WO2013109273A1 - Ammonia storage system - Google Patents

Ammonia storage system Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2013109273A1
WO2013109273A1 PCT/US2012/021801 US2012021801W WO2013109273A1 WO 2013109273 A1 WO2013109273 A1 WO 2013109273A1 US 2012021801 W US2012021801 W US 2012021801W WO 2013109273 A1 WO2013109273 A1 WO 2013109273A1
Authority
WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
mantle
container
storage system
ammonia
outer wall
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/US2012/021801
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Gregory A. Griffin
Timothy Yoon
Original Assignee
International Engine Intellectual Property Company, Llc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by International Engine Intellectual Property Company, Llc filed Critical International Engine Intellectual Property Company, Llc
Priority to PCT/US2012/021801 priority Critical patent/WO2013109273A1/en
Publication of WO2013109273A1 publication Critical patent/WO2013109273A1/en

Links

Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N3/00Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust
    • F01N3/08Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for rendering innocuous
    • F01N3/10Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for rendering innocuous by thermal or catalytic conversion of noxious components of exhaust
    • F01N3/18Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for rendering innocuous by thermal or catalytic conversion of noxious components of exhaust characterised by methods of operation; Control
    • F01N3/20Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for rendering innocuous by thermal or catalytic conversion of noxious components of exhaust characterised by methods of operation; Control specially adapted for catalytic conversion ; Methods of operation or control of catalytic converters
    • F01N3/2066Selective catalytic reduction [SCR]
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N2450/00Methods or apparatus for fitting, inserting or repairing different elements
    • F01N2450/30Removable or rechangeable blocks or cartridges, e.g. for filters
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N2610/00Adding substances to exhaust gases
    • F01N2610/02Adding substances to exhaust gases the substance being ammonia or urea
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N2610/00Adding substances to exhaust gases
    • F01N2610/06Adding substances to exhaust gases the substance being in the gaseous form
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A50/00TECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE in human health protection
    • Y02A50/20Air quality improvement or preservation
    • Y02A50/23Emission reduction or control
    • Y02A50/232Catalytic converters
    • Y02A50/2322Catalytic converters for exhaust after-treatment of internal combustion engines in vehicles
    • Y02A50/2325Selective Catalytic Reactors [SCR]
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/10Internal combustion engine [ICE] based vehicles
    • Y02T10/20Exhaust after-treatment
    • Y02T10/24Selective Catalytic Reactors for reduction in oxygen rich atmosphere

Abstract

An ammonia storage system for use with a NOx reduction system in a vehicle is described. The system includes a mantle for housing and heating an ammonia container, the mantle having an inner wall with a circumference which decreases longitudinally rearward. The container, with a circumference which matches the mantle taper following the formula tan (θ) = μ, where θ is an angle of the container outer wall and μ is a friction coefficient between the mantle inner wall and the container outer wall, is capable of insertion and withdrawal from the mantle. Either the container outer wall or the mantle inner wall may be layered with frictionreducing material. A retainer mechanism may be utilized for holding the container within the mantle.

Description

D6943

AMMONIA STORAGE SYSTEM

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0001] The present system relates to reductant storage and release for use with a vehicle exhaust gas NOx reduction system. Specifically, the system relates to an ammonia storage and release system using a storage canister.

BACKGROUND

[0002] Compression ignition engines provide advantages in fuel economy, but produce both NOx and particulates during normal operation. New and existing regulations continually challenge manufacturers to achieve good fuel economy and reduce the particulates and NOx emissions. Lean-burn engines achieve the fuel economy objective, but the high concentrations of oxygen in the exhaust of these engines yields significantly high concentrations of NOx as well. Accordingly, the use of NOx reducing exhaust treatment schemes is being employed in a growing number of systems.

[0003] One such system is the direct addition of ammonia gas to the exhaust stream in conjunction with an after-treatment device. It is an advantage to deliver ammonia directly in the form of a gas, both for simplicity of the flow control system and for efficient mixing of reducing agent, ammonia, with the exhaust gas. The direct use of ammonia also eliminates potential difficulties related to blocking of the dosing system, which are caused by precipitation or impurities, e.g., in a liquid-based urea solution. In addition, an aqueous urea solution cannot be dosed at a low engine speed and load since the temperature of the exhaust line would be too low for complete conversion of urea to ammonia (and C02).

[0004] Transporting ammonia as a pressurized fluid, however, can be hazardous if the container bursts caused by an accident or if a valve or tube breaks. In the case of using a solid storage medium, the safety issues are much less critical since a small amount of heat is required to release the ammonia and the equilibrium pressure at room temperature can be— if a proper solid material is chosen— well below 1 bar. Solid ammonia can be provided in many forms, including disks and balls loaded into a metal cartridge or canister. A single cartridge or several cartridges are then loaded into a mantle or other vehicle on-board storage structure and connected to the appropriate vehicle systems for use. A requisite amount of heat is applied to the D6943 cartridges, which then causes the ammonia-containing storage material to release its ammonia gas into an after-treatment device and the exhaust system of a vehicle, for example. Therefore, regulating and maintaining the heat in and around the cartridges is important for consistent and efficient release of ammonia into the exhaust stream, and more effective reduction of NOx. An efficient system requires that multiple cartridge system configurations be heated sequentially, with only one cartridge being actively heated at a time. Furthermore, it is desirable to provide heating to the cartridges during all vehicle operations. The disclosed system is easy to use and relatively inexpensive to manufacture and install.

SUMMARY

[0005] In an embodiment, the storage system comprises a mantle for housing and heating an ammonia container, the mantle having an inner wall with a circumference which increases longitudinally from a first end toward an opening at a second end. An ammonia container, with a circumference which increases longitudinally from a first end toward a second end, is capable of insertion and withdrawal from the opening of the mantle. In order to facilitate the insertion, one of either the outer wall of the ammonia container or the inner wall of the mantle is comprised of a friction-reducing material, such as tetrafluoroethylene-impregnated cloth. The mantle is mounted to a vehicle such that the longitudinal axis of the mantle is substantially parallel to the ground.

[0006] Embodiments of the system result in containers which are self-centering within the mantle. To facilitate removal of the self-centering container from the mantle, embodiments follow the formula: tan (Θ) = μ, where Θ is an angle of the container outer wall and μ is a friction coefficient between the inner wall of the mantle and the outer wall of the ammonia container.

[0007] A retainer mechanism may also be utilized for holding the container within the mantle during operation of the vehicle. A quick-release mechanism, for example, can be used to prevent sliding of the container from the mantle. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0008] FIG. 1 is a side view of an embodiment of an ammonia container in accordance with the present disclosure;

[0009] FIG. 2 is a perspective view of an embodiment of an ammonia storage system in accordance with the present disclosure;

[0010] FIG. 3 is a side view of an embodiment of a retainer mechanism; and,

[0011] FIG. 4 is a perspective view showing another embodiment of a retainer mechanism.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0012] Referring to FIGS. 1-4, there is illustrated a system for storage of a reductant, such as gaseous ammonia, for use in the reduction of NOx in an exhaust gas stream (EGNR). The present storage system, generally designated by the numeral 10, is discussed with respect to ammonia storage, specifically for storing a supply of ammonia used in an after-treatment device (not shown) for a vehicle engine exhaust (not shown). As the exhaust system of a vehicle, including that of a diesel engine, is well-known, it will not be described in detail here.

[0013] In the NOx reduction system, ammonia gas is delivered to the vehicle exhaust stream by way of a fluid connection and an injector positioned within the exhaust stream. The ammonia source used for ammonia dosing in the exhaust stream may include a number of units comprised of at least one cartridge or canister 12. The ammonia-containing material loaded into the canisters 12 is generally in a solid form, such as a compressed powder or granules, and may include any suitable shape for packing into the canisters, including disks, balls, granules, or a tightly-packed powder.

[0014] Suitable material for use with the present system include metal-ammine salts, which offer a solid storage medium for ammonia, and represent a safe, practical and compact option for storage and transportation of ammonia. Ammonia may be released from the metal ammine salt by heating the salt to temperatures in the range from 10°C to the melting point of the metal ammine salt complex, for example, to a temperature from 30° to 700°C, and preferably to a temperature of from 100° to 500°C. Generally speaking, metal ammine salts useful in the present device include the general formula M(NH3)nXz, where M is one or more metal ions capable of binding ammonia, such as Li, Mg, Ca, Sr, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, etc., n is the coordination number usually 2-12, and X is one or more anions, depending on the valence of M, where representative examples of X are F, CI, Br, I, S04, M0O4, PO4, etc. Ammonia saturated strontium chloride, Sr(NH3)Cl2, is used in one embodiment. While embodiments using ammonia as the reductant are disclosed, the present disclosure is not limited to such embodiments, and other reductants may be utilized instead of, or in addition to, ammonia for carrying out the system and method disclosed and claimed herein. Examples of such other, or additional reductants include, but are not limited to, urea, and ammonium carbamate.

[0015] As noted above, in order to use the ammonia in gas form for the treatment of NOx in an exhaust system, it is necessary to apply a sufficient amount of heat to the canister 12, and thus the ammonia-containing material, in order to release the ammonia into its useful gaseous form. Useful heat sources have been both external and internal to the canister 12. Heating of the ammonia adsorbing/desorbing material in canister 12 is accomplished through use of heating mantle 14. The heating may be conducted from within the canister 12 as well.

[0016] With reference to FIGS. 1 and 2, the notable feature of the system which

distinguishes over all other known designs is the apparent sidewall taper. The sidewall 20 of canister 12 has a decreasing circumference from a front or top end of the canister 12 toward a back or bottom end of the canister 12. Likewise, the sidewall 22 of the mantle 14 has a decreasing circumference from front to rear of the mantle 14. The angle used for both the canister and mantle sidewalls 20 and 22, respectively, is substantially identical. The desired angle (Θ) of the sidewall is measured relative to a longitudinal axis (x) of the system and is determined based on an application of the angle of friction formula which identifies the steepest angle at which a body on an angled surface is on the verge of sliding.

[0017] The angle of friction formula is as follows:

tan (θ) = μ

where,

Θ = angle from horizontal, and

μ = static coefficient of friction between two contacting surfaces.

[0018] An angle (Θ) is chosen such that only a small hand force is required to remove the canister 12 from mantle 14. The use of a friction-reducing material, such as cloth impregnated with tetrafluoroethylene (TFE), may be used to lower the required angle (Θ). D6943

[0019] Another feature provided by the angled sidewalls, 20 and 22, is the self-aligning of the canister 12 within the mantle 14. As the canister 12 is inserted into the mantle 14, the sloped contacting surfaces work to raise the canister 12 into concentric alignment with the mantle 14.

[0020] Still another benefit of the tapered canister 12 is increased heating efficiency.

Regardless of the heating method chosen, the narrowed back or bottom end of the canister will allow heat to be transferred more quickly to the core of the ammonia storing solid. As the ammonia is depleted, it migrates from the cooler inner core to the warmer outer surface of the canister 12. The result is a reduced access time for the ammonia.

[0021] Referring now to FIG. 3, an embodiment of the retention mechanism 16 of the system 10 is shown. Here at least one T-bar latch with an extendable body is fixed to the mantle 14 and is used to engage complimentary receptacles 18 on the canister 12 to lock the canister 12 within the mantle 14. Other quick-release latch designs would work equally as well. Where security is a greater issue, locking features may be provided to the retention mechanism(s) 16 to prevent tampering. Those skilled in the art would readily understand the necessary modifications to achieve the desired security.

[0022] FIG. 4 illustrates another form of retention of the canister within the mantle.

Specifically, the mantle 14 may include a door 15 having a retention mechanism 16, such as a quick-release latch incorporated onto the door. The canister 12 would be retained within the mantle by the door and latch in a known manner, while permitting quick and easy access to the canister. Other quick-release latch designs may work acceptably in connection with the door.

Claims

CLAIMS What is claimed is:
1. An ammonia storage system comprising: a mantle for housing an ammonia container, the mantle having an inner wall with a circumference which increases longitudinally from a first end toward an opening at a second end; and an ammonia container having an outer wall, the ammonia container being capable of insertion and withdrawal from the opening of the mantle; wherein, the mantle is mounted to a vehicle such that the longitudinal axis of the mantle is substantially parallel to the ground.
2. The storage system of Claim 1, wherein the outer wall of the ammonia container has a circumference which increases longitudinally from a first end toward a second end.
3. The storage system of Claim 1, wherein the increase in circumference of the inner wall follows the formula tan (Θ) = μ, where Θ is an angle of the mantle outer wall and μ is a friction coefficient between the inner wall of the mantle and the outer wall of the ammonia container.
4. The storage system of Claim 1, wherein the ammonia container is self-centering in the mantle.
5. The storage system of Claim 2, wherein the increase in circumference of the outer wall follows the formula tan (Θ) = μ, where Θ is an angle of the container outer wall and μ is a friction coefficient between the inner wall of the mantle and the outer wall of the ammonia container.
6. The storage system of Claim 1, wherein the inner wall of the mantle comprises a friction- reducing material.
7. The storage system of Claim 2, wherein the outer wall of the container comprises a friction- reducing material.
8. The storage system of Claim 6, wherein the friction-reducing material comprises tetrafluoroethylene-impregnated cloth. D6943
9. The storage system of Claim 1, further comprising a retainer mechanism for securing the ammonia container in the mantle.
10. The storage system of Claim 1, wherein the mantle comprises a heater for heating the ammonia container.
11. The storage system of Claim 9, wherein the retainer mechanism comprises a spring-loaded swing arm.
12. The storage system of Claim 9, wherein the retainer mechanism comprises a quick-release system.
13. A reductant storage system comprising: a mantle for housing a reductant container, the mantle having an inner wall with a circumference which increases longitudinally from a first end toward an opening at a second end; and a reductant container having an outer wall with a circumference which increases longitudinally from a first end toward a second end, the container being capable of insertion and withdrawal from the opening of the mantle; wherein, one of either the outer wall of the container or the inner wall of the mantle is comprised of a friction-reducing material, and the mantle is mounted to a vehicle such that the longitudinal axis of the mantle is substantially parallel to the ground.
14. The storage system of Claim 13, wherein the increase in circumference of the outer wall follows the formula tan (Θ) = μ, where Θ is an angle of the container outer wall and μ is a friction coefficient between the inner wall of the mantle and the outer wall of the container.
PCT/US2012/021801 2012-01-19 2012-01-19 Ammonia storage system WO2013109273A1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
PCT/US2012/021801 WO2013109273A1 (en) 2012-01-19 2012-01-19 Ammonia storage system

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
PCT/US2012/021801 WO2013109273A1 (en) 2012-01-19 2012-01-19 Ammonia storage system

Publications (1)

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Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4667815A (en) * 1985-01-21 1987-05-26 Mannesmann Aktiengesellschaft Hydrogen storage
US5051391A (en) * 1988-04-08 1991-09-24 Mitsubishi Jukogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Catalyst filter and method for manufacturing a catalyst filter for treating a combustion exhaust gas
US7143773B2 (en) * 2003-11-18 2006-12-05 Amvex Corporation Intermittent pressure module for a vacuum regulator
US20100219195A1 (en) * 2009-02-27 2010-09-02 Cook Matthew R Sleeve for a container
US20110197423A1 (en) * 2010-02-18 2011-08-18 International Engine Intellectual Property Company, Llc Device and method for storage tank restraint on a vehicle
WO2011123309A1 (en) * 2010-03-29 2011-10-06 International Engine Intellectual Property Company, Llc Ammonia dosing cartridge and method
WO2011133752A1 (en) * 2010-04-21 2011-10-27 International Engine Intellectual Property Company, Llc Recharge device and method for nh3 cartridge

Patent Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4667815A (en) * 1985-01-21 1987-05-26 Mannesmann Aktiengesellschaft Hydrogen storage
US5051391A (en) * 1988-04-08 1991-09-24 Mitsubishi Jukogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Catalyst filter and method for manufacturing a catalyst filter for treating a combustion exhaust gas
US7143773B2 (en) * 2003-11-18 2006-12-05 Amvex Corporation Intermittent pressure module for a vacuum regulator
US20100219195A1 (en) * 2009-02-27 2010-09-02 Cook Matthew R Sleeve for a container
US20110197423A1 (en) * 2010-02-18 2011-08-18 International Engine Intellectual Property Company, Llc Device and method for storage tank restraint on a vehicle
WO2011123309A1 (en) * 2010-03-29 2011-10-06 International Engine Intellectual Property Company, Llc Ammonia dosing cartridge and method
WO2011133752A1 (en) * 2010-04-21 2011-10-27 International Engine Intellectual Property Company, Llc Recharge device and method for nh3 cartridge

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