WO2013020286A1 - Chaotic laser-related fully distributed optical fiber raman and rayleigh photon sensor - Google Patents

Chaotic laser-related fully distributed optical fiber raman and rayleigh photon sensor Download PDF

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WO2013020286A1
WO2013020286A1 PCT/CN2011/078234 CN2011078234W WO2013020286A1 WO 2013020286 A1 WO2013020286 A1 WO 2013020286A1 CN 2011078234 W CN2011078234 W CN 2011078234W WO 2013020286 A1 WO2013020286 A1 WO 2013020286A1
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fiber
laser
splitter
output
rayleigh
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PCT/CN2011/078234
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Chinese (zh)
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张在宣
王剑锋
余向东
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中国计量学院
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01MTESTING STATIC OR DYNAMIC BALANCE OF MACHINES OR STRUCTURES; TESTING OF STRUCTURES OR APPARATUS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G01M11/00Testing of optical apparatus; Testing structures by optical methods not otherwise provided for
    • G01M11/30Testing of optical devices, constituted by fibre optics or optical waveguides
    • G01M11/31Testing of optical devices, constituted by fibre optics or optical waveguides with a light emitter and a light receiver being disposed at the same side of a fibre or waveguide end-face, e.g. reflectometers
    • G01M11/319Reflectometers using stimulated back-scatter, e.g. Raman or fibre amplifiers
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B11/00Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means
    • G01B11/16Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means for measuring the deformation in a solid, e.g. optical strain gauge
    • G01B11/18Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means for measuring the deformation in a solid, e.g. optical strain gauge using photoelastic elements
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01KMEASURING TEMPERATURE; MEASURING QUANTITY OF HEAT; THERMALLY-SENSITIVE ELEMENTS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G01K11/00Measuring temperature based upon physical or chemical changes not covered by groups G01K3/00, G01K5/00, G01K7/00 or G01K9/00
    • G01K11/32Measuring temperature based upon physical or chemical changes not covered by groups G01K3/00, G01K5/00, G01K7/00 or G01K9/00 using changes in transmittance, scattering or luminescence in optical fibres
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01KMEASURING TEMPERATURE; MEASURING QUANTITY OF HEAT; THERMALLY-SENSITIVE ELEMENTS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G01K11/00Measuring temperature based upon physical or chemical changes not covered by groups G01K3/00, G01K5/00, G01K7/00 or G01K9/00
    • G01K11/32Measuring temperature based upon physical or chemical changes not covered by groups G01K3/00, G01K5/00, G01K7/00 or G01K9/00 using changes in transmittance, scattering or luminescence in optical fibres
    • G01K11/324Measuring temperature based upon physical or chemical changes not covered by groups G01K3/00, G01K5/00, G01K7/00 or G01K9/00 using changes in transmittance, scattering or luminescence in optical fibres using Raman scattering
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01MTESTING STATIC OR DYNAMIC BALANCE OF MACHINES OR STRUCTURES; TESTING OF STRUCTURES OR APPARATUS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G01M11/00Testing of optical apparatus; Testing structures by optical methods not otherwise provided for
    • G01M11/08Testing mechanical properties
    • G01M11/083Testing mechanical properties by using an optical fiber in contact with the device under test [DUT]

Abstract

A chaotic laser-related fully distributed optical fiber Raman and Rayleigh photon sensor, which is based on a chaotic laser-related principle and an optical fiber Rayleigh and Raman fusion scattering sensing principle, and uses an optical time domain reflection principle to perform positioning of a measuring point. The sensor employs an optical pulse sequence of a chaotic laser and fluctuating randomly on a time domain, and, by correlation processing a backward probing light of a sensing optical fiber and a local reference light, allows for improved spatial resolution of the sensing system, for effectively increased number of photons of an incident fiber, for improved signal-to-noise ratio of the sensing system, for improved measurement length and measurement precision of the sensing system, and for simultaneous measurement of onsite deformation and cracking while measuring onsite temperature, while not intersecting mutually. The sensor is provided with characteristics of low costs, extended service life, simple structure, special resolution of 15 cm in height, and great signal-to-noise ratio, and is applicable in petrochemical pipelines and tunnels measured within a range of 30 kilometers, in large-scale civil engineering project monitoring, and in disaster prediction monitoring.

Description

混沌激光相关全分布式光纤拉曼与瑞利光子传感器  Chaotic laser-related fully distributed fiber Raman and Rayleigh photon sensors
技术领域 Technical field
本发明涉及光纤传感器领域, 尤其涉及一种混沌激光相关高空间分辨率全 分布式光纤瑞利与拉曼散射应变、 温度传感器。  The invention relates to the field of optical fiber sensors, in particular to a chaotic laser-related high spatial resolution fully distributed optical fiber Rayleigh and Raman scattering strain and temperature sensor.
背景技术 Background technique
近年来发展起来的光纤传感器网能实现大型土木工程、 电力工程、 石化工 业, 交通桥梁, 隧道, 地铁站, 大坝、 大堤和矿业工程等安全健康监控和灾害 的预报和监测。光纤传感器有两大类:一类是以光纤光栅(FBG )和光纤法白(F-P ) 等点式传感器 "挂" (布设) 在光纤上, 采用光时域技术组成的准分布式光纤 传感器网络, 准分布式光纤传感器网的主要问题是在点式传感器之间的光纤仅 是传输介质, 因而存在检测 "盲区" ;另一类利用光纤的本征特性, 光纤瑞利、 拉曼和布里渊散射效应, 采用光时域 (0TDR ) 技术组成的全分布光纤传感器网, 测量应变和温度。 全分布光纤传感器网中的光纤既是传输介质又是传感介质, 不存在检测盲区。  The fiber optic sensor network developed in recent years can realize safety and health monitoring and disaster prediction and monitoring of large civil engineering, electric power engineering, petrochemical industry, traffic bridges, tunnels, subway stations, dams, dykes and mining projects. There are two types of fiber optic sensors: one is a fiber-optic grating (FBG) and a fiber-optic white (FP) point sensor that is "hanged" (layout) on the fiber, using a quasi-distributed fiber optic sensor network composed of optical time domain technology. The main problem of the quasi-distributed fiber optic sensor network is that the fiber between the point sensors is only the transmission medium, so there is a detection "blind area"; the other type uses the intrinsic characteristics of the fiber, the fiber Rayleigh, Raman and Brillouin Scattering effect, using a fully distributed fiber optic sensor network consisting of optical time domain (0TDR) technology to measure strain and temperature. The optical fiber in the fully distributed optical fiber sensor network is both a transmission medium and a sensing medium, and there is no detection dead zone.
张在宣教授提出的《全分布式光纤瑞利与拉曼散射光子应变、温度传感器》 (中国发明专利: 200910099463.7, 2010年 9月授权) 提供了一种成本低、 结 构简单、 信噪比好, 可靠性好的分布式光纤瑞利与拉曼散射光子应变、 温度传 感器。 但难以提高传感系统的空间分辨率, 王云才教授研究团队提出将混沌激 光相关法用于 0TDR, 空间分辨率达到了 6cm (王安帮, 王云才, 混沌激光相关 法光时域反射测量技术, 中国科学, 信息科学, 2010年, 第 40卷, 第 3期, 1-7 页) 但无法测量传感光纤上各点温度。  Professor Zhang Zaixuan's "Full Distributed Fiber Rayleigh and Raman Scattering Photon Strain, Temperature Sensor" (Chinese invention patent: 200910099463.7, licensed in September 2010) provides a low cost, simple structure, good signal to noise ratio, and reliability. Good distributed fiber Rayleigh and Raman scattering photon strain, temperature sensor. However, it is difficult to improve the spatial resolution of the sensing system. Professor Wang Yuncai's research team proposed the chaotic laser correlation method for 0TDR, and the spatial resolution reached 6cm (Wang Anbang, Wang Yuncai, Chaotic Laser Correlation Optical Time Domain Reflectometry, Chinese Science, Information Science, 2010, Vol. 40, No. 3, pp. 1-7) However, it is not possible to measure the temperature at various points on the sensing fiber.
发明内容 Summary of the invention
本发明的目的是针对现有技术的不足, 提供一种混沌激光相关全分布式光 纤拉曼与瑞利光子传感器, 本发明具有高空间分辨率、 低成本、 结构简单、 信 噪比好、 可靠性高等特点。  The object of the present invention is to provide a chaotic laser-related fully distributed fiber Raman and Rayleigh photon sensor according to the deficiencies of the prior art. The invention has high spatial resolution, low cost, simple structure, good signal to noise ratio and reliability. High sexual characteristics.
本发明的目的是通过以下技术方案来实现的: 一种混沌激光相关全分布式 光纤瑞利与拉曼散射传感器, 包括半导 LD激光器, 第一偏振控制器, 光纤环行 器, 第一光纤分路器, 可调光衰减器第二偏振控制器, 单向器, 掺饵光纤放大 器 EDFA, 第二光纤分路器, 光纤波分复用器, 传感光纤, 光纤延迟线, 第一光 电接收模块, 第二光电接收模块数字信号处理器和计算机。 半导体 LD激光器经 第一偏振控制器与光纤环行器的一个输入端口相接, 光纤环行器的一个输出端 与第一光纤分路器输入端相连, 第一光纤分路器的一个输出端与可调光衰减器 的输入端相连, 可调光衰减器的输出端通过第二偏振控制器与光纤环行器一个 输入端相连, 再经第一偏振控制器反馈给半导体 LD激光器; 第一光纤分路器的 另一个输出端经单向器与掺饵光纤放大器 EDFA相连, 掺饵光纤放大器 EDFA 的输出端与第二光纤分路器输入端相连, 第二光纤分路器的一个输出端与光纤 波分复用器的输入端相连, 光纤波分复用器的一个输出端与传感光纤相连, 第 二光纤分路器的另一个输出端经光纤延迟线与第一光电接收模块相连, 第一光 电接收模块输出端与数字信号处理器和计算机相连; 光纤波分复用器的 1550nm 输出端口与数字信号处理器和计算机相连,光纤波分复用器的 1450nm输出端口 与数字信号处理器和计算机相连。 The object of the present invention is achieved by the following technical solutions: a chaotic laser-related fully distributed fiber Rayleigh and Raman scattering sensor, including a semi-conductive LD laser, a first polarization controller, a fiber circulator, and a first fiber Road, dimming attenuator second polarization controller, one-way, EDFA, second fiber splitter, fiber-optic wavelength division multiplexer, sensing fiber, fiber delay line, first optoelectronic reception Module, second optoelectronic receiving module digital signal processor and computer. Semiconductor LD laser The first polarization controller is connected to an input port of the fiber circulator, and an output end of the fiber circulator is connected to the input end of the first fiber splitter, and an output end of the first fiber splitter and the dimmable attenuator The input ends are connected, the output of the tunable optical attenuator is connected to one input end of the optical fiber circulator through the second polarization controller, and is fed back to the semiconductor LD laser via the first polarization controller; the other of the first optical fiber splitter The output end is connected to the EDFA of the erbium-doped fiber amplifier via a one-way device, and the output end of the EDFA of the erbium-doped fiber amplifier is connected to the input end of the second fiber multiplexer, and an output end of the second fiber multiplexer and the fiber-optic wavelength division multiplexer The input end is connected, one output end of the fiber-optic wavelength division multiplexer is connected to the sensing fiber, and the other output end of the second fiber-optic splitter is connected to the first photo-receiving module via the fiber delay line, and the first photo-receiving module outputs The end is connected to the digital signal processor and the computer; the 1550nm output port of the fiber-optic wavelength division multiplexer is connected to the digital signal processor and the computer, and the fiber-optic wavelength division multiplexer 1 The 450nm output port is connected to the digital signal processor and computer.
进一步地, 所述的混沌激光相关全分布式光纤拉曼与瑞利光子传感器, 混 沌激光器是由半导体 LD激光器经第一偏振控制器与光纤环行器的一个输入端口 相接, 光纤环行器的一个输出端与第一光纤分路器输入端相连, 第一光纤分路 器的一个输出端与可调光衰减器的输入端相连, 可调光衰减器的输出端通过第 二偏振控制器与光纤环行器一个输入端相连, 再经第一偏振控制器反馈给半导 体 LD激光器组成。半导体 LD激光器是半导体 DFB激光器,工作波长为 1550nm, 输出功率为 10dBm。 第一光纤分路器的分支比为 20:80。  Further, the chaotic laser-related fully distributed fiber Raman and Rayleigh photon sensor is a semiconductor LD laser connected to an input port of the fiber circulator through a first polarization controller, and one of the fiber circulators The output end is connected to the input end of the first fiber optic splitter, one output end of the first fiber optic splitter is connected to the input end of the dimmable optical attenuator, and the output end of the dimmable optical attenuator is passed through the second polarization controller and the optical fiber The circulator is connected to one input and is fed back to the semiconductor LD laser via the first polarization controller. The semiconductor LD laser is a semiconductor DFB laser with an operating wavelength of 1550 nm and an output power of 10 dBm. The branch ratio of the first fiber splitter is 20:80.
进一步地, 所述的传感光纤是通信用 30km G652光纤或 DSF色散位移光纤 或碳涂复单模光纤。  Further, the sensing fiber is a 30km G652 fiber or a DSF dispersion-shifted fiber or a carbon-coated single-mode fiber for communication.
进一步地, 所述的光纤延迟线是由一段单模光纤组成, 用于标定传感系统 的零点。 第二光纤分路器的另一个输出端经光纤延迟线与第一光电接收模块 (22 ) 相连, 构成参考光路, 第二光纤分路器的分支比为 5:95, 当传感系统不 接入传感光纤时 (相当于传感光纤的零点), 测量探测光与参考光相关曲线, 选 择光纤延迟线的长度, 使相关曲线峰值处于零点。  Further, the fiber delay line is composed of a length of single mode fiber for calibrating the zero point of the sensing system. The other output end of the second fiber optic splitter is connected to the first optoelectronic receiving module (22) via a fiber delay line to form a reference optical path. The branch ratio of the second fiber optic splitter is 5:95. When the sensing system is not connected When entering the sensing fiber (corresponding to the zero point of the sensing fiber), measure the correlation curve between the probe light and the reference light, and select the length of the fiber delay line so that the peak value of the correlation curve is at zero.
进一步地,所述的第一光电接收模块是由宽带低噪音的 InGaAs光电雪崩二 极管和低噪音宽带前置放大器集成芯片和三级主放大器组成, 第二光电接收放 大模块采用两路宽带低噪音的 InGaAs光电雪崩二极管和低噪音宽带前置放大器 集成芯片和三级主放大器组成。  Further, the first photo receiving module is composed of a broadband low-noise InGaAs photoelectric avalanche diode and a low-noise broadband preamplifier integrated chip and a three-stage main amplifier, and the second optoelectronic receiving amplifying module adopts two-way broadband low-noise InGaAs opto-avalanche diode and low-noise broadband preamplifier integrated chip and three-stage main amplifier.
进一步地, 所述的数字信号处理器是一个相关处理器, 将本地参考信号与 传感光纤回波的 1550nm瑞利信号和 1450nm反斯托克斯拉曼信号进行相关处 理, 由计算机处理后显示温度和应变的信息。  Further, the digital signal processor is an associated processor that correlates the local reference signal with the 1550 nm Rayleigh signal of the sensing fiber echo and the 1450 nm anti-Stokes Raman signal, and is processed by the computer to display Temperature and strain information.
混沌激光发出时间序列激光脉冲进入传感光纤, 在传感光纤中产生的背向 瑞利散射、 斯托克斯和反斯托克斯拉曼散射光子波, 背向瑞利散射、 反斯托克 斯拉曼散射光子波, 由光纤波分复用器分朿, 带有应变信息的背向瑞利散射光 和带有温度信息的反斯托克斯拉曼散射探测光分别经光电接收放大模块, 将光 信号转换成模拟电信号并放大, 经数字信号处理器采集、 累加与混沌激光的本 地参考光作相关处理后, 由瑞利散射光的强度比得到应变的信息, 给出传感光 纤上各应变探测点的应变, 应变变化速度和方向;由反斯托克斯拉曼散射光与瑞 利散射光的强度比, 扣除应变的影响得到光纤各段的温度信息, 各感温探测点 的温度, 温度变化速度和方向, 应变与温度的检测不存在交叉效应, 利用光时 域反射对传感光纤上的检测点定位(光纤雷达定位)。在 60秒内得到 30km传感 光纤上各点应变与温度变化量, 测温精度 ±2° C, 空间分辨率小于 15cm, 由计 算机通讯接口、 通讯协议进行远程网络传输, 当传感光纤上检测点达到设定的 应变或温度报警设定值时, 向报警控制器发出报警信号。 The chaotic laser emits a time-series laser pulse into the sensing fiber, creating a back-facing direction in the sensing fiber Rayleigh scattering, Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman scattering photon waves, back-reverse Rayleigh scattering, anti-Stokes Raman scattering photonic waves, split by fiber-optic wavelength division multiplexer, with strain The back-scattered Rayleigh scattered light of the information and the anti-Stokes Raman scattering probe light with temperature information are respectively converted into analog electric signals by the photoelectric receiving amplifying module, and amplified, and collected and accumulated by the digital signal processor. After correlating with the local reference light of the chaotic laser, the strain information is obtained from the intensity ratio of Rayleigh scattered light, and the strain, strain change speed and direction of each strain detecting point on the sensing fiber are given; The intensity ratio of Raman scattered light and Rayleigh scattered light, the temperature information of each segment of the fiber is obtained by subtracting the influence of strain, the temperature of each temperature sensing point, the temperature change speed and direction, and the cross-effect of strain and temperature detection are not utilized. Optical time domain reflection is used to locate the detection points on the sensing fiber (Fiber Radar Positioning). In 60 seconds, the strain and temperature changes at each point on the 30km sensing fiber are obtained. The temperature measurement accuracy is ±2° C, the spatial resolution is less than 15cm, and the remote network transmission is performed by the computer communication interface and communication protocol. When the point reaches the set strain or temperature alarm set value, an alarm signal is sent to the alarm controller.
混沌激光相关全分布式光纤瑞利与拉曼散射传感器的相关原理:  Correlation principle of chaotic laser-related fully distributed fiber Rayleigh and Raman scattering sensors:
半导体激光器在受到光反馈时持续地产生随机起伏的宽带, 低相关噪声的 混沌激光, 其相关曲线具有 δ函数形状, 半导体激光器的非线性混沌振荡的带 寬可大于 15GHz , 实现与测量长度无关的高分辨率、 高精度的测量。  The semiconductor laser continuously generates random fluctuations of broadband, low correlation noise chaotic laser, and its correlation curve has a δ function shape. The bandwidth of the nonlinear chaotic oscillation of the semiconductor laser can be greater than 15 GHz, which is independent of the measurement length. High resolution, high precision measurement.
设参考光为 f ( t ) , 探测光为 g ( t ) =Kf ( t- τ );  Let the reference light be f ( t ) and the probe light be g ( t ) = Kf ( t- τ );
互相关函数: Cross-correlation function:
Figure imgf000005_0001
Figure imgf000005_0001
当 τ=τ。时, , 互相关峰值与探测光的强度相关。 通过 数字信号处理器和计算机对探测光与参考光进行采集、 累加和相关处理, 获得 传感光纤上温度和应变的信息。 系统的信噪比决定了测量长度。  When τ = τ. When, the cross-correlation peak is related to the intensity of the probe light. The temperature and strain on the sensing fiber are obtained by collecting, accumulating and correlating the probe light and the reference light by a digital signal processor and a computer. The signal-to-noise ratio of the system determines the measurement length.
分布式光纤瑞利散射光子传感器测量形变的原理:  The principle of distributed fiber Rayleigh scattering photon sensor for measuring deformation:
光纤脉冲激光器发出激光脉冲通过集成型光纤波分复用器射入传感光纤, 激光与光纤分子的相互作用, 产生与入射光子同频率的瑞利散射光, 瑞利散射 光在光纤中传输存在损耗, 随着光纤长度而指数式衰减, 光纤的背向端利散射 光光强用下式表示: The fiber pulsed laser emits laser pulses into the sensing fiber through the integrated fiber-optic wavelength division multiplexer. The interaction between the laser and the fiber molecules produces Rayleigh scattered light at the same frequency as the incident photons. Rayleigh scattered light is transmitted in the fiber. Loss, exponentially attenuated with the length of the fiber, and the back-end scattered light intensity of the fiber is expressed by:
Figure imgf000005_0002
Figure imgf000005_0002
上式中 /。为入射到光纤处的光强, Ζ为光纤长度, /为背向瑞利散射光在光纤长 度 Ζ处的光强, 《。为入射光波长处的光纤传输损耗。 In the above formula /. For the intensity of light incident on the fiber, Ζ is the length of the fiber, and / is the intensity of the light that travels back to Rayleigh at the length of the fiber. The transmission loss of the fiber at the wavelength of the incident light.
由于光纤将传感光纤铺设在检测现场, 当现场环境产生形变或裂紋时, 造 成铺设在现场的光纤发生弯曲, 光纤产生局部损耗, 形成光纤的附加损耗 Δ«, 则总损耗《 = «。+Δ«, 局域处的光强有一个跌落, 光强由 /(/)减少为 /'(/), 形变造 成的附
Figure imgf000006_0001
Since the optical fiber is used to lay the sensing fiber on the inspection site, when the field environment is deformed or cracked, the optical fiber laid in the field is bent, and the optical fiber generates local loss, which forms an additional loss Δ« of the optical fiber. Then the total loss "= «. +Δ«, there is a drop in the light intensity at the local area, and the light intensity is reduced from /(/) to /'(/), the deformation caused by the deformation
Figure imgf000006_0001
形变或裂紋大小与光纤损耗的关系采用仿真模型计算并在实验室进行摸拟 试验测量获得。  The relationship between deformation or crack size and fiber loss is calculated using a simulation model and simulated in the laboratory.
分布式光纤拉曼散射光子传感器测量温度的原理:  The principle of distributed fiber Raman scattering photon sensor for measuring temperature:
当入射激光与光纤分子产生非线性相互作用, 放出一个声子称为斯托克斯 拉曼散射光子, 吸收一个声子称为反斯托克斯拉曼散射光子, 光纤分子的声子 频率为 13.2THz。 光纤分子能级上的粒子数热分布服从波尔兹曼 (Boltzmann) 定律, 在光纤里反斯托克斯背向拉曼散射光强为  When the incident laser produces a nonlinear interaction with the fiber molecule, a phonon is emitted as a Stokes Raman scattered photon, and a phonon is absorbed as an anti-Stokes Raman scattered photon. The phonon frequency of the fiber molecule is 13.2THz. The heat distribution of the number of particles at the molecular level of the fiber obeys Boltzmann's law, and the anti-Stokes back-scattered Raman scattering intensity in the fiber is
Ια =/0 ·ν» )εχρ[- (α。 +c *L] (4) 它受到光纤温度的调制, 温度调制函数^ Ι α = / 0 · ν» ) ε χ ρ [- (α. + c * L) (4) It is modulated by the temperature of the fiber, temperature modulation function ^
Ra(T) = [exp( hA v / kT ) - l]'1 (5) h是波朗克 (Planck) 常数, Δ v是一光纤分子的声子频率, 为 13.2THz, k是波尔兹曼常数, T是凯尔文 (Kelvin) 绝对温度。 R a (T) = [exp( hA v / kT ) - l]' 1 (5) h is the Planck constant, Δ v is the phonon frequency of a fiber molecule, which is 13.2 THz, k is the wave The erzmann constant, T is the Kelvin absolute temperature.
在本发明中采用光纤瑞利通道做参考信号, 用反斯托克斯拉曼散射光和瑞 散射光利光强度的比值来检测温度  In the present invention, the fiber Rayleigh channel is used as a reference signal, and the ratio of the anti-Stokes Raman scattered light to the Rayleigh scattered light intensity is used to detect the temperature.
7^ = (― )4 · exp[( v/^r) - 1]—1 · exp [- («fl -«。) ] 7^ = (― ) 4 · exp[( v/^r) - 1]— 1 · exp [- (« fl -«.) ]
yo (6) 由光纤拉曼光时域反射 (0TDR) 曲线在光纤检测点的反斯托克斯拉曼散射 光和瑞散射光利光强度比, 扣除应变的影响得到光纤各段的温度信息。 可采用 一段置于恒温槽内光纤对传感系统进行温度定标。  Yo (6) The anti-Stokes Raman scattering of the optical fiber Raman optical time domain reflection (0TDR) curve at the fiber detection point and the light intensity ratio of the ray scattering light, the temperature information of each segment of the fiber is obtained by subtracting the influence of the strain. The sensing system can be temperature calibrated using a section of fiber placed in a thermostat.
本发明的有益效果在于: 本发明的混沌激光相关全分布式光纤瑞利与拉曼 散射传感器, 采用混沌激光相关原理有效地提高了传感器的可靠性和空间分辨 率, 增加了进入传感光纤的泵浦光子数, 提高了传感器系统的信噪比, 增加了 传感器的测量长度, 在测量现场温度的同时能测量现场的形变、 裂缝和温度并 且互不交叉。 铺设在防灾现场的传感光纤是绝缘的, 不带电的, 抗电磁干扰, 耐辐射, 耐腐蚀的, 是本质安全型的, 光纤既是传输介质又是传感介质, 是本 征型的传感光纤, 不存在测量的盲区, 且寿命长, 本发明适用于 30km全分布式 光纤应变、 温度传感网。 可用于超远程 30公里范围内石化管道、 隧道、 大型土 木工程监测和灾害预报监测。 附图说明 The invention has the beneficial effects of: the chaotic laser-related fully distributed optical fiber Rayleigh and Raman scattering sensor of the invention adopts the chaotic laser correlation principle to effectively improve the reliability and spatial resolution of the sensor, and increases the access to the sensing fiber. The number of pump photons increases the signal-to-noise ratio of the sensor system, increases the measurement length of the sensor, and measures the deformation, cracks, and temperature of the field while measuring the temperature of the field. The sensing fiber laid on the disaster prevention site is insulated, uncharged, resistant to electromagnetic interference, radiation resistant, and corrosion resistant. It is intrinsically safe. Optical fiber is both a transmission medium and a sensing medium. It is an intrinsic type. Sense optical fiber, there is no blind zone of measurement, and the life is long. The invention is applicable to a 30km fully distributed optical fiber strain and temperature sensing network. It can be used for petrochemical pipelines, tunnels, large civil engineering monitoring and disaster forecast monitoring within 30 km of ultra-long-range. DRAWINGS
图 1是混沌激光相关全分布式光纤瑞利与拉曼散射传感器的示意图。  Figure 1 is a schematic diagram of a chaotic laser-related fully distributed fiber-optic Rayleigh and Raman scattering sensor.
具体实施方式 detailed description
参照图 1, 混沌激光相关全分布式光纤拉曼与瑞利光子传感器, 包括半导体 LD激光器 10、 第一偏振控制器 11、 光纤环行器 12、 第一光纤分路器 13、 可调 光衰减器 14、 第二偏振控制器 15、 单向器 16、 掺饵光纤放大器 EDFA17、 第二 光纤分路器 18、 光纤波分复用器 19、 传感光纤 20、 光纤延迟线 21、 第一光电 接收模块 22、 第二光电接收模块 23、 数字信号处理器 24和计算机 25。 半导体 LD激光器 10经第一偏振控制器 11与光纤环行器 12的一个输入端口相接,光纤 环行器 12的输出端与第一光纤分路器 13的输入端相连, 第一光纤分路器 13的 一个输出端与可调光衰减器 14的输入端相连, 可调光衰减器 14的输出端通过 第二偏振控制器 15与光纤环行器 12的另一个输入端相连, 再经第一偏振控制 器 11反馈给半导体 LD激光器 10;第一光纤分路器 13的另一个输出端经单向器 16与掺饵光纤放大器 EDFA 17相连,掺饵光纤放大器 EDFA 17的输出端与第二 光纤分路器 18的输入端相连, 第二光纤分路器 18的一个输出端与光纤波分复 用器 19的输入端相连, 光纤波分复用器 19的一个输出端与传感光纤 20相连, 第二光纤分路器 18的另一个输出端经光纤延迟线 21与第一光电接收模块 22相 连, 第一光电接收模块 22的输出端与数字信号处理器 24相连, 光纤波分复用 器 19的 1550nm输出端口和 1450nm输出端口分别与数字信号处理器 24相连, 数字信号处理器 24和计算机 25相连。  Referring to FIG. 1, a chaotic laser-related fully distributed fiber Raman and Rayleigh photon sensor includes a semiconductor LD laser 10, a first polarization controller 11, a fiber circulator 12, a first fiber splitter 13, and a dimmable attenuator. 14. Second polarization controller 15, one-way device 16, erbium-doped fiber amplifier EDFA17, second fiber-optic splitter 18, fiber-optic wavelength division multiplexer 19, sensing fiber 20, fiber delay line 21, first photo-receiving The module 22, the second photo receiving module 23, the digital signal processor 24, and the computer 25. The semiconductor LD laser 10 is connected to an input port of the fiber circulator 12 via the first polarization controller 11, and the output of the fiber circulator 12 is connected to the input end of the first fiber splitter 13, the first fiber splitter 13 One output is connected to the input of the tunable optical attenuator 14, and the output of the tunable optical attenuator 14 is connected to the other input of the optical circulator 12 via the second polarization controller 15, and then controlled by the first polarization. The device 11 feeds back to the semiconductor LD laser 10; the other output of the first fiber splitter 13 is connected to the erbium-doped fiber amplifier EDFA 17 via the unidirectional device 16, and the output of the erbium-doped fiber amplifier EDFA 17 is split with the second fiber. The input end of the second optical fiber splitter 18 is connected to the input end of the optical fiber wavelength division multiplexer 19, and an output end of the optical fiber wavelength division multiplexer 19 is connected to the sensing optical fiber 20, The other output end of the second optical fiber splitter 18 is connected to the first photo receiving module 22 via the optical fiber delay line 21, and the output end of the first photo receiving module 22 is connected to the digital signal processor 24, and the optical fiber wave Multiplexing is 1550nm and 1450nm output port 19 is connected to the output port of the digital signal processor 24, respectively, coupled to the digital signal processor 24 and a computer 25.
半导体 LD激光器 10、 第一偏振控制器 11、 光纤环行器 12、 第一光纤分路 器 13、 可调光衰减器 14、 第二偏振控制器 15组成混沌激光器, 半导体 LD激光 器 10是半导体 DFB激光器, 工作波长为 1550nm, 输出功率为 10dBm。 第一光 纤分路器 13的分支比为 20:80。  The semiconductor LD laser 10, the first polarization controller 11, the fiber circulator 12, the first fiber splitter 13, the tunable optical attenuator 14, and the second polarization controller 15 constitute a chaotic laser, and the semiconductor LD laser 10 is a semiconductor DFB laser. The working wavelength is 1550nm and the output power is 10dBm. The branch ratio of the first fiber splitter 13 is 20:80.
传感光纤 20是通信用 30km G652光纤或 DSF色散位移光纤或碳涂复单模 光纤。  The sensing fiber 20 is a 30km G652 fiber or DSF dispersion shifted fiber or a carbon coated single mode fiber for communication.
光纤延迟线 21是由一段单模光纤组成, 用于标定传感系统的零点。 第二光 纤分路器 18的另一个输出端经光纤延迟线 21与第一光电接收模块 22相连, 构 成参考光路第二光纤分路器 18的分支比为 5:95。 当传感系统不接入传感光纤时 (相当于传感光纤的零点), 测量探测光与参考光相关曲线, 调整光纤延迟线 21 的长度, 使相关曲线峰值处于零点。  The fiber delay line 21 is composed of a length of single mode fiber used to calibrate the zero point of the sensing system. The other output of the second fiber splitter 18 is coupled to the first optoelectronic receiving module 22 via a fiber delay line 21 to form a reference optical path of the second fiber splitter 18 having a branch ratio of 5:95. When the sensing system is not connected to the sensing fiber (corresponding to the zero point of the sensing fiber), the correlation curve between the probe light and the reference light is measured, and the length of the fiber delay line 21 is adjusted so that the peak value of the correlation curve is at zero.
第一光电接收模块 22是由宽带低噪音的 InGaAs光电雪崩二极管和低噪音 宽带前置放大器集成芯片和三级主放大器组成, 第二光电接收放大模块 23采用 两路宽带低噪音的 InGaAs光电雪崩二极管和低噪音宽带前置放大器集成芯片和 三级主放大器组成。 The first photo receiving module 22 is composed of a broadband low noise InGaAs photoelectric avalanche diode and a low noise broadband preamplifier integrated chip and a three-stage main amplifier, and the second optoelectronic receiving amplifying module 23 is adopted. Two broadband low-noise InGaAs opto-avalanche diodes and a low-noise broadband preamplifier integrated chip and a three-stage main amplifier.
数字信号处理器 24是一个相关处理器, 将本地参考信号与传感光纤回波的 1550nm瑞利信号和 1450nm反斯托克斯拉曼信号进行相关处理, 由计算机处理 后显示温度和应变的信息。  The digital signal processor 24 is an associated processor that correlates the local reference signal with the 1550 nm Rayleigh signal of the sensing fiber echo and the 1450 nm anti-Stokes Raman signal, and is processed by the computer to display temperature and strain information. .
本发明采用混沌激光器, 在时域上随机起伏的光脉冲序列, 通过传感光纤 的反向探测光与本地参考光的相关处理, 提高了传感器系统的空间分辨率; 有 效地增加了入射光纤的光子数, 提高了传感器系统的信噪比, 提高了传感器的 测量长度与测量精度, 在测量现场温度的同时能测量现场的形变、 裂缝, 与测 量温度互不交叉。 具有成本低、 寿命长、 结构简单、 高空间分辨率和信噪比好 等特点, 适用于 30公里范围内高空间分辨率 15cm石化管道、 隧道、 大型土木 工程监测和灾害预报监测。  The invention adopts a chaotic laser, and the random pulsed light pulse sequence in the time domain improves the spatial resolution of the sensor system by the correlation processing of the reverse detection light of the sensing fiber and the local reference light; effectively increasing the incident optical fiber. The number of photons improves the signal-to-noise ratio of the sensor system, improves the measurement length and measurement accuracy of the sensor, and can measure the deformation and crack of the field while measuring the temperature of the field, and does not cross the measured temperature. It has the characteristics of low cost, long life, simple structure, high spatial resolution and good signal-to-noise ratio. It is suitable for high spatial resolution 15cm petrochemical pipelines, tunnels, large civil engineering monitoring and disaster forecasting monitoring within 30km.

Claims

权 利 要 求 书 Claims
1、 一种混沌激光相关全分布式光纤拉曼与瑞利光子传感器, 其特征在于, 它包括半导体 LD激光器 (10)、 第一偏振控制器 (11)、 光纤环行器 (12)、 第 一光纤分路器(13)、可调光衰减器(14)、第二偏振控制器(15)、单向器(16)、 掺饵光纤放大器 EDFA (17)、 第二光纤分路器 (18)、 光纤波分复用器 (19)、 传感光纤 (20)、 光纤延迟线 (21)、 第一光电接收模块 (22)、 第二光电接收模 块 (23)、 数字信号处理器 (24) 和计算机 (25); 其中, 所述半导体 LD激光器A chaotic laser-related fully distributed fiber Raman and Rayleigh photon sensor, characterized in that it comprises a semiconductor LD laser (10), a first polarization controller (11), an optical fiber circulator (12), a first Fiber splitter (13), dimmable attenuator (14), second polarization controller (15), one-way device (16), erbium-doped fiber amplifier EDFA (17), second fiber splitter (18) ), fiber-optic wavelength division multiplexer (19), sensing fiber (20), fiber delay line (21), first photo-receiving module (22), second photo-receiving module (23), digital signal processor (24) And a computer (25); wherein the semiconductor LD laser
(10) 经第一偏振控制器 (11) 与光纤环行器 (12) 的一个输入端口相接, 光 纤环行器 (12) 的输出端与第一光纤分路器 (13) 输入端相连, 第一光纤分路 器(13)的一个输出端与可调光衰减器(14)的输入端相连, 可调光衰减器(14) 的输出端通过第二偏振控制器 (15) 与光纤环行器 (12) 的另一个输入端相连, 再经第一偏振控制器(11)反馈给半导体 LD激光器(10);第一光纤分路器(13) 的另一个输出端经单向器(16)与掺饵光纤放大器 EDFA (17)相连, 掺饵光纤 放大器 EDFA (17) 的输出端与第二光纤分路器(18)输入端相连, 第二光纤分 路器 (18) 的一个输出端与光纤波分复用器 (19) 的输入端相连, 光纤波分复 用器 (19) 的一个输出端与传感光纤 (20) 相连, 第二光纤分路器 (18) 的另 一个输出端经光纤延迟线 (21) 与第一光电接收模块 (22) 相连, 第一光电接 收模块 (22) 输出端与数字信号处理器 (24) 相连; 光纤波分复用器 (19) 的 1550nm输出端口和 1450nm输出端口均与数字信号处理器 (24) 相连, 数字信 号处理器 (24) 和计算机 (25) 相连。 (10) connected to an input port of the fiber circulator (12) via the first polarization controller (11), and the output end of the fiber circulator (12) is connected to the input end of the first fiber splitter (13), An output of a fiber optic splitter (13) is coupled to an input of the dimmable attenuator (14), and an output of the dimmable attenuator (14) is coupled to the fiber optic circulator via a second polarization controller (15) The other input of (12) is connected and fed back to the semiconductor LD laser (10) via the first polarization controller (11); the other output of the first fiber splitter (13) is passed through the one-way device (16) Connected to the EDFA (17) with a doped fiber amplifier, the output of the EDFA (17) with the doped fiber amplifier is connected to the input of the second fiber splitter (18), and an output of the second fiber splitter (18) The input ends of the fiber-optic wavelength division multiplexer (19) are connected, one output of the fiber-optic wavelength division multiplexer (19) is connected to the sensing fiber (20), and the other output of the second fiber-optic splitter (18) Connected to the first photo receiving module (22) via the fiber delay line (21), the first photo connection The output module (22) is connected to the digital signal processor (24); the 1550nm output port and the 1450nm output port of the fiber-optic wavelength division multiplexer (19) are connected to the digital signal processor (24), and the digital signal processor ( 24) Connect to the computer (25).
2、 根据权利要求 1所述的混沌激光相关全分布式光纤拉曼与瑞利光子传感 器, 其特征在于, 所述半导体 LD激光器 (10)、 第一偏振控制器 (11)、 光纤环 行器(12)、第一光纤分路器(13)、可调光衰减器(14)和第二偏振控制器(15) 组成混沌激光器; 所述半导体 LD激光器 (10) 是半导体 DFB激光器, 其工作 波长为 1550nm, 输出功率为 lOdBm; 第一光纤分路器 (13) 的分支比为 20:80。  2. The chaotic laser-related fully distributed fiber Raman and Rayleigh photon sensor according to claim 1, wherein the semiconductor LD laser (10), the first polarization controller (11), and the fiber circulator ( 12), the first fiber splitter (13), the tunable optical attenuator (14) and the second polarization controller (15) constitute a chaotic laser; the semiconductor LD laser (10) is a semiconductor DFB laser, and its working wavelength For 1550 nm, the output power is 10 dBm; the branch ratio of the first fiber splitter (13) is 20:80.
3. 根据权利要求 1所述的混沌激光相关全分布式光纤拉曼与瑞利光子传感 器, 其特征在于, 所述传感光纤 (20) 是通信用 30kmG652光纤、 DSF色散位 移光纤或碳涂复单模光纤。  3. The chaotic laser-related fully distributed fiber Raman and Rayleigh photon sensor according to claim 1, wherein the sensing fiber (20) is a 30 km G652 fiber for communication, a DSF dispersion shifted fiber or a carbon coating. Single mode fiber.
4. 根据权利要求 1所述的混沌激光相关全分布式光纤拉曼与瑞利光子传感 器, 其特征在于, 所述光纤延迟线 (21) 是由一段单模光纤组成, 用于标定传 感系统的零点; 第二光纤分路器 (18) 的另一个输出端经光纤延迟线 (21) 与 第一光电接收模块 (22) 相连, 构成参考光路, 第二光纤分路器 (18 ) 的分支 比为 5:95。 4. The chaotic laser-related fully distributed fiber Raman and Rayleigh photon sensor according to claim 1, wherein the fiber delay line (21) is composed of a length of single mode fiber for calibrating the sensing system. Zero point; the other output of the second fiber splitter (18) is via the fiber delay line (21) The first photo receiving module (22) is connected to form a reference optical path, and the branch ratio of the second optical fiber splitter (18) is 5:95.
5. 根据权利要求 1所述的混沌激光相关全分布式光纤拉曼与瑞利光子传感 器, 其特征在于, 所述第一光电接收模块 (22) 是由宽带低噪音的 InGaAs光电 雪崩二极管、 低噪音宽带前置放大器集成芯片和三级主放大器组成, 第二光电 接收放大模块(23 )采用两路宽带低噪音的 InGaAs光电雪崩二极管、 低噪音宽 带前置放大器集成芯片和三级主放大器组成。  5. The chaotic laser-related fully distributed fiber Raman and Rayleigh photonic sensor according to claim 1, wherein the first photo receiving module (22) is a low-noise low-noise InGaAs photoelectric avalanche diode, low The noise broadband preamplifier integrated chip and the three-stage main amplifier are composed, and the second photoelectric receiving amplifying module (23) is composed of two broadband low-noise InGaAs photoelectric avalanche diodes, a low-noise broadband preamplifier integrated chip and a three-stage main amplifier.
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