WO2013015758A1 - Wind turbine (variants) - Google Patents

Wind turbine (variants) Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2013015758A1
WO2013015758A1 PCT/UA2012/000070 UA2012000070W WO2013015758A1 WO 2013015758 A1 WO2013015758 A1 WO 2013015758A1 UA 2012000070 W UA2012000070 W UA 2012000070W WO 2013015758 A1 WO2013015758 A1 WO 2013015758A1
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WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
hollow
wind
rotation
wind turbine
half
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/UA2012/000070
Other languages
French (fr)
Russian (ru)
Inventor
Гэоргий Грыгорович ДЭЛИГИОЗ
Original Assignee
Deligioz Georgii Grygorovych
Parmenova Dana Georgiivna
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to UAA201109177A priority Critical patent/UA100617C2/en
Priority to UAa201109177 priority
Priority to UAA201112495A priority patent/UA100631C2/en
Priority to UAa201112495 priority
Priority to UAu201114010 priority
Priority to UAU201114010U priority patent/UA67659U/en
Application filed by Deligioz Georgii Grygorovych, Parmenova Dana Georgiivna filed Critical Deligioz Georgii Grygorovych
Publication of WO2013015758A1 publication Critical patent/WO2013015758A1/en

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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING, OR WEIGHT MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03DWIND MOTORS
    • F03D1/00Wind motors with rotation axis substantially parallel to the air flow entering the rotor 
    • F03D1/06Rotors
    • F03D1/0608Rotors characterised by their form
    • F03D1/0633Rotors characterised by their form of the blades
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING, OR WEIGHT MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03DWIND MOTORS
    • F03D1/00Wind motors with rotation axis substantially parallel to the air flow entering the rotor 
    • F03D1/06Rotors
    • F03D1/065Rotors characterised by their construction, i.e. structural design details
    • F03D1/0666Rotors characterised by their construction, i.e. structural design details of the whole rotor
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING, OR WEIGHT MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03DWIND MOTORS
    • F03D3/00Wind motors with rotation axis substantially perpendicular to the air flow entering the rotor 
    • F03D3/06Rotors
    • F03D3/061Form
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING, OR WEIGHT MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03DWIND MOTORS
    • F03D3/00Wind motors with rotation axis substantially perpendicular to the air flow entering the rotor 
    • F03D3/06Rotors
    • F03D3/062Construction
    • F03D3/065Construction the wind engaging parts having no movement relative to the rotor during its rotation
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05BINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO MACHINES OR ENGINES OTHER THAN NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, TO WIND MOTORS, TO NON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS, AND TO GENERATING COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF HIGH PRESSURE OR HIGH VELOCITY
    • F05B2240/00Components
    • F05B2240/20Rotors
    • F05B2240/21Rotors for wind turbines
    • F05B2240/211Rotors for wind turbines with vertical axis
    • F05B2240/216Rotors for wind turbines with vertical axis of the anemometer type
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05BINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO MACHINES OR ENGINES OTHER THAN NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, TO WIND MOTORS, TO NON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS, AND TO GENERATING COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF HIGH PRESSURE OR HIGH VELOCITY
    • F05B2240/00Components
    • F05B2240/40Use of a multiplicity of similar components
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05BINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO MACHINES OR ENGINES OTHER THAN NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, TO WIND MOTORS, TO NON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS, AND TO GENERATING COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF HIGH PRESSURE OR HIGH VELOCITY
    • F05B2250/00Geometry
    • F05B2250/20Geometry three-dimensional
    • F05B2250/24Geometry three-dimensional ellipsoidal
    • F05B2250/241Geometry three-dimensional ellipsoidal spherical
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05BINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO MACHINES OR ENGINES OTHER THAN NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, TO WIND MOTORS, TO NON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS, AND TO GENERATING COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF HIGH PRESSURE OR HIGH VELOCITY
    • F05B2250/00Geometry
    • F05B2250/30Arrangement of components
    • F05B2250/31Arrangement of components according to the direction of their main axis or their axis of rotation
    • F05B2250/314Arrangement of components according to the direction of their main axis or their axis of rotation the axes being inclined in relation to each other
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/70Wind energy
    • Y02E10/72Wind turbines with rotation axis in wind direction
    • Y02E10/721Blades or rotors
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/70Wind energy
    • Y02E10/74Wind turbines with rotation axis perpendicular to the wind direction

Abstract

The invention relates to wind power engineering and can be used for producing electrical energy. The wind turbine comprises working members which are fastened to a supporting member disposed on a generator shaft and which are in the form of from four to two hollow half-cylinders or hollow half-spheres. The base of each working member is situated at an angle of 40°-50° to the supporting member relative to the plane of rotation thereof. In another design variant, working members in the form of hollow half-spheres are fastened to a vertical shaft by means of L-shaped brackets, wherein the convex portions of the half-spheres are attached to the short arms of the brackets, and the bases of the half-spheres are attached to the long arms. The invention makes it possible to increase the wind energy utilization factor.

Description

 Wind turbine (options)

 FIELD OF TECHNOLOGY

 The invention relates to the field of wind energy, specifically to devices for generating electricity using wind energy, namely, a wind turbine in various versions of its execution.

 Existing wind turbines are divided into:

 - devices with a horizontal axis of rotation;

 - devices with a vertical axis of rotation.

 BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

 Known wind engine with a horizontal axis of rotation, containing wind wheels with arcuate blades, which have air channels formed by arcuate partitions, as well as lower and upper covers. Fastened together, the wind wheels have three arcuate blades located at an angle of 120 ° relative to each other, with each blade having the same number of arcuate air channels with the adjacent blades, one half of which is inextricably linked to the air channels of the adjacent blade, clockwise arrow, and the other half of the air arcuate channels is inextricably linked with the air channels of the adjacent blade, which is located counterclockwise. The upper and lower covers of the wind wheels have a concave arcuate edges of equal radius in the part forming the blade of the wind wheel along the radius line, and the centers of the radii are spaced relative to each other at an angle from 20 ° to 50 °. In one half of the windwheel, the center of the arcuate concave edge of the lower cover with respect to the center of the arcuate concave edge of the upper cover is shifted clockwise, and the other half is counterclockwise (see patent of the Russian Federation for invention Ν ° 2285148).

The design of this wind engine is very complex, and also has a small coefficient of utilization of wind energy (KIEV). The closest to the claimed wind turbine with a horizontal axis of rotation is a three-bladed air generator VEU-3/5, which is produced by ZAVOD ELLIPS LLC, Salzi, Novgorod Region, RF (see the advertising brochure of ZAVOD ELLIPS LLC, 2009) .

 The specified wind generator contains working elements - three blades in the form of a propeller, which are mounted on a supporting element located on the shaft of the generator. The generator is fixed on the mast, and a rod with a circle (such as a weather vane) is attached to the back of the mast to orient the working elements in the direction of the wind.

 The design of this wind generator is selected as a prototype of a wind engine with a horizontal axis of rotation.

 The prototype and the claimed invention have the following common features:

 - work items;

 - generator;

 - a supporting element mounted on the shaft of the generator;

 - working elements are fixed on the supporting element.

 The power of the wind three-blade generator VEU-3/5 - 3 kW KIEV reaches 25-30%.

 Known wind generator has a number of significant disadvantages.

 1. A sufficiently narrow operating range of ratios of the speed of rotation of the blades and the speed of the incoming flow.

 In the case of short-term wind weakening or when the shaft rotation is slowed down due to an increase in load, the ratio of the speed of the blade and air becomes non-optimal and the air flow from the blades stalls. At such moments, KIEV falls at times, the operation of the wind turbine becomes ineffective.

 2. Limited in size, and therefore in power.

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) The rotation diameter of the blades is impractical to increase by more than 5 m, due to the fact that the installation of such a wind turbine is associated with danger during operation.

 3. The rotation of the blades of such a wind turbine is accompanied by a whistle, and therefore it cannot be installed in residential areas or in close proximity to them.

 4. On large installations with propellers it is necessary to install an additional engine to start the installation, since very often they do not start from the wind.

 5. The manufacture of propeller blades is very complex and expensive.

 6. The total area of the propeller blades of any size will always be significantly less than the area of hemispheres of the same diameter of rotation.

 A known design of a wind engine with a vertical axis of rotation, containing a vertical shaft with axes radially mounted on it, to which the main blades are attached, connected to the elastic elements. The blades are installed at a certain angle φ to the vertical plane with the possibility of rotation by an angle of φ + 90 ° in the direction coinciding with the direction of the air flow and by an angle of 90 ° - φ in the opposite direction. Each blade is pivotally mounted on the axis, and its lower edge is connected by an elastic element to the peripheral end of the adjacent axis in the opposite direction to the air flow direction.

 Each blade is equipped with a lever, which is located near the shaft, the peripheral end of the lever is connected by an elastic element to the shaft, and the connection point of the elastic element with the shaft lies in a vertical plane passing through the axis of the blade, and the connection point of the elastic element with the lever lies in the plane passing through the axis blades and a component with a plane angle of 45 ° + φ / 2 (see the patent of the Russian Federation JSte 2045681 for the invention of "Wind engine").

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) The design of this mover is selected as a prototype of a wind engine with a vertical axis of rotation.

 The prototype and the claimed invention have common features:

 - vertical shaft;

 - fasteners radially mounted on a vertical shaft;

- working elements (4 pcs. mounted crosswise), mounted on fasteners.

 However, the specified engine has low efficiency due to the low utilization of wind energy.

 This can be explained by the following reasons.

 1. A flat sheet is used as the basis for the working element, which has a small frontal aerodynamic drag coefficient, and when the impeller rotates angularly, the pressure of the wind mainly acts at an angle with respect to the working element.

 2. The hinged method of attachment to the axles used allows large twisting winds to loosen the entire structure and reduce the amplitude of rotation of the impeller.

 3. The elastic elements under constant operation are very quickly destroyed.

 4. When angular rotation of the working elements overlap each other, reducing the efficiency of the working area.

 5. The use of such large blades, as indicated in the prototype, is unrealistic.

 SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

 The basis of the claimed invention is the task to develop improved designs of a wind turbine with horizontal and vertical axes of rotation, in which by means of a different execution of the working bodies and other method and angle of installation, to provide an increase

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) the efficiency of the wind engine by increasing the utilization of wind energy.

 The problem is solved by a group of inventions, united by a single inventive concept, namely, options for the execution of a wind engine with a horizontal axis of rotation and a wind engine with a vertical axis of rotation.

 In the first embodiment of a wind turbine with a horizontal axis of rotation, the problem is solved by the construction of a wind turbine containing working elements mounted on a bearing element, which is located on the generator shaft, so that the working elements are made in the form of mainly from two to four hollow half-cylinders or hollow hemispheres , while the base of each working element is fixed at an angle of 40-50 ° to the supporting element relative to its plane of rotation.

 The ratio of the length of the hollow half cylinder to its diameter is not less than 1.5:

10.

 In the second embodiment of the wind turbine with a vertical axis of rotation, the problem is solved by the construction of a wind turbine containing a vertical shaft with fastening elements radially mounted on it, on which the working elements are fixed, in that the working elements are made in the form of hollow hemispheres, and the fastening elements in in the form of L-shaped brackets, the convex parts of the hollow hemispheres attached to the short shoulders, and the base to the long shoulders of the L-shaped brackets, and the base of each hollow hemisphere is displaced relative to the segment segment vector of the center of the axis of rotation on V_> the hemisphere diameter.

 When creating a wind engine for each of the casts of the options, the factor of the influence of wind on the inner concave part of the working elements and the ways of fixing them are taken into account.

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

 The drawings depict embodiments of a wind turbine, where:

 FIG. 1 - a General view of a wind turbine with a horizontal axis of rotation, in which the working elements are made in the form of hollow half-cylinders (option 1);

 FIG. 2 is a front view of a wind turbine with a horizontal axis of rotation, in which the working elements are made in the form of hollow half-cylinders (option 1);

 FIG. 3 is a schematic illustration of the interaction of a wind flow with a hollow half cylinder (option 1);

 FIG. 4 is a general view of a wind turbine with a horizontal axis of rotation, in which the working elements are made in the form of hollow hemispheres (option 1);

 FIG. 5 is a front view of a wind turbine with a horizontal axis of rotation, in which the working elements are made in the form of hollow hemispheres (option 1);

 FIG. 6 is a schematic representation of the interaction of a wind flow with a hollow hemisphere (option 1);

 FIG. 7 is a view of a single-module wind turbine with a vertical axis of rotation with a generator (option 2);

 FIG. 8 is a front view of one wind turbine module with a vertical axis of rotation (option 2);

 FIG. 9 is a top view of one module of a wind turbine with a vertical axis of rotation (option 2);

 figure 10 is a diagram of the attachment of hollow hemispheres to the shaft of a wind turbine with a vertical axis of rotation, top view (option 2);

FIG. 1 1 is a diagram of the fastening of L-shaped brackets to the shaft and between each other of a wind engine with a vertical axis : rotation (option 2);

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) FIG. 12 is a diagram of the fastening of small hollow hemispheres remote from the center of rotation;

 FIG. 13 is a general view of a multi-module wind turbine with a vertical axis of rotation.

 MODES FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION

 The wind engine with a horizontal axis of rotation, in which the working bodies are made in the form of hollow cylinders, according to the FIRST OPTION contains working elements 1, made in the form of basically four plastic hollow half-cylinders attached to the crosspiece 2 using fastening elements 3. The crosspiece 2 is rigidly attached to a hub 4, which is mounted on the shaft 5 of the generator 6. Each hollow half cylinder 1 is mounted on the crosspiece 2 so that the base of the concave part of the hollow half cylinder is located at an angle of 45 ° with respect to the cross e 2.

 The number of hollow half-cylinders of a wind engine with a horizontal axis of rotation is selected from such considerations.

 The optimal size of a rigid hollow half-cylinder will be when its length is 1.5 times greater than the width of the concave part (diameter of the hollow half-cylinder). More than 1, 5 times possible, less - no. This conclusion is made due to the peculiarities of the effect of wind on the inner concave part of the hollow half-cylinder.

 Based on this, in any diameter of rotation, the maximum area is provided by four sails (hollow half-cylinders) with such aspect ratios when placed tightly inside a rotating wheel of revolution. It is possible to reduce the number of sails (hollow half-cylinders) or increase, but at the same time, the total area of sails (hollow half-cylinders), and therefore the power of the wind engine, will decrease.

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) The choice of the angle at which the base of the concave part of the hollow half-cylinder is installed with respect to the cross (the plane of rotation) at which they are fixed is explained as follows.

Using the influence of air flow on the hollow concave part of the half-cylinder, it was noted that changing the angle of attack of the air flow in the concave part of the hollow half-cylinder to its base from 20 ° to 70 °, the flow tends to the center and in a circle to the opposite part of the hollow half-cylinder (Fig. 3 ) This makes the hollow half-cylinders move the convex part forward at an angle> 90 0 relative to the direction of air flow.

 This effect makes it possible to twist rigid hollow half-cylinders in an upright position.

 In the claimed design, four hollow half-cylinders were placed on the crosspiece as densely as possible with one end to each other, the base of the concave part of the sail at an angle of 45 ° with respect to the direction of the wind and the convex part of the sail of hollow half-cylinders in one direction (Fig. 1.2).

 It has been experimentally established that an angle of 45 ° gives the maximum effect of wind on a hollow half cylinder for vertical rotation of the wheel.

 As a result, the manufactured model is very sensitive to the effects of wind, rotates stably and changes the rotation speed depending on the wind speed. In addition, when the angle of attack of the wind relative to the wheel of rotation changes, it does not lose rotation even when the convex part of the hollow half-cylinders is turned 180 ° in relation to the direction of the wind. This makes it possible with large destructive winds, deploying the installation (rotating part) 180 °, to minimize the resistance of the hollow half-cylinders to the wind, without loss of installation.

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) A wind turbine with a horizontal axis of rotation, in which the working bodies are made in the form of hollow half-cylinders according to the FIRST OPTION, works as follows.

 Directing the installation with the front part (Fig. 1) against the direction of the wind, each hollow half cylinder 1 will move forward under the influence of the wind flow. Since each hollow half cylinder 1 is mounted with a base parallel to the axes of the shoulders of the cross 2 and in one direction in a rotation circle, as well as its convex part at an angle of 90 ° relative to the axes of the shoulders of the cross 2, then the forces acting on the hollow half cylinder 1 will be at an angle of 90 ° relative to the axes crosses 2. Thus, we get the rotation of the wheel of rotation and with it the shaft 5.

 Comparing the capabilities of the inventive wind turbine, and the prototype - a wind turbine with three blades, you can see a significant difference. This can be explained as follows. As you know, the force acting on the propeller blade and the force acting on the sail (hollow half cylinder) are calculated according to the same formulas:

F x = C X - ^ ~ o 2 ; F y = C y - and 2 is in Newtons, or F x = 0.0625 - C x - S - u 2 ; F y = 0.0625 · C y · S · υ 2 - in kgf.

where C y and C x are the aerodynamic coefficients of lift and drag; υ - wind speed acting on a sail

(propeller or hollow half cylinder); S - surface area of the sail

(propeller or hollow half cylinder); p is the density of air.

 Based on these formulas, it is clear that the power of a wind turbine is directly proportional to the area of wind exposure. Conclusion: in any diameter of the wheel of revolution, the area of the hollow half-cylinders will always be much larger than the area of the propeller. This means that the power will be much more. To make such installations is very simple and

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) cost-effective. Hollow half-cylinders can be made of reinforced plastic, from which bottles are made, which will allow to utilize containers for drinks.

 The hollow half-cylinders should maximally correspond to the shape of the half-cylinder, i.e. circle segment 180 °. For this, the plastic sheet is attached to prefabricated light, hard metal segments corresponding to a radius of 180 ° and attached to the cross of the impeller.

 Since these installations will be noiseless they can be installed in residential areas and even on the roofs of high-rise buildings of large cities.

A wind turbine with a horizontal axis of rotation, in which the working bodies are made in the form of hollow hemispheres according to the FIRST OPTION contains working elements, made in the form of mainly four plastic hollow hemispheres 1, attached to the crosspiece 2 using fastening elements 3. The crosspiece 2 is connected to the hub 4 rigidly secured to the shaft 5 of the generator 6. Each plastic hollow hemisphere 1 is fixed to the crosspiece 2 in such a way that the concave base of the hollow hemisphere at an angle of 45 0 with respect to the cr stovine 2.

 The number of plastic hollow hemispheres of a horizontal wind turbine is selected from the following considerations.

 In any diameter of rotation, the maximum area can be obtained by tightly placing four plastic hollow hemispheres with a maximum diameter that are placed in it. By increasing the number of hollow hemispheres to more than four in the same diameter of rotation of the impeller, with the stated principle of their placement, there will be losses in the total area of the hollow hemispheres, but the rotation effect will remain.

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) Installing three or two hollow hemispheres in the same diameter of rotation will also give rotation, but the area will also decrease.

 The choice of the angle at which the open base of each hollow hemisphere is set with respect to the crosspiece on which they are fixed is explained as follows.

 Using the influence of air flow on the plastic hollow hemisphere, it was noted that by changing the angle of attack of the air flow in the curved part of the plastic hollow hemisphere, to its base from 20 ° to 90 °, the flow tends to the center and in a circle to the opposite part of the plastic hollow hemisphere (Fig. 6). This makes the plastic hollow hemisphere move in the direction of its axis with the convex part forward.

 This effect makes it possible to twist rigid plastic hollow hemispheres in an upright position.

In the claimed design, four plastic hollow hemispheres were placed as close to each other as possible on the crosspiece (so that each hollow hemisphere was exposed to wind) at an angle of 45 0 with respect to the direction of the wind. All plastic hollow hemispheres are convex in one direction (Fig.3,4).

 It has been experimentally established that an angle of 45 ° gives the maximum effect of wind on a plastic hollow floor sphere with this principle of attachment to the impeller.

 As a result, the model made is very sensitive to wind, which rotates stably and changes the rotation speed depending on the wind speed. In addition, when changing the angle of attack of the wind with respect to the wheel of rotation, it does not lose rotation and direction (even the convex part of the plastic hollow hemispheres with respect to the direction of the wind), but loses only the power of rotation. This makes it possible for large destructive winds to rotate the installation (rotating part) 180 °

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) minimizing the resistance of plastic hollow hemispheres of the wind, without loss of installation.

 Wind turbine with a horizontal axis of rotation, in which the working bodies are made in the form of open plastic hemispheres according to the FIRST OPTION works as follows.

By guiding the installation with the front part (FIG. 3) against the direction of the wind, each plastic hollow hemisphere 1 (sail) will follow the forward convex part under the influence of the wind flow. Since each plastic hollow hemisphere i is installed by the base parallel to the axes of the shoulders of the cross 2 and in the same direction in a circle, which means the convex part of the plastic hollow hemisphere at an angle of 90 ° relative to the axes of the shoulders of the cross 2, the force of impact on the plastic " hollow hemispheres 1 will be at an angle of 90 ° relative to the axes of the spider 2. Thus, we obtain the rotation of the wheel and with it the shaft 5.

 A comparison of the capabilities of the inventive wind turbine, and a prototype wind turbine with three blades shows its significant advantage. This can be explained as follows.

It is possible to produce very powerful installations of relatively small sizes and on small footprints. For example: the installation of a plastic hollow hemispheres of diameter 5 m and the total area of four plastic hollow hemispheres and 156m, has a diameter of wheel speed 13m and can accommodate the foundation support on the same diameter and height may be up to 25 m (depending on the terrain or location )

 It is impossible and impractical to make an installation with such a propeller, because it will be huge and will occupy a large area.

 Now compare the power in the occupied areas and the diameters of rotation.

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) As you know, the force acting on the propeller blade and the force acting on the sail (plastic hollow hemisphere) are calculated using the same formulas:

 o S o S

F = C—— and 2 ; F v = С „· - V 2 is in Newtons,

 2 2

or F x - 0.0625 - C x - S · υ; F y = 0.0625 - C y - S · υ 2 - in kgf.

where C y and C x are the aerodynamic coefficients of lift and drag; υ - wind speed acting on a sail

(propeller or plastic hollow hemisphere); S - surface area of the sail (propeller or plastic hollow hemisphere); p is the density of air.

For example, the designers calculated the installation with a propeller, consisting of three blades with a total area of 1.8 m 2 and a diameter of 5 m of propeller rotation, which can produce 2000-3000 W of electricity. If you make a wind turbine of the proposed design with the same diameter of the wheel of rotation, then in this diameter you can place four plastic hollow hemispheres of 0 2m and a total area of 25m. We get the installation about 13.5 times more powerful than the installation with a propeller, that is, with a power of 30-40 kW. This is a significant advantage of the claimed design.

 To make such installations will be very simple and cost-effective. Plastic hollow hemispheres can be made of plastic, from which bottles are made, which will allow you to recycle containers for drinks.

 Since these installations will be silent, they can be installed on the roofs of large megalopolises and within residential areas. The generated electricity can be connected to a common energy system.

 The SECOND OPTION wind turbine with a vertical axis of rotation contains working elements made in the form of four

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) (mainly plastic) hollow hemispheres 1 attached to the vertical shaft 5 using fasteners made in the form of L-shaped brackets 3.

 L-shaped brackets 3, in turn, are rigidly fixed on the vertical shaft 5. At the ends of the vertical shaft 5, bearings are mounted, mounted in the housing 7 and mounted on the crosses 2 of the frame 8. The vertical shaft 5 with hollow hemispheres 1 transmits rotation to the generator 6 through a cone-shaped gear pair 9.

 The number of hollow hemispheres 1 of the wind engine is selected from the following considerations.

 For any diameter of rotation, keeping on average 100% openness to the wind of the area of one hollow hemisphere with as close a distance as possible to fasten it to the shaft, no more than four hollow hemispheres can be placed. Less than four are possible, but the area of continuous contact with the wind is reduced, reducing engine performance.

 The optimal arrangement of the hollow hemispheres on the shaft for the maximum rotation effect is as follows.

 On the vertical shaft 5 radially at an angle of 90 ° relative to the vertical shaft 5 and at an angle of 90 °, four L-shaped brackets 3 of the same size are attached to each other. The length of the short arm of the L-shaped bracket 3, which is attached directly to the vertical shaft 5, is equal to the height of the hollow hemisphere 1. At a distance Уг Angle of the diameter of the hollow hemisphere 1 four more L-shaped brackets 3 of the same size are symmetrically mounted on the vertical shaft 5. The four upper L-shaped brackets 3 and the four lower L-shaped brackets 3 are interconnected (Fig. 9).

 On the L-shaped structure thus created, the hollow hemisphere 1 is attached with the convex part to the short shoulder of the L-shaped arms 3, and

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) base to the long shoulder of the following L-shaped brackets 3. All hollow hemispheres 1 are mounted with a convex part in one direction relative to the rotation wheel (Figs. 7, 8, 10). This shift relative to the center of the wheel of rotation makes it possible to fasten the large hollow hemispheres 1 as close as possible to each other, while maintaining the openness of the hollow hemispheres 1 to the influence of the air flow.

 With such a compact and rigid fastening of the hollow hemispheres 1 to the vertical shaft 5, the possibility of breaking the wheel of rotation during large winds is minimized.

 Small hollow hemispheres 1 are fixed in the same way as large ones, moving them away from the center of rotation (Fig. 10).

 All fasteners 3 should be as light as possible.

 As a result, a model was made that is very sensitive to the influence of the wind and retains its rotation and direction of rotation in any winds (gusty, twisting).

 Such a wind turbine does not need to correct its direction relative to the direction of the wind, which simplifies the design and does not need constant supervision.

 A wind turbine with a vertical axis of rotation according to the SECOND OPTION works in this way.

 Wind of any direction acts on the concave (inner) part of the hollow hemisphere 1. The hollow hemisphere 1 starts an angular rotation, which is transmitted to the rotating vertical shaft 5 and during this rotation, each of the four hollow hemispheres 1 enters the zone of wind influence by the curved part of the hemisphere, transmitting force to the vertical shaft 5. The vertical shaft 5 through a cone-shaped gear pair 9 transmits its rotation to the generator 6 or the load.

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) The power of such installations depends on the wind speed and the total area of the working bodies on which it acts. The calculation is carried out according to the formula for calculating the force acting on any sail: „= С„ · ^ ^ - and 2 - this is in Newtons,

 y 2

or F y = 0.0625 · C in S · V 2 - in kgf.

where C y - aerodynamic coefficient of lift; v — wind speed acting on the sail (propeller or hollow hemisphere); S - surface area of the sail (propeller or hollow hemisphere); p is the density of air.

From this value, the drag force of the convex part of the hollow hemisphere is subtracted, which during rotation is affected by wind. = C x · ^ 2 ^ · Ό 2 is in Newtons, or F x = 0.0625 - C x · S · υ 2 is in kgf.

where C x - aerodynamic drag coefficient of drag.

 From the theory of aerodynamics it is known that the drag coefficient (relative to the coefficient for a flat object) of the ball is 0.48, for a hollow hemisphere moving forward with its concave side - 1, 49, and for a streamlined body in the form of a drop - 0.05.

 With the proposed methods of fastening, the resistance of the convex part of the hollow hemisphere to the wind will be closer to the streamlined object than to the resistance of the ball, since with angular rotation the resistance time to the wind of the full diameter of the hollow hemisphere is very short, and the swirl of air that occurs during rotation helps the backward going hollow hemisphere overcome resistance to the wind.

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) With angular rotation, the process of "sticking" of air to the body is very short-term and will not create serious resistance.

 It is advisable to produce such wind motors with modules (Fig. 5,6) with the ability to mount them together, creating powerful installations (Fig. 13). Rotating shafts are interconnected by half-couplings or cardan shafts. The frame of such installations can be used to transmit their electricity, or from other sources of electricity.

 Since these installations will be silent, they can be installed within the boundaries of settlements. To make such installations will be simple and cost-effective. Hollow hemispheres must be made of plastic. Plastic can be reinforced for durability. For the production of such hemispheres, plastic bottles from under drinks are quite suitable, which will allow you to dispose of used containers.

 INDUSTRIAL APPLICABILITY

 The proposed wind engine is advisable to produce with hemisphere diameters of three meters or more.

 In order to save materials and space, it is advisable to install, on the multi-module embodiment of a wind turbine with a vertical axis of rotation (Fig. 13), in its upper part a wind turbine with a horizontal axis of rotation, in which the working bodies are in the form of hollow half-cylinders or hollow hemispheres.

SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26)

Claims

Claim
 1. A wind turbine containing working elements mounted on a supporting element, which is located on the generator shaft, characterized in that the working elements are made in the form of mainly from two to four hollow half cylinders or hollow hemispheres, with the base of each working element fixed at an angle of 40 -50 ° to the supporting element relative to its plane of rotation.
 2. The wind engine according to claim 1, characterized in that the ratio of the length of the hollow half cylinder to its diameter is not less than 1.5: 1.0.
3. A wind turbine comprising a vertical shaft with fastening elements radially mounted on it, on which working elements are fixed, characterized in that the working elements are made in the form of hollow hemispheres, and the fastening elements are in the form of L-shaped brackets, the convex parts of the hollow hemispheres attached to the short shoulders, and the base to the long shoulders of the L-shaped brackets, and the base of each hollow hemisphere is shifted relative to the segment segment vector of the center of the rotation axis by X A of the hemisphere diameter.
SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26)
PCT/UA2012/000070 2011-07-22 2012-07-17 Wind turbine (variants) WO2013015758A1 (en)

Priority Applications (6)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
UAA201109177A UA100617C2 (en) 2011-07-22 2011-07-22 Wind engine
UAa201109177 2011-07-22
UAA201112495A UA100631C2 (en) 2011-10-25 2011-10-25 Wind drive
UAa201112495 2011-10-25
UAU201114010U UA67659U (en) 2011-11-28 2011-11-28 Windmill
UAu201114010 2011-11-28

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
WO2013015758A1 true WO2013015758A1 (en) 2013-01-31

Family

ID=47601378

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
PCT/UA2012/000070 WO2013015758A1 (en) 2011-07-22 2012-07-17 Wind turbine (variants)

Country Status (1)

Country Link
WO (1) WO2013015758A1 (en)

Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4364709A (en) * 1981-12-30 1982-12-21 August Tornquist Wind power converter
US6247897B1 (en) * 1998-06-15 2001-06-19 Dinesh Patel Vane system
RU73038U1 (en) * 2007-08-06 2008-05-10 Государственное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования Томский политехнический университет Wind Turbine
RU91116U1 (en) * 2008-04-21 2010-01-27 Общество с ограниченной ответственностью "Национальная инновационная компания "Новые энергетические проекты" (ООО "Национальная инновационная компания "НЭП") Wind engine wheel

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4364709A (en) * 1981-12-30 1982-12-21 August Tornquist Wind power converter
US6247897B1 (en) * 1998-06-15 2001-06-19 Dinesh Patel Vane system
RU73038U1 (en) * 2007-08-06 2008-05-10 Государственное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования Томский политехнический университет Wind Turbine
RU91116U1 (en) * 2008-04-21 2010-01-27 Общество с ограниченной ответственностью "Национальная инновационная компания "Новые энергетические проекты" (ООО "Национальная инновационная компания "НЭП") Wind engine wheel

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