the charge spot signals its intent to stop the supply of electrical charging power by driving a 5% duty cycle signal on the pilot signal line. According to standard specifications, such a signal indicates to the charging device to stop drawing electric charging power from the charge spot and wait for establishment of serial connection. This procedure allows the charging pole to force the charging device to remove the charging load (i.e. , to stop the consumption of the electric charging power) prior to electrical disconnection of the charging supply power by the charge spot.
In possible embodiments the electric charging session management signaling scheme is adapted to allow the charge spot to resume the charging session, once the charge spot is instructed by the control system to resume charging. Typically, resumption of the charging session is enabled upon receipt of data from the control system indicating a level of maximal permissible electric power that the charging device may consume if it needs to resume the charging session in order to further charge its battery.
For example, pulse width modulation (PWM), conventionally used in pilot signaling in standard charge spots to indicate a maximal charging power that the charging device is allowed to draw, may be used in the electric charging session management signaling scheme of the present application to allow the charge spot to indicate that the charging session may be resumed (i.e., by commencing a new charging cycle). More particularly, the electric charging session management signaling scheme of the present application may be configured to allow the charge spot to set the duty cycle of the pilot signal to encode the maximal charging current that can be initially supplied by the electrical grid in the newly commenced charging cycle, by using the standard PWM duty cycle signal range between 8% -97%, as defined in the standard specification. A charging device that receives this pilot signal, analyses the received signal to determine its duty cycle, and based thereon starts a new charging cycle by drawing electrical charging current (i.e., reconnecting the charging load to the charge spot) at the permissible level of electrical charging power, as indicated by the duty cycle of the received pilot signal.
In some possible embodiments the electric charging session management signaling scheme is adapted to allow the charge spot to signal the charging device that it needs to electrically disconnect the supply of electrical charging power by providing fixed voltage signals (e.g., 12V) on the pilot signal line, prior to electrically disconnecting the charging supply power. The charging device may interpret such fixed voltage signal as 100% duty cycle, and responsively stop drawing any further electric charging power. The electric charging session management signaling scheme may be further adapted to allow the charge spot to provide an appropriate PWM pilot signal once charging is allowed to be resumed, and thereby indicate to the charging device that a new charging cycle can be started.
In some other possible embodiments the electric charging session management signaling scheme is adapted to allow the charge spot to drive a PWM pilot signal of 0% duty cycle (e.g., fixed -12V supply) to signal that it needs to electrically disconnect the electrical charging power supply (State F - indicating the charge spot is not available).
In yet some other possible embodiments the electric charging session management signaling scheme is adapted to allow the charge spot to indicate its intent to disconnect the electrical charging power by driving a 0 Volts signal on the pilot signal line.
In possible embodiments, the electric charging session management signaling scheme is adapted to resume the charging session once the charge spot is allowed to resume charging e.g., if so instructed by the control system, by changing the duty cycle of the PWM pilot signal to indicate the maximal electrical current that can be supplied from the electrical grid, e.g., using the duty cycle range of 8%-97%, as defined in the standard specification. Responsively, the charging device sensing the change in the duty cycle of the pilot signal, may resume the charging session according to the permissible charging level encoded in the received PWM pilot signal.
A charging session according to some embodiments may therefore include a plurality of charging cycles. In each of these charging cycles, supply of the electrical charging power may be commenced and terminated by the charge spot using signal indications defined by the electric charging session management signaling scheme of the application. The charging session termination/resumption signals, issued by the charge spot, are received by the charging device which is configured to terminate/resume charging processes (cycles) based on indications encoded in the received signals. The charging session in such embodiments may be terminated by mechanically disconnecting the electrical charging connectivity (e.g. , charging cable) which provides the mechanical and electrical connection between the charge spot and the charging device, preferably after the charging device stops drawing the electrical charging current and signals the same to the charge spot. Therefore, the present invention, in some of its embodiments, allows a charging system to divide a charging session into a plurality of charging cycles. Optionally, the commencement and resumption of the charging cycles are determined based on data received by the charge spot (e.g. , from a control system), which may comprise grid control/management instructions. The charging spot may be configured to select at least one electrical charging session management signaling scheme suitable for indicating to the charging device the commencement and resumption of charging cycles while employing standard signaling conventionally employed in charge spots. By selecting a suitable charging session management signaling scheme, the charging session management techniques of the present application may be utilized to charge charging devices configured to conduct conventional charging sessions as defined in standard specifications. Therefore, conventional charging devices, such as electric vehicles complying with the industry's standard specifications, may be charged using charging sessions of the present application (i.e. , managed by dividing the charging session into one or more charging cycles) with minimal, or without requiring any modifications to the charging configurations of their batteries.
For example, according to some embodiments, whenever the received grid management instructions indicate that the supply of the electrical charging current to the charging device should be stopped, the charge spot issues respective signals, as defined according to some embodiments by the electric charging session management signaling scheme of the present application, to instruct the charging device to stop drawing electrical charging current therefrom. The charging device stops drawing electrical charging power upon receipt of these instruction signals, and then may issue signals to the charge spot indicating removal of the charging load, following which the charge spot terminates the charging cycle by electrically disconnecting supply of the charging power. A new charging cycle may be commenced by the charge spot, for example, upon receipt of grid management instructions permitting resumption of the electric charging power supply, following which the charge spot may issue signals to the charging device, as defined according to some embodiments by the electric charging session management signaling scheme, indicating a permissible maximum level of electrical charging power allowed. Responsively, if the charging device requires further charging, it issues respective signals, as defined in some possible embodiments by the electric charging session management signaling scheme and/or in the standards, indicating its intent to renew the consumption of electric charging power and resume the charging session by reconnecting the charging load and drawing the permissible charging power indicated by the charge spot.
One or more such charging cycles may be required in order to adequately charge a rechargeable battery. Once the charging device determines that its battery does not require any further charging, it electrically disconnects the charging load (i.e. , stops drawing electrical charging current) and indicates the same to the charge spot, which, responsively, electrically disconnects the supply of the electrical charging power to the charging device. Thereafter, the charging session may be terminated by mechanically disconnecting the connectivity (e.g. , connector of an electrical charging cable) between the charge spot and the charging device.
In some embodiments the charging device utilizes an on board communication module capable of communicating with the charge spot directly (e.g. , using wired communication such as utilizing modems, network adapters, or parallel or serial data buses, or wirelessly, such as utilizing Wi-Fi, Bluetooth or ZigBee), or indirectly (e.g. , using a data network, cellular network or via an operator server). For example, in electric vehicles, an on board communication module provided in the vehicle may be used to communicate between the vehicle and the charge spot, and also to communicate with a central control center (e.g. , of a service provider), and/or an operator server. The vehicle may be able to communicate its specific make and model to any of the entities communicatively coupled to it. The communicated information may be used by either the onboard communication module of the vehicle, by the operator server, or by the charge spot, to determine one or more suitable electric charging session management signaling schemes that the specific vehicle supports and that the charge spot may utilize to indicate commencement and resumption of charging cycles. The charge spot may then use one or more of the signaling schemes determined as suitable to indicate to the vehicle the need to electrically disconnect the charging load, and whenever possible, the ability to resume electric charging (e.g. , according to respective indications received over a communication network from the central control system, electric power supply network, service provider and/or operator server).
In other possible embodiments the user of the charging device may use an identification token (e.g. , RFID card, smart card, biometric signature, and suchlike), to be presented to the charge spot for the purpose of identification before starting a charging session. The identification token may include the identity of the user and/or identifying data about the charging device. The identification token may further include further identifying information about the make and model of the charging device, and/or about the electric charging session management signaling schemes supported by the charging device. The charge spot may be configured to identify the electric charging session management signaling schemes supported by the charging device by using the information provided directly from the identification token or by cross referencing it with information maintained in a database of users and/or their charging devices, stored in the control system (e.g., hosted by an operator server). Based on the information maintained in the database, the charge spot may use any of the above described electric charging session management signaling schemes to indicate to the charging device the need to electrically disconnect from the electric charging supply, and whenever possible, about the ability to resume the charging session.
In some embodiments the charge spot is configured to employ different electric charging session management signaling schemes according to the signaling capabilities of the charging device. For example, some electric vehicles are configured to carry out a charging plan that discontinues charging completely until the vehicle is reactivated by the user, whenever the number of the discontinuities of the electric charging power supply is greater than a fixed number of electric charging power supply discontinuities allowed by the charging plan. The charge spot, or control system, controlling the charge spot, being aware of the limitations of the specific vehicle being charged, may be configured to adopt an electric charging session management signaling scheme supporting the charging plan that the vehicle is configured to perform, and to take into consideration this information. For example, the charge spot may adjust the charging session to include a minimal number of electrical disconnections of the electric charging power supply, so as to not exceed the number of charging discontinuities defined by the vehicle's charging plan.
In some possible embodiments the electric charging session management signaling schemes of the present application (e.g., as exemplified hereinabove and hereinbelow) are jointly used i.e., a charging pole may use some or all of the signaling schemes in sequence or use a specific method whenever information on the capabilities of the vehicle is available. In some embodiments the charge spot is configured and operable to monitor the state of the charging load presented by the charging device (e.g. , by monitoring the state of the SW2 switch shown in Fig. 2), and/or the actual current drawn by the charging device, to determine when to disconnect the electric charging current supply after completion of the signaling phase as described herein.
There is thus provided, according to one aspect of the present disclosure, a method for use in charging a battery of an electric vehicle comprising managing a charging session between a charge spot and a charging device of the battery. The method may include connecting between the charge spot and the charging device to enable the charge spot to perform a charging session during which electrical charging power is provided to the battery associated with the charging device, and selectively performing the charging session by a plurality of timely separated charging cycles, depending on data indicative of power management conditions or instructions. The plurality of timely separated charging cycles may comprise issuing signals to the charging device indicating commencement of a charging cycle, and issuing signals to the charging device indicating termination of said charging cycle based on the data indicative of a power network condition.
The power management conditions may include, for example, information relating to loads and/or demands for electrical power from an electric power network, that supplies the electrical charging power to the charge spot, during a certain period of time during a day, week, month or year (e.g. , high peaks of electrical power consumption during the summer between 11 :00 to 17:00). Accordingly, information concerning power management conditions may be used by the charge spot to regulate the supply of the electric charging power based on electrical power consumption rates, and/or any other desirable parameter. Similarly, the charge spot may be configured to receive in real-time (e.g. , over wired communication links, and/or wirelessly) data indicative of power management instructions, and/or conditions, said data used by the charge spot for regulating the supply of the electric charging power to the charging device.
Additionally or alternatively, data indicative of power management conditions and/or instructions may be stored in a memory accessible by, or used in, the charge spot, to thereby allow the charge spot to autonomously determine regulation of the electrical charging power locally. For example, power management conditions and/or instructions may include a predetermined policy used in the charge spot to determine locally the regulation of the electrical charging power supplied to the charging device.
In a possible embodiment the charge spot is part of a power network comprising a plurality of communicatively coupled charge spots. In this case, the issuing of the signals indicating commencement of a charging cycle may be responsive to instructions received from the power network and/or from a central control system. Similarly, the signals indicating termination of a charging cycle may be responsive to instructions received from the power network and/or from a central control system. In some variants, the signals indicating commencement of a charging cycle are indicative of a permissible level of electric charging consumption power.
In some embodiments the method further comprises terminating the charging session by terminating consumption of the electrical charging power by the charging device, issuing signals to the charge spot indicating termination of consumption of the electrical charging power, and disconnecting the supply of the electric charging power by the charge spot.
The method may further comprise an initializing step for determining a suitable charging session management signaling scheme that defines signal patterns supported by the charging device and suitable for indicating the charging device at least termination of charging cycles, and possibly also commencement of charging cycles.
In some applications the initializing step is performed before starting the charging session. In such events the initializing step may include receiving identifying information of the charging device or of a user of said charging device, and based on the identifying information determining the suitable charging session management signaling scheme (e.g. , suitable for indicating at least the termination of charging cycles, and optionally also indicating commencement of new charging cycles).
Alternatively, the initializing step is performed after starting the charging session, and in such events the initializing step may comprise selectively issuing charging cycle termination signal patterns each belonging to a respective charging session management signaling scheme, and upon receiving from the charging device a signal pattern responsive to an issued charging cycle termination signal pattern, proceeding with the charging session using signal patterns defined in the respective charging session management signaling scheme to indicate termination and commencement of charging cycles. Alternatively, proceeding with the charging session is carried out upon sensing that the charging device stopped consumption of the electrical charging power in response to a specific signal pattern, in which case the signal patterns defined in the respective charging session management signaling scheme are used to indicate termination and commencement of charging cycles.
The method may further comprise receiving (e.g. , from the power network and/or the central control system) data comprising electric power supply regulating instructions, issuing signals to the charging device indicative of the electric power supply regulating instructions, and responsively at the charging device, regulating the consumption of electric charging power according to the issued signals.
In another aspect of the present disclosure, there is provided a charger apparatus configured and operable to manage electrical connection of electrical charging power to a charging device. The charger apparatus may comprise at least one connector suitable for at least supplying electric charging power to the charging device, a source of electric charging power connectable to the connector, and a processing utility configured to electrically connect and disconnect between the source of electric charging power and the at least one connector and to selectively perform at least one charging session by a plurality of timely separated charging cycles. Optionally, the plurality of charging cycles are selectively performed responsive to data indicative of power management conditions or instructions received over a communication network or stored locally in a memory of the charging spot.
The charger apparatus may further comprise a communication module for communicatively linking the charger apparatus with a central control center and/or the electric power supply network. In a variant, the processor utility is configured to manage the timely separated charging cycles by the issue of signals to the charging device indicating commencement of a charging cycle and signals indicating termination of a charging cycle, based on the condition of the electric power supply network. Optionally, the processor utility may be configured to encode a permissible level of electric charging consumption power in the signals indicating commencement of a charging cycle.
The charger apparatus may further comprise an input device configured to receive data from at least one of the following: the charging device; a user of the charging device; an identifying token carried by the user or by the charging device. In some applications, the processor utility is configured to determine a suitable charging session management signaling scheme defining signal patterns supported by the charging device and suitable for indicating to the charging device at least the termination of a charging cycle, and optionally also the commencement of a charging cycle. The processor utility may be configured to determine the suitable charging session management signaling scheme based at least in part on data received from the communication module or from the input device. Alternatively, the processor utility is configured to determine the suitable charging session management signaling scheme after starting a charging session by successively issuing charging cycle termination signal patterns each belonging to a respective charging session management signaling scheme, and choosing the respective charging session management signaling scheme upon receipt of a responsive signal pattern from the charging device or upon sensing that the charging device ceased consumption of the electrical charging power in response to a specific signal pattern.
Optionally, the charging device is part of, or used in, an at least partially electric vehicle. The processor utility may be configured to receive data comprising electric power supply regulating instructions over a communication or data network (e.g. , from the central control system and/or the electric power supply network), and issue signals to the charging device indicative of the electric power supply regulating instructions, thereby allowing the charging device to regulate consumption of electric charging power according to the issued signals.
According to yet another aspect, the present application is directed to an electric charge spot network, comprising a plurality of charge spots connectable to charging devices and configured to controllably supply the charging devices electric charging power and communicate a plurality of signals therewith. The charge spots of the electric charge spot network may be configured to receive data indicative of power management conditions or instructions, and issue, based on said power management conditions or instructions, signals indicative of commencement or termination of charging cycles, for regulating the supply of the electric charging power based on the data received.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
In order to understand the invention and to see how it may be carried out in practice, embodiments will now be described, by way of non-limiting example only, with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which same reference numerals are used to identify elements or acts with the same or similar functionality, and in which:
Fig. 1 schematically illustrates an electric charging network and power network according to possible embodiments;
Fig. 2 schematically illustrates standard connectivity between a charging device and a charge spot;
Fig. 3 exemplifies a basic signaling scheme between a charging device and a charge spot;
Figs. 4 to 7 exemplify possible electric charging session management signaling schemes according to some possible embodiments; and
Figs. 8A and 8B are event trace diagrams illustrating methods of determining according to possible embodiments suitable electric charging session management signaling schemes supported by the charging device.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENTS
Reference will now be made in detail to embodiments, examples of which are illustrated in the accompanying drawings. In the following detailed description, numerous specific details are set forth in order to provide a thorough understanding of the present application. However, it will be apparent to one of ordinary skill in the art that the subject matter of present application may be practiced without these specific details. In other instances, well-known methods, procedures, components, circuits, and networks have not been described in detail so as not to unnecessarily obscure aspects of the embodiments.
In the exemplary embodiments described hereinbelow reference is made to charging session of an at least partially electric vehicle. It is however noted that the present invention is not limited to the charging of batteries of electrical vehicles, and that embodiments of the present application may be employed in charging sessions (e.g. , heavy-duty chargers) of any chargeable device or machinery powered by rechargeable batteries, or any other such electrically renewable power source, and that is able to communicate with a charging spot (also referred to herein as a charger apparatus) over a signaling line.
Fig. 1 illustrates an electric charging network 100, according to some possible embodiments, which includes a plurality of charging devices 102 (e.g. , electric vehicles) each having a chargeable battery 104. The battery 104 may include any suitable electric energy storing means, such as, but not limited to, chargeable batteries (e.g. , lithium ion batteries, lead-acid batteries, nickel-metal hydride batteries, etc.), capacitors, reaction cells (e.g., Zn-air cell), and such like. For example, in some embodiments the charging devices 102 are electric vehicles each including an electric motor 103 that drives one or more wheels of the vehicle. In these embodiments, the electric motor 103 receives energy from a battery (e.g. , the battery 104) that is electrically connected to the vehicle (shown separate from the vehicle in Fig. 1 for ease of explanation).
In some of these exemplary embodiments the vehicle 102 further includes a positioning system 105 (e.g. , GPS, or any other satellite or cellular triangulation positioning system) capable of determining the geographic location of the vehicle 102, and possibly also of determining a driving route suitable for reaching a desired target destination of the user 110. The charging device 102 may further include an on board communication module 114 (e.g. , wireless communication, such as RF cellular communication), allowing it to communicate data with a central control system (designated in Fig.l as service provider) 112, with the battery exchange station 108, and/or with the charge spot 106, over the data network 120.
In some of these exemplary embodiments, the battery 104 can be charged at a charge spot 106, also known as a charger apparatus. In some embodiments a collection of charge spots (charger apparatuses), collectively referred to as a charge station 106, may be installed in a specific geographic location and used to provide battery charging services to vehicles. In some possible embodiments, the charge spots 106 provide energy to the charging device 102 to charge the battery 104 of the charging device 102. In the case of electric vehicles, for example, charge spots 106 may be situated at any location wherein the vehicles may be parked or have stopped to recharge their batteries. For example, the charge stations 106 may be located in parking lots of office buildings or shopping centers and/or near street parking spots. In some embodiments, a charge spot 106 may be located at a household of a user (e.g. , the home 130). In some embodiments, the charge spot 106 may charge the battery 104 at different rates. For example, the charge spots 106 may charge the battery 104 using a quick-charge mode or a trickle charge mode.
In some embodiments, the battery 104 can be exchanged for a charged battery at one or more battery exchange stations 108. In the case of electric vehicles, if the user 110 of the vehicle is traveling a distance beyond the range of a single charge of the battery 104 of the vehicle, the discharged (or partially discharged) battery can be exchanged for a replenished battery so that the user can proceed traveling without waiting for the battery to be recharged.
In some embodiments, the charging device 102 includes a communication module 114. The charging device 102 may include hardware and software used to communicate with a service provider 112 of a charge spots network 100 (also referred to herein as electric charging network) of the present application. It is noted that the term "charge spots network" is used herein to refer to a network in which at least one battery charge spot 106 and a service provider 112 are communicatively coupled, for example, over a data network 120. In some possible embodiments the charge spots network 100 may also include one or more battery exchange stations 108, and one or more battery charge stations 106. The charge spots network 100 may also include one or more charging devices 102, each having at least one chargeable battery 104.
In some embodiments, the service provider 112 obtains information about the devices 102 and/or the charge spots 106 and battery exchange stations 108 by sending queries through a data network 120 to the devices 102, the charge spots 106, and/or the battery exchange stations 108. For example, the service provider 112 can query the charging devices 102 to determine their geographic locations and the status of their batteries. Similarly, the service provider 112 may query the charge spots 106, and/or the battery exchange stations 108, to determine their statuses (e.g. , occupied or freed).
The service provider 112 can also send information and/or commands through the data network 120 to the charging devices 102, the charge spots 106, and/or the battery exchange stations 108. For example, the service provider 112 can send information, to the charging devices 102, about a status of an account of the user 110, the locations of battery service stations (106 and/or 108), and/or about their statuses.
In some possible embodiments the electric charge spot network 100 also includes the data network 120 and a power network 140.
The data network 120 may include any type of wired or wireless communication network capable of communicatively coupling communication nodes. This includes, but is not limited to, a local area network, a wide area network, or a combination of networks. In some embodiments, the data network 120 is a wireless data network including: a cellular network, a Wi-Fi network, a WiMAX network, an EDGE network, a GPRS network, an EV-DO network, an RTT network, a HSPA network, a UTMS network, a Flash-OFDM network, an iBurst network, and any combination of the aforementioned networks. In some embodiments, the data network 120 includes the Internet.
As illustrated in Fig. 1, the data network 120 may be communicatively coupled to the charging devices 102, to the service provider 112, to the charge spots 106, to the power network 140 and/or to the battery exchange stations 108. However, in possible embodiments the data network 120 is used to communicatively couple at least between the central control system 112 and the charge spots and/or charge stations 106.
It is noted that only one charging device 102 (illustrated as a vehicle in Fig. 1), one battery 104, one charge station 106 and one battery exchange station 108 are illustrated, for the sake of clarity, and that the electric charging network 100 may include any number of charging devices 102, batteries 104, charge stations 106, and/or battery exchange stations 108, etc. Furthermore, the electric charge spot network 100 may include zero or more battery exchange stations 108. For example, the electric charging network 100 may just include one or more charge spots 106. In some embodiments, any of the charging devices 102, the service provider 112, the charge spots 106, and/or the battery exchange stations 108, includes a communication module that can be used to communicate with each other through the data network 120.
The power network 140 may include power generators 156, power transmission lines, power substations, transformers, etc., which facilitate the generation and transmission of electric power to the various battery charging facilities. The power generators 156 may include any type of energy generation plants, such as wind-powered plants 150, fossil-fuel powered plants 152, solar powered plants 154, biofuel powered plants, nuclear powered plants, wave powered plants, geothermal powered plants, natural gas powered plants, hydroelectric powered plants, and a combination of the aforementioned power plants or the like. The energy generated by the one or more power generators 156 may be distributed through the power network 140 to homes 130, charge spots 106, and/or battery exchange stations 108. The power network 140 can also include batteries such as the battery 104 of the charging devices 102, batteries at battery exchange stations 108, and/or batteries that are not associated with charging devices 102. Thus, energy generated by the power generators 156 can be stored in these batteries and extracted thereafter when energy demand exceeds the amount of generated energy that can be supplied by the power network at a specific point in time.
With reference to Fig. 2, in a typical charging session, a charge spot 106 may be connected to a charging device 102 (hereinafter vehicle 102) using a standard connector and cable 14, as defined by the specification of the IEC61851 standard, for example. As part of the connection 14 a pilot signal line 106p is connected between the charge spot 106 and vehicle 102 that allows the charge spot 106 to control the charging session and regulate the supply of the electric charging power. A control unit 106c is used in the charge spot 106 to drive voltage signals on the pilot line 106p, and measure the voltage Va over a resistive element Rl provided on the pilot line 106p. The voltage signals applied over the pilot line 106p are controllably changed by the control unit 106c by means of a switch circuitry SW1, that arbitrates between a fixed 12V signal and a pulsating +12V voltage signal that is modulated (PWM) by the control unit 106c to provide indications about the permissible electrical charging currents that can be drawn by the vehicle 102 over the electric power supply line 10. The control unit 106c may also control the electrical connectivity of the electric power supply line 10 to the connector 14 using the switching circuitry 106r controllably coupled thereto.
A battery charge controller 102c is used in vehicle 102 to receive indications from the charge spot over the pilot line 106p through a buffering circuitry 102b, and to alter the electrical resistance over the pilot line 106p by controllably changing the state of the switching circuitry SW2. The pilot signal is typically received through a diode D at the vehicle side, such that battery charge controller 102c actually may be capable of sensing only the positive part of the pilot signals. The battery charge controller 102c measures the duty cycle of the signals received over the pilot line 106p and accordingly activates the charger unit 102g to draw permissible electric charging power over the supply line 10 for charging the battery 104.
The control units, 102c and 106c, may be implemented employing any suitable combination of processing units (e.g. , CPU, MCU, and suchlike) and memory units (e.g. , RAM, ROM, EPROM, FLASH, and suchlike) as known to persons skilled in the art. The charge spot 106 may be implemented using various approaches based on the schematic structure exemplified in Fig. 2 and such as described in international patent publication No. WO 2012/007784, of the same applicant hereof, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference. Fig. 3 is a voltage diagram demonstrating a conventional charging session 30 e.g. , complying with the IEC61851 standard specification. Before establishing connection (SI) with the vehicle 102, using the connector 14, the charge spot 106 (referred to as EVSE in the standard) supplies a constant 12V signal on the pilot line 106p. The constant 12V voltage is supplied through the fixed resistor Rl, for example by setting the SW1 switch into a standby state. Once a connection is made (S2) between the charge spot 106 and the vehicle 102, a circuit is closed connecting the pilot line 106p to the GND {i.e., electrical ground) at the vehicle side through the Rl and R2 serially connected resistors, causing the voltage Va observed by the charge spot 106 to drop to 9V. The voltage drop is sensed by the control unit 106c of the charge spot 106 which in turn changes the state of the SW1 switch into a signaling state and starts driving a PWM signal (S3) on the pilot line 106p. The PWM duty cycle applied by the control unit 106c over the pilot line 106p indicates to the battery charge controller 102c the maximal permissible electrical current that the charge pole 106 can supply to the vehicle 102 over the electrical supply line 10.
In turn, the battery charge controller 102c of vehicle 102 signals (S4) its intent to draw current by altering the state of switch SW2 to connect an additional resistor R3 to GND in parallel to resistor R2 (hereinafter referred to as a charging state). The battery charge controller 102c detects the PWM signal over the pilot line 106p and decodes therefrom the permissible electric charging current that the charger 102g is allowed to draw for the recharging of the battery 104.
The parallel connection of the resistor R3 causes the positive part of the pilot signal Va sensed by the control unit 106c of charge spot 106 to drop from 9V to 3V (or 6V, depending on mode of operation). In response to this voltage drop the control unit 106c of charge spot 106 connects the electric power supply V(AQ over the supply line 10 to connector 14 by changing the state of the switching circuitry 106r (S5). The vehicle 102 then starts drawing electric current from the charge spot (S6), not in excess of the permissible maximal current indicated by the charge pole 106 by the PWM pilot signal.
During the charging session 30 the charge spot 106 may decide to change the permissible maximal current limitation by changing the duty cycle (S7) of the PWM signal. The battery charge controller 102c of vehicle 102 senses this change in the PWM signal on the pilot line 106p, and adjusts the maximal current drawn (S8) by the charger 102g, accordingly.
Whenever there is a need at the vehicle 102 side to terminate the charging cycle 30 (e.g., responsive to instructions from the user 110), the battery charge controller 102c stops the charging and current draw (S9), and indicates the completion of the charging session (S10) by changing the state of the SW2 switch into a standby state, thereby disconnecting the additional parallel resistor R3. This in turn causes the positive voltage of the PWM signal Va to go up back to 9V. The control unit 106c of the charge spot 106 senses the change in the voltage of the signal over the pilot line 106p and alters the state (Sll) of the switching circuitry 106r, thereby disconnecting the power supply over the electric power supply line 10.
The charging session 30 is completed when the mechanical and electrical connection obtained by the charging cable connector 14, connecting the charge spot 106 and the vehicle 102, is removed (S12), and the voltage Va sensed by the control unit 106c on the pilot line 106p goes back to 12V. The control unit 106c of the charge spot 106 senses the change in the voltage signal over the pilot line 106p and responsively completes the charging session 30 by stopping the PWM signal modulation (S13) and altering the state of the SW1 switch into a standby state.
Although the standard charging procedure allows the charge spot 106 to control the current level drawn by the vehicle 102, it does not allow charging session termination to be initiated by the charge spot 106, or discontinuities in the electric power supply of the electric charging current. The present invention, in some of its embodiments, provides electric charging session management signaling schemes that allow the charge spot 106 to indicate to the vehicle 102 that a charging cycle is to be terminated, and thereafter, if possible, that the charging may be resumed (i.e. , that a new charging cycle may be commenced), without physically removing the charging cable 14 connected thereto.
A few possible electric charging session management signaling schemes according to possible embodiments may be used to signal the vehicle 102 the charge spot's intent to terminate a charging cycle. Fig. 4 diagrammatically exemplifies a possible electric charging session management signaling scheme used in an exemplary charging session 40 according one possible embodiment. Steps SI to S6 in Fig. 4, which initiate the charging session 40, are substantially similar to the same steps defined in the standard, as exemplified in Fig. 3 and described hereinabove, and for the sake of brevity will not be discussed again.
After steps S1-S6 a charging cycle 40a of the charging session 40 is active. In this example, when the charge spot 106 wishes to terminate a charging cycle its control unit 106c modifies the PWM duty cycle to 5% (S17). This specific duty cycle is reserved in the standard specification for signaling the vehicle 102 of the existence of an additional serial signaling channel between the charge spot 106 and the vehicle 102. Upon receipt of such signaling battery charge controller 102c of vehicle 102 stops the drawing of the charging current and waits for the establishment of a serial connection.
In this example, a vehicle 102 with a battery charge controller 102c which complies with the electric charging session management signaling scheme of this embodiment, stops the current draw (S18), and then disconnects the additional parallel resistor R3 (S19) to indicate to the control unit 106c of the charge spot 106 the termination of the charging cycle, which may then terminate the charging cycle 40a by disconnecting the electric power supply 10 (S20).
The charge spot 106 may signal resumption of the charging session 40 by modifying the duty cycle of the PWM pilot signal to a duty cycle within the valid range of 8%-97% (S21). During the time period between the termination S20 and resumption S21 of the charging session the PWM remains in the 5% duty cycle. Once the modified duty cycle (S21) is noticed by the battery charge controller 102c of the vehicle 102, and in case further charging is needed, the battery charge controller 102c reconnects the parallel resistor R3 (S22) to indicate to the control unit 106c of the charge spot 106 its intent to start a new charging cycle 40b and to draw electrical charging current from the charge spot. Responsively, the control unit 106c reconnects the power supply (S23) to the electric power supply line 10 and the permissible charging current I(AQ indicated by the PWM duty cycle of the pilot signal is then drawn (S24) by the charger 102g.
The control unit 106c of the charge spot 106 may stop and resume the charging process numerous times during the charging session 40 by terminating active charging cycles whenever needed, and commencing new charging cycles whenever it determines that electric charging is permitted. For example, control unit 106c may receive grid management instructions from the power network 140 over data network 120 indicating that the electric charging power should be disconnected, and in response control unit 106c may issue corresponding signals (S17) to instruct the battery charging controller 102c to stop drawing electric charging current. During the charging session 40 the control unit 106c may receive from the power network 140 grid management instructions indicating that electric charging may be resumed, if so needed, and in response the control unit 106c indicates (S21) to the battery charge controller 102c that the electric charging can be resumed.
In some possible embodiments data indicative of the grid management instructions is sent from the power network 140 to the central control system 112 of the electric charge spot network 100 over the data network 120. The central control system 112 may be configured to analyze the grid management instructions received from the power network 140, and based thereon to selectively instruct one or more charge spots and/or charge stations 106 to temporarily stop active charging processes (i.e., to terminate active charging cycles). In a similar way, the central control system 112 may selectively instruct one or more battery exchange stations 108 and/or specific charger apparatuses used in the battery exchange stations 108 or in households 130, to temporarily stop active charging processes. In addition, the central control system 112 may be configured to selectively send grid management instructions to the charge spots/stations 106, exchange stations 108, and/or chargers installed in households 130, based on a predefined grid management policy e.g., defined by a service provider or energy supply/control agency, without receipt of such instructions from the power network.
Additionally or alternatively, the charge spot 106 may be configured to autonomously determine the regulation of the electrical charging power supplied to the vehicle 102, locally. For example, data indicative of power management conditions and/or instructions may be stored in a memory of the charging spot 106 and used by the charge spot to determine locally the termination of active charging cycles and commencement of new charging cycles. The power management conditions and/or instructions may include a predetermined policy used by the charge spot to determine locally the regulation of electrical charging power supplied to the charging device.
Another possible embodiment is exemplified in Fig. 5, wherein steps SI to S6 commencing the charging cycle 50a of the charging session 50 are also substantially similar to the same steps demonstrated in Fig. 3, as described hereinabove, and for the sake of brevity will not be described herein again. In Fig. 5, exemplifying another possible electric charging session management signaling scheme of the present disclosure, the charge spot 106 signals (S27) its intent to terminate the charging cycle 50a by driving the voltage on the pilot line 106p to a fixed 12V (i.e. , PWM with duty cycle of 100%) e.g., using the SW1 switch. Responsively, the voltage on the pilot line 106p is changed into 3V/6V due to the parallel connection of the additional resistors R3 on the vehicle side. The rest of the steps in this example (S19 to S24) are substantially similar to the same steps depicted in Fig. 4, as described hereinabove. A vehicle 102 whose battery charge controller 102c supports this embodiment is configured to stop the charging cycle 50a (S18) and to signal the control unit 106c of the charge spot 106 the completion of the charging cycle by disconnecting the parallel resistor R3 (SI 9). The control unit 106c of the charge spot 106 then disconnects the electrical power supply (S20). Resumption of the charging session, by initiating a new charging cycle 50b in steps S21 to S24, is substantially similar to the same process steps demonstrated in Fig. 4 as described hereinabove.
In Fig. 6, which exemplifies another possible electric charging session management signaling scheme of the present application, the charge spot 106 is configured to signal its intent to terminate an active charging cycle 60a of a charging session 60 by driving the pilot line 106p to a fixed -12V (0% duty cycle) (S37). Upon sensing this signal e.g., if the sensing circuitry is behind the diode D a 0V signal is sensed, a vehicle 102 whose battery charge controller 102c supports the signaling scheme of this embodiment, stops the charging cycle 60a (S18) and disconnects the parallel resistor R3 (S19). In this example the control unit 106c of the charge spot 106 has no way of sensing the change of state in the pilot resistance circuitry at the vehicle side since all negative voltages applied by the control unit 106c are cut off by the diode D at the vehicle side 102, and are not loaded by the resistors. Accordingly, the change in resistor connection state at the vehicle side 102 does not influence the signal on the pilot line 106p at the charge pole side 106, and it is therefore not sensed by its control unit 106c. In this case the control unit 106c of the charge spot 106 may disconnect the power supply (S40) after a fixed predefined delay T delay time period that should allow the battery charge controller 102c of the vehicle 102 to terminate its current draw.
The commencement of a new charging cycle 60b in steps S21 to 24, used for the resumption of the charging session 60, is substantially similar to the same steps exemplified in Fig. 4, as described hereinabove (the PWM signal remains in the -12v level between the termination S37 and resumption S21 of the charging session). The steps SI to S6 in Fig. 6 commencing the charging cycle 60a of charging session 60 are also substantially similar to the same steps demonstrated in Fig. 3, as described hereinabove.
In Fig. 7, which exemplifies yet another possible electric charging session management signaling scheme of the present application, the control unit 106c of the charge spot 106 is configured to signal its intent to terminate a charging cycle 70a in a charging session 70 by driving the signal on the pilot line 106p to a fixed 0V (S47) for a predefined minimum period of time T eia , and to disconnect the electrical charging power supply thereafter (S50). A vehicle 102 whose battery charge controller 102c is configured to support the signaling scheme of this embodiment detects this signaling as a cable unplug event, and responsively stops the charging cycle 70a (S18) and disconnects the parallel resistor R3 (S19). In this example, when the control unit 106c of the charge spot 106 wishes to start a new charging session 70b and resume charging, it drives the pilot signal to 12V (S51) and then uses the conventional PWM pilot signaling to indicate to the battery charge controller 102c of the vehicle 102 that charging session can be resumed. A vehicle 102 which control unit 102c supports the signaling scheme of this embodiment, then connects the parallel resistor R3 (S52) and drives the pilot voltage to 6V (or 3V). The control unit 106c of the charge spot 106 may be configured to determine if the specific vehicle 102 has correctly detected the 0V signaling as disconnect event, by testing that the maximal voltage level of the reapplied PWM signal is actually 6V (or 3V) (and not 9V).
The steps SI to S6 commencing charging cycle 70a of charging session 70 in Fig. 7 are also substantially similar to the same steps demonstrated in Fig. 3, as described hereinabove.
It is noted that some of the signaling methods described hereinabove are not defined in the standards, and thus some of the charging devices may support all, part, or none, of these methods. The support of each of these methods depends on the specific implementation as defined by the individual manufacturers of the charging devices.
In order to overcome this limitation, in possible embodiments information may be sent from the on board communication module 114 of the charging device 102 to the charge spot 106 or service provider 112 to identify the exact type of charging device 102 (e.g. , brand and model of electric vehicle) currently connected to the charge spot 106. Based on the identifying information the control unit 106c of the charge spot 106 may derive the specific signaling scheme to be used to manage the charging session e.g. , by initiating one or more charging cycles in the charging session, if so needed. The signaling scheme used may be any one of the above described methods or any other method. For example, new and different signaling schemes that are specific to certain electric vehicles may be selected based on identifying information received from the vehicle. Mapping information for associating types of charging devices with specific electric charging session management signaling schemes they support may be stored on an on board communication module provided in the vehicle, in an operator server (not shown), or in the charge spot 106.
In some embodiments the on board communication module 114 of the charging device 102 communicates directly with the charge spot 106, via wired or wireless communication and provides it with information on the specific model and make of the charging device 102. The charge spot 106 may use this information to determine the type of electric charging session management signaling schemes supported by the battery charge controller 102c of the charging device 102 to be serviced. Alternatively, the on board communication module 114 of the charging device 102 may be adapted to directly indicate the charge spot 106 and/or the central management system 112 the specific electric charging session management signaling schemes which are supported by the vehicle 102.
For example, the electric charging session management signaling schemes supported by the charging device 102 may be transmitted by the on board communication module 114 to the charge spot 106 and/or the central management system 112 over the data network 120. In possible embodiments the charge spot includes a communication module 106t (wired or wireless), and the on board communication module 114 may be adapted to communicate with the charge spot directly {e.g. , wirelessly, using Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, or ZigBee communication unit, or wired communication using a modem, network card, or serial or parallel data bus), and provide it with data indicative of the electric charging session management signaling schemes supported by the charging device during, or after, the vehicle 102 approaches the charge spot 106.
Fig. 8A is an event trace diagram illustrating a possible embodiment wherein data indicative of the signaling schemes supported by the charging device 102 is transmitted to the charge spot 106 before or during commencement of the charging session. In this example the charging device 102 may send the data indicative of the electric charging session management signaling schemes (80) supported by it together with identifying data (e.g. , device manufacturer and model, and/or serial number) to the service provider 112 (indicated as control center in Fig. 8A) any time before starting a charging session.
Referring now to Fig. 1, in some embodiments service provider 112 hosts and manages a database 40 comprising a plurality of data records 42 each relating to a specific charging device 102. For example, each data record 42 may include identifying information 42a about the charging device 102 and/or about its user 110, data indicative of the electric charging session management signaling schemes 42b supported by the vehicle 102, and additional data 42c as may be required (e.g. , history of previous charging events, information about rechargeable batteries previously used by the charging device, and suchlike). The service provider 112 may be adapted to receive the information 42a 42b and 42c sent from the charging device 102 and record the same in a specific data record 42 in the database 40.
Whenever a charging device 102 approaches a charge spot 106 it may send identifying information (81) about the charging device 102 to the charge spot 106. Upon receipt of the identifying data the charge spot 106 may send a request (82) to the service provider 112 for providing it with data 42b indicative of the electric charging session management signaling schemes supported by the charging device 102, based on the received identifying information. The service provider 112 may then search in the database 40 for a data record 42 associated with the charging device 102, and send a response (83) to the charge spot 106 with the data 42b indicative of the electric charging session management signaling schemes supported by the charging device 102, and any additional data 42c about the charging device 102 and/or its battery 104, as may be needed.
Optionally, the service provider 112 sends to the charge spot 106 the entire data record 42 matching to the identifying information of the user 110 and/or the charging device 102, as received therein in the request 81.
Alternatively, data 42b indicative of the electric charging session management signaling schemes supported by the charging device 102 is transmitted (84) to the charge spot 106 by the charging device 102 before or during commencement of the charging session. The charge spot may send (85) the received information to the service provider 112 to update the database 40.
In some possible embodiments the charge spot 106 includes a user interface module (106m in Fig. 1) that enables it to receive an identification token of the user 110 e.g. , using a RFID card, a smart card, or a biometric signature. The charge spot 106 may be adapted to receive the identifying information from the identification token, and optionally verify it with the service provider 112 (or operator server). For example, the identifying information sent in step 82 in Fig. 8A from the charge spot to the service provider 112 may include identifying information of the user 110 of the charging device 102, and the database 40 may be configured to find the specific data record 42 of the respective charging device 102 according to the received identifying information of the user 110.
The identity token received in the charge spot 106 via the user interface module (106m) may also include information on the charging device 102 of the user 110 and its make, and/or data 42b indicative of the electric charging session management signaling schemes supported by the charging device 102. Alternatively, this information can be derived by the charge spot 106 by communicating an operator server (not shown) hosting the database 40 and capable of matching between users 110 and vehicles 102 according to the received identifying information.
The charge spot 106 then uses the specific supported electric charging session management signaling schemes to signal any discontinuities in the charging session based on the data (42b) received (83) from the service provider 112 and/or power network 140. For example, once connection is established (S2) with the charging device 102, the charge spot may indicate (S3) the charging device 102 the permissible charging power that can be drawn from the grid, and the charging device 102 may then indicate its intent to connect the charging load (S4). Thereafter, the charge spot 106 connects the electrical charging power (S5) and the charging device 102 draws the permissible electrical charging power, and whenever there is a need for the charge spot 106 to disconnect the electrical charging power it will indicate so using one of the signaling schemes (S17, S27, S37 or S47) supported by the charging device 102. In response, the charging device 102 will disconnect the charging load and indicate the same (S19) by altering the state of the SW2 switch. During the charging session any number of charging cycles may be terminated (S17, S27, S37 or S47) and recommenced (S21 to S24), as may be required by central control system 112 and/or the power network 140, until the battery of the charging device is adequately charged. With reference to Fig. 8B, in possible embodiments, the charge spot 106 may be adapted to test some or all of the electric charging session management signaling schemes with the specific charging device 102 connected thereto, and record the response of the charging device 102 (i.e., if it stopped charging when signaled, and resumed charging after pilot signal indicating charging has been reapplied) for future usage with that specific vehicle. For example, such a charging session may include provision of identifying information (86) about the user 110 and/or its charging device 102, followed by the standard steps (S2 to S5) for commencing the first charging cycle. Thereafter, the charge spot may issue pilot signals indicating the need to terminate the charging cycles by changing the duty cycle of the PWM signals to 5% or 100% (S17 or S27). If the charging device 102 complies with any of these signaling schemes it will indicate so by altering the state of the SW2 switch (S19), and the charge spot 106 will then record data indicative of the electric charging session management signaling schemes supported by the charging device 102, and proceed with the charging session accordingly. The recorded data concerning the signaling schemes supported by the charging device 102 may also be sent (87) to the control center 112 for recordal in the database 40 for future usage in any same or other location of charging spots 106.
If the charging device 102 does not comply with 5% or 100% duty cycle (S17 or
S27) signaling schemes, the charge spot may further test if it supports the 0% duty cycle or 0V signaling schemes (S37 or S47). If the charging vehicle 102 complies with any of these signaling schemes by removing the charging load (S18) and/or by disconnecting the R3 resistor (S19), then the charge spot 106 records data indicative of the supported signaling scheme and proceeds with the charging session accordingly. The recorded data concerning the signaling schemes supported by the charging device 102 may also be sent (87) to the control center 112 for recordal in the database 40 for future usage in any same or other location of charging spots 106.
Some charging devices 102 may not support any of the signaling schemes of the present application. Namely, such charging devices 102 may not accept the controlled termination of a charging session by the charge spot 106, and thus may require physical plug out of the charging cable 14 and reinsertion thereof in order to re-initiate the charging process. A charge spot 106 that supports this type of charging device 102 should take this limitation into consideration and modify the charging plan accordingly. Such modifications may include maintenance of minimal current supply to the specific charging device 102 throughout the charging session.
Accordingly, in some possible embodiments a charging session may include a plurality of charging cycles, wherein the electrical charging power between one or more of the charging cycles is reduced to a predefined minimal electrical charging power (i.e. , instead of temporarily disconnecting the electrical charging power). As explained above, for certain types of electric vehicles a limited number of electric power disconnections may be permitted, and thus the charger apparatus 106 of the present application may be configured to reduce the electrical charging power to a predefined minimum responsive to grid management instructions received from the central control center 112 and/or the power network 140.
The above examples and description have of course been provided only for the purpose of illustration, and are not intended to limit the invention in any way. As will be appreciated by the skilled person, the invention can be carried out in a great variety of ways, employing more than one technique from those described above, all without exceeding the scope of the invention.

Claims

CLAIMS:
1. A method for use in charging a battery of an electric vehicle, the method comprising managing a charging session between a charge spot and a charging device of the battery, said managing comprising:
connecting between said charge spot and said charging device to enable the charge spot to perform a charging session for providing electrical charging power to the battery associated with said charging device; and
selectively performing the charging session by a plurality of timely separated charging cycles, depending on data indicative of power management conditions or instructions.
2. A method according to claim 1, wherein each of the plurality of timely separated charging cycles comprises:
issuing signals to the charging device indicating commencement of a charging cycle, and
issuing signals to the charging device indicating termination of said charging cycle.
3. A method according to claim 2, wherein the signals indicating termination of the charging cycle comprises at least one of the following signals:
5% duty cycle pilot;
100% duty cycle pilot;
0% duty cycle pilot; and
0 Volts pilot signal.
4. A method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the charge spot is part of a power network comprising a plurality of communicatively coupled charge spots.
5. A method according to claim 4, wherein the issuing of the signals indicating commencement of a charging cycle is responsive to instructions received over the network.
6. A method according to any one of claims 2 to 5, wherein the signals indicating commencement of a charging cycle are indicative of a permissible level of electric charging consumption power.
7. A method according to any one of claims 4 to 6, wherein the issuing of the signals indicating termination of a charging cycle is responsive to instructions received over the network.
8. A method according to any one of the preceding claims, further comprising terminating the charging session, as follows:
stopping consumption of the electrical charging power by the charging device; issuing signals to the charge spot indicating stopping of consumption of the electrical charging power; and
disconnecting the supply of the electric charging power by the charge spot.
9. A method according to any one of the preceding claims, further comprising an initializing step for determining a suitable charging session management signaling scheme, said suitable charging session management signaling scheme defining signal patterns supported by the charging device and suitable for indicating to the charging device at least termination of a charging cycle.
10. A method according to claim 9, wherein the initializing step is performed before starting the charging session.
11. A method according to claim 9 or 10, wherein the initializing step includes: receiving identifying information of the charging device or of a user of said charging device; and
based on said identifying information determining the suitable charging session management signaling scheme.
12. A method according to claim 9, wherein the initializing step is performed after starting the charging session, and wherein said initializing step comprises selectively issuing charging cycle termination signal patterns, each of said charging cycle termination signal patterns belonging to a respective charging session management signaling scheme, and upon receiving from the charging device a signal pattern responsive to an issued charging cycle termination signal pattern, proceeding with said charging session using signals patterns defined in the respective charging session management signaling scheme.
13. A method according to claim 9, wherein the initializing step is performed after starting the charging session, comprising successively issuing charging cycle termination signal patterns, each of said charging cycle termination signal patterns belonging to a respective charging session management signaling scheme, and upon sensing that the charging device stopped consumption of the electrical charging power, proceeding with said charging session using signals patterns defined in the respective charging session management signaling scheme.
14. A method according to any one of claims 1 to 13, further comprising:
receiving data indicative of electric power supply regulating instructions;
issuing signals to the charging device indicative of said electric power supply regulating instructions; and responsively at the charging device
regulating the consumption of electric charging power according to the issued signals.
15. A method according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the charging device is an at least partially electric vehicle.
16. A charger apparatus for electrically charging a chargeable device, comprising:
at least one connector suitable for at least supplying electric charging power to said chargeable device;
a source of electric charging power; and
a processing utility configured to:
electrically connect and disconnect between said source of electric charging power and said at least one connector; and selectively perform at least one charging session by a plurality of timely separated charging cycles, depending on power management conditions or instructions.
17. A charger apparatus according to claim 16, further comprising a communication module for communicatively linking said charger apparatus with the electric power supply network.
18. A charger apparatus according to claim 16 or 17, wherein the processor utility is configured to manage the timely separated charging cycles by the issue of signals to the chargeable device indicating termination of a charging cycle.
19. A charger according to claim 18, wherein the signals indicating termination of the charging cycle comprises at least one of the following signals:
5% duty cycle pilot;
100% duty cycle pilot;
0% duty cycle pilot; and
0 Volts pilot signal.
20. A charger apparatus according to claim 18 or 19, wherein the processor utility is configured to issue signals to the chargeable device indicating commencement of a charging cycle.
21. A charger apparatus according to claim 20, wherein the processor utility is configured to encode a permissible level of electric charging consumption power in the signals indicating commencement of a charging cycle.
22. A charger apparatus according to any one of claims 16 to 21, further comprising an input device configured to receive data from at least one of the following: the chargeable device; a user of said chargeable device; an identifying token carried by said user or by said chargeable device.
23. A charger apparatus according to any one of claims 16 to 22, wherein the processor utility is configured to determine a suitable charging session management signaling scheme, said suitable charging session management signaling scheme defining signal patterns supported by the chargeable device and suitable for indicating the chargeable device at least termination of a charging cycle, and wherein said processor utility is configured to determine said suitable charging session management signaling scheme based at least in part on data received from the communication module or from the input device.
24. A charger apparatus according to any one of claims 16 to 23, wherein the processor utility is configured to determine a suitable charging session management signaling scheme, said suitable charging session management signaling scheme defines signal patterns supported by the chargeable device and suitable for indicating to the chargeable device at least the termination of a charging cycle, and wherein the processor utility is configured to determine the suitable charging session management signaling scheme after starting a charging session by successively issuing charging cycle termination signal patterns, each of said charging cycle termination signal patterns belonging to a respective charging session management signaling scheme, and choosing the respective charging session management signaling scheme upon receipt of a responsive signal pattern from the chargeable device or upon sensing that the chargeable device stopped consumption of the electrical charging power.
25. A charger apparatus according to any one of claims 16 to 24, wherein the chargeable device is an at least partially electric vehicle, and wherein the processor utility is configured to:
receive data indicative of electric power supply regulating instructions; and issue signals to the chargeable device indicative of said electric power supply regulating instructions, thereby allowing the chargeable device to regulate the consumption of electric charging power according to the issued signals.
26. An electric charge spot network, comprising
a plurality of charge spots connectable to charging devices and configured to controllably supply said charging devices electric charging power and communicate a plurality of signals therewith, said charge spots being configured to receive data indicative of power management conditions or instructions, and issue, based on said power management conditions or instructions, signals indicative of commencement or termination of charging cycles, for regulating the supply of the electric charging power based on said data.
PCT/IL2013/050109 2012-02-20 2013-02-06 Charging management method and system WO2013124841A1 (en)

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