WO2013017447A1 - Method for determining the flow rate using ultrasound - Google Patents

Method for determining the flow rate using ultrasound Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2013017447A1
WO2013017447A1 PCT/EP2012/064370 EP2012064370W WO2013017447A1 WO 2013017447 A1 WO2013017447 A1 WO 2013017447A1 EP 2012064370 W EP2012064370 W EP 2012064370W WO 2013017447 A1 WO2013017447 A1 WO 2013017447A1
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Prior art keywords
gas mixture
determining
characterized
method according
kinematic viscosity
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PCT/EP2012/064370
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German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
Michal Bezdek
Pierre Ueberschlag
Oliver Brumberg
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Endress+Hauser Flowtec Ag
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01FMEASURING VOLUME, VOLUME FLOW, MASS FLOW OR LIQUID LEVEL; METERING BY VOLUME
    • G01F1/00Measuring the volume flow or mass flow of fluid or fluent solid material wherein the fluid passes through the meter in a continuous flow
    • G01F1/66Measuring the volume flow or mass flow of fluid or fluent solid material wherein the fluid passes through the meter in a continuous flow by measuring frequency, phaseshift, or propagation time of electromagnetic or other waves, e.g. ultrasonic flowmeters

Abstract

A method for determining the flow rate of a fluid, which is a gas mixture, wherein at least one component of the gas mixture is a hydrocarbon, through a circular cylindrical measuring tube with a straight measuring tube longitudinal axis and an internal diameter DI, characterized by the following method steps: determining a first average flow velocity vL by measuring the propagation time difference of acoustic signals along a signal path; determining a modified Reynolds number Remod according to the formula Remod = (vL*DI)/vkin, wherein vkin, the kinematic viscosity of the fluid, is known; determining a second average flow velocity vA using a known function vA = f(Remod) on the basis of the modified Reynolds number Remod, wherein the method step of determining the modified Reynolds number Remod is preceded by the method step of determining the kinematic viscosity vkin of the fluid.

Description

A method for determining the flow by means of ultrasound

The present invention relates to a method for determining the flow of a fluid through a circular-cylindrical measuring tube with a straight measuring tube longitudinal axis and a

Inner diameter D |.

Ultrasonic flowmeters are often used in the process and automation technology. They allow in a simple manner to determine the volume flow and / or mass flow in a pipeline.

Known ultrasonic flow measuring devices frequently operate on the Doppler or after the transit time difference principle. The travel time difference principle, the different transit times of ultrasonic pulses are evaluated relative to the flow direction of the liquid. For this purpose ultrasonic pulses to the pipe axis, both with and against the flow sent in a certain angle. From the travel time difference can the

Flow rate and thus determine in a known diameter of the pipe portion of the volume flow, = for example by Q K * ((ti-t2) / (ti * t 2)) with K a function of the length of the signal path, the ratio between radial and axial sensor spacing, the velocity distribution and the flow profile in the measurement tube and the cross-sectional area, and t-ι and t 2 upstream the transit times of the signals or downstream.

The Doppler principle, ultrasonic waves are coupled at a certain frequency in the fluid and evaluated reflected from the liquid ultrasonic waves. From the frequency shift between the radiated and reflected waves also the flow rate of the liquid can be determined. Reflections in the liquid occurs when air bubbles or impurities are present in this, so that this principle is mainly the case of contaminated fluids.

The ultrasonic waves are generated with the aid of so-called ultrasonic transducer or received. For this, ultrasonic transducers are fixed in the tube wall of the relevant pipeline section. There are also clamp-on ultrasonic flow measurement systems available. In these systems, the ultrasonic transducers are pressed from outside of the measuring tube to the pipe wall. A big advantage of clamp-on ultrasonic flow measuring systems is that they do not contact the measured medium and placed on an already existing pipeline.

Another ultrasonic flow meter that works on the transit time difference principle, is known from US-A 50 52 230th The running time is short by means of ultrasonic pulses, bursts so-called, determined here. The ultrasonic transducers usually consist of an electromechanical

Transducer element, such as a piezoelectric element, and a coupling layer. in the

electromechanical transducer element are generated the ultrasonic waves, and passed over the link layer to the pipe wall and from there into the liquid, with clamp-on systems, or they are coupled in-line systems via the coupling layer in the measuring medium. Then the coupling layer is also called rare membrane.

Between the piezoelectric element and the coupling layer may be a further

be arranged coupling layer, a so-called adaptation layer. The adjustment layer takes on the function of the transmission of the ultrasound signal while reducing a reflection caused by different acoustic impedances at interfaces between two materials.

Both clamp-on systems, and in-line systems, the ultrasonic transducers are arranged in a common plane on the measuring tube, either on opposite sides of the measuring tube, then the acoustic signal passes, projected onto a tube cross-section, once along a secant through the measuring tube , or on the same side of the measuring tube, then the acoustic signal at the opposite side of the measuring tube is reflected, whereby the acoustic signal traverses twice the measuring tube along the projected onto the cross-section through the measuring tube secant. US 4,103,551 and US 4,610,167 show ultrasonic flowmeters with reflections at designated in the measuring tube reflective surfaces. Now also multipath systems have become known, which comprises a plurality of ultrasonic transducer pairs, each forming a signal path along which the acoustic signals pass through the measuring tube. The respective signal paths and the associated ultrasonic transducers lie in mutually parallel and parallel to the measuring tube axis levels. the US

4,024,760 or US 7,706,986 show examples of such multi-path systems. An advantage of multi-path systems is that they measured and thus can provide highly accurate measurements of the flow profile of the flow of the measuring medium in the measuring tube in several places. This is achieved among other things by the fact that the individual transit times along the different signal paths are weighted differently. A disadvantage of multi-path systems are their cost, since a plurality of ultrasonic transducers and a complex evaluation are optionally fitted.

For weighting the signal paths, there are various works. The essay "Comparsion of integration methods for multipath accoustic discharge measurements" by T. Tresch, T. Staubli and P. Gruber in the accompanying publication for 6th International Conference on Innovation in Hydraulic Efficiency Measurements, July 30-August 1, 2006 in Portland, Oregon , USA, compares current methods for weighting the travel times along different signal paths to calculate the flow rate. the DE 10 2005 059 062 B4 and DE 10 2006 030 964 A1 disclose methods for correcting a first flow value of a gaseous fluid through a measuring tube with steam DE as a component. the concentration of the water vapor is determined by means of temperature and / or speed of sound or set, and then determines the concentration of one or other components of the gaseous fluid and the flow value corrected.

The US 5,835,884 discloses a determination of the average flow velocity of a fluid proposed. Here, a flow in the laminar region (RN = 2000) and measured (RN = 4000) in the turbulent range and determines the average flow rate for Reynolds number ranges between 2000-4000 by a logarithmic interpolation procedure between the above two values. An application of this method to hydrocarbon-containing gas mixtures is not disclosed.

JP 56140214 A, US 4,300,400, US 5,546,813, EP 1 1 13 247 A1 and US 4,331,025 A each disclose methods for calculating the flow rate based on a function of the Reynolds number Re and the radius r , None of these documents, however, does not deal with the problem of measuring gas mixtures and this occurring specific problems. The aforementioned references are concerned only with the measurement of a

Flow measurement of a fluid, but not specifically with a gas mixture, wherein not only the flow measurement - stands but also the composition in focus and in which individual detected values ​​of measured variables used for determining the flow measurement and the composition to a determination of other physical parameters and properties can.

The present method thus starts with the task to provide a corresponding method which overcomes the problems described. The object of the invention is a method of flow measurement by means of

Ultrasound provide in particular for gas mixtures which highly accurate

provides measurement results.

The object is solved by the subject matter of independent claim 1. Further developments and embodiments of the invention are found in the features of the respective dependent claims again.

According to the invention, a transit time difference measurement of acoustic signals along a signal path in a circular-cylindrical measuring tube with a straight measuring tube longitudinal axis and an inner diameter D | carried out. This is preferably done with a suitable ultrasonic flowmeter. The transit time difference measurement of acoustic signals along a signal path between two ultrasonic transducers upstream and downstream of the skilled in the art.

Both as a transmitter and as a receiver are typically ultrasonic transducers,

in particular, electromechanical transducers such as piezoelectric elements, which are suitable for the acoustic signal, in particular an ultrasonic pulse or one or more ultrasonic waves to send, and receive messages. Are ultrasonic transducer used as a transmitter and receiver, the acoustic signal along the first signal path can go and back, ie in two directions extend. Transmitter and receiver are therefore

interchangeable.

As a signal path, also called an acoustic path, the path of the acoustic signal, eg the ultrasonic wave or the ultrasonic pulse is designated between the transmitter which emits the acoustic signal, and the receiver which receives the acoustic signal. In one embodiment of the invention the acoustic signal is emitted perpendicular to the membrane. The receiver is then placed in or on the measuring tube so that the signal again falls perpendicularly to its membrane.

Consists of the signal path of a plurality of straight sections, such as the acoustic signal at one or more reflecting surfaces which are interfaces such as is

formed between the fluid and the measuring tube or is arranged on or in the measuring tube reflector, reflects all of the straight sections have the same distance to the measuring tube axis, in particular the signal path and thus all of its sections j extend in a plane parallel to the measuring tube axis, which distance d j particular non- about a quarter of the inner diameter D | is (d j D | / 4). According to a further development of the invention, the signal path lies in a plane in which the measuring tube axis. At a cross section of the

projected measuring tube results in the internal diameter D |, since the distance of all

is part of sections of the signal path to the measuring tube longitudinal axis zero. The result of the

Transit time difference measurement is an average flow velocity v L.

A further process step is one embodiment of the method according to the determination of kinematic viscosity v kin of the fluid. The kinematic viscosity v kin is related to the dynamic viscosity

Figure imgf000006_0001
as follows: v ρ- kin = μάγ Accordingly, the dynamic viscosity μ άγη determined and the density p is known or determined also this, this is equivalent to the determination of kinematic viscosity v kin. There are many variations to determine the kinematic viscosity v in k of the gas mixture.

For example, on a table using mathematical formulas or by linear

Interpolation between known values. The kinematic viscosity v in k of the fluid may depend of different sizes and be determined accordingly.

Is the chemical composition of the gas mixture with the individual mole fractions Xi its components i known in a multi-component system, for example by user input or by, if appropriate, also separate, investigation, the kinematic viscosity v in k of the fluid is determined, for example on the additional indication of the temperature T of the fluid. For this, a temperature sensor can be provided.

Taking into account the mole fraction x, the individual components of the i

Gas mixture is to be understood that at least the speed of sound and temperature are predetermined or measured, since these sizes allow calculation of the mole fraction. Thus, the mole fraction can either be directly involved in the calculation of dynamic viscosity and thus be considered.

Since the amount of substance on the sound velocity and the temperature of the medium can be calculated, therefore, by inclusion of temperature and

Sound velocity are taken into account indirectly in the calculation of the kinematic viscosity of the mole fraction.

For gas mixtures, particularly in biogases but subject to the gas mixture to a continuously varying composition. The variable kinematic viscosity can be determined by a so-called real-time measurement. That is, in addition to the flow at least a variable size in a time interval is repeatedly measured. This is preferably the speed of sound of the gas mixture from which the terminal at a constant temperature and constant pressure, a conclusion on a change in the

Mole fractions of the gas mixture and / or can be made directly on the kinematic viscosity. A preferred repeat interval is between 5 to 500 msec

(Milliseconds), but more preferably between 10-250 msec.

It is advantageous if the kinematic viscosity v kin of the gas mixture by measuring the temperature of the gas mixture and the speed of sound of the gas mixture, and was determined from predetermined sizes that are needed for the determination of material-specific properties c.

The dynamic viscosity of the gas mixture is advantageously carried out by setting and / or measuring the relative humidity of the gas mixture and

the pressure of the gas mixture and / or the density of the gas mixture

is determined in combination with the determined kinematic viscosity v in k of the gas mixture.

Especially in gas mixtures with a time-variable composition, such as biogas, often the temperature of the total gas mixture changes. These changes need to be considered in determining the kinematic viscosity. In this case, for these variables, a one-time measurement prove insufficient and a repeated measures in a time interval can be advantageous. The measurement interval for measuring the temperature is preferably at a maximum of 5 minutes, in particular between 5 sec., And 2 min.

Additionally, an optional measurement of the pressure and the relative humidity in the aforementioned time intervals can be repeated.

In order to enable an accurate measurement with low error deviations, it is advantageous if the hydrocarbon having a mole fraction x respect of at least 0.1 on the total mass of the gas mixture.

Alternatively, the kinematic viscosity v in k of the fluid determined in dependence on the sound velocity c in the fluid, the temperature T of the fluid, the absolute pressure p of the fluid and the chemical composition of the fluid. Sound velocity c in the fluid and temperature T of the fluid can be determined by ultrasonic flowmeter in a known manner thereby, or they are determined separately. Similarly, also the density p of the fluid can be determined.

These are just a few examples is not exhaustive. Other methods of

Determination of kinematic viscosity v kin of the fluid should therefore not be excluded.

Therefore, additional process steps may precede the step of determining the modified Reynolds number Re mod. For example, the determination of the chemical

Composition of the fluid and / or the determination of the molar fractions x, i of the individual components of the fluid, which may also be specified by the user and / or the determination of the sound velocity c in the fluid and / or determining the

Temperature T of the fluid and / or the determination of the absolute pressure p in the fluid, then the kinematic viscosity v kin of the fluid in response to one or more of these parameters in a suitable manner is determined. For gaseous fluids to determine the absolute pressure p plays a greater role, as in liquid fluids, as most can be considered as incompressible practical. When a gas, in particular a biogas with the components methane, water and Kohlestoffdioxid used as the fluid in accordance with an embodiment of the invention which biogas can also comprise further components, such as nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen,

Hydrogen sulfide and / or ammonia, the DE 10 2006 030 964 A1, the relative humidity of the fluid teaches 100% to accept or additionally provide a moisture measuring unit to determine the concentration of water in function of the temperature T and relative humidity RH and in determining the concentrations of methane and

to take into account carbon dioxide. This should also be included here. In the next step a modified Reynolds number Re mod according to the formula Re mod = (v L * D |) is / v kin determined, then a second, average flow rate v through the cross-sectional area of the measuring tube A by means of a known function v A = f ( Re mod) in response to the modified Reynolds number Re mod determined and according to a

Development of the invention is outputted by the device. The function f suppressed v A = (Re mod) according to the present invention, no formula in the mathematical sense, but a ratio of proportionality between v and A f (mod Re) from.

Taking into account the first average flow rate v L is the specific formula v to calculate the second average flow rate A as follows: v A = f (Re mod) * v L

In a variant of the invention the volumetric flow rate Qv = ν Α * is (π / 4) * 0, 2 and / or the mass flow rate Q M = Qv * P, is calculated with the density p of the fluid and then output from the device.

Exist for determining the function v A = f (Re mod), analogous to the determination of the kinematic viscosity v in k, also many possibilities. One of them is the ratio of L v / v to A

Reynolds number Re and suitable for modified Reynolds number Re mod, for example in a

Experimentally closer to investigate calibration and retain in a function provision f. At a constant Reynolds number is proportional to v L v A: v A = f (Re mod) * v L. The

A relationship v / v L to Re mod is generally valid for all fluids. Therefore, in the Kalibireranlage not necessarily the same fluid must be as used in the field.

For performing the method is an ultrasonic flow meter with a circular-cylindrical measuring tube, a straight measuring tube longitudinal axis, an inner diameter D |, two ultrasonic transducers on the transit time difference measurement of an acoustic signal along a signal path in the measuring tube and a suitable transformer unit for evaluating the

Time difference measurement and for carrying out the process

Use, in particular a so-called in-line ultrasonic flow meter with a measuring or signal path, which is arranged centrally. The invention allows numerous embodiments. One will be briefly explained with reference to the following figure here.

Fig. 1 shows a flow diagram of an embodiment of the method according to the invention, Fig. 2 schematically shows an in-line ultrasonic flow meter.

In Fig. 1 is a flow diagram of an embodiment of the method according to the invention. The starting point is, as in DE 10 2006 030 964 A1, the flow measurement of biogas with the above components flowing through a measuring tube.

The proportion of water vapor is estimated or measured with a moisture measuring unit.

Then be on the measured speed of sound c and the measured temperature T, and optionally the measured pressure p, determine the dynamic or kinematic viscosity of biogas via appropriate algorithms. Using the formula Re mod = (v L * D |) / v in k gives the modified Reynolds number.

Then from a known relation v A / v L Re to the output from the flowmeter flow velocity v A a function of the Reynolds number can be corrected.

The Reynolds number is calculated by the formula Re = (v A * D |) / v kin, where v A is the average over the entire measuring tube cross-section the flow velocity of the fluid through the measuring tube is. It is therefore at v A is the surface integral. v L, however, is the average

Flow rate measured along the signal path, and accordingly, the

Line integral along the signal path.

Fig. 2 illustrates schematically the skilled person, well-known construction of a single path in-line ultrasonic flow meter with two in the measuring tube 1 fluid touching arranged ultrasonic transducers 2. The signal path 3 between the ultrasonic transducers 2 has a predetermined inclination relative to the measuring tube axis 4 on which a

Time difference measurement allows.

In the following, with reference to an example of the algorithm determining the dynamic viscosity should be displayed. η = (0.0003229 * Τ 3 -0.0071429 * T * T-2 -0.1327381 180,014) * 10 "6 * X 2 CH 4

+ (0.030833 * F * 2.43678 T -48.39 2 * T-15616.83) * 10 "6 * X 4 CH

+ (- 7.8125 * P + 432.1428 * T 2 +38303.6 * T + 13704714) * 10 "6 On the basis of this algorithm can be seen that the dynamic viscosity is calculated based on the temperature of the biogas and of the molar proportion of methane in the biogas In this case. considered that the amount of substance is indicated as molar proportions or volume fraction in% and has a temperature in ° C in a range between 0-80 ° C, wherein the viscosity with an accuracy of 0.5% - preferably 0.2% - can be calculated at 1 bar, to the extent there are no foreign gas exposure is present.

The density in kg / m 3 can be calculated by the following formula warden

KT

with predetermined or learned pressure in mbar and the measured temperature in Kelvin.

Here, K is composed of the following values ​​together: K =, where X is scaled in this case between 0-1

YYYYY

Λ Λ C02 H20 CHA Λ + Λ Λ N2 + 02

1,885 5.18 4.61 2.97 2.6

The kinematic viscosity can be in the terminal by the relationship: ν = η are / ρ determined. The Reynolds number Re has the following dependency:

Re = VD / v or Re = PVD / n

LIST OF REFERENCE NUMBERS measuring tube

ultrasound transducer

signal path

Measuring tube axis

Claims

claims
A method for determining the flow of a gas mixture, wherein at least one component i of the gas mixture is a hydrocarbon, through a circular-cylindrical measuring tube with a straight measuring tube longitudinal axis and an inner diameter D |, characterized by the following process steps:
Determining a first average flow rate v by means of L
Transit time difference measurement of acoustic signals along a signal path;
Determining a modified Reynolds number Re mod according to the formula Re = mod (v L * D |) / v kin, wherein the kinematic viscosity v kin of the gas mixture is known;
Determining a second mean flow velocity v A by means of a known function v A = f (Re mod) in response to the modified Reynolds number Re mod, wherein the step of determining the modified Reynolds number Re of the mod
The method step of determining the kinematic viscosity v kin of the gas mixture preceded, wherein determining the kinematic viscosity v in k of the gas mixture taking into account the mole fraction x, the individual components of the i
Gas mixture is.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that a determination of a speed of sound to determine the mole fraction x, the individual
I components of the gas mixture or of the kinematic viscosity v in k is repeated at a time interval.
3. The method of claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the kinematic viscosity v in k of the gas mixture of the gas mixture, and was determined from predetermined sizes that are needed for the determination of material-specific properties by measuring the temperature of the gas mixture and the speed of sound c.
Method according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the dynamic viscosity of the gas mixture by setting and / or measuring the relative humidity of the gas mixture and
the pressure of the gas mixture and / or the density of the gas mixture
is determined in combination with the determined kinematic viscosity v k i n the gas mixture.
5. The method according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the hydrocarbon has a mole fraction x of at least 10%, based on the total volume of the gas mixture.
6. The method according to any one of the preceding claims,
characterized,
that the steps to follow:
Determine the volume flow rate Q v = ν Α * (π / 4) * ϋ |2, and / or the mass flow rate QM = Qv * p, by the density p of the gas mixture.
7. The method according to any one of the preceding claims,
characterized,
that the steps to follow:
Outputting the second mean flow velocity v A and / or the
Volume flow Q v and / or the mass flow rate Q M -
8. A method according to any one of claims 1 to 7,
characterized,
that the signal path consists of one or more straight partial sections which each have the same distance to the measuring tube longitudinal axis.
9. The method according to claim 7,
characterized,
that the distance of the sections of the signal path to the measuring tube longitudinal axis is zero.
10. The method of claim 1,
characterized,
that the determination of kinematic viscosity v in k of the gas mixture takes place taking into account:
The chemical composition of the gas mixture;
1 1. A method according to claim 10, characterized in that the mole fraction x, of each component i of the gas mixture to the methane content of the gas mixture
12. The method according to claim 9 to 1 1,
characterized,
that the chemical composition of the gas mixture and / or the
Molar fractions x, whose individual components are i specified by the user.
13. The method according to any one of claims 8 to 12,
characterized in that the determination of the kinematic viscosity v in k of the gas mixture takes place taking into account:
The temperature T of the gas mixture and / or
c the speed of sound of the gas mixture.
14. A method according to any one of claims 1 to 13,
characterized,
that the gas mixture is a biogas, comprising the components methane, water and Kohlestoffdioxid.
15. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 14,
characterized,
that, preferably once determining the function rule is carried out a determination of f (mod Re);
occurs periodically determining the first mean flow velocity v L; and calculating the second mean flow velocity based on the formula v = A f (mod Re) * v L is performed.
PCT/EP2012/064370 2011-08-03 2012-07-23 Method for determining the flow rate using ultrasound WO2013017447A1 (en)

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US14235950 US20140195173A1 (en) 2011-08-03 2012-07-23 Method for Ascertaining Flow by Means of Ultrasound

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JP6309405B2 (en) * 2014-09-05 2018-04-11 アズビル株式会社 Measurement method of ultrasonic flow meter and flow

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EP2739943A1 (en) 2014-06-11 application
DE102011080365A1 (en) 2013-02-07 application
US20140195173A1 (en) 2014-07-10 application

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