WO2013041043A1 - Forging method for high-efficiency closing of porous defects in steel ingots or billets - Google Patents

Forging method for high-efficiency closing of porous defects in steel ingots or billets Download PDF

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WO2013041043A1
WO2013041043A1 PCT/CN2012/081732 CN2012081732W WO2013041043A1 WO 2013041043 A1 WO2013041043 A1 WO 2013041043A1 CN 2012081732 W CN2012081732 W CN 2012081732W WO 2013041043 A1 WO2013041043 A1 WO 2013041043A1
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Prior art keywords
ingot
forging
radial
billet
blank
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PCT/CN2012/081732
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French (fr)
Chinese (zh)
Inventor
徐斌
孙明月
李殿中
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中国科学院金属研究所
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Priority to CN201110282883.6 priority Critical
Priority to CN201110282883.6A priority patent/CN102500733B/en
Priority to CN201210225394.1 priority
Priority to CN201210225394.1A priority patent/CN102756062B/en
Application filed by 中国科学院金属研究所 filed Critical 中国科学院金属研究所
Publication of WO2013041043A1 publication Critical patent/WO2013041043A1/en

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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21DMODIFYING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF FERROUS METALS; GENERAL DEVICES FOR HEAT TREATMENT OF FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS METALS OR ALLOYS; MAKING METAL MALLEABLE, e.g. BY DECARBURISATION OR TEMPERING
    • C21D7/00Modifying the physical properties of iron or steel by deformation
    • C21D7/13Modifying the physical properties of iron or steel by deformation by hot working
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21JFORGING; HAMMERING; PRESSING METAL; RIVETING; FORGE FURNACES
    • B21J1/00Preparing metal stock or similar ancillary operations prior, during or post forging, e.g. heating or cooling
    • B21J1/02Preliminary treatment of metal stock without particular shaping, e.g. salvaging segregated zones, forging or pressing in the rough
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21JFORGING; HAMMERING; PRESSING METAL; RIVETING; FORGE FURNACES
    • B21J5/00Methods for forging, hammering, or pressing; Special equipment or accessories therefor
    • B21J5/02Die forging; Trimming by making use of special dies ; Punching during forging
    • B21J5/022Open die forging

Abstract

A forging method for high-efficiency closing of porous defects in steel ingots, applicable in free forging process for steel ingots of various sizes. In the forging process, an upper press plate (5) and a lower press plate (6) respectively are used by an upper anvil and a lower anvil, a radial upsetting or wide anvil radial compacting process is used to compress a steel ingot (1) or a billet; for steel ingots or billets having a height-to-diameter ratio of 2 or less, the compression rate in the radial upsetting process is between 20 and 25%; and for steel ingots or billets having a height-to-diameter ratio of greater than 2, the compression rate in the wide anvil radial compacting process is between 20 and 40%. The method solves the incapability of the prior forging method to completely forge together the porous defects in steel ingots, particularly one of center porosity, and solves the incapability of the prior forging method to completely forge together the porous defects in billets having a great height-to-diameter ratio, particularly one of axial porosity.

Description

一种高效率愈合钢锭或坯料内部孔洞型缺陷的锻造方法 技术领域  Forging method for high-efficiency healing of in-hole type defects of steel ingots or blanks
本发明属于锻造领域,具体地说就是一种高效率愈合钢锭或坯料内部孔洞型缺陷的锻造 方法, 它适用于各种尺寸钢锭和坯料的自由锻过程。  The invention belongs to the field of forging, in particular to a forging method for efficiently influencing internal cavity type defects of steel ingots or blanks, which is suitable for free forging processes of steel ingots and blanks of various sizes.
背景技术  Background technique
锻造是大部分金属材料加工过程中的重要工序, 通过锻造可以改善锻件内部质量, 即破 碎铸态组织、 细化晶粒、 均匀组织, 并可锻合金属在冶炼过程中产生的縮孔、 气孔和疏松等 缺陷, 对提高锻件质量有着重要的意义。  Forging is an important process in the processing of most metal materials. Forging can improve the internal quality of forgings, ie, crushing as-cast microstructure, refining grains, uniform structure, and forging holes and pores generated during metal smelting. Defects such as looseness are of great significance for improving the quality of forgings.
钢锭在浇注以及随后的凝固过程中会产生縮孔、疏松、气孔等孔洞型缺陷。在金属液浇 注到钢锭模以后, 与钢锭模接触的金属液将首先凝固, 而心部的金属由于热传导慢将最后凝 固。 钢锭心部区域将逐渐形成糊状区, 而此时钢锭冒口顶部表面已经凝固, 导致无法对心部 进行补縮, 最终在沿钢锭轴线的心部区域形成縮孔和疏松等缺陷, 这些缺陷由于尺寸较大, 必须使用有效的锻造工艺将其锻合,否则将造成整件报废的严重后果,导致重大的经济损失。 同样, 对连铸坯来说, 由于没有冒口对其中心縮孔疏松进行补縮, 因此其中心区域通常存在 严重的贯穿性縮孔疏松缺陷, 采用普通锻造工艺难以使其有效愈合, 通常只能使用其锻造筒 类、 管类件, 这就严重限制了其使用范围。  Ingots, such as shrinkage cavities, loose pores, and pores, are produced during casting and subsequent solidification. After the molten metal is poured into the ingot mold, the molten metal in contact with the ingot mold will first solidify, and the metal in the core will eventually solidify due to slow heat conduction. The core region of the ingot will gradually form a mushy zone, and at this time, the top surface of the ingot riser has solidified, which makes it impossible to fill the core, and finally forms defects such as shrinkage holes and looseness in the core region along the axis of the steel ingot. Due to its large size, it must be forged using an effective forging process, otherwise it will cause serious consequences of the entire scrapped, resulting in significant economic losses. Similarly, for the continuous casting billet, since there is no riser to shrink the center shrinkage hole, the central region usually has serious penetrating shrinkage porosity defects, which is difficult to be effectively healed by ordinary forging process, usually only It can be used for forging barrels and tubes, which severely limits its scope of use.
如附图 1所示, 从 100吨核电转子用钢锭内部缺陷的实际解剖照片可见, 钢锭心部区域 形成的縮孔疏松呈细长条状沿轴线分布。 按照钢锭实际大小建立模型, 并使用解剖照片中真 实疏松外形, 对其进行轴向镦粗过程的有限元模拟结果如附图 2所示, 可以看出, 初始疏松 区域(如图中左边部分所示)在经过压下率为 50%的轴向镦粗后, 无法完全愈合(如图中右 半部分所示), 这是由疏松本身的外形和分布状态决定的。 因此, 在整个锻造过程中, 轴向镦 粗无法有效锻合钢锭的中心疏松, 主要依靠拔长来完成对中心疏松的修复。  As shown in Fig. 1, from the actual anatomical photograph of the internal defects of the steel ingot for the 100-ton nuclear power rotor, it can be seen that the shrinkage cavities formed in the core portion of the ingot are distributed in an elongated strip along the axis. According to the actual size of the ingot, and using the true loose shape of the anatomical photograph, the finite element simulation results of the axial upsetting process are shown in Figure 2. It can be seen that the initial loose area (as shown in the left part of the figure) Shown) After the axial upset of 50% reduction, it cannot heal completely (as shown in the right half of the figure), which is determined by the shape and distribution of the loose itself. Therefore, in the whole forging process, the axial upsetting cannot effectively forge the center of the ingot, and the main part relies on the lengthening to complete the repair of the center looseness.
从改变锻件内部应力状态的角度出发, 研究人员提出了 WHF (宽砧大压下量锻造法)、 FM (不对称平砧锻造法)和 JTS (中心压实锻造法)等多种拔长方法。 在提出这些方法的 过程中, 人们已经意识到使用宽砧能够更加有效的愈合坯料的中心疏松, 但这些拔长方法的 砧宽有限导致心部获得的应变较小, 仍然不足以完全锻合坯料的中心疏松。 如图 3所示, 通 过有限元模拟得到的采用 WHF法拔长大高径比坯料的等效应变场分布图, 由图中可见应变 沿轴线方向应变分布不均匀, 在两次压下之间留有接砧区域, 此区域的应变很小, 成为变形 死区, 使这些锻造方法无法有效锻合该区域内的孔洞型缺陷。 大高径比坯料(如连铸坯)或 大高径比钢锭等其高径比大于 2, 无法使用镦粗工艺, 只能对其直接进行拔长。 这就导致其 锻比较小, 中心应变不足, 并在接砧区域存在变形死区, 难以有效愈合中心疏松。 而如果增 大锻比, 会导致锻件最终直径较小, 限制了其使用范围。 From the perspective of changing the internal stress state of forgings, the researchers proposed various lengthening methods such as WHF (wide anvil large reduction forging method), FM (asymmetric flat anvil forging method) and JTS (central compaction forging method). . In proposing these methods, it has been recognized that the use of wide anvils can more effectively heal the center looseness of the blank, but the limited anvil width of these lengthening methods results in less strain on the core and is still insufficient to completely forge the blank. The center is loose. As shown in Fig. 3, the equivalent strain field distribution diagram of the blank with high aspect ratio obtained by the WHF method obtained by finite element simulation shows that the strain distribution along the axial direction is uneven, and between the two depressions. There is an anvil area, which has a small strain and becomes a deformation dead zone, so that these forging methods cannot effectively forge the hole-shaped defects in the area. Large height to diameter ratio billet (such as continuous casting billet) or Large-diameter steel ingots have a height-to-diameter ratio of more than 2, and cannot be used in the upsetting process. This results in a small forging, insufficient center strain, and a deformation dead zone in the anvil area, making it difficult to effectively heal the center. If the forging ratio is increased, the final diameter of the forging will be smaller, which limits the range of use.
发明内容  Summary of the invention
本发明的一个目的在于提供一种高效率愈合钢锭或坯料内部孔洞型缺陷的锻造方法, 以 解决目前的锻造方法导致的无法完全锻合钢锭内部孔洞型缺陷, 尤其是中心疏松的问题。  SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION One object of the present invention is to provide a forging method for efficiently infusing internal hole-type defects of steel ingots or billets to solve the problem of incomplete internal forging void defects in the ingot, especially the center looseness caused by the current forging method.
本发明的另一目的在于提供一种小压下率高效率愈合大高径比坯料内部孔洞型缺陷的 锻造方法, 以解决目前的锻造方法导致的无法完全锻合大高径比坯料内部孔洞型缺陷, 尤其 是轴线疏松的问题。  Another object of the present invention is to provide a forging method for high-efficiency healing of large internal diameter hole defects of a large high-diameter ratio blank in order to solve the problem that the current forging method cannot completely forge the large-diameter ratio internal cavity type of the blank. Defects, especially the problem of loose shafts.
本发明的技术方案是:  The technical solution of the present invention is:
一种高效率愈合钢锭或坯料内部孔洞型缺陷的锻造方法, 在锻造过程中, 上砧和下砧分 别使用上平板和下平板, 采用径向镦粗或宽砧径向压实工艺对钢锭或坯料进行压下; 对高径 比在 2以下的钢锭或坯料,在径向镦粗过程中的压下率为 20%〜25%;对高径比大于 2的钢锭 或坯料, 在宽砧径向压实过程中的压下率为 20%〜40%。  A high-efficiency forging method for injecting internal hole defects of steel ingots or billets. In the forging process, the upper and lower anvils are respectively used on the upper and lower plates, and the radial indentation or wide anvil radial compaction process is applied to the steel ingots or The billet is pressed; for steel ingots or billets with a height to diameter ratio of 2 or less, the reduction ratio in the process of radial upsetting is 20% to 25%; for ingots or billets with a height to diameter ratio of more than 2, in the wide anvil The reduction rate during the compaction process is 20% to 40%.
本发明中, 高效率愈合钢锭或坯料内部孔洞型缺陷的锻造方法, 包括如下步骤: In the present invention, the high-efficiency healing method for forging the internal hole type defects of the ingot or the blank includes the following steps:
1 )对高径比为 1.2〜2的钢锭或坯料进行轴向预镦粗, 将其镦粗至高径比为 0.8〜1.1; 对 高径比小于 1.2的钢锭不需要进行预镦粗。 1) The steel ingot or billet with a height-to-diameter ratio of 1.2~2 is axially pre-crimped, and the upset to high-diameter ratio is 0.8~1.1; for steel ingots with a height-to-diameter ratio of less than 1.2, no pre-bending is required.
2) 上砧和下砧分别使用上平板和下平板, 对钢锭或坯料进行径向镦粗, 在径向镦粗过 程中的压下率为 20%〜25%;  2) The upper and lower anvils are respectively used for the upper plate and the lower plate, and the steel ingot or the blank is radially upset, and the reduction ratio in the radial upsetting process is 20% to 25%;
3 )在径向镦粗后将钢锭或坯料翻转 90° ,进行拔长,直到钢锭或坯料的高径比为 1.8〜2.2; 3) After the radial upset, the steel ingot or billet is turned over 90° and lengthened until the height to diameter ratio of the ingot or billet is 1.8~2.2;
4)对钢锭或坯料进行加热、轴向镦粗, 使钢锭或坯料高径比为 0.5〜0.7; 再次进行拔长, 将钢锭或坯料拔长至最终尺寸。 4) Heating the steel ingot or billet, axially upsetting, so that the ingot or billet has an aspect ratio of 0.5~0.7; and then lengthening again, the steel ingot or billet is drawn to the final size.
所述步骤 2), 径向镦粗过程中的压下方向是常规拔长方法中的压下方向。  In the step 2), the pressing direction in the radial upsetting process is the pressing direction in the conventional drawing length method.
所述步骤 2),径向镦粗过程中的压下率是指上平板的压下距离为钢锭或坯料原始高度或 直径的 20%〜25%, 压下率计算公式为:  In the step 2), the reduction ratio in the radial upsetting process means that the reduction distance of the upper plate is 20% to 25% of the original height or diameter of the ingot or the blank, and the calculation formula of the reduction ratio is:
压下率 = Λ Η/Η  Reduction rate = Λ Η / Η
其中, A Η为锻造过程中上平板压下的距离, H为钢锭或坯料原始高度, 如果钢锭或坯 料为圆柱体且压下方向沿直径方向, 则取直径尺寸。  Wherein, A Η is the distance from which the upper plate is pressed during the forging process, and H is the original height of the ingot or billet. If the ingot or billet is a cylinder and the pressing direction is in the diameter direction, the diameter is taken.
在所述步骤 2)径向镦粗结束后, 将钢锭或坯料重新加热至其锻造所需温度, 以减小后 续拔长过程的变形抗力, 并使已闭合的孔洞型缺陷有更充分的时间愈合。 所述步骤 3),使用 WHF法或 FM法进行拔长,每次压下率为 20%〜25%,在两个趟次结 束后, 再次将钢锭或坯料翻转 90° 进行第三趟次的拔长, 此过程结束后钢锭或坯料的高径比 为 1.8-2.2 After the step 2) ends the radial upsetting, the ingot or billet is reheated to the temperature required for forging to reduce the deformation resistance of the subsequent lengthening process, and the closed hole type defect has more sufficient time. Heal. The step 3) is carried out by using the WHF method or the FM method, and the reduction ratio is 20% to 25% each time. After the two times, the steel ingot or the billet is turned over again by 90° for the third time. Lengthening, the height-to-diameter ratio of the ingot or billet after the end of the process is 1.8-2.2
所述步骤 3), 在拔长过程结束后, 记录下步骤 2) 中径向镦粗的压下方向, 在步骤 4) 中再次拔长过程的第一个趟次沿此方向压下, 以提高锻造过程中孔洞型缺陷的愈合效果。  Step 3), after the end of the lengthening process, record the downward direction of the radial upsetting in step 2), and in the step 4), the first step of the lengthening process is pressed in this direction to Improve the healing effect of hole-type defects during forging.
所述步骤 4), 在拔长的过程中再次使用步骤 2) 中的径向镦粗, 此次径向镦粗的方向与 前一次径向镦粗的方向相同, 两次径向镦粗的叠加使得钢锭或坯料内部的孔洞型缺陷沿同一 方向得到充分的变形, 以提高锻造过程中孔洞型缺陷的愈合效果。  In the step 4), the radial upsetting in step 2) is used again during the lengthening process, and the direction of the radial upset is the same as the direction of the previous radial upset, and the two radial upsets are The superposition causes the hole-shaped defects inside the ingot or the blank to be sufficiently deformed in the same direction to improve the healing effect of the hole-shaped defects in the forging process.
所述步骤 4), 使用 WHF法或 FM法进行拔长, 沿步骤 2) 中径向镦粗的压下方向进行 第一趟次的拔长, 之后将钢锭或坯料翻转 90° 进行第二趟次的拔长, 这两趟次拔长过程中每 次压下率均为 20%〜25%, 这两趟次拔长结束后钢锭或坯料的高径比为 0.8-1.1, 此时再次使 用步骤 2)所述的径向镦粗方法, 之后使用 WHF法或 FM法将钢锭或坯料拔长至最终尺寸。  The step 4) is carried out by using the WHF method or the FM method, and the first twist is carried out along the direction of the radial upsetting in the step 2), and then the ingot or the billet is turned over by 90° for the second crucible. The length of the second lengthening is 20%~25% in each of the two lengthening processes. After the two lengths, the height-to-diameter ratio of the ingot or billet is 0.8-1.1. In step 2), the radial upsetting method is followed by stretching the ingot or billet to the final size using the WHF method or the FM method.
在所述步骤 4) 的径向镦粗之前增加一个火次, 即将钢锭或坯料重新加热至其锻造所需 温度, 以降低所需压机压力。  Add a fire before the radial upsetting of step 4) to reheat the ingot or billet to the temperature required for its forging to reduce the required press pressure.
另外, 本发明还提出了一种小压下率高效率愈合大高径比钢锭或坯料内部孔洞型缺陷的 锻造方法, 包括如下步骤:  In addition, the present invention also provides a forging method for high-efficiency healing of large in-diameter steel ingots or blanks in a small reduction ratio, including the following steps:
1 )对高径比大于 2, 无法使用镦粗工艺的大高径比钢锭或坯料, 使用平板作为上下砧, 采用宽砧径向压实工艺对钢锭或坯料进行压下, 在宽砧径向压实过程中的压下率为 20%〜40%;  1) For high-diameter ratio steel ingots or blanks that cannot be used in the up-and-down ratio, use the flat plate as the upper and lower anvils, and use the wide anvil radial compaction process to press the steel ingot or blank, in the radial direction of the wide anvil The reduction rate during compaction is 20%~40%;
2)在宽砧径向压实后, 将钢锭或坯料回炉重新加热至材料锻造温度并保温;  2) after the radial annulus is compacted, the steel ingot or billet is returned to the furnace and reheated to the material forging temperature and kept warm;
3)将钢锭或坯料翻转 90° , 使用上下平砧采用常规方法进行拔长。  3) Turn the ingot or billet 90°, and use the upper and lower flat anvils to lengthen it by conventional methods.
所述步骤 1 ) 中, 上下砧均使用平板, 对钢锭或坯料进行宽砧径向压实, 其压下方向是 常规拔长方法中的压下方向。 严格来说这是一个镦粗过程, 但其压下方向与拔长过程相同, 在本发明中称这样一个过程为宽砧径向压实。  In the step 1), the upper and lower anvils are all plated, and the ingot or the blank is subjected to wide anvil radial compaction, and the pressing direction is the pressing direction in the conventional drawing method. Strictly speaking, this is an upsetting process, but the direction of the pressing is the same as the lengthening process. In the present invention, such a process is called a radial compaction of the wide anvil.
所述步骤 1 ) 中, 钢锭或坯料为圆柱体时, 其压下方向是沿圆柱体钢锭或坯料的直径方 向。  In the step 1), when the ingot or the billet is a cylinder, the pressing direction thereof is along the diameter direction of the cylindrical ingot or the billet.
所述步骤 1 ) 中, 压下率计算公式为:  In the step 1), the calculation formula of the reduction ratio is:
压下率 = ΛΗ/Η  Reduction rate = ΛΗ / Η
其中, A Η为在下砧不发生位移的情况下, 锻造过程中上砧压下的距离; H为钢锭或坯 料原始高度; 钢锭或坯料为圆柱体且压下方向沿直径方向时, 则 H取直径尺寸。 所述步骤 2) 中, 在宽砧径向压实结束后, 将钢锭或坯料重新加热至材料锻造温度并保 温, 保温时间在 2小时以上, 以减小后续拔长过程的变形抗力并使已闭合的孔洞型缺陷有更 充分的时间愈合。 Wherein, A Η is the distance under which the anvil is pressed during the forging without displacement; H is the original height of the ingot or billet; when the ingot or billet is a cylinder and the pressing direction is in the diameter direction, then H is taken Diameter size. In the step 2), after the radial compaction of the wide anvil is finished, the steel ingot or the billet is reheated to the material forging temperature and kept warm, and the holding time is more than 2 hours, so as to reduce the deformation resistance of the subsequent lengthening process and Closed hole-type defects have more time to heal.
所述步骤 2) 中, 在宽砧径向压实后, 钢锭或坯料呈扁方状。  In the step 2), after the radial deformation of the wide anvil, the ingot or the blank is flat.
所述步骤 2) 中, 保温时间在 2小时以上, 以减小后续拔长过程的变形抗力并使已闭合 的孔洞型缺陷有更充分的时间愈合。  In the step 2), the holding time is more than 2 hours to reduce the deformation resistance of the subsequent lengthening process and to make the closed hole type defect have more sufficient time to heal.
所述步骤 3) 中, 在宽砧径向压实后将钢锭或坯料翻转 90° , 使用 WHF法或 FM法进 行拔长两个趟次, 每次压下率均为 20%; 在两个趟次结束后, 继续将钢锭或坯料拔长至工艺 尺寸。  In the step 3), the steel ingot or the billet is turned over 90° after the wide anvil is radially compacted, and the length is 20% by using the WHF method or the FM method, and the reduction ratio is 20% each time; After the end of the process, continue to extend the ingot or billet to the process size.
本发明的有益效果是:  The beneficial effects of the invention are:
1、 本发明提出了一种高效率愈合钢锭内部孔洞型缺陷的锻造方法, 其步骤包括: 1 )在 压钳把、倒棱、切除多余冒口等工艺结束后,对钢锭进行轴向预镦粗。 2)上下砧均使用平板, 对坯料进行径向镦粗。 3)在径向镦粗后将坯料翻转 90° , 继续使用 WHF法或 FM法等常 规方法进行拔长。 4)对坯料进行加热、轴向镦粗、再次拔长。在拔长的过程中可再次使用径 向镦粗方法,也可以使用 WHF法或 FM法等常规方法。此方法与 WHF法或 FM法等常规拔 长方法相比, 能够大大增加钢锭内部应变, 从而有利于钢锭内部孔洞型缺陷的愈合, 能够保 证钢锭内部孔洞型缺陷的愈合效果, 大大减少锻件因中心疏松未锻合而无法通过探伤检验导 致报废的可能。  1. The present invention provides a forging method for high-efficiency healing of internal hole-type defects in steel ingots, the steps of which include: 1) axially pre-twisting steel ingots after the process of pressing, chamfering, cutting excess risers, etc. Crude. 2) The upper and lower anvils are all flat, and the blank is radially upset. 3) After the radial upset, the billet is turned over by 90° and continues to be lengthened by conventional methods such as the WHF method or the FM method. 4) The billet is heated, axially upset, and elongated again. The radial upsetting method can be used again during the lengthening process, and conventional methods such as the WHF method or the FM method can also be used. Compared with the conventional lengthening method such as the WHF method or the FM method, the method can greatly increase the internal strain of the steel ingot, thereby facilitating the healing of the hole type defects in the steel ingot, ensuring the healing effect of the hole type defects in the steel ingot, and greatly reducing the forging center. Loose is not forged and cannot pass the inspection to cause the possibility of scrapping.
2、 本发明提出的一种高效率愈合钢锭内部孔洞型缺陷的锻造方法, 可以使用较少的火 次和锻造工序得到高质量的锻件产品, 从而减少设备占用时间, 提高生产效率, 降低能源消 耗, 节约生产成本并縮短生产周期。  2. The forging method for the internal cavity defect of the high-efficiency healing steel ingot proposed by the invention can obtain high-quality forging products by using fewer fire times and forging processes, thereby reducing equipment occupation time, improving production efficiency and reducing energy consumption. , saving production costs and shortening the production cycle.
3、 本发明提出的一种小压下率高效率愈合大高径比坯料内部孔洞型缺陷的锻造方法, 提出宽砧径向压实工艺: 1 )使用平板作为上下砧, 采用宽砧径向压实工艺对坯料进行压下; 2)在宽砧径向压实后, 将坯料回炉重新加热并保温; 3)将坯料翻转 90° , 使用上下平砧进 行拔长。 此方法与 WHF法或 FM法等常规拔长方法相比, 能够大大增加坯料内部应变, 从 而有利于坯料内部孔洞型缺陷的愈合, 大大减少锻件因中心疏松未锻合而无法通过探伤检验 导致报废的可能。  3. The forging method for the internal cavity type defect of the large high-diameter ratio large-diameter ratio high-efficiency healing proposed by the invention, and the radial anastracing process of the wide anvil is proposed: 1) using the flat plate as the upper and lower anvils, using the wide anvil radial The compacting process presses the blank; 2) After the wide anvil is radially compacted, the billet is returned to the furnace for reheating and heat preservation; 3) the billet is turned over 90°, and the upper and lower flat anvils are used for lengthening. Compared with the conventional lengthening method such as the WHF method or the FM method, the method can greatly increase the internal strain of the blank, thereby facilitating the healing of the hole-shaped defects in the blank, and greatly reducing the forging due to the center being loose and not forging and failing to pass the flaw detection and leading to scrapping. Possible.
4、 本发明提出的一种小压下率高效率愈合大高径比坯料内部孔洞型缺陷的锻造方法, 此方法可以使用较小的压下率保证坯料内部孔洞型缺陷的愈合。 与传统工艺相比, 使用此方 法可以在坯料尺寸一定的情况下获得直径更大的合格锻件, 大大扩展了锻件的应用范围。 总之, 本发明采用数值模拟技术研究了在传统的自由锻过程中钢锭或坯料内部应变的分 布状况及其对钢锭或坯料中孔洞型缺陷闭合效果的影响, 并在此基础上提出了高效率愈合钢 锭或坯料内部孔洞型缺陷的锻造方法。 本发明提出的高效率愈合钢锭或坯料内部孔洞型缺陷 的锻造方法适用于各种尺寸的钢锭或坯料自由锻过程, 尤其对于中心疏松严重的大型钢锭或 坯料有良好的效果。 采用本方法生产的锻件, 能够保证钢锭或坯料内部孔洞型缺陷的愈合, 大大减少锻件因中心疏松未锻合而报废的可能。 对于大高径比坯料, 由于本方法与传统方法 相比压下率较小, 使用同样尺寸的坯料可以制造更大尺寸的锻件。 4. The present invention provides a forging method for high-efficiency healing of large internal diameter hole defects of a large high-diameter ratio blank, which can ensure the healing of the internal cavity-type defects of the blank by using a small reduction ratio. Compared with the traditional process, this method can obtain qualified forgings with larger diameters under the condition of a certain blank size, which greatly expands the application range of the forgings. In summary, the present invention uses numerical simulation techniques to study the distribution of internal strain of steel ingots or blanks in conventional free forging processes and its effect on the closure effect of void-type defects in steel ingots or blanks, and on this basis, high-efficiency healing is proposed. Forging method for internal hole type defects in steel ingots or blanks. The forging method of the high-efficiency healing ingot or blank internal cavity type defect proposed by the invention is suitable for the free forging process of steel ingots or blanks of various sizes, especially for large steel ingots or blanks with serious center looseness. The forgings produced by the method can ensure the healing of the hole-shaped defects in the steel ingot or the blank, and greatly reduce the possibility that the forgings are scrapped due to the looseness of the center. For large height to diameter ratio blanks, larger diameter forgings can be made using the same size blanks because of the lower reduction ratio of this method compared to conventional methods.
附图说明  DRAWINGS
图 1 为 100吨核电转子用钢锭内部缺陷的实际解剖照片。  Figure 1 shows the actual anatomy of the internal defects of a 100-ton nuclear steel rotor.
图 2左侧为钢锭中心疏松的初始外形示意图, 右侧为通过有限元模拟得到的经过压下率 为 50%的轴向镦粗后, 钢锭中心疏松的外形示意图。 图中尺寸单位为 mm。  The left side of Fig. 2 is a schematic diagram of the initial outline of the looseness of the center of the steel ingot, and the right side is a schematic view of the looseness of the center of the ingot after the axial upsetting by the finite element simulation. The dimensions in the figure are in mm.
图 3为通过有限元模拟得到的采用 WHF法拔长大高径比坯料的等效应变场分布图。 图 4a-e为锻造流程示意图, 其中:  Fig. 3 is an equivalent strain field distribution diagram of the blank with high aspect ratio obtained by WHF method obtained by finite element simulation. Figure 4a-e is a schematic diagram of the forging process, where:
图 4a为钢锭形态示意图;  Figure 4a is a schematic view of the shape of the steel ingot;
图 4b为坯料轴向镦粗过程示意图;  Figure 4b is a schematic view of the axial upsetting process of the blank;
图 4c为坯料径向镦粗过程示意图;  Figure 4c is a schematic view of the radial upsetting process of the blank;
图 4d为坯料使用 WHF法拔长过程示意图 (A面沿水平方向);  Figure 4d is a schematic diagram of the blanking process using the WHF method for the blank (A side is horizontal);
图 4e为坯料使用 WHF法拔长过程示意图 ( A面沿竖直方向)。  Figure 4e is a schematic diagram of the blanking process using the WHF method for the blank (the A side is in the vertical direction).
图 5为尺寸、 形状与实际孔洞相类似的孔洞简化模型示意图。  Figure 5 is a simplified schematic diagram of a hole with a similar size and shape to the actual hole.
图 6a为通过有限元模拟得到的实施例 1中径向镦粗后的等效应力场分布图。  Fig. 6a is a diagram showing the equivalent stress field distribution after radial upsetting in the first embodiment obtained by finite element simulation.
图 6b为通过有限元模拟得到的实施例 1中孔洞型缺陷在径向镦粗后的形状示意图。 图 7a为通过有限元模拟得到的对比例 1中使用 WHF法拔长后的等效应力场分布图。 图 7b为通过有限元模拟得到的对比例 1中孔洞型缺陷在 WHF法拔长后的形状示意图。 图 8a为通过有限元模拟得到的对比例 2中使用 WHF法拔长后的等效应力场分布图。 图 8b为通过有限元模拟得到的对比例 2中孔洞型缺陷在 WHF法拔长后的形状示意图。 图中, 1—钢锭; 2—坯料; 3- (轴向镦粗使用的)镦粗帽; 4— (轴向镦粗使用的)镦 粗盘; 5- (径向镦粗使用的)上平板; 6- (径向镦粗使用的)下平板; 7- (WHF法拔长 使用的) 上平砧; 8- (WHF法拔长使用的)下平砧; 9—钳把; B—孔洞位置。  Fig. 6b is a schematic view showing the shape of the hole type defect in the first embodiment after the radial upsetting by the finite element simulation. Figure 7a is a plot of the equivalent stress field after lengthening using the WHF method in Comparative Example 1 obtained by finite element simulation. Fig. 7b is a schematic view showing the shape of the hole type defect in the comparative example 1 obtained by the finite element simulation after the length of the WHF method. Fig. 8a is an equivalent stress field distribution diagram of Comparative Example 2 obtained by finite element simulation using the WHF method. Fig. 8b is a schematic view showing the shape of the hole type defect in Comparative Example 2 obtained by finite element simulation after lengthening by the WHF method. In the figure, 1—steel ingot; 2—blank; 3- (for axial upsetting) thick hat; 4—for axial upsetting; 5- (for radial upsetting) Flat plate; 6- (for radial upsetting) lower plate; 7- (for use by WHF method) upper flat anvil; 8- (WHF method for lengthening) lower flat anvil; 9-clamp; B-hole position.
图 9-11为锻造流程示意图, 其中:  Figure 9-11 shows the forging process, where:
图 9为大高径比坯料形态示意图。 图 10a和图 10b为坯料宽砧径向压实过程示意图。 图 10a为主视图, 图 10b为左视图。 图 11a和图 lib为坯料使用 WHF法拔长过程示意图。图 11a为主视图,图 lib为左视图。 图 12a为连铸坯横截面照片。 图 12b为图 12a中连铸坯中心区域局部放大照片。 Fig. 9 is a schematic view showing the shape of a large aspect ratio blank. Figures 10a and 10b are schematic views of the radial compaction process of the blank wide anvil. Figure 10a is a front view and Figure 10b is a left side view. Figure 11a and Figure lib are schematic diagrams of the blanking process using the WHF method for the blank. Figure 11a is the main view and Figure lib is the left view. Figure 12a is a photograph of a cross section of a continuous casting blank. Figure 12b is a partial enlarged view of the central region of the continuous casting blank of Figure 12a.
图 13为通过有限元模拟得到的实施例 2中宽砧径向压实后的等效应变场分布图。  Fig. 13 is a graph showing the equivalent strain field distribution after the radial annulus of the wide anvil in the second embodiment obtained by the finite element simulation.
图中, 11—大高径比坯料(钢锭或连铸坯等); 12—坯料; 13—宽砧径向压实使用的上平 板; 14—宽砧径向压实使用的下平板; 15— WHF法拔长使用的上平砧; 16— WHF法拔长使 用的下平砧。  In the figure, 11—large aspect ratio billet (steel ingot or continuous casting billet, etc.); 12—blank; 13—upper flat plate used for radial compaction of wide anvil; 14—lower flat plate for radial compaction of wide anvil; — The upper anvil used by the WHF method; 16—The lower anvil used by the WHF method.
具体实施方式  detailed description
本发明高效率愈合钢锭或坯料内部孔洞型缺陷的锻造方法, 在锻造过程中, 上砧和下砧 分别使用上平板和下平板, 采用径向镦粗或宽砧径向压实工艺对坯料进行压下; 对高径比在 2以下的钢锭或坯料, 在径向镦粗过程中的压下率为 20%〜25%; 对高径比大于 2的钢锭或坯 料,在宽砧径向压实过程中的压下率为 20%〜40%。其中,所述的径向镦粗工艺与宽砧径向压 实工艺, 二者在含义和技术手段上均相同。  The forging method for efficiently influencing the internal hole type defect of the steel ingot or the blank of the invention, in the forging process, the upper and lower anvils respectively use the upper plate and the lower plate, and the radial roughing or wide anvil radial compaction process is used to carry out the blank For steel ingots or billets with a height to diameter ratio of 2 or less, the reduction ratio during radial upsetting is 20% to 25%; for ingots or blanks with a height to diameter ratio of more than 2, radial pressure at wide anvil The reduction rate in the actual process is 20% to 40%. Wherein, the radial upsetting process and the wide anvil radial compaction process are the same in meaning and technical means.
下面结合附图及实施例详述本发明。  The invention will be described in detail below with reference to the accompanying drawings and embodiments.
本发明提出了一种高效率愈合钢锭内部孔洞型缺陷的锻造方法, 包括如下步骤: The invention provides a forging method for high-efficiency healing of internal cavity type defects of steel ingots, comprising the following steps:
1 ) 图 4a为钢锭形态示意图, 对高径比为 1.2〜2的钢锭, 在压钳把、 倒棱、 切除多余冒 口等工艺结束后, 如图 4b所示, 对钢锭 1进行轴向预镦粗。 如果钢锭 1的高径比大于 1.2, 则将钢锭 1放置在镦粗盘 4上, 使用镦粗帽 3将其镦粗至高径比为 0.8〜1.1, 以保证后续拔长 过程中有足够大的压下率, 使钢锭获得足够大的应变, 以利于钢锭内部孔洞型缺陷的愈合。 如果钢锭 1的高径比在 1.2以下则不需要进行轴向预镦粗。 1) Figure 4a is a schematic view of the shape of the steel ingot. For the steel ingot with a height-to-diameter ratio of 1.2~2, after the process of pressing the pliers, chamfering, cutting the excess riser, etc., as shown in Fig. 4b, the steel ingot 1 is axially pre-prepared. Upsetting. If the height-to-diameter ratio of the ingot 1 is greater than 1.2, the ingot 1 is placed on the upsetting plate 4, and the upset cap 3 is used to be upset to an aspect ratio of 0.8 to 1.1 to ensure that the subsequent lengthening process is sufficiently large. The reduction ratio allows the ingot to obtain a sufficiently large strain to facilitate the healing of the hole-shaped defects in the ingot. If the height-to-diameter ratio of the ingot 1 is less than 1.2, axial pre-bending is not required.
2)如图 4c所示, 将圆柱体形的坯料 2轴线沿水平方向放置在下平板 6上, 使用上平板 5对坯料 2进行径向镦粗, 定义图中竖直的平面为 A面。 在径向镦粗过程中, 其压下方向是 沿圆柱体坯料的直径方向, 即常规拔长方法中的压下方向。 这是一个镦粗过程, 但由于其压 下方向与拔长过程相同, 在本发明中称这样一个过程为径向镦粗。  2) As shown in Fig. 4c, the cylindrical body 2 axis is placed on the lower plate 6 in the horizontal direction, and the blank 2 is radially upset using the upper plate 5, and the vertical plane in the figure is defined as the A side. In the radial upsetting process, the direction of the pressing is along the diameter direction of the cylindrical blank, that is, the pressing direction in the conventional drawing method. This is an upsetting process, but since the direction of the pressing is the same as the lengthening process, such a process is referred to as radial upsetting in the present invention.
在此径向镦粗过程中的压下率为 20%〜25%,即上平板 5的压下距离为坯料 2原始高度 (或 直径) 的 20%〜25%, 压下率计算公式为:  The reduction ratio in the radial upsetting process is 20%~25%, that is, the reduction distance of the upper plate 5 is 20%~25% of the original height (or diameter) of the blank 2, and the reduction formula is:
压下率 = ΛΗ/Η  Reduction rate = ΛΗ / Η
其中, A Η为锻造过程中上平板 5压下的距离(在下平板 6不发生位移的情况下), H为 坯料 2原始高度, 如果坯料为圆柱体且压下方向沿直径方向, 则取直径尺寸。  Wherein, A Η is the distance of the upper plate 5 during the forging process (in the case where the lower plate 6 is not displaced), H is the original height of the blank 2, and if the blank is a cylinder and the pressing direction is in the diameter direction, the diameter is taken size.
在径向镦粗结束后, 将坯料重新加热至锻造所需温度, 以减小后续拔长过程的变形抗力 并使已闭合的孔洞型缺陷有更充分的时间愈合。 After the end of the radial upsetting, the billet is reheated to the temperature required for forging to reduce the deformation resistance of the subsequent lengthening process. The closed hole type defect is healed more fully.
3 )使用 WHF法或 FM法等常规方法进行后续的拔长过程。 如图 4d所示, 使用 WHF 法对坯料 2进行拔长。首先将坯料 2翻转 90° , 使 A面转到水平方向, 将坯料 2靠近钳把 9 的一端放置在下平砧 8上,使用上平砧 7在对应位置下压,压下率为 20%〜25%。之后将上平 砧 7抬起,将坯料 2向图 4d中左方移动,移动距离略小于一个上平砧 7的宽度, 再次将上平 砧 7下压, 压下率为 20%〜25%。重复此过程一直压至坯料的末端, 此过程称为一个趟次。在 第一个趟次完成后沿同样方向进行第二趟次。 之后如图 4e所示, 再次将坯料翻转 90° , 使 A面转到竖直方向进行第三趟次的拔长。 此过程结束后坯料 2的高径比为 1.8-2.2。 在拔长过 程结束后记录下步骤 2)中径向镦粗的压下方向, 以便在步骤 4)的拔长过程中能够沿此方向 压下, 以提高锻造过程中孔洞型缺陷的愈合效果。  3) The subsequent lengthening process is performed using a conventional method such as the WHF method or the FM method. As shown in Fig. 4d, the blank 2 is elongated using the WHF method. First, the blank 2 is turned 90°, the A surface is turned to the horizontal direction, and the end of the blank 2 near the clamp 9 is placed on the lower flat anvil 8, and the upper flat anvil 7 is pressed at the corresponding position, and the reduction rate is 20%~ 25%. Then, the upper flat anvil 7 is lifted up, and the blank 2 is moved to the left in FIG. 4d, the moving distance is slightly smaller than the width of one upper flat anvil 7, and the upper flat anvil 7 is pressed again, and the pressing ratio is 20% to 25%. . This process is repeated until it is pressed to the end of the blank. This process is called a pass. The second pass is performed in the same direction after the first pass is completed. Thereafter, as shown in Fig. 4e, the blank is again turned by 90°, and the A surface is turned to the vertical direction for the third length. After the end of the process, the billet 2 has an aspect ratio of 1.8 to 2.2. After the end of the lengthening process, record the direction of the radial upset in step 2) so that it can be pressed in this direction during the lengthening of step 4) to improve the healing effect of the hole-type defects during the forging process.
4)对坯料进行加热、 轴向镦粗、 再次拔长。 首先将坯料重新加热至锻造所需温度, 之 后如图 4b所示, 将坯料放置在镦粗盘 4上, 使用镦粗帽 3将其镦粗至高径比为 0.5〜0.7, 此 过程即传统的镦粗方法, 在本发明中为了与径向镦粗相区别, 称其为轴向镦粗。 在轴向镦粗 过程完成后, 如图 4e所示, 使用常规拔长方法沿径向镦粗的压下方向 (即使 A面竖直)进 行第一趟次的拔长, 之后如图 4d所示将坯料翻转 90° 使 A面转到水平方向进行第二趟次的 拔长。这两趟次拔长过程中每次压下率为 20%〜25%, 拔长结束后坯料 2的高径比为 0.8〜1.1。 如图 4c所示, 此时再次使用步骤 2)所述的径向镦粗方法进行镦粗。 由于径向镦粗所需压力 较大,可以在径向镦粗之前增加一个火次(即将坯料加热至其锻造所需温度)。 由于此次径向 镦粗的方向与前一次径向镦粗的方向相同, 两次径向镦粗的叠加使得坯料内部的孔洞型缺陷 沿同一方向得到了充分的变形, 因此会有非常好的愈合效果。如图 4d所示,最后使用传统拔 长方法将坯料拔长至最终尺寸。  4) The billet is heated, axially upset, and elongated again. First, the billet is reheated to the temperature required for forging, and then, as shown in FIG. 4b, the billet is placed on the upsetting disc 4, and the upset cap 3 is used to upset to an aspect ratio of 0.5 to 0.7, which is a conventional process. The upsetting method, which is distinguished from the radial upset in the present invention, is referred to as axial upset. After the axial upset process is completed, as shown in Fig. 4e, the first plucking direction is performed in the radial upset direction (even if the A side is vertical) using the conventional plucking method, and then as shown in Fig. 4d. It is shown that the billet is turned by 90°, and the A plane is turned to the horizontal direction for the second twist. The reduction ratio of each of the two lengthening processes is 20% to 25%, and the height-to-diameter ratio of the blank 2 after the lengthening is 0.8 to 1.1. As shown in Fig. 4c, the upsetting is performed again using the radial upsetting method described in step 2). Since the pressure required for the radial upset is large, it is possible to add a fire before the radial upset (i.e., to heat the billet to the temperature required for its forging). Since the direction of the radial upset is the same as the direction of the previous radial upset, the superposition of the two radial upsets causes the hole-shaped defects inside the blank to be fully deformed in the same direction, so it will be very good. Healing effect. As shown in Figure 4d, the blank is finally elongated to the final size using a conventional lengthening method.
对于内部孔洞型缺陷不太严重的钢锭, 也可以使用常规的拔长方法代替步骤 4) 中的径 向镦粗过程。 但即使是使用常规的拔长方法, 仍然要使第一趟次的压下方向与径向镦粗的压 下方向相同。  For steel ingots where the internal hole type defects are less severe, the conventional lengthening method can also be used instead of the radial upsetting process in step 4). However, even if the conventional lengthening method is used, the pressing direction of the first pass is the same as the direction of the radial upset.
本发明中, 轴向预镦粗、 径向镦粗和拔长等锻造过程的坯料温度采用坯料材质常规要求 的锻造所需温度。  In the present invention, the billet temperature of the forging process such as axial pre-bending, radial upsetting and drawing is carried out by the temperature required for forging which is conventionally required for the billet material.
实施例 1  Example 1
本实施例的钢锭在锻造前外形为圆柱体, 原始尺寸为 Φ2230η ηΧ 2370η η, 高径比为 1.063, 材质为 6Cr2MnMoV, 钢锭重约 100吨, 坯料加热温度为 1200 °C。 如图 5所示, 根据 钢锭解剖结果, 在钢锭中心偏向冒口端制造一尺寸、 形状、 位置与实际孔洞相类似的简化模 型, 此孔洞模型呈圆柱体状, 尺寸为 Φ 12.14η ηΧ 90η η, 在圆柱体棱的部位有半径为 5mm 的圆角。 由于钢锭的高径比在 1.2以下, 直接将其进行径向镦粗, 压下率为 20%。 图 6a为通 过有限元模拟得到的径向镦粗后的坯料等效应变场分布图, 由图中可见径向镦粗的应变集中 于坯料的中心部位 (见孔洞位置 B), 可达 0.5 以上, 这非常有利于中心疏松的愈合。 图 6b 为通过有限元模拟得到的孔洞型缺陷简化模型在径向镦粗后的形状示意图, 由图可见在径向 镦粗过程结束后, 该缺陷已经完全闭合, 在经过后续的加热过程后, 相接触的孔洞上下表面 将完全焊合, 在之后的锻造过程中也不会再次开裂, 从而实现了通过锻造愈合钢锭中心疏松 的目的, 大大减少锻件因中心疏松未锻合而报废的可能。 The steel ingot of the present embodiment has a cylindrical shape before forging, the original size is Φ2230η ηΧ 2370η η, the height to diameter ratio is 1.063, the material is 6Cr2MnMoV, the ingot weight is about 100 tons, and the billet heating temperature is 1200 °C. As shown in Fig. 5, according to the anatomical result of the ingot, a simplified mold with a size, shape and position similar to the actual hole is made at the center of the ingot. Type, the hole model is cylindrical, with a size of Φ 12.14η ηΧ 90η η, and a radius of 5mm at the corner of the cylinder. Since the steel ingot has an aspect ratio of 1.2 or less, it is directly subjected to radial upsetting, and the reduction ratio is 20%. Figure 6a is a diagram showing the equivalent strain field distribution of the billet after radial upsetting obtained by finite element simulation. It can be seen that the strain of the radial upset is concentrated in the center of the billet (see hole position B), which can reach 0.5 or more. This is very beneficial to the center of loose healing. Fig. 6b is a schematic view showing the shape of the simplified model of the hole type defect obtained by the finite element simulation after the radial upsetting. It can be seen that after the end of the radial upsetting process, the defect is completely closed, after the subsequent heating process, The upper and lower surfaces of the contact holes will be completely welded, and will not be cracked again during the subsequent forging process, thereby achieving the purpose of loosening the center of the ingot by forging, greatly reducing the possibility that the forged part will be scrapped due to the looseness of the center.
对比例 1  Comparative example 1
本对比例使用 WHF法对钢锭进行一个趟次的拔长, 拔长所用上下平砧的砧宽均为 In this comparative example, the steel ingot was lengthened by a WHF method, and the anvil width of the upper and lower flat anvils used for the lengthening was
1200mm, 其它条件与实施例相同, 同样在钢锭心部制造一孔洞型缺陷的简化模型。 图 7a为 本对比例通过有限元模拟得到的拔长后的等效应变场分布图, 由图中可见由于上下砧的宽度 有限,在接砧区域等效应变非常小,此区域内的孔洞型缺陷无法闭合。 图 7b为本对比例通过 有限元模拟得到的孔洞型缺陷 (见孔洞位置 B)在拔长后的形状示意图。 由图中可见钢锭的 中心疏松仅有轻微的变形, 远不能到达使孔洞闭合的程度。 1200 mm, other conditions are the same as in the embodiment, and a simplified model of a hole type defect is also produced in the core of the steel ingot. Fig. 7a is a diagram showing the equivalent strain field distribution after the lengthening of the comparative example by finite element simulation. It can be seen that due to the limited width of the upper and lower anvils, the equivalent strain in the anvil area is very small, and the hole type in this area is shown. The defect cannot be closed. Fig. 7b is a schematic view showing the shape of a hole type defect (see hole position B) obtained by finite element simulation after lengthening. It can be seen from the figure that the center of the steel ingot is only slightly deformed, far from reaching the extent that the hole is closed.
对比例 2  Comparative example 2
本对比例使用 WHF法对钢锭进行一个趟次的拔长, 其它条件与实施例均相同, 同样在 钢锭心部制造一孔洞型缺陷的简化模型。 与对比例 1的区别在于使用 WHF法进行拔长的过 程中进行了半砧的错砧, 以使孔洞型缺陷的简化模型处于应变较大的区域, 利于其闭合。 图 8a为本对比例通过有限元模拟得到的拔长后的等效应力场分布图, 由图中可见在本对比例中 孔洞型缺陷(见孔洞位置 B)的简化模型正处于等效应变最大的区域。 图 8b为本对比例通过 有限元模拟得到的孔洞型缺陷在拔长后的形状示意图, 由图中可见该缺陷已经明显变形, 但 此拔长方法仍不足以使其完全闭合。  In this comparative example, the steel ingot was lengthened by a WHF method, and other conditions were the same as in the examples, and a simplified model of a hole type defect was also produced in the core of the ingot. The difference from Comparative Example 1 is that the negative anvil of the semi-anvil is carried out during the lengthening process using the WHF method, so that the simplified model of the hole-type defect is in the region with large strain, which is favorable for its closure. Figure 8a is a plot of the equivalent stress field after the lengthening of the comparative example by finite element simulation. It can be seen that the simplified model of the hole type defect (see hole position B) in this comparative example is at the maximum equivalent strain. Area. Fig. 8b is a schematic view showing the shape of the hole type defect obtained by the finite element simulation after the lengthening, and it can be seen that the defect has been significantly deformed, but the lengthening method is still insufficient to completely close it.
由对比例 1和对比例 2的结果可见, 使用 WHF法进行单趟次拔长不足以使钢锭的中心 疏松完全闭合, 而即使沿同方向进行两个趟次拔长过程, 由于两次拔长之间有半砧的错砧, 其对钢锭中心疏松的闭合效果仍不会明显好于对比例 2, 无法使中心疏松闭合。  It can be seen from the results of Comparative Example 1 and Comparative Example 2 that the single-twisting lengthening using the WHF method is not sufficient to completely loosen the center of the ingot, and even if two times of the lengthening process are performed in the same direction, There is a semi-anvil's wrong anvil between them, and the loosening effect on the loose center of the steel ingot is still not significantly better than that of Comparative Example 2, and the center cannot be loosely closed.
本发明提出的一种高效率愈合钢锭内部孔洞型缺陷的锻造方法, 可以解决目前的锻造方 法导致的无法完全锻合钢锭内部孔洞型缺陷, 尤其是中心疏松的问题。 采用本发明制定的锻 造方法, 能够保证钢锭内部孔洞型缺陷的愈合效果, 大大减少锻件因中心疏松未锻合而无法 通过探伤检验导致报废的可能。 另外, 本发明还提出了一种小压下率高效率愈合大高径比坯料内部孔洞型缺陷的锻造方 法, 称为宽砧径向压实法, 包括如下步骤: The forging method for the internal cavity type defect of the high-efficiency healing steel ingot proposed by the invention can solve the problem that the current forging method can not completely forge the internal hole type defect of the steel ingot, especially the center looseness. The forging method developed by the invention can ensure the healing effect of the hole-shaped defects in the steel ingot, and greatly reduce the possibility that the forging piece cannot be scrapped due to the flaw detection due to the looseness of the center. In addition, the present invention also proposes a forging method for high-efficiency healing of large internal diameter hole defects of a large high-diameter ratio billet, which is called a wide anvil radial compacting method, and includes the following steps:
1 )在压钳把、 倒棱、 切除多余冒口等工艺结束后, 大高径比坯料 (钢锭或连铸坯等, 见图 9) 11, 其高径比大于 2 (—般为 10), 如图 10a和图 10b所示, 将圆柱体形的坯料 12 轴线沿水平方向放置在宽砧径向压实使用的下平板 14上, 使用宽砧径向压实使用的上平板 13对坯料进行宽砧径向压实, 定义图中竖直的面为 A面。在宽砧径向压实过程中,其压下方 向是沿圆柱体坯料的直径方向, 即常规拔长方法中的压下方向。 严格来说, 这是一个镦粗过 程, 但由于其压下方向与拔长过程相同, 在本发明中称这样一个过程为宽砧径向压实。  1) After the process of pressing, chamfering, cutting excess riser, etc., the high-diameter ratio billet (steel ingot or continuous casting billet, see Figure 9) 11, the height-to-diameter ratio is greater than 2 (--10) As shown in Fig. 10a and Fig. 10b, the cylindrical blank 12 axis is placed in the horizontal direction on the lower flat plate 14 for the wide anvil radial compaction, and the blank is carried out using the upper plate 13 for wide anvil radial compaction. The wide anvil is radially compacted, and the vertical plane in the definition is A. In the radial compaction process of the wide anvil, the downward direction of the pressure is along the diameter direction of the cylindrical blank, that is, the pressing direction in the conventional drawing method. Strictly speaking, this is an upsetting process, but since the direction of the pressing is the same as that of the drawing, in the present invention, such a process is referred to as a radial compaction of the wide anvil.
在此宽砧径向压实过程中的压下率为 20〜40%, 即宽砧径向压实使用的上平板 13的压下 距离为坯料 12原始高度 (或直径) 的 20〜40%, 压下率计算公式为:  The reduction ratio during the radial compaction of the wide anvil is 20 to 40%, that is, the reduction distance of the upper plate 13 used for the radial compaction of the wide anvil is 20 to 40% of the original height (or diameter) of the blank 12. , the reduction rate is calculated as:
压下率 = Λ Η/Η  Reduction rate = Λ Η / Η
其中, A Η为锻造过程中上砧压下的距离(在下砧不发生位移的情况下), H为坯料原始 高度, 如果坯料为圆柱体且压下方向沿直径方向, 则取直径尺寸。  Wherein, A Η is the distance under the anvil during the forging process (in the case where the lower anvil does not shift), H is the original height of the blank, and if the blank is a cylinder and the pressing direction is in the diameter direction, the diameter is taken.
2)在宽砧径向压实结束后, 将坯料重新加热至材料常规锻造温度并保温, 保温时间在 2 小时以上 (一般为 2-20小时), 以减小后续拔长过程的变形抗力并使已闭合的孔洞型缺陷有 更充分的时间愈合。  2) After the radial compaction of the wide anvil is completed, the billet is reheated to the normal forging temperature of the material and kept warm for more than 2 hours (generally 2-20 hours) to reduce the deformation resistance of the subsequent lengthening process and The closed hole type defect is healed more fully.
3 )使用 WHF法或 FM法等常规方法进行后续的拔长过程。 如图 11a和图 lib所示, 使 用 WHF法对坯料 12进行拔长。 首先将坯料 12翻转 90° , 使 A面转到水平方向, 将坯料 12靠近钳把的一端放置在 WHF法拔长使用的下平砧 16上,使用 WHF法拔长使用的上平砧 15在对应位置压下, 压下率为 20%。之后, 将 WHF法拔长使用的上平砧 15抬起, 将坯料 2 向图 lib中所示左方移动, 移动距离略小于 WHF法拔长使用的上平砧 15的宽度(移动距离 为上平砧宽度的 80%以上), 再次将 WHF法拔长使用的上平砧 15压下, 压下率为 20%。 重 复此过程一直压至坯料的末端, 此过程称为一个趟次。 在第一个趟次完成后沿同样方向使用 同样的方法进行第二趟次的拔长。 在两个趟次结束后, 继续采用常规技术使用合适的工具将 坯料拔长至工艺尺寸。  3) The subsequent lengthening process is performed using a conventional method such as the WHF method or the FM method. As shown in Fig. 11a and lib, the blank 12 is elongated using the WHF method. First, the blank 12 is turned over by 90°, the A surface is turned to the horizontal direction, and the end of the blank 12 near the clamp is placed on the lower flat anvil 16 used for the WHF method, and the upper flat anvil 15 used for lengthening by the WHF method is correspondingly The position is depressed and the reduction rate is 20%. After that, the upper flat anvil 15 used for lengthening the WHF method is lifted, and the blank 2 is moved to the left as shown in the figure lib, and the moving distance is slightly smaller than the width of the upper flat anvil 15 used for the length of the WHF method (the moving distance is upper) More than 80% of the width of the flat anvil), the upper flat anvil 15 used for lengthening the WHF method is again pressed, and the reduction ratio is 20%. This process is repeated until the end of the blank, a process called a 趟. The same method is used in the same direction to lengthen the second pass after the first pass is completed. After the end of the two passes, continue to use the appropriate technique to stretch the blank to the process size using conventional techniques.
实施例 2  Example 2
本实施例所使用的大高径比坯料为连铸坯 9支, 其原始尺寸为 <D600mmX2000mm, 高 径比为 3.33, 材质为 S45C+B, 大高径比坯料重约 4.4吨, 坯料加热温度为 1200 °C。如图 12a 和图 12b所示, 在连铸坯中心存在着非常严重的贯穿性縮孔缺陷。 由于连铸坯坯料高径比较 大, 无法对其使用镦粗工艺, 只能直接拔长。 首先使用宽砧径向压实法进行压下, 在压成扁 方后将其回炉加热至 1200°C并保温 3小时。 图 13为通过有限元模拟得到的使用宽砧径向压 实法压下 20%时的坯料等效应变场分布图, 由图中可见, 宽砧径向压实的应变集中于坯料的 中心部位,可达 0.4以上。而如图 3所示,使用 WHF法拔长的坯料即使在应变集中区的应变 也仅为 0.28。 这说明使用宽砧径向压实法可以使应变集中于坯料心部, 且非常均匀, 无变形 死区, 非常有利于中心疏松的愈合。 保温结束后, 将坯料翻转 90° 采用 WHF法进行拔长两 个趟次, 每次压下率均为 20%。 在两个趟次结束后, 继续将坯料拔长并摔圆至 Φ385ηιηι。 在 锻造完成后, 按照较为严格的 GB/T 6402-1991 二级标准进行探伤。 探伤结果显示, 采用宽 砧径向压实法的 9支连铸坯合格率为 100%。 The large height-to-diameter ratio blank used in this embodiment is 9 continuous casting billets, and its original size is <D600mmX2000mm, the height-to-diameter ratio is 3.33, the material is S45C+B, and the large height-diameter ratio billet weighs about 4.4 tons. The billet heating temperature is It is 1200 °C. As shown in Fig. 12a and Fig. 12b, there is a very serious penetrating shrinkage defect in the center of the continuous casting blank. Since the high-diameter of the continuous casting billet is relatively large, it is impossible to use the upsetting process, and it can only be directly elongated. First, use the wide anvil radial compaction method to press down, press it into a flat After that, it was heated back to 1200 ° C and kept for 3 hours. Figure 13 is a graph showing the equivalent strain field distribution of a billet obtained by a finite element simulation using a wide anvil radial compaction method, where it can be seen that the radial compaction strain of the wide anvil is concentrated at the center of the billet. , up to 0.4 or more. As shown in Fig. 3, the billet elongated by the WHF method has a strain of only 0.28 even in the strain concentration region. This shows that the use of wide anvil radial compaction method can concentrate the strain on the core of the blank, and it is very uniform and has no deformation dead zone, which is very beneficial to the center loose healing. After the end of the heat preservation, the billet was turned over 90° by the WHF method and the length was 20%. After the end of the two passes, continue to lengthen the blank and drop it to Φ385ηιηι. After the forging is completed, the inspection is carried out according to the stricter GB/T 6402-1991 secondary standard. The results of the flaw detection showed that the pass rate of the nine continuous casting slabs using the wide anvil radial compaction method was 100%.
对比例  Comparative example
本对比例与实施例使用同一批次的 9支连铸坯, 使用 600mm宽 KD砧(上平砧和下 V 型砧)直接进行拔长, 再摔圆至 Φ385η η, 其它条件与实施例相同, 由于 KD砧砧宽有限, 在接砧区域存在变形死区, 这样必须在下一道次的拔长中错半砧才能使应变分布较均匀, 但 两个道次累积的较大压下率使坯料直径较小, 只能制作小直径的锻件。 将坯料拔长并摔圆至 0385mm, 在锻造完成后按照 GB/T 6402-1991二级标准进行探伤。 探伤结果显示, 采用 KD 砧直接进行拔长的 9支连铸坯合格率为 55.6%。  This comparative example and the example use the same batch of 9 continuous casting billets, using a 600 mm wide KD anvil (upper flat anvil and lower V-shaped anvil) to directly lengthen, and then round to Φ385η η, other conditions are the same as the embodiment Because the width of the KD anvil is limited, there is a deformation dead zone in the anvil area, so that the half anvil must be in the next one to make the strain distribution more uniform, but the larger reduction ratio of the two passes makes the blank Smaller diameters allow only small diameter forgings to be made. The blank was stretched and rounded to 0385 mm, and the flaw was tested according to the GB/T 6402-1991 secondary standard after the forging was completed. The results of the flaw detection showed that the pass rate of 9 continuous casting slabs directly elongated by KD anvil was 55.6%.
实施例 3  Example 3
本实施例所使用的大高径比坯料为钢锭, 其原始尺寸为 <D1000mmX3000mm, 高径比为 3, 材质为 45号钢, 大高径比坯料重约 18吨, 坯料加热温度为 1200°C。 在钢锭中心存在着 较为严重的縮孔疏松。 由于钢锭坯料高径比较大, 无法对其使用镦粗工艺, 只能直接拔长。 首先使用宽砧径向压实法进行压下, 在压成扁方后将其回炉加热至 1200°C并保温 5小时。保 温结束后, 将坯料翻转 90° 采用 WHF法进行拔长两个趟次, 每次压下率均为 20%。 在两个 趟次结束后, 继续将坯料拔长并摔圆至 Φ600η η。 在锻造完成后, 按照较为严格的 GB/T 6402-1991二级标准进行探伤。 探伤结果显示, 采用宽砧径向压实法的钢锭合格。  The large aspect ratio blank used in this embodiment is a steel ingot with an original size of <D1000mmX3000mm, a height to diameter ratio of 3, a material of 45 steel, a large height to diameter ratio of about 18 tons, and a billet heating temperature of 1200 °C. . There are more serious shrinkage holes in the center of the ingot. Since the ingot billet has a relatively high height, it cannot be used for the upsetting process, and can only be directly elongated. First, it was pressed using a wide anvil radial compaction method, and after being pressed into a flat square, it was heated back to 1200 ° C and kept for 5 hours. After the temperature is over, the billet is turned over 90° and the WHF method is used to lengthen two passes, each at a reduction rate of 20%. After the end of the two passes, continue to lengthen the blank and drop it to Φ600η η. After the forging is completed, the inspection is carried out according to the stricter GB/T 6402-1991 secondary standard. The results of the flaw detection showed that the steel ingots with the wide anvil radial compaction method were qualified.
实施例结果表明, 本发明提出的一种小压下率高效率愈合大高径比坯料内部孔洞型缺陷 的锻造方法, 可以解决目前的常规锻造方法无法完全锻合大高径比坯料内部孔洞型缺陷, 尤 其是中心疏松的问题。 采用本发明制定的锻造方法, 能够保证大高径比坯料内部孔洞型缺陷 的愈合效果, 大大减少锻件因中心疏松未锻合而无法通过探伤检验导致报废的可能, 且与传 统工艺相比由于压下率较小, 使用同样尺寸的坯料可以制造直径更大的锻件。  The results of the examples show that the forging method of the inner hole type defect of the blank with high reduction rate and high efficiency in the high reduction ratio of the present invention can solve the problem that the current conventional forging method cannot completely forge the inner hole type of the large height to diameter ratio blank. Defects, especially the problem of loose center. The forging method developed by the invention can ensure the healing effect of the hole-type defects in the large height-diameter ratio blank, and greatly reduce the possibility that the forging piece can not be scrapped due to the flaw detection due to the looseness of the center, and compared with the conventional process due to the pressure. The lower rate is lower, and a larger diameter forging can be produced using the same size blank.

Claims

权 利 要 求 Rights request
1、 一种高效率愈合钢锭或坯料内部孔洞型缺陷的锻造方法, 其特征在于, 在锻造过程 中, 上砧和下砧分别使用上平板和下平板, 采用径向镦粗或宽砧径向压实工艺对钢锭或坯料 进行压下;对高径比在 2以下的钢锭或坯料,在径向镦粗过程中的压下率为 20%〜25%;对高 径比大于 2的钢锭或坯料, 在宽砧径向压实过程中的压下率为 20%〜40%。  1. A forging method for efficiently influencing internal cavity type defects of steel ingots or billets, characterized in that, in the forging process, the upper and lower anvils respectively use an upper plate and a lower plate, and adopt radial toe or wide anvil radial The compaction process presses the ingot or billet; for steel ingots or billets with a height to diameter ratio of 2 or less, the reduction ratio in the process of radial upsetting is 20% to 25%; for ingots with a height to diameter ratio of more than 2 or The billet has a reduction ratio of 20% to 40% during the radial compaction of the wide anvil.
2、 按照权利要求 1 所述的高效率愈合钢锭或坯料内部孔洞型缺陷的锻造方法, 其特征 在于, 包括如下步骤:  2. A method of forging a high-efficiency healing ingot or blank internal cavity type defect according to claim 1, comprising the steps of:
1 )对高径比为 1.2〜2的钢锭或坯料进行轴向预镦粗, 将其镦粗至高径比为 0.8〜1.1; 对 高径比小于 1.2的钢锭不需要进行预镦粗;  1) For the steel ingot or billet with a height to diameter ratio of 1.2~2, the axial pre-bending is carried out, and the upset to the aspect ratio is 0.8~1.1; for the steel ingot with the height-diameter ratio less than 1.2, no pre-billing is required;
2) 上砧和下砧分别使用上平板和下平板, 对钢锭或坯料进行径向镦粗, 在径向镦粗过 程中的压下率为 20%〜25%;  2) The upper and lower anvils are respectively used for the upper plate and the lower plate, and the steel ingot or the blank is radially upset, and the reduction ratio in the radial upsetting process is 20% to 25%;
3)在径向镦粗后将钢锭或坯料翻转 90° ,进行拔长,直到钢锭或坯料的高径比为 1.8〜2.2; 3) After the radial upset, the steel ingot or billet is turned 90° and lengthened until the height to diameter ratio of the ingot or billet is 1.8~2.2;
4)对钢锭或坯料进行加热、轴向镦粗, 使钢锭或坯料高径比为 0.5〜0.7; 再次进行拔长, 将钢锭或坯料拔长至最终尺寸。 4) Heating the steel ingot or billet, axially upsetting, so that the ingot or billet has an aspect ratio of 0.5~0.7; and then lengthening again, the steel ingot or billet is drawn to the final size.
3、 按照权利要求 2所述的高效率愈合钢锭或坯料内部孔洞型缺陷的锻造方法, 其特征 在于: 在所述步骤 2)径向镦粗结束后, 将钢锭或坯料重新加热至其锻造所需温度, 以减小 后续拔长过程的变形抗力, 并使已闭合的孔洞型缺陷有更充分的时间愈合。  3. A method for forging a high-efficiency healing ingot or blank internal void type defect according to claim 2, wherein: after said step 2) the radial upsetting is finished, the ingot or billet is reheated to its forging station. Temperature is required to reduce the deformation resistance of the subsequent lengthening process and to allow the closed hole type defects to heal more fully.
4、 按照权利要求 2所述的高效率愈合钢锭或坯料内部孔洞型缺陷的锻造方法, 其特征 在于: 所述步骤 3), 使用 WHF法或 FM法进行拔长, 每次压下率为 20%〜25%, 在两个趟次 结束后, 再次将钢锭或坯料翻转 90° 进行第三趟次的拔长, 此过程结束后钢锭或坯料的高径 比为 1.8-2.2。  4. The forging method for high-efficiency healing ingot or blank internal cavity type defect according to claim 2, wherein: said step 3) is carried out by using a WHF method or an FM method, and each reduction ratio is 20 %~25%, after the end of the two passes, the ingot or billet is turned over again by 90° for the third pass, and the height-to-diameter ratio of the ingot or billet after the end of the process is 1.8-2.2.
5、 按照权利要求 2或 4所述的高效率愈合钢锭或坯料内部孔洞型缺陷的锻造方法, 其 特征在于: 所述步骤 3), 在拔长过程结束后, 记录下步骤 2) 中径向镦粗的压下方向, 在步 骤 4) 中再次拔长过程的第一个趟次沿此方向压下, 以提高锻造过程中孔洞型缺陷的愈合效 果。  5. A forging method for high-efficiency healing ingot or blank internal cavity type defect according to claim 2 or 4, wherein: said step 3), after the end of the lengthening process, recording the radial direction in step 2) The upsetting direction of the upset is pressed in this direction in the first step of the lengthening process in step 4) to improve the healing effect of the hole type defect during the forging process.
6、 按照权利要求 2所述的高效率愈合钢锭或坯料内部孔洞型缺陷的锻造方法, 其特征 在于: 所述步骤 4), 在拔长的过程中再次使用步骤 2) 中的径向镦粗, 此次径向镦粗的方向 与前一次径向镦粗的方向相同, 两次径向镦粗的叠加使得钢锭或坯料内部的孔洞型缺陷沿同 一方向得到充分的变形, 以提高锻造过程中孔洞型缺陷的愈合效果。  6. The method for forging a high-efficiency healing ingot or blank internal cavity type defect according to claim 2, wherein: said step 4), using the radial upset in step 2) again during the lengthening process The direction of the radial upset is the same as the direction of the previous radial upset. The superposition of the two radial upsets causes the hole-type defects inside the ingot or the blank to be fully deformed in the same direction to improve the forging process. The healing effect of hole-type defects.
7、 按照权利要求 2或 6所述的高效率愈合钢锭或坯料内部孔洞型缺陷的锻造方法, 其 特征在于: 所述步骤 4), 使用 WHF法或 FM法进行拔长, 沿步骤 2) 中径向镦粗的压下方 向进行第一趟次的拔长, 之后将钢锭或坯料翻转 90° 进行第二趟次的拔长, 这两趟次拔长过 程中每次压下率均为 20%〜25%, 这两趟次拔长结束后钢锭或坯料的高径比为 0.8-1.1, 此时 再次使用步骤 2)所述的径向镦粗方法,之后使用 WHF法或 FM法将钢锭或坯料拔长至最终 尺寸。 7. A method for forging a cavity of a high efficiency healed ingot or billet according to claim 2 or 6, wherein The method is as follows: the step 4) is carried out by using the WHF method or the FM method, and the first length is elongated along the radial upsetting direction in the step 2), and then the ingot or the billet is turned over by 90°. In the second plucking process, the reduction ratio is 20%~25% in each of the two plucking processes, and the height-to-diameter ratio of the ingot or billet after the two plucking ends is 0.8-1.1. The radial upsetting method described in step 2) is used again, after which the ingot or billet is drawn to the final size using the WHF method or the FM method.
8、 按照权利要求 Ί所述的高效率愈合钢锭或坯料内部孔洞型缺陷的锻造方法, 其特征 在于: 在所述步骤 4) 的径向镦粗之前增加一个火次, 即将钢锭或坯料重新加热至其锻造所 需温度, 以降低所需压机压力。  8. A method of forging a high efficiency heal ingot or blank internal void type defect according to claim ,, characterized by: adding a fire before said radial upsetting of said step 4), ie reheating the ingot or billet To the temperature required for forging, to reduce the required press pressure.
9、 按照权利要求 1 所述的高效率愈合钢锭或坯料内部孔洞型缺陷的锻造方法, 其特征 在于, 包括如下步骤:  9. The method of forging a high-efficiency healing ingot or blank internal void type defect according to claim 1, comprising the steps of:
1 )对高径比大于 2 的钢锭或坯料, 使用平板作为上下砧, 采用宽砧径向压实工艺对钢 锭或坯料进行压下, 在宽砧径向压实过程中的压下率为 20%〜40%;  1) For steel ingots or blanks with a height-to-diameter ratio greater than 2, using a flat plate as the upper and lower anvils, the steel ingot or blank is pressed by a wide anvil radial compaction process, and the reduction rate during the radial compaction of the wide anvil is 20 %~40%;
2)在宽砧径向压实后, 将钢锭或坯料回炉重新加热至材料锻造温度并保温;  2) after the radial annulus is compacted, the steel ingot or billet is returned to the furnace and reheated to the material forging temperature and kept warm;
3 )将钢锭或坯料翻转 90° , 使用上下平砧采用常规方法进行拔长。  3) Turn the steel ingot or billet by 90° and use the upper and lower flat anvils to lengthen it by conventional methods.
10、 按照权利要求 9所述的高效率愈合钢锭或坯料内部孔洞型缺陷的锻造方法, 其特征 在于: 所述步骤 2) 中, 在宽砧径向压实结束后, 将钢锭或坯料重新加热至材料锻造温度并 保温, 保温时间在 2小时以上, 以减小后续拔长过程的变形抗力并使已闭合的孔洞型缺陷有 更充分的时间愈合。  10. The forging method for high-efficiency healing ingot or blank internal cavity type defect according to claim 9, wherein: in the step 2), the steel ingot or the blank is reheated after the radial annealing of the wide anvil is completed. To the material forging temperature and heat preservation, the holding time is more than 2 hours, to reduce the deformation resistance of the subsequent lengthening process and to make the closed hole type defect have more time to heal.
11、 按照权利要求 9所述的高效率愈合钢锭或坯料内部孔洞型缺陷的锻造方法, 其特征 在于: 所述步骤 2) 中, 在宽砧径向压实后, 钢锭或坯料呈扁方状。  11. The forging method for high-efficiency healing ingot or blank internal cavity type defect according to claim 9, wherein: in the step 2), after the radial annulus is compacted, the ingot or the blank is flat. .
12、 按照权利要求 9所述的高效率愈合钢锭或坯料内部孔洞型缺陷的锻造方法, 其特征 在于: 所述步骤 3 ) 中, 在宽砧径向压实后将钢锭或坯料翻转 90° , 使用 WHF法或 FM法 进行拔长两个趟次, 每次压下率均为 20%; 在两个趟次结束后, 继续将钢锭或坯料拔长至工 艺尺寸。  12. The forging method for high-efficiency healing ingot or blank internal cavity type defect according to claim 9, wherein: in the step 3), the steel ingot or the blank is turned over by 90° after the wide anvil is radially compacted. Use the WHF method or the FM method to lengthen two passes, each time the reduction rate is 20%; after the end of the two passes, continue to pull the ingot or billet to the process size.
PCT/CN2012/081732 2011-09-22 2012-09-21 Forging method for high-efficiency closing of porous defects in steel ingots or billets WO2013041043A1 (en)

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