WO2013092818A1 - Plugging fluid and process for plugging a zone of a subterranean formation using this fluid - Google Patents

Plugging fluid and process for plugging a zone of a subterranean formation using this fluid

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Publication number
WO2013092818A1
WO2013092818A1 PCT/EP2012/076312 EP2012076312W WO2013092818A1 WO 2013092818 A1 WO2013092818 A1 WO 2013092818A1 EP 2012076312 W EP2012076312 W EP 2012076312W WO 2013092818 A1 WO2013092818 A1 WO 2013092818A1
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WO
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Patent type
Prior art keywords
cations
fluid
plugging
zone
solid
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/EP2012/076312
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
André Garnier
Cyril SZAKOLCZAI
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Total S.A.
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
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Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B28/00Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing inorganic binders or the reaction product of an inorganic and an organic binder, e.g. polycarboxylate cements
    • C04B28/02Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing inorganic binders or the reaction product of an inorganic and an organic binder, e.g. polycarboxylate cements containing hydraulic cements other than calcium sulfates
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B28/00Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing inorganic binders or the reaction product of an inorganic and an organic binder, e.g. polycarboxylate cements
    • C04B28/02Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing inorganic binders or the reaction product of an inorganic and an organic binder, e.g. polycarboxylate cements containing hydraulic cements other than calcium sulfates
    • C04B28/04Portland cements
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; MISCELLANEOUS COMPOSITIONS; MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS
    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K8/00Compositions for drilling of boreholes or wells; Compositions for treating boreholes or wells, e.g. for completion or for remedial operations
    • C09K8/42Compositions for cementing, e.g. for cementing casings into boreholes; Compositions for plugging, e.g. for killing wells
    • C09K8/426Compositions for cementing, e.g. for cementing casings into boreholes; Compositions for plugging, e.g. for killing wells for plugging
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; MISCELLANEOUS COMPOSITIONS; MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS
    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K8/00Compositions for drilling of boreholes or wells; Compositions for treating boreholes or wells, e.g. for completion or for remedial operations
    • C09K8/42Compositions for cementing, e.g. for cementing casings into boreholes; Compositions for plugging, e.g. for killing wells
    • C09K8/46Compositions for cementing, e.g. for cementing casings into boreholes; Compositions for plugging, e.g. for killing wells containing inorganic binders, e.g. Portland cement
    • C09K8/467Compositions for cementing, e.g. for cementing casings into boreholes; Compositions for plugging, e.g. for killing wells containing inorganic binders, e.g. Portland cement containing additives for specific purposes
    • C09K8/487Fluid loss control additives; Additives for reducing or preventing circulation loss
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B2111/00Mortars, concrete or artificial stone or mixtures to prepare them, characterised by specific function, property or use
    • C04B2111/00474Uses not provided for elsewhere in C04B2111/00
    • C04B2111/00663Uses not provided for elsewhere in C04B2111/00 as filling material for cavities or the like
    • C04B2111/00706Uses not provided for elsewhere in C04B2111/00 as filling material for cavities or the like around pipelines or the like

Abstract

Plugging fluid for plugging a zone of a subterranean formation adjacent to a drill hole, especially an oil drill hole, said fluid consisting of a hydrophobic liquid containing a solid silicate or a solid metasilicate, a clay, and a hydraulic cement. Process for plugging a zone of a subterranean formation adjacent to a drill hole, in which said plugging fluid is transported up to said zone while avoiding any contact with water, and in said zone the plugging fluid is brought into contact with an aqueous solution containing cations chosen from alkali metal cations and alkaline-earth metal cations, by means of which a flash setting of the plugging fluid occurs. The process makes it possible to seal the zones of loss of circulation, to permanently isolate zones of a subterranean formation adjacent to a well, surrounding a well, and to put an end to transverse flows. It also makes it possible to block or close up the drilling wells that must be abandoned.

Description

FLUID AND METHOD FOR CLOGGING plug a ZONE TRAINING UNDERGROUND IMPLEMENTING THIS FLUID.

DESCRIPTION

TECHNICAL AREA

The present invention relates to a plugging fluid for plugging a zone of a subterranean formation.

The present invention further relates to a method for plugging a zone of a subterranean formation which implements this clogging fluid.

This zone of a subterranean formation may in particular be an area adjacent to a wellbore of any kind, be it an oil well, gas, or another aquifer.

The method of the invention makes it possible, during drilling and cementing a well, for sealing the lost circulation zones ( "lost circulation" in English), to isolate permanently the zones of the formation underground adjacent to the well, in particular surrounding the well, and to put an end to the transverse flow of water ( "cross flow" in English).

The method according to the invention also allows to clog, to seal the wellbore that must be abandoned in order to avoid the lift surface and fluidic interaction with the adjacent subterranean formations to these wells, including surrounding these wells. STATE OF THE ART

Loss of circulation can be defined as the total or partial loss of drilling fluids or cement grout in highly permeable zones, cavernous formations, and cracks or natural or induced fractures during drilling or cementing operations.

Lost circulation during drilling or cementing operation is a major problem.

The main consequences of a loss of circulation include the risk of a blowout ( "blow-out" in English) due to weak mud pressure; the possibility of locking the drill stem caused by improper disposal of drill cuttings; the absence of insulation areas due to insufficient filling of the cement; additional costs associated with loss of sludge, the cementing operations to address loss and the delay in the well into operation; losses to the production area causing deterioration training; pollution of the formations surrounding the borehole and in particular aquifers located in these formations; and finally the ultimate, the total loss of the well.

It is therefore necessary, for economic reasons, environmental and safety, absolutely overcome the circulation losses, in other words avoid "from loss" by taking a clogging of training areas where these losses occur. The most common technique to combat the circulation losses is to add in the drilling fluid a lost circulation material ( "Lost Circulation Material" or "LCM" in English).

The lost circulation materials can be granular, lamellar, fibrous or encapsulated.

Thus flakes and fibrous particles, essentially based on cellulosic materials, or walnut shells, they are used for sealing cracks, cavities and porous.

Polymers, gels, or minerals such as mica are also commonly used.

If even very high concentrations of lost circulation materials fail to address these losses then placed a cement plug.

The cement plug clogged empty but also seals the bore hole and must be drilled before continuing drilling. Very often this operation must be repeated several times before a satisfactory seal is obtained.

Other techniques to combat the circulation losses using reactive fluids.

In these techniques, two or more reactive fluids conveyed separately, are contacted in the zone where the lost circulation occurs and form a solid rubbery mass or viscous plug commonly known as "gunk plug" which seals the zone.

To prevent the mixing of fluids before they occur in the area which it is desired seal, can pump a buffer plug ( "spacer" in English) to isolate the fluids from each other, or one fluid can be pumped through the drill pipe while another fluid is fed into the annular surrounding this rod, at the interface of two fluids turbulent flow then causes the formation of said viscous plug.

Among the reactive fluids which are commonly used include fluids that involve a hydration reaction, including the clay suspensions such as bentonite or smectite in diesel called "Diesel Oil Bentonite" or BDO in English.

BDO reagent fluid is pumped into the drill pipe while the water is pumped into the annulus, the meeting of the two fluids out of the drill string causes the formation of a viscous plug due to the swelling of clays with water.

This cap may temporarily halt the loss of traffic but can be washed away by the circulating fluids and disappear in training. This cap has a low mechanical strength and is, in fact, ultimately inefficient to obstruct circulation losses.

Cement can be added to the reactive fluids type BDO to give suspensions of clays, and cement, into diesel fuel called "Diesel Oil Cement Bentonite" or BDOC English. The same swelling clay by water reaction as in the BDOS occurs but more cement hydrates and reinforces the strength of the resulting plug is solid and no longer viscous.

The fluids are similar to BDO2C referred BDOC fluid but contain larger quantities of cement, which further improves the properties of the resulting cap.

However, it is difficult to prevent the cap obtained with both BDOC fluids that BDO2C is washed before it is made.

Can also include an accelerator type calcium chloride taken in the reactive fluids BDO BDOC or BD02C, thereby improving the behavior of the plug at low temperatures, for example between 2 ° C and 20 ° C.

The success rates achieved to end the circulation losses BDOC using reactive fluids BDO2C even possible addition of accelerators, however, are still very low.

Other reactive fluids using crosslinked polymer gels whose reaction is initiated on surface.

The technologies using reactive fluids diesel fuel base and clay or crosslinked gels are all very risky because even small variations in the fluid composition or temperature, or fluid contamination may lead to premature gelation in and around the facilities at the well bottom, causing huge operational problems.

WO-A1-03 / 014 520 discloses a sensitive sealing fluid shear which is constituted by an emulsion comprising a dispersed aqueous phase and a hydrophobic phase, oil continuous containing a polymer of a derivative of cellulose ether, d a surfactant and a crosslinking agent of the polymer.

When the emulsion is subjected to shear, for example in the nozzles of the drill bit, a crosslinking reaction of the polymer and gelling of the plugging fluid occur.

Once the setting of the gel is completed, can then be drilled back to-through this gel.

This has the disadvantage of clogging fluid have limited operating temperature range, and to be prepared from expensive products and little available including remote drilling sites.

This clogging fluid therefore does not allow to respond quickly to an emergency occurring at an unexpected traffic loss.

Other clogging fluids available on the market, are activated when the temperature exceeds a certain threshold. If the temperature in the well is less than this threshold temperature, the risk that these fluids are in the well and close off the drill pipe, if for against the temperature in the well is less than this temperature so no control threshold will occur . Moreover, the document

US-A1-2008 / 0066655 discloses a cementitious mixture of low density. The cementitious mixture comprises Portland cement; a reactive pozzolanic material selected from diatomaceous earth, zeolites and aluminum silicate; a silicate and / or an alkali metasilicate; and an inorganic salt setting accelerator. All components of the cementitious mixture are mixed together with water to give an aqueous suspension.

The compositions of this document are therefore aqueous compositions that can be used in well cementing operations and not clogging operations aimed, in particular the curative treatment of cement losses in underground faults.

In addition, these compositions when exposed to water flows are quickly leached before they can harden.

There is therefore in the light of the above a need for a sealing fluid that can be prepared quickly and easily with products of low cost, easily and immediately available even on sites located in remote areas or at sea.

There is also a need for a reactive plugging fluid that reacts, hardens, takes very quickly in the area to be sealed to give in a very short time a mechanically very resistant cap and can not be washed, driven by flows of water even high flow rates.

There is also a need for a fluid reagent clogging that can be implemented in a wide temperature range and gives very mechanically resistant caps over a long period, and when they are exposed to high temperatures and pressures.

The purpose of the present invention, among others, to provide a sealing fluid that meets those needs and does not have the drawbacks, defects, limitations and disadvantages of fluids clogging of the prior art and which solves the problems by the sealing fluids of the prior art and in particular by the said fluids "BDO" or "BDOC".

STATEMENT OF INVENTION

This aim and others are achieved in accordance with the invention, a plugging fluid for plugging a zone of a subterranean formation adjacent a wellbore, said fluid being constituted by a hydrophobic liquid containing a solid silicate and / solid or a metasilicate, a clay, and a hydraulic cement.

The hydrophobic fluid is generally selected from drilling fluids to oils such as mineral oils, vegetable oils, ester oils, ether oils, diesel fuels; and mixtures thereof. Preferably the hydrophobic liquid is selected from diesel fuels. All types of diesel fuels can be used in the fluid of the invention, whether such diesel quality called "summer" diesel quality called "winter" or diesel quality called "Arctic" .

Selected oils must, moreover, preferably be compatible with the drilling fluids used in the borehole where the sealing operation is performed, and with the environmental regulations that prohibit example, the oils containing aromatic compounds on offshore drilling .

Drilling fluid oils which are particularly suitable for use in plugging fluid according to the invention are products available from the company under the name Total Fluids EDC 95-11 and EDC 99-DW.

The hydrophobic liquid contains a solid silicate or metasilicate.

Advantageously, the solid silicate is selected from alkali metal silicates, aluminum silicate, and mixtures thereof; and the solid metasilicate is selected from alkali metal metasilicates, aluminum metasilicate, and mixtures thereof.

Preferably, the solid metasilicate is sodium metasilicate.

Sodium metasilicate (2 SiO 3) is notably available from Schlumberger under the name "D079". Sodium metasilicate is a solid compound whose solubility in water is low and whose dissolution can be quite long, but the reaction then obtained with the sodium metasilicate is similar to the response obtained with sodium silicate that it the disadvantage of being liquid.

The hydrophobic liquid also contains a clay.

This clay may be selected from any conventionally used in drilling fluids clays.

Thus, the clay may be selected from bentonites, smectites and mixtures thereof.

A preferred clay is bentonite in particular due to its wide availability and its ability to absorb large amounts of water.

The hydrophobic liquid also contains a hydraulic cement.

Advantageously, the hydraulic cement is selected from Portland cements such as Portland cements class A, class G or H class

The plugging fluid according to the invention may optionally further comprise one or more additives such as materials to avoid traffic losses ( "Lost Circulation Material" LCM or English), and if we need to play on density, lightening agents such as hollow spheres, e.g. aluminosilicate spheres to lighten the cap or weighting agents, such as sand, barites (barium sulfate), hematite, ilmenites, and manganese tetraoxide .

Materials to avoid loss of circulation may be chosen from all materials conventionally used for this purpose such as the materials already mentioned above, such as walnut shells, fibers, calcium carbonate, mica, etc.

A preferred plugging fluid according to the invention comprises:

from 100 to 1000 kg of hydraulic cement / m 3 of a hydrophobic liquid, preferably 700 to 900 kg of hydraulic cement / m 3 of a hydrophobic liquid, and more preferably 800 kg of hydraulic cement / m 3 of a hydrophobic liquid;

from 100 to 1000 kg of clay / m 3 of a hydrophobic liquid, preferably 400 to 600 kg of clay / m 3 of a hydrophobic liquid, and more preferably 500 kg clay / m 3 of a hydrophobic liquid;

from 1 to 150 kg of solid silicate and / or solid metasilicate / m 3 of a hydrophobic liquid, preferably 75 kg of solid silicate and / or solid metasilicate / m 3 of a hydrophobic liquid. Plugging fluid according to the invention is free from water, more precisely free of unbound water and may be simply defined as a hydrophobic phase, namely an oil phase.

The liquid being hydrophobic is free from water, more precisely free of unbound water, and the solid and / or solid metasilicate silicate is generally anhydrous.

Plugging fluid according to the invention is a suspension of solid compounds namely clay, cement, silicate or metasilicate solid in a hydrophobic liquid, which could also be called slurry ( "slurry" in English) .

Plugging fluid according to the invention may be more specifically defined as a type of fluid Suspension Bentonite Cement Diesel ( "Bentonite Diesel Oil Cement Slurry" or BDOC English) which further comprises a silicate or metasilicate solid.

Plugging fluid according to the invention has never been described in the prior art where the addition of a silicate or metasilicate solid BDOC to a suspension type has never been mentioned.

The fluid of the invention provides a solution to the problems that were posed by clogging fluids of the prior art and does not have the drawbacks of these clogging fluids.

It turned out, surprisingly, that when the plugging fluid of the invention was contacted with an aqueous solution containing alkali metal cations or alkaline earth metal such as calcium or sodium cations, the reaction between the solid silicate or solid metasilicate and these cations led to a flash plug ( "flash set") cement. By flash plug generally means that a solid plug and resistant is obtained within less than 1 minute.

The solid silicate or metasilicate also reacts with the calcium ions which are released by the cement after its contact with water, and clay, such as bentonite, swells in contact with water. These reactions also contribute to the sealing action of sealing fluid according to the invention.

The presence in the sealing fluid according to the invention silicate compounds and solid metasilicate which are setting accelerators allows to obtain, when contacted with an aqueous solution containing cations selected from alkali metal cations and cations alkaline earth metal, curing, setting of the cement in a much shorter duration than the sealing fluids, such as fluids or BDOC BD02C containing no silicate accelerators or solid metasilicate.

Therefore, the plug formed quickly has mechanical properties preventing it, unlike the caps obtained with the BDOC or BD02C fluids, to leach driven by water flow of high flow rates occurring in the areas to be sealed.

The sealing fluid of the invention thus overcomes the main drawback of fluid or BDOC BD2C type of clogging, ie leaching, training even before the cement takes place. Example 2 provided below illustrates the effectiveness of the resulting clogging with plugging fluid according to the invention compared to BDO or BDOC type fluids.

All compounds found in the hydrophobic liquid are solids which are surrounded, coated separated by the hydrophobic liquid and therefore can not react together, at least until they meet an aqueous phase. Laboratory tests have confirmed that no reaction is produced particularly between the silicate or metasilicate and cement into the fluid of the invention (see Example 1).

The reactivity of plugging fluid of the invention is therefore perfectly controlled.

Plugging fluid according to the invention has the advantage, as BDO type of fluids or BDOC to be activated only when exposed to an aqueous environment.

The sealing fluid of the invention can be easily prepared on the surface and in advance by mixing the components in mixers protected from rainwater. The prepared sealing fluid can be preserved for a long time and can be quickly implemented.

Plugging fluid according to the invention, like the BDO or BDOC type of fluids, is also easily pumpable at any desired flow rate even when it contains high contents bentonite.

The properties of the sealing fluid of the invention does not depend on the temperature, and the fluid of the invention can be implemented in all climates and regardless of the temperature of the subterranean formation to clog.

The fluid of the invention has the further advantage comprise only constituents easily and widely available even on drilling sites located at sea or in remote locations.

All components of the plugging fluid according to the invention are in fact used in large quantities in the wellbore.

Thus, bentonite is it commonly used in aqueous drilling fluids and diesel fuels are products that are found on all drilling sites, even those in the most remote locations, and are essential for to operate equipment and generators. Cement and (meta) silicates such as "D079" are widely implemented for cementing work on drill sites.

The costs of plugging fluid components according to the invention are very low when compared to the financial losses due to the cessation of drilling operations that avoids knowing that the cost of a boring day is close to $ 1 million.

The invention further relates to a method for plugging a zone of a subterranean formation adjacent a wellbore, wherein carries a sealing fluid as described in the foregoing into said area by avoiding contact with water, and is brought into contact in said fluid zone clogging with an aqueous solution containing cations selected from alkali metal cations and alkaline earth cations, whereby occurs a flash plug of the plugging fluid.

The method of the invention because of the implementation specific sealing fluid according to the invention differs fundamentally from methods of the prior art.

The method of the invention overcomes the problems of the methods of the prior art and has a number of advantages that are essentially inherent in the fluid implemented and which have already been mentioned above.

Generally, when contacting the sealing fluid with an aqueous solution, the fluid and the solution are generally both pressurized mixed quickly and the solid silicates or metasilicates react instantly with alkali metal cations or alkaline earth metal (divalent ) for producing a flash outlet.

The sealing fluid and the aqueous solution is generally mixed under the action of shear.

Advantageously, the borehole comprises a drill string or a casing, an annular space being defined between said drill string and said casing and the wall of the borehole and the drilling fluid is carried by said drill rod or said tubing.

Generally clogging fluid is prepared surface in tanks, vats sheltered water including well water and is protected from contact with water until it comes into contact with the aqueous solution. To this end, one could for instance be pumped into the drill pipe or casing a plug ( "pill" in English) of sealing fluid, the plug being framed by buffer plugs ( "spacers" in English) of the hydrophobic liquid such that the diesel that avoid premature contact clogging fluid with water and other contamination clogging fluid.

Once it arrives at the lower end of the drill rod or casing, the sealing fluid then rises through the annular space to the forming zone which one wishes to seal. At this point it comes into contact with the aqueous solution. It is only at this moment that occurs the reaction between the solid silicate or metasilicate and cations selected from alkali metal cations and alkaline earth cations leading to flash setting of the cement and to a very precise and localized clogging.

Or, in the case of a drill pipe or casing having perforations in its wall as is the case for example of a perforated casing 7 '' clogging fluid passes through these holes and into into the annulus where it comes into contact with the aqueous solution to give a flash plug of the fluid.

The aqueous solution containing cations selected from alkali metal cations and alkaline earth cations can be contained in said zone of the subterranean formation and / or the aqueous solution containing cations selected from alkali metal cations and alkaline earth cations can be prepared and / or taken from a remote location of said region and then transported into said area.

Said aqueous solution can thus be prepared by surface and / or the aqueous solution may be drawn, pumped into a formation adjacent to the borehole and / or other subterranean formation.

If the subterranean formation already contains an aqueous solution containing cations selected from alkali metal cations and alkaline earth cations in a sufficient amount and at a sufficient concentration, it will not be necessary to use an aqueous solution containing selected cations from alkali metal cations and alkaline earth cations prepared and / or taken from a remote location of said area.

If the underground formation contains no aqueous solution containing cations selected from alkali metal cations and alkaline earth cations, or contains such an aqueous solution in an amount insufficient and / or an insufficient concentration, it will be necessary to to obtain the desired sealing, to convey into said zone an aqueous solution containing cations selected from alkali metal cations and alkaline earth cations prepared and / or taken from a remote location, which then carry out all or part of the contribution in aqueous solution containing cations selected from alkali metal cations and alkaline earth cations. Thus, the aqueous solution containing cations selected from alkali metal cations and alkaline earth cations, may be prepared on the surface and then fed into said area by said annulus defined between said drill string and said tubing and the borehole wall drilling.

The downward flow of the aqueous solution then encounter the upward flow and / or lateral (in the case of a drill pipe or a perforated casing) of the sealing fluid in the seal zone and contacting them causes the flash setting of the cement.

The aqueous solution containing cations selected from alkali metal cations and alkaline earth cations can also be prepared on the surface and then fed into said zone by an independent tube borehole.

This tube drilled separately makes it possible to bring the aqueous solution to a very specific location of a formation, wherein the sealing fluid was separately fed for example via the drill rod and thus to obtain a plugging in an extremely localized point of training with a limited amount of products.

Advantageously, said cations are selected from calcium cations, sodium cations, potassium cations, and mixtures thereof.

These cations may be in the form of any of salts thereof, for example in the form of their halides such as chlorides; sulphates; carbonates. Preferred salts are chlorides such as calcium chloride, potassium chloride or sodium chloride. The more preferred salt is calcium chloride.

Advantageously, the concentration of said cations such as calcium cations in the aqueous solution is greater than or equal to 3500 ppm / L.

Such concentration is the guarantee that will produce a complete reaction of the solid silicates or metasilicates and a flash plug will occur with certainty.

The area of ​​a subterranean formation sealed by the method according to the invention is generally an area adjacent to a hole wellbore and more precisely a zone surrounding completely or partially the hole or wellbore.

There is no limitation on the nature of the well bore.

It well may be an oil well, gas, or another aquifer.

Blockage effected by the method according to the invention can have many purposes.

Thus, the method according to the invention allows in particular, when drilling and cementing a well, for sealing the lost circulation zones ( "lost circulation" in English), isolate permanently zones the subterranean formation adjacent to the well, in particular surrounding the well, and to put an end to the transverse flows.

The method according to the invention also allows to clog, to seal the wellbore that must be abandoned in order to avoid surface lifts and fluidic interaction with the subterranean formations surrounding the well.

The invention will be better understood on reading the detailed description which follows, given by way of illustration and not limitation, exemplary embodiments of the fluid and the method of the invention. These examples are also implemented for comparison clogging fluids prior art.

This description is made with reference to the accompanying drawings.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS

- Figure 1 is a schematic vertical sectional view of a portion of an oil well in which have been encountered in lost circulation problems and transverse flows primarily sealing treatment according to the invention.

- Figure 2 is a schematic vertical sectional view of part of a petroleum wellbore of Figure 1 after a sealing treatment by the process according to the invention implementing the plugging fluid of the invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF SPECIFIC EMBODIMENTS

Examples:

Example 1. This example is carried out laboratory tests to confirm the feasibility and properties of a plugging fluid according to the invention. a) was added sodium metasilicate

D079 at 10% by weight relative to the weight of cement ( "BWOC" or "By Weight Of Cement" in English) in a plug BDOC.

It was noted that no reaction occurred between sodium metasilicate and cement in the cap of BDOC. b) Sodium metasilicate was added at various concentrations ranging from 1 to 20% by weight relative to the weight of cement ( "BWOC" or "By Weight Of Cement" in English) in the suspension BDOC, and each time a calcium chloride brine having a density of 1.10 g / cm 3 was then added in BDOC suspension containing sodium metasilicate to determine if a reaction occurred.

Despite the diesel environment, the reaction has been well confirmed.

It was determined that the optimum concentration of metasilicate was 10% to 15% by weight relative to the weight of cement ( "BWOC" or "By Weight Of Cement" in English). c) a brine was prepared comprising NaCl and sodium metasilicate in plastic cups and were directly added to the brine to a sample of the plug BDOC # 5 (see Example 2) prepared the day before.

With a high concentration of sodium metasilicate, we felt an exothermic effect after 5 minutes of manual stirring, and the cement was observed. d) Other tests have confirmed that the reaction occurred as well with a brine of calcium chloride with a density of 1.10 g / cm 3 with an NaCl brine having a density of 1, 10 g / cm 3.

Example 2.

In this example, we show that the sealing fluid according to the invention allows to stop losses of movement and transverse flows ( "cross-flow") within a wellbore.

The portion of the wellbore shown in Figure 1 comprises a borehole (1) provided with a casing or tubing 9-5 / 8 '' (25 cm) (2).

This tubing 9-5 / 8 '' (2) is equipped at its lower end with a shoe (3). The tubing 9-5 / 8 '' (2) then continues with a casing 7 "(4) in the borehole of 9-5 / 8" (1). An annular space (5) is thus defined between the outer wall of the casing 7 '' (4) and the inner wall of the borehole (1).

The casing 7 '' (4) is a production tubing called "liner", which comprises perforations (6) in its lower part. At the base of the casing 7 '' (4) is a shoe (7).

The wellbore shown in Figure 1 is further provided, conventionally, with a drill rod (8).

represented Drilling in Figure 1 passes successively through a said subterranean formation "Object 3" (9), a said subterranean formation "C1PR" (10), an impermeable layer (11), and finally a so-called underground formation "Object 2" ( 12).

When cementing the casing 7 '' (4) of the well depicted in Figure 1, the total losses were observed, resulting in accumulation of cement (13) downhole.

Temperature and pressure measurements showed that these circulation losses were due to a cross-flow ( "cross-flow") of water, or more precisely of CaCl 2 brine, flowing from the "Object 3" (9 ) (arrow 14) and the training "C1PR" (10) (arrow 15) which are areas at high pressures, even in the "Object 2" (12) (arrow 17) which is a low pressure zone, passing (arrow 16) through the annulus (5) behind the casing 7 '' (4), because of the barrier formed by the impervious layer, insulating (11).

It was therefore decided to stop this cross flow to isolate correctly the "Subject 2" (12) of the upper tanks (9, 10).

The main cause of cementing grout losses have been deleted, it would then be possible to resume the cementing operations.

Due to the large flow of cross flow (14, 15, 16, 17), estimated at 240 to 800 m 3 per day, conventional sealing systems such as cementitious grout were dismissed because they would have been washed before start taking or react.

In addition, the delivery of commercial products clogging up drilling, located in a very remote place would have taken several months.

The cross flow to be stopped urgently, so it was necessary to use the products immediately available on site.

Taking into account all these elements, viscous plugs ( "gunk plugs") such as caps BDO BDOC and then appeared as the best solution available.

Indeed, plugs or "pills" type BDO and BDOC are still present on the drilling sites and in large quantities, they have the advantage of being prepared in advance surface in dry tanks, the provided that the mixing tanks are protected from rainwater.

As shown in Figure 2, the drill rod (8) was removed from the wells and replaced by a tube of 3-1 / 2 '' (18) provided with a seal ( "packer") (19). The lower end of this tube (18) opens into the casing 7 '' (4) at the impermeable layer (11). Six types of caps "pills" different type BDO / BDOC were successively pumped into the tube (18) and into the casing 7 '' (4) for 6 consecutive tests in order to seal the "Object 2" ( 12).

The plug of Test 6 is consistent with

1 invention.

The formulation and volume of each stopper is adjusted according to the results obtained with the previous stopper.

The following Table 1 summarizes the concentrations of all caps "pills" pumped into the well:

Figure imgf000028_0001

A buffer stopper before ( "spacer") to a volume of 5 m 3 (corresponding to a length of 250 m in the "liner") and a rear plug buffer of a volume of 2 m 3 must always be used to avoid contact plugs BDOC / BDO with water and contamination from the area into the mixing tank where losses occur.

The plugs pumped into the tube (18) and into the casing 7 '' (4) pass through the perforations (6) in the casing wall 7 '' (4), and into the annular space (5) between this wall and the wall of the borehole at the "Object 2" (12) where they come into contact with the CaCl 2 brine flow (16, 17).

Table 1 shows that clogging with a flash plug has been obtained in test 6, realized with a plugging fluid according to the invention.

In fact, in run 6, there is a rise in pressure to 1200 psi and 660 L / min. when the BDO cap enters the annular space (5). Then, when one lowers the flow rate 180 L / min. the pressure drops to about 350 psi and remained stable until the arrival of fluid sealing plug according to the invention BDOC / metasilicate "D079", which corresponds to the most rapid increase in pressure, showing that a flash plug is well produced.

When comparing the increase in pressure due to BDO plug in test 6 a flow rate of 600 L / min., The increase in pressure of the second plug BDOC / "D079" in Run 6 for an output of only 180 L / min., it is clear the impact of sealing fluid according to the invention on the wellhead pressure, thus demonstrating that the transverse flow (16) behind the casing 7 '' ( 4) have been stopped.

Figure 2 shows the oil well of Figure 1 after sealing treatment by the process according to the invention implementing the plugging fluid of the invention, as has been achieved in Test 6 .

Cracks and cavities (20) in the "Object 2" (12) have been sealed by plugs "BDOC / D079" which are passed (21) through the perforations (6) in the casing wall 7 ' (4) and took instantly cured in contact with the transverse brine flows (15, 16). The plug "BDOC / D079" cured according to the invention has thus clogged, blocked (22) said cavities (20) and it also has a closed portion (23) of the annular space (5) behind the casing 7 ' (4) and a portion (24) within the casing 7 '' (4).

It is clear in Figure 2 that the "Object 3", and training "C1PR" have been isolated from the "Object 2" by implementing the method according to the invention, and all transverse flows have were stopped.

• In order to confirm these results and the fact that the perforations (6) of the casing (4) 7 '' were well sealed by the plug BDOC / hardened sodium metasilicate having undergone the flash plug into the annular space (5) (test 6) were performed compressive strength tests. It has increased gradually applied pressure to the casing (4). The plug BDOC / hardened sodium metasilicate has withstood pressures up to 1500 psi.

• a drill bit was then supported on the cap BDOC / sodium metasilicate cured (24) located at the base of the liner 7 ''. A weight of 2.5 tons to 5 tons was applied to the bit.

The plug BDOC / hardened sodium metasilicate has been applied a value of 3.5 tonnes showing that the capture of the plugging fluid according to the invention was effective.

• This was followed for measures of RST ( "Reservoir Saturation Tool" in English) combined with temperature measurements to estimate the temperature in front of the formations.

A qualitative comparison of the RST and temperature measurements carried out before and after treatment with the sealing fluid according to the invention in the test 6, reveals that the water flow behind the casing 7 '' has was stopped.

Indeed, measurements before the test 6, and after the test 6, show completely different results.

Before the test 6, the temperature profile indicates a cooling due to the flow of water behind the casing (4) between the "Object 3" and

1 "Object 2," while the temperature profile obtained after the test 6, is more consistent with the natural geothermal gradient. This demonstrates that the temperature gradient obtained after the test 6 is not disturbed by the flow of water behind the casing 7 '' (4) and that it has been completely stopped.

Claims

1. The plugging fluid for plugging a zone of a subterranean formation adjacent a wellbore, said fluid being constituted by a hydrophobic liquid containing a solid silicate and / or a solid metasilicate, clay, and a hydraulic cement.
2. The plugging fluid of claim 1, wherein the hydrophobic liquid is selected from the drilling fluids to oils such as mineral oils, vegetable oils, ester oils, ether oils, diesel fuels; and mixtures thereof.
3. The plugging fluid according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the solid silicate is selected from alkali metal silicates, aluminum silicate, and mixtures thereof; and the solid metasilicate is selected from alkali metal metasilicates, aluminum metasilicate, and mixtures thereof.
4. The plugging fluid of claim 3, wherein the solid metasilicate is sodium metasilicate.
5. The plugging fluid according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the clay is selected from bentonites, smectites and mixtures thereof.
6. The plugging fluid according to any preceding claim, wherein the hydraulic cement is selected from Portland cements.
7. The plugging fluid according to any preceding claim, comprising:
- 100 to 1000 kg of hydraulic cement
/ m 3 of a hydrophobic liquid, preferably 700 to 900 kg of hydraulic cement / m 3 of a hydrophobic liquid, and more preferably 800 kg of hydraulic cement / m 3 of a hydrophobic liquid;
- 100 to 1000 kg of clay / m 3 of a hydrophobic liquid, preferably 400 to 600 kg of clay / m 3 of a hydrophobic liquid, and more preferably 500 kg clay / m 3 of a hydrophobic liquid;
from 1 to 150 kg of solid silicate and / or solid metasilicate / m 3 of a hydrophobic liquid, preferably 75 kg of solid silicate and / or solid metasilicate / m 3 of a hydrophobic liquid.
8. A method for plugging a zone of a subterranean formation adjacent a wellbore, wherein carries a sealing fluid according to any one of claims 1 to 7 into said area by avoiding contact with water , and is brought into contact in said fluid zone clogging with an aqueous solution containing cations selected from alkali metal cations and alkaline earth cations, whereby occurs a flash plug of the plugging fluid.
9. The method of claim 8, wherein the borehole comprises a drill string or a casing, an annular space being defined between said drill string and said casing and the wall of the borehole, and the sealing fluid is carried by said drill rod or said casing.
10. The method of claim 8 or 9, wherein the aqueous solution containing cations selected from alkali metal cations and alkaline earth metal cations contained in said zone of the subterranean formation.
11. A method according to any one of claims 8 to 10, wherein the aqueous solution containing cations selected from alkali metal cations and alkaline earth cations is prepared and / or taken from a remote location of said region and then transported into said zone.
12. Process according to claims 9 and 11, wherein the aqueous solution containing cations selected from alkali metal cations and alkaline earth cations is prepared at the surface and routed into said area by said annulus defined between said drill rod or said casing and the wall of the borehole.
13. The method of claim 11, wherein the aqueous solution containing cations selected from alkali metal cations and alkaline earth cations is prepared at the surface and routed into said zone by an independent tube borehole.
14. A method according to any one of claims 8 to 13, wherein said cations are selected from calcium cations, sodium cations, potassium cations, and mixtures thereof.
15. A method according to any one of claims 8 to 14, wherein the concentration of said cations in the solution is greater than or equal to 3500 ppm / L.
PCT/EP2012/076312 2011-12-21 2012-12-20 Plugging fluid and process for plugging a zone of a subterranean formation using this fluid WO2013092818A1 (en)

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FR1162189A FR2984909B1 (en) 2011-12-21 2011-12-21 Fluid clogging and method for plugging a zone of a subterranean formation utilizing the fluid.

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Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5343952A (en) * 1992-10-22 1994-09-06 Shell Oil Company Cement plug for well abandonment
US5370185A (en) * 1993-09-08 1994-12-06 Shell Oil Company Mud solidification with slurry of portland cement in oil
US5921319A (en) * 1997-10-10 1999-07-13 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Methods of terminating water flow in a subterranean formation
WO2003014520A1 (en) 2001-08-02 2003-02-20 Schlumberger Canada Limited Shear-sensitive plugging fluid for plugging and a method for plugging a subterranean formation zone
US20060084580A1 (en) * 2004-10-18 2006-04-20 Santra Ashok K Methods of generating a gas in a plugging composition to improve its sealing ability in a downhole permeable zone
US20060086501A1 (en) * 2004-10-21 2006-04-27 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Methods of using a swelling agent in a wellbore
US20080066655A1 (en) 2006-09-14 2008-03-20 Bj Services Company Low density cements for use in cementing operations

Patent Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5343952A (en) * 1992-10-22 1994-09-06 Shell Oil Company Cement plug for well abandonment
US5370185A (en) * 1993-09-08 1994-12-06 Shell Oil Company Mud solidification with slurry of portland cement in oil
US5921319A (en) * 1997-10-10 1999-07-13 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Methods of terminating water flow in a subterranean formation
WO2003014520A1 (en) 2001-08-02 2003-02-20 Schlumberger Canada Limited Shear-sensitive plugging fluid for plugging and a method for plugging a subterranean formation zone
US20060084580A1 (en) * 2004-10-18 2006-04-20 Santra Ashok K Methods of generating a gas in a plugging composition to improve its sealing ability in a downhole permeable zone
US20060086501A1 (en) * 2004-10-21 2006-04-27 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Methods of using a swelling agent in a wellbore
US20080066655A1 (en) 2006-09-14 2008-03-20 Bj Services Company Low density cements for use in cementing operations

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